jy992d48301j

PROGRAMMING MANUAL
TH E FX SER IES O F PR O G R AM M ABLE C O N TR O LLER
(FX 0, FX 0S, FX 0N, FX, FX 2C, FX 2N, FX 2NC)
FX Series Programmable Controllers
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Programming Manual
Manual number : JY992D48301
Manual revision : J
Date
: November 1999
Foreword
• This manual contains text, diagrams and explanations which will guide the reader in
the correct programming and operation of the PLC.
• Before attempting to install or use the PLC this manual should be read and
understood.
• If in doubt at any stage of the installation of the PLC always consult a professional
electrical engineer who is qualified and trained to the local and national standards
which apply to the installation site.
• If in doubt about the operation or use of the PLC please consult the nearest
Mitsubishi Electric distributor.
• This manual is subject to change without notice.
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
Guidelines for the Safety of the User and Protection of the Programmable
Controller (PLC)
This manual provides information for the use of the FX family of PLC’s. The manual has been
written to be used by trained and competent personnel. The definition of such a person or
persons is as follows;
a) Any engineer who is responsible for the planning, design and construction of automatic
equipment using the product associated with this manual should be of a competent
nature, trained and qualified to the local and national standards required to fulfill that
role. These engineers should be fully aware of all aspects of safety with regards to
automated equipment.
b) Any commissioning or service engineer must be of a competent nature, trained and
qualified to the local and national standards required to fulfill that job. These engineers
should also be trained in the use and maintenance of the completed product. This
includes being completely familiar with all associated documentation for the said
product. All maintenance should be carried out in accordance with established safety
practices.
c) All operators of the completed equipment should be trained to use that product in a safe
and coordinated manner in compliance to established safety practices. The operators
should also be familiar with documentation which is connected with the actual operation
of the completed equipment.
Note : the term ‘completed equipment’ refers to a third party constructed device which
contains or uses the product associated with this manual.
Note’s on the Symbols used in this Manual
At various times through out this manual certain symbols will be used to highlight points of
information which are intended to ensure the users personal safety and protect the integrity of
equipment. Whenever any of the following symbols are encountered its associated note must
be read and understood. Each of the symbols used will now be listed with a brief description of
its meaning.
Hardware Warnings
1) Indicates that the identified danger WILL cause physical and property damage.
2) Indicates that the identified danger could POSSIBLY cause physical and property
damage.
3) Indicates a point of further interest or further explanation.
Software Warnings
4) Indicates special care must be taken when using this element of software.
5) Indicates a special point which the user of the associate software element should
be aware of.
6) Indicates a point of interest or further explanation.
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
Contents
1. Introduction............................................................................................1-1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Overview.............................................................................................................. 1-1
What is a Programmable Controller? .................................................................. 1-2
What do You Need to Program a PLC? .............................................................. 1-2
CPU version numbers ......................................................................................... 1-3
1.4.1 FX0N CPU versions................................................................................................... 1-3
1.4.2 FX and FX2C CPU versions....................................................................................... 1-3
1.5 Special considerations for programming equipment ........................................... 1-4
1.5.1 FX CPU version 3.07 or later and FX2C ................................................................... 1-4
1.5.2 FX2N(C) CPU all versions ........................................................................................ 1-5
2. Basic Program Instructions ...................................................................2-1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
What is a Program? ............................................................................................. 2-1
Outline of Basic Devices Used in Programming .................................................. 2-1
How to Read Ladder Logic .................................................................................. 2-2
Load, Load Inverse .............................................................................................. 2-3
Out ....................................................................................................................... 2-4
2.5.1 Timer and Counter Variations ................................................................................... 2-4
2.5.2 Double Coil Designation ............................................................................................ 2-5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
And, And Inverse ................................................................................................. 2-6
Or, Or Inverse ...................................................................................................... 2-7
Load Pulse, Load Trailing Pulse .......................................................................... 2-8
And Pulse, And Trailing Pulse ............................................................................. 2-9
Or Pulse, Or Trailing Pulse ................................................................................ 2-10
Or Block ............................................................................................................. 2-11
And Block .......................................................................................................... 2-12
MPS, MRD and MPP ......................................................................................... 2-13
Master Control and Reset.................................................................................. 2-15
Set and Reset .................................................................................................... 2-17
Timer, Counter (Out & Reset)............................................................................ 2-18
2.16.1 Basic Timers, Retentive Timers And Counters........................................................ 2-18
2.16.2 Normal 32 bit Counters ........................................................................................... 2-19
2.16.3 High Speed Counters .............................................................................................. 2-19
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
Leading and Trailing Pulse ................................................................................ 2-20
Inverse ............................................................................................................... 2-21
No Operation ..................................................................................................... 2-22
End .................................................................................................................... 2-23
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
3. STL Programming .................................................................................3-1
3.1 What is STL, SFC And IEC1131 Part 3? ............................................................. 3-1
3.2 How STL Operates .............................................................................................. 3-2
3.2.1 Each step is a program ............................................................................................. 3-2
3.3 How To Start And End An STL Program ............................................................. 3-3
3.3.1 Embedded STL programs ......................................................................................... 3-3
3.3.2 Activating new states................................................................................................. 3-3
3.3.3 Terminating an STL Program .................................................................................... 3-4
3.4 Moving Between STL Steps ................................................................................ 3-5
3.4.1 Using SET to drive an STL coil ................................................................................. 3-5
3.4.2 Using OUT to drive an STL coil ................................................................................. 3-6
3.5 Rules and Techniques For STL programs........................................................... 3-7
3.5.1 Basic Notes On The Behavior Of STL programs....................................................... 3-7
3.5.2 Single Signal Step Control ........................................................................................ 3-9
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
Restrictions Of Some Instructions When Used With STL.................................. 3-10
Using STL To Select The Most Appropriate Program ....................................... 3-11
Using STL To Activate Multiple Flows Simultaneously...................................... 3-12
General Rules For Successful STL Branching .................................................. 3-14
General Precautions When Using The FX-PCS/AT-EE Software ..................... 3-15
Programming Examples .................................................................................... 3-16
3.11.1 A Simple STL Flow .................................................................................................. 3-16
3.11.2 A Selective Branch/ First State Merge Example Program....................................... 3-18
3.12 Advanced STL Use............................................................................................ 3-20
4. Devices in Detail....................................................................................4-1
4.1 Inputs ................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2 Outputs ................................................................................................................ 4-2
4.3 Auxiliary Relays ................................................................................................... 4-3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
General Stable State Auxiliary Relays ...................................................................... 4-3
Battery Backed/ Latched Auxiliary Relays................................................................. 4-4
Special Diagnostic Auxiliary Relays .......................................................................... 4-5
Special Single Operation Pulse Relays ..................................................................... 4-5
4.4 State Relays ........................................................................................................ 4-6
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
General Stable State - State Relays ......................................................................... 4-6
Battery Backed/ Latched State Relays ...................................................................... 4-7
STL Step Relays ....................................................................................................... 4-8
Annunciator Flags ..................................................................................................... 4-9
4.5 Pointers ............................................................................................................. 4-10
4.6 Interrupt Pointers ............................................................................................... 4-11
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
Input Interrupts ........................................................................................................ 4-12
Timer Interrupts ....................................................................................................... 4-12
Disabling Individual Interrupts ................................................................................. 4-13
Counter Interrupts ................................................................................................... 4-13
4.7 Constant K ......................................................................................................... 4-14
4.8 Constant H......................................................................................................... 4-14
4.9 Timers................................................................................................................ 4-15
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5
General timer operation........................................................................................... 4-16
Selectable Timers.................................................................................................... 4-16
Retentive Timers ..................................................................................................... 4-17
Timers Used in Interrupt and ‘CALL’ Subroutines ................................................... 4-18
Timer Accuracy ....................................................................................................... 4-18
4.10 Counters ............................................................................................................ 4-19
4.10.1 General/ Latched 16bit UP Counters ...................................................................... 4-20
4.10.2 General/ Latched 32bit Bi-directional Counters....................................................... 4-21
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11 High Speed Counters ........................................................................................ 4-22
4.11.1
4.11.2
4.11.3
4.11.4
4.11.5
4.11.6
4.11.7
4.11.8
Basic High Speed Counter Operation ..................................................................... 4-23
Availability of High Speed Counters on FX0, FX0S and FX0N PLC’s...................... 4-24
Availability of High Speed Counters on FX, FX2C PLC’s ........................................ 4-25
Availability of High Speed Counters on FX2N(C) PLC’s .......................................... 4-28
1 Phase Counters - User Start and Reset (C235 - C240) ....................................... 4-29
1 Phase Counters - Assigned Start and Reset (C241 to C245) .............................. 4-30
2 Phase Bi-directional Counters (C246 to C250) .................................................... 4-31
A/B Phase Counters (C252 to C255) ...................................................................... 4-32
4.12 Data Registers ................................................................................................... 4-33
4.12.1 General Use Registers ............................................................................................ 4-34
4.12.2 Battery Backed/ Latched Registers ......................................................................... 4-35
4.12.3 Special Diagnostic Registers................................................................................... 4-35
4.12.4 File Registers .......................................................................................................... 4-36
4.12.5Externally Adjusted Registers................................................................................... 4-37
4.13 Index Registers.................................................................................................. 4-38
4.13.1 Modifying a Constant............................................................................................... 4-39
4.13.2 Misuse of the Modifiers ........................................................................................... 4-39
4.13.3 Using Multiple Index Registers ................................................................................ 4-39
4.14 Bits, Words, BCD and Hexadecimal .................................................................. 4-40
4.14.1
4.14.2
4.14.3
4.14.4
Bit Devices, Individual and Grouped ....................................................................... 4-40
Word Devices .......................................................................................................... 4-42
Interpreting Word Data ............................................................................................ 4-42
Two’s Compliment ................................................................................................... 4-45
4.15 Floating Point And Scientific Notation ............................................................... 4-46
4.15.1 Scientific Notation.................................................................................................... 4-47
4.15.2 Floating Point Format .............................................................................................. 4-48
4.15.3 Summary Of The Scientific Notation and Floating Point Numbers.......................... 4-49
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
5. Applied Instructions ...............................................................................5-1
5.1 Program Flow-Functions00 to 09 ........................................................................ 5-4
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1.7
CJ (FNC 00) .............................................................................................................. 5-5
CALL (FNC 01).......................................................................................................... 5-7
SRET (FNC 02) ......................................................................................................... 5-8
IRET, EI, DI (FNC 03, 04, 05) ................................................................................... 5-9
FEND (FNC 06) ....................................................................................................... 5-11
WDT (FNC 07) ........................................................................................................ 5-12
FOR, NEXT (FNC 08, 09) ....................................................................................... 5-13
5.2 Move And Compare - Functions 10 to 19 .......................................................... 5-16
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7
5.2.8
5.2.9
5.2.10
CMP (FNC 10)......................................................................................................... 5-17
ZCP (FNC 11) ......................................................................................................... 5-17
MOV (FNC 12) ........................................................................................................ 5-18
SMOV (FNC 13) ...................................................................................................... 5-18
CML (FNC 14) ......................................................................................................... 5-19
BMOV (FNC 15) ..................................................................................................... 5-20
FMOV (FNC 16) ...................................................................................................... 5-21
XCH (FNC 17) ......................................................................................................... 5-21
BCD (FNC18) .......................................................................................................... 5-22
BIN (FNC 19)........................................................................................................... 5-22
5.3 Arithmetic And Logical Operations -Functions 20 to 29 .................................... 5-24
5.3.1 ADD (FNC 20) ......................................................................................................... 5-25
5.3.2 SUB (FNC 21) ........................................................................................................ 5-26
5.3.3 MUL (FNC 22) ......................................................................................................... 5-27
5.3.4 DIV (FNC 23)........................................................................................................... 5-28
5.3.5 INC (FNC 24) ......................................................................................................... 5-29
5.3.6 DEC (FNC 24) ........................................................................................................ 5-29
5.3.7 WAND (FNC 26)...................................................................................................... 5-30
5.3.8 WOR (FNC 27) ........................................................................................................ 5-30
5.3.9 WXOR (FNC 28) ..................................................................................................... 5-31
5.3.10NEG (FNC 29) ......................................................................................................... 5-31
5.4 Rotation And Shift - Functions 30 to 39 ............................................................. 5-34
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.5
5.4.6
5.4.7
5.4.8
5.4.9
5.4.10
ROR (FNC 30)......................................................................................................... 5-35
ROL (FNC 31) ......................................................................................................... 5-35
RCR (FNC 32) ......................................................................................................... 5-36
RCL (FNC 33) ......................................................................................................... 5-36
SFTR (FNC 34) ....................................................................................................... 5-37
SFTL (FNC 35) ........................................................................................................ 5-37
WSFR (FNC 36) ...................................................................................................... 5-38
WSFL (FNC 37)....................................................................................................... 5-38
SFWR (FNC 38) ...................................................................................................... 5-39
SFRD (FNC 39) ....................................................................................................... 5-40
5.5 Data Operation - Functions 40 to 49 ................................................................. 5-42
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.5.5
5.5.6
5.5.7
5.5.8
5.5.9
5.5.10
ZRST (FNC 40) ....................................................................................................... 5-43
DECO (FNC 41) ...................................................................................................... 5-43
ENCO (FNC 42) ...................................................................................................... 5-44
SUM (FNC 43)......................................................................................................... 5-45
BON (FNC 44) ......................................................................................................... 5-45
MEAN (FNC 45) ...................................................................................................... 5-46
ANS (FNC 46) ......................................................................................................... 5-47
ANR (FNC 47) ......................................................................................................... 5-47
SQR (FNC 48) ......................................................................................................... 5-48
FLT (FNC 49) .......................................................................................................... 5-49
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
5.6 High Speed Processing - Functions 50 to 59 .................................................... 5-52
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.6.5
5.6.6
5.6.7
5.6.8
5.6.9
5.6.10
REF (FNC 50) ......................................................................................................... 5-53
REFF (FNC 51) ....................................................................................................... 5-53
MTR (FNC 52) ......................................................................................................... 5-54
HSCS (FNC 53)....................................................................................................... 5-55
HSCR (FNC 54) ...................................................................................................... 5-56
HSZ (FNC 55) ......................................................................................................... 5-57
SPD (FNC 56) ......................................................................................................... 5-60
PLSY (FNC 57) ....................................................................................................... 5-61
PWM (FNC 58) ........................................................................................................ 5-62
PLSR (FNC 59) ....................................................................................................... 5-63
5.7 Handy Instructions - Functions 60 to 69 ............................................................ 5-66
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6
5.7.7
5.7.8
5.7.9
5.7.10
IST (FNC 60) ........................................................................................................... 5-67
SER (FNC 61) ......................................................................................................... 5-69
ABSD (FNC 62) ....................................................................................................... 5-70
INCD (FNC 63) ........................................................................................................ 5-71
TTMR (FNC 64)....................................................................................................... 5-72
STMR (FNC 65) ...................................................................................................... 5-72
ALT (FNC 66) .......................................................................................................... 5-73
RAMP (FNC 67) ...................................................................................................... 5-73
ROTC (FNC 68) ...................................................................................................... 5-75
SORT (FNC 69)....................................................................................................... 5-77
5.8 External FX I/O Devices - Functions 70 to 79 ................................................... 5-80
5.8.1
5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.5
5.8.6
5.8.7
5.8.8
5.8.9
5.8.10
TKY (FNC 70).......................................................................................................... 5-81
HKY (FNC 71) ......................................................................................................... 5-82
DSW (FNC 72) ........................................................................................................ 5-83
SEGD (FNC 73) ...................................................................................................... 5-84
SEGL (FNC 74) ....................................................................................................... 5-85
ARWS (FNC 75) ...................................................................................................... 5-87
ASC (FNC 76) ......................................................................................................... 5-88
PR (FNC 77)............................................................................................................ 5-89
FROM (FNC 78) ...................................................................................................... 5-90
TO (FNC 77)............................................................................................................ 5-91
5.9 External FX Serial Devices - Functions 80 to 89 ............................................... 5-94
5.9.1
5.9.2
5.9.3
5.9.4
5.9.5
5.9.6
5.9.7
5.9.8
RS (FNC 80)............................................................................................................ 5-96
RUN (FNC 81) ......................................................................................................... 5-97
ASCI (FNC 82) ........................................................................................................ 5-99
HEX (FNC 83) ....................................................................................................... 5-100
CCD (FNC 84) ....................................................................................................... 5-101
VRRD (FNC 85) .................................................................................................... 5-102
VRSD (FNC 86)..................................................................................................... 5-102
PID (FNC 88)......................................................................................................... 5-103
5.10 External F2 Units - Functions 90 to 99 ............................................................ 5-111
5.10.1
5.10.2
5.10.3
5.10.4
5.10.5
5.10.6
5.10.7
5.10.8
5.10.9
MNET (FNC 90) .................................................................................................... 5-112
ANRD (FNC 91) .................................................................................................... 5-112
ANWR (FNC 92).................................................................................................... 5-113
RMST (FNC 93) .................................................................................................... 5-113
RMMR (FNC 94) ................................................................................................... 5-114
RMRD (FNC 95) .................................................................................................... 5-115
RMMN (FNC 96) ................................................................................................... 5-115
BLK (FNC 97) ........................................................................................................ 5-116
MCDE (FNC 98) .................................................................................................... 5-117
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
5.11 Floating Point 1 & 2 - Functions 110 to 129 .................................................... 5-119
5.11.1 ECMP (FNC 110) .................................................................................................. 5-121
5.11.2 EZCP (FNC 111) ................................................................................................... 5-121
5.11.3 EBCD (FNC 118)................................................................................................... 5-122
5.11.4 EBIN (FNC 119) .................................................................................................... 5-122
5.11.5 EADD (FNC 120)................................................................................................... 5-123
5.11.6 EAUB (FNC 121) ................................................................................................... 5-124
5.11.7 EMUL (FNC 122)................................................................................................... 5-124
5.11.8 EDIV (FNC 123) .................................................................................................... 5-125
5.11.9 ESQR (FNC 127) .................................................................................................. 5-125
5.11.10INT (FNC 129) ...................................................................................................... 5-126
5.12 Trigonometry - FNC 130 to FNC 139 .............................................................. 5-128
5.12.1 SIN (FNC 130)....................................................................................................... 5-129
5.12.2 COS (FNC 131) ..................................................................................................... 5-130
5.12.3 TAN (FNC 132) ..................................................................................................... 5-130
5.13 Data Operations 2 - FNC 140 to FNC 149 ...................................................... 5-132
5.13.1 SWAP (FNC 147) .................................................................................................. 5-133
5.14 Real Time Clock Control - FNC 160 to FNC 169............................................. 5-136
5.14.1
5.14.2
5.14.3
5.14.4
5.14.5
5.14.6
TCMP (FNC 160) .................................................................................................. 5-137
TZCP (FNC 161) ................................................................................................... 5-138
TADD (FNC 162) ................................................................................................... 5-139
TSUB (FNC 163) ................................................................................................... 5-140
TRD (FNC 166) ..................................................................................................... 5-141
TWR (FNC 167) .................................................................................................... 5-142
5.15 Gray Codes - FNC 170 to FNC 179 ................................................................ 5-144
5.15.1 GRY (FNC 170) ..................................................................................................... 5-145
5.15.2 GBIN (FNC 171) .................................................................................................... 5-145
5.16 Inline Comparisons - FNC 220 to FNC 249 ..................................................... 5-148
5.16.1 LD compare (FNC 224 to 230) .............................................................................. 5-149
5.16.2 AND compare (FNC 232 to 238) ........................................................................... 5-150
5.16.3 OR compare (FNC 240 to 246) ............................................................................. 5-151
6. Diagnostic Devices ................................................................................6-1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
PLC Status (M8000 to M8009 and D8000 to D8009) .......................................... 6-2
Clock Devices (M8010 to M8019 and D8010 to D8019) ................................... 6-3
Operation Flags ................................................................................................... 6-4
PLC Operation Mode (M8030 to M8039 and D8030 to D8039) ......................... 6-5
Step Ladder (STL) Flags (M8040 to M8049 and D8040 to D8049) ................... 6-6
Interrupt Control Flags (M8050 to M8059 and D8050 to D8059) ...................... 6-7
Error Detection Devices (M8060 to M8069 and D8060 to D6069) ..................... 6-8
Link And Special Operation Devices (M8070 to M8099 and D8070 to D8099) .. 6-9
Miscellaneous Devices (M8100 to M8119 and D8100 to D8119) ..................... 6-10
Communication Adapter Devices, i.e. 232ADP, 485ADP ................................ 6-10
High Speed Zone Compare Table Comparison Flags ..................................... 6-11
Miscellaneous Devices (M8160 to M8199) ....................................................... 6-12
Index Registers (D8180 to D8199) ................................................................... 6-13
Up/Down Counter Control (M8200 to M8234 and M8200 to D8234) ............... 6-14
High Speed Counter Control (M8235 to M8255 and D8235 to D8255) ............ 6-14
Error Code Tables ............................................................................................. 6-15
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FX Series Programmable Controllers
7. Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy........................................7-1
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
Basic Instructions ................................................................................................ 7-1
Applied Instructions ............................................................................................ 7-3
Hierarchical Relationships Of Basic Program Instructions ................................ 7-12
Batch Processing............................................................................................... 7-14
Summary of Device Memory Allocations ........................................................... 7-14
Limits Of Instruction Usage ............................................................................... 7-16
7.6.1 Instructions Which Can Only Be Used Once In The Main Program Area ............... 7-16
7.6.2 Instructions Which Are Not Suitable For Use With 110V AC Input Units ................ 7-16
8. PLC Device Tables................................................................................8-1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
Performance Specification Of The FX0 And FX0S ............................................. 8-1
Performance Specification Of The FX0N ............................................................ 8-2
Performance Specification Of The FX (CPU versions 2.0 to 3.06) ..................... 8-4
Performance Specification Of The FX
(CPU versions from 3.07) And FX2C (all versions) ......................................8-6
8.5 Performance Specification Of The FX2N(C) ....................................................... 8-8
9. Assigning System Devices ....................................................................9-1
9.1 Addressing Extension Modules ........................................................................... 9-1
9.2 Using The FX2-24EI With F Series Special Function Blocks .............................. 9-2
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4
Using the FX2-24EI With A F-16NP/NT .................................................................... 9-3
Using the FX2-24EI With A F2-6A............................................................................. 9-4
Using the FX2-24EI With A F2-32RM ....................................................................... 9-4
Using the FX2-24EI With A F2-30GM ....................................................................... 9-5
9.3 Parallel Link Adapters.......................................................................................... 9-6
9.4 Real Time Clock Function ................................................................................... 9-7
9.4.1 Setting the real time clock ......................................................................................... 9-8
10.Points Of Technique...........................................................................10-1
10.1 Advanced Programming Points ......................................................................... 10-1
10.2 Users of DC Powered FX Units ......................................................................... 10-1
10.3 Using The Forced RUN/STOP Flags................................................................. 10-2
10.3.1 A RUN/STOP push button configuration ................................................................. 10-2
10.3.2 Remote RUN/STOP control .................................................................................... 10-3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
Constant Scan Mode ......................................................................................... 10-4
Alternating ON/OFF States................................................................................ 10-4
Using Battery Backed Devices For Maximum Advantage ................................. 10-5
Indexing Through Multiple Display Data Values ................................................ 10-5
Reading And Manipulating Thumbwheel Data .................................................. 10-6
Measuring a High Speed Pulse Input ................................................................ 10-6
10.9.1 A 1 msec timer pulse measurement ........................................................................ 10-6
10.9.2 A 0.1 msec timer pulse measurement ..................................................................... 10-7
10.10Using The Execution Complete Flag, M8029 ................................................... 10-7
10.11Creating a User Defined MTR Instruction ......................................................... 10-8
10.12An Example System Application Using STL And IST Program Control ............ 10-8
10.13Using The PWM Instruction For Motor Control ............................................... 10-15
10.14Communication Format................................................................................... 10-18
10.14.1Specification of the communication parameters: .................................................. 10-18
10.14.2Header and Terminator Characters ...................................................................... 10-19
10.14.3Timing diagrams for communications: .................................................................. 10-20
10.14.48 bit or 16 bit communications. ............................................................................. 10-23
vii
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.15PID Programming Techniques ........................................................................ 10-24
10.15.1Keeping MV within a set range ............................................................................. 10-24
10.15.2Manual/Automatic change over ............................................................................ 10-24
10.15.3Using the PID alarm signals ................................................................................. 10-25
10.15.4Other tips for PID programming............................................................................ 10-25
10.16Additional PID functions .................................................................................. 10-26
10.16.1Output Value range control (S3+1 b5).................................................................. 10-26
10.17Pre-tuning operation ....................................................................................... 10-27
10.17.1Variable Constants ............................................................................................... 10-27
10.18Example Autotuning Program ......................................................................... 10-28
11.Index...................................................................................................11-1
11.1 Index .................................................................................................................. 11-1
11.2 ASCII Character Codes ..................................................................................... 11-9
11.3 Applied Instruction List .................................................................................... 11-10
viii
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
Introduction 1
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Introduction 1
Chapter Contents
1. Introduction............................................................................................1-1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Overview.............................................................................................................. 1-1
What is a ProgrammableController? ................................................................... 1-2
What do You Need to Program a PC? ................................................................ 1-2
CPU version numbers ......................................................................................... 1-3
1.4.1 FX0N CPU versions................................................................................................... 1-3
1.4.2 FX and FX2C CPU versions....................................................................................... 1-3
1.5 Special considerations for programming equipment ........................................... 1-4
1.5.1 FX CPU version 3.07 or later and FX2C ................................................................... 1-4
1.5.2 FX2N CPU all versions ............................................................................................. 1-5
Introduction 1
FX0(S)
1.
Introduction
1.1
Overview
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1) Scope of this manual
This manual gives details on all aspects of operation and programming for FX, FX2C, FX0N,
FX0S, FX0, FX2N and FX2NC programmable controllers (PLCs). For all information relating to
the PLC hardware and installation, refer to the appropriate manual supplied with the unit.
2) How to use this manual
This manual covers all the functions of the highest specification Programmable (Logic)
Controller (PLC). For this reason, the following indicator is included in relevant section titles
to show which PLCs that section applies to;
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Shaded boxes indicate
the applicable PLC type
-
“FX0(S)” - All FX0 and FX0S PLCs
-
“FX0N”
- All FX0N PLCs
-
“FX”
- All FX and FX2 PLCs (CPU ver 2.30 or earlier)
-
“FX(2C)” - All FX and FX2 PLCs (CPU versions 3.07 or later)
- All FX2C PLCs (see page 1-4)
-
“FX2N(C)” - All FX2N and FX2NC PLCs
If an indicator box is half shaded, as shown to the
left, this means that not all the functions described in
the current section apply to that PLC. The text
explains in further detail or makes an independent
reference.
If there are no indicator boxes then assume the section applies to all PLC types unless
otherwise stated.
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
3) FX family
This is a generic term which is often used to describe all Programmable Controllers without
identifying individual types or model names.
4) CPU version numbers and programming support
As Mitsubishi upgrades each model different versions have different capabilities.
- Please refer to section 1.4 for details about version numbers and capabilities.
- Please refer to section 1.5 for details about peripheral support for each model.
1-1
Introduction 1
1.2
FX0(S)
What is a Programmable Controller?
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC or programmable controller) is a device that a user can
program to perform a series or sequence of events. These events are triggered by stimuli
(usually called inputs) received at the PLC or through delayed actions such as time delays or
counted occur-rences. Once an event triggers, it actuates in the outside world by switching ON
or OFF electronic control gear or the physical actuation of devices. A programmable controller
will continually ‘loop’ through its internal ‘user defined’ program waiting for inputs and giving
outputs at the programmed specific times.
Note on terminology:
The term programmable controller is a generic word used to bring all the elements making the
control system under one descriptive name. Sometimes en gineers use the term
‘Programmable Logic Controller’, ‘PLC’ or ‘programmable controller’ to describe the same
control system.
The construction of a programmable controller can be broken down into component parts. The
element where the program is loaded, stored and processed is often known as the Main
Processing Unit or MPU. Other terms commonly heard to describe this device are ‘base unit’,
‘controller’ and ‘CPU’. The term CPU is a little misleading as todays more advanced products
may contain local CPU devices. A Main CPU (or more correctly a Main Processing Unit)
controls these local CPUs through a communication network or bus.
1.3
FX0(S)
What do You Need to Program a PLC?
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
A variety of tools are available to program the Mitsubishi FX family of PLCs. Each of these
tools can use and access the instructions and devices listed in this manual for the identified
PLC.
Personal computer
FX,
Melsec MEDOC
Melsec Medoc Plus
FX2C
A6GPP
SW1PC-FXGPEE
FX-PCS-WIN-E
FX-A6GPP-EEKIT
Opto-isolated
GP80
FX2N(C)
GP-80FX-E-KIT
RS232/
RS422
interface
HPP
FX-10P-E
FX-20P-E
FX0, FX0S,
FX0N
1-2
Introduction 1
1.4
CPU version numbers
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Over time Mitsubishi adds newer and better features to develop and enhance the products.
Because of the nature of PLCs, that can be likened to ‘industrial computers’, changes
sometimes occur within the units main CPU (Central Processing Unit). These changes are
similar to those experienced by office and home computer users, that is, going to a version up
processor. The following lists identify the CPU versions that had significant upgrades or new
functions and features added.
1.4.1
1.4.2
FX0N CPU versions
CPU Ver 1.20
The following features were added:
Software control for protocol 1 and 4 communications with the FX0N-485ADP,
1:N network.
CPU Ver 1.40
The following features were added:
Software control for communications using the FX0N -485ADP, peer to peer
(N:N) network.
FX and FX2C CPU versions
CPU Ver 3.07
The following instructions were added:
ASCI (FNC82), CCD (FNC84), FLT (FNC49), HEX (FNC83), RS (FNC80),
SER (FNC61), SORT (FNC69), SQR (FNC48)
The following instructions were upgraded:
EI (FNC04), BMOV (FNC15), HSCS (FNC53), PLSY (FNC57),
FMOV (FNC16), MEAN (FNC45), ABSD (FNC62), DSW (FNC72),SEGL (74),
PR (FNC 77)
The following device ranges were added:
Input and output devices are independently addressable upto 256 points in
software. Total combined input and output points (hardware or software) is
256.
Auxiliary relays increased to 1536 points (M0-M1535)
Data registers increased to 1000 points (D0-D999)
Optional RAM File Registers added, 2000 points (D6000 -D7999)
Pointers increased to 128 points (P0 - P127)
CPU Ver 3.11
The following instructions were added:
PID (FNC88)
CPU Ver 3.2
The following features were added:
Software control for protocol 4 communications with the FX-485ADP, 1:N
network.
CPU Ver 3.30
The following features were added:
Software control for protocol 1 communications with the FX-485ADP, 1:N
network.
The following instructions were phased out (removed):
ANRD (FNC91), ANWR (FNC92), BLK (FNC97), MCDE (FNC98), MNET
(FNC90)
1-3
Introduction 1
1.5
Special considerations for programming equipment
1.5.1
FX CPU version 3.07 or later and FX2C
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Programming tools operating old system software can not access the new features added to
the FX CPU from version 3.07 (and available on all FX 2C units). However, programming
certain ‘standard’ applied instructions in conjunction with special auxiliary coils (M coils) can
achieve the same ’effective instruction’ as the new instructions. The following tables identify
which version of peripheral software will work directly with all of the ’new’ features and which
peripheral software versions require use of modified instructions.
Peripherals Table
System software version which will.......
Description
Model Number
....require the use of
auxiliary M coils
....program all instructions
directly
Hand held
programmer (HHP)
FX-10P-E
V 1.10
from V 2.00
HHP cassette
FX-20P-MFXA-E
V 1.20
from V 2.00
Programming
software
FX-PCS/AT-E-KIT
V 1.01
from V 2.00
FX-A6GPP-E-KIT
V 1.00
from V 2.00
FX-10DU-E
V 1.10
from V 2.00
FX-20DU-E
V 1.10
from V 2.00
Data access units
Other DU units
from V 1.00
Existing Instruction And Special M Coil Combination To Mimic The Operation Of The
Identified Instruction
Existing FX instruction
used to mimic the operation of......
Mnemonic FNC number Modifying M coil
Mimicked instruction
Mnemonic FNC Number
MOV
12
M8190
Square root
SQR
48
MOV
12
M8191
Float
FLT
49
RAMP
67
M8193
Data search
SER
61
RAMP
67
M8194
RS232 instruction
RS
80
FMOV
16
M8196
Hex to ASCII conversion
ASCI
82
FMOV
16
M8197
ASCII to Hex conversion
HEX
83
FMOV
16
M8195
Sum check
CCD
84
Example usage
Using existing FX functions......
SET M8190
MOV K36 D10
This format is very important for the instruction to operate
correctly.The user must program the ’mimic’ instruction
with the modifying M coil in a SET instruction immediately
before the instruction to be modified.
to mimic......
SQR K36 D10
1-4
Introduction 1
Using the new Interrupt Pointers:
Existing Instruction And Special M Coil
Combination To Mimic The Operation
Of The Identified Interrupt pointer
To program new Interrupt Pointers I010
through I060 in to the HSCS (FNC 53)
instruction with older programming
equipment, substitute the following
special M codes for the appropriate
Interrupt Pointer; see the table right.
Existing Auxiliary Coil
used to replace the identified Interrupt Pointer
Interrupt Pointer
M8181
I010
M8182
I020
M8183
I030
M8184
I040
M8185
I050
M8186
I060
Using M8198 with the BMOV instruction:
With old software and peripherals, file registers can not be used as a destination device in the
BMOV (FNC 15) instruction. To BMOV data into file registers with old equipment set special M
coil M8198 on. This switches the source and destination parameters; i.e., the source is then
treated as the destination and the destination becomes the source.
General note:
Ignore the special programming techniques identified in this section if using updated
programming software or peripherals; then normal operation, as identifiedin the following
sections, will apply.
1.5.2
FX0(S)
FX2N(C) CPU all versions
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The introduction of this CPU provides the FX user with many new devices and instructions. To
use the full features of the FX 2N(C) units the user must upgrade older software and hardware
programming tools.
However, because of the downward compatibility of the FX2N(C), it is not necessary to upgrade
existing programming tools for use with FX2N(C) units up to the equivalent functionality of FX
CPU ver 3.30 units.
Peripherals Table
Description
Hand held programmer (HHP)
HHP cassette
Data access units
Model Number
System software version with
full support for FX2N(c)
FX-10P-E
from V 3.00
FX-20P-MFXA-E
from V 3.00
FX-10DU-E
from V 4.00
FX-20DU-E
Supports up to FX devices only
FX-25DU-E
from V 2.00
FX-30DU-E
from V 3.00
FX-40DU-E(S)
Supports up to FX devices only
FX-40DU-TK-ES
from V 3.00
FX-50DU-TK(S)-E
from V 2.10
F940GOT-SWD(LWD)-E
All versions
1-5
Introduction 1
MEMO
1-6
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
Basic Program Instructions 2
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Basic Program Instructions 2
Chapter Contents
2. Basic Program Instructions ...................................................................2-1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
What is a Program? ............................................................................................. 2-1
Outline of Basic Devices Used in Programming .................................................. 2-1
How to Read Ladder Logic .................................................................................. 2-2
Load, Load Inverse .............................................................................................. 2-3
Out ....................................................................................................................... 2-4
2.5.1 Timer and Counter Variations ................................................................................... 2-4
2.5.2 Double Coil Designation ............................................................................................ 2-5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
And, And Inverse ................................................................................................. 2-6
Or, Or Inverse ...................................................................................................... 2-7
Load Pulse, Load Trailing Pulse .......................................................................... 2-8
And Pulse, And Trailing Pulse ............................................................................. 2-9
Or Pulse, Or Trailing Pulse ................................................................................ 2-10
Or Block ............................................................................................................. 2-11
And Block .......................................................................................................... 2-12
MPS, MRD and MPP ......................................................................................... 2-13
Master Control and Reset.................................................................................. 2-15
Set and Reset .................................................................................................... 2-17
Timer, Counter(Out & Reset)............................................................................. 2-18
2.16.1 Basic Timers, Retentive Timers And Counters........................................................ 2-18
2.16.2 Normal 32 bit Counters ........................................................................................... 2-19
2.16.3 High Speed Counters .............................................................................................. 2-19
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
Leading and Trailing Pulse ................................................................................ 2-20
Inverse ............................................................................................................... 2-21
No Operation ..................................................................................................... 2-22
End .................................................................................................................... 2-23
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Basic Program Instructions 2
2.
Basic Program Instructions
2.1
What is a Program?
A program is a connected series of instructions written in a language that the PLC can
understand. There are three forms of program format; instruction, ladder and SFC/STL. Not all
programming tools can work in all programming forms. Generally hand held programming
panels only work with instruction format while most graphic programming tools will work with
both instruction and ladder format. Specialist programming software will also allow SFC style
programming.
LD
OUT
AND
SET
LD
OUT
X10
Y7
M38
S5
X21
T01
K40
Instruction format
2.2
Ladder Format
SFC Format
Outline of Basic Devices Used in Programming
There are six basic programming devices. Each device has its own unique use. To enable
quick and easy identification each device is assigned a single reference letter;
- X: This is used to identify all direct, physical inputs to the PLC.
- Y: This is used to identify all direct, physical outputs from the PLC.
- T: This is used to identify a timing device which is contained within the PLC.
- C: This is used to identify a counting device which is contained within the PLC.
- M and S: These are used as internal operation flags within the PLC.
All of the devices mentioned above are known as ‘bit devices’. This is a descriptive title telling
the user that these devices only have two states; ON or OFF, 1 or 0.
Detailed device information:
• Chapter 4 contains this information in detail. However, the above is all that is
required for the rest of this chapter.
2-1
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.3
Basic Program Instructions 2
How to Read Ladder Logic
Ladder logic is very closely associated to basic relay logic. There are both contacts and coils
that can be loaded and driven in different configurations. However, the basic principle remains
the same.
A coil drives direct outputs of the PLC (ex. a Y device) or drives internal timers, counters or
flags (ex. T, C, M and S devices). Each coil has associated contacts. These contacts are
available in both “normally open” (NO) and “normally closed” (NC) configurations.
The term “normal(ly)” refers to the status of the contacts when the coil is not energized. Using
a relay analogy, when the coil is OFF, a NO contact would have no current flow, that is, a load
being supplied through a NO contact would not operate. However, a NC contact would allow
current to flow, hence the connected load would be active.
Activating the coil reverses the contact status, that is, the current would flow in a NO contact
and a NC contact would inhibit the flow.
Physical inputs to the PLC (X devices) have no programmable coil. These devices may only be
used in a contact format (NO and NC types are available).
Example:
Because of the close relay association, ladder logic programs can be read as current flowing
from the left vertical line to the right vertical line. This current must pass through a series of
contact representations such as X0 and X1 in order to switch the output coil Y0 ON. Therefore,
in the example shown, switching X0 ON causes the output Y0 to also switch ON. If however,
the limit switch X1 is activates, the output Y0 turns OFF. This is because the connection
between the left and the right vertical lines breaks so there is no current flow.
Motor
Toggle switch
Programmable Controller
Y0
X0
X1
I
N
P
U
T
PC Program
X0
X1
Y0
O
U
T
P
U
T
COM
(Y0)
AC
Power
Supply
Limit switch
DC Power Supply
2-2
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.4
Basic Program Instructions 2
Load, Load Inverse
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Function
Format
FX0N
Devices
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
LD
(LoaD)
Initial logical
operation contact
type NO
(normally open)
X, Y, M, S, T, C
1
LDI
(LoaD Inverse)
Initial logical
operation contact
type NC
(normally closed)
X, Y, M, S, T, C
1
Program example:
X0
M100
0
1
2
3
4
T0
7
8
Y0
X1
LDI
K19
K
T0
Y1
LD
OUT
LDI
OUT
OUT
SP
LD
OUT
X
0
Y
0
X
1
M 100
T
0
K 19
T
0
Y
1
When using hand held
programmers, the space key
needs to be pressed to enable
the constant to be entered.
Basic points to remember:
- Connect the LD and LDI instructions directly to the left hand bus bar.
- Or use LD and LDI instructions to define a new block of program when using the ORB
and ANB instructions (see later sections).
The OUT instruction:
• For details of the OUT instruction (including basic timer and counter variations)
please see over the following page.
2-3
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.5
Basic Program Instructions 2
Out
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
OUT
(OUT)
Function
Format
FX0N
Devices
Final logical
operation type coil
drive
Y, M, S, T, C
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
Y, M:1
S, special M
coils: 2
T:3
C (16 bit): 3
C (32 bit): 5
Basic points to remember:
- Connect the OUT instruction directly to the right hand bus bar.
- It is not possible to use the OUT instruction to drive ‘X’ type input devices.
- It is possible to connect multiple OUT instructions in parallel (for example see the
previous page; M100/T0 configuration)
2.5.1
Timer and Counter Variations
When configuring the OUT instruction for use as either a timer (T) or counter (C) a constant
must also be entered. The constant is identified by the letter “K” (for example see previous
page; T0 K19).
In the case of a timer, the constant “K” holds the duration data for the timer to operate, i.e. if a
100 msec timer has a constant of “K100” it will be (1005 100 msec) 10 seconds before the
timer coil activates.
With counters, the constant identifies how many times the counter must be pulsed or triggered
before the counter coil activates. For example, a counter with a constant of “8” must be
triggered 8 times before the counter coil finally energizes.
The following table identifies some basic parameter data for various timers and counters;
Timer/Counter
Setting constant K
1 msec Timer
10 msec Timer
Actual setting
Program steps
0.001 to 32.767 sec
1 to 32,767
100 msec Timer
0.01 to 327.67 sec
0.1 to 3276.7 sec
16 bit Counter
1 to 32,767
1 to 32,767
32 bit Counter
-2,147,483,648 to
2,147,483,647
-2,147,483,648 to
2,147,483,647
3
5
2-4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.5.2
Basic Program Instructions 2
Double Coil Designation
Double or dual coiling is not a recommended
practice. Using multiple output coils of the
same device can cause the program
operation to become unreliable. The example
program shown opposite identifies a double
coil situation; there are two Y3 outputs. The
following sequence of events will occur when
inputs X1 = ON and X2 = OFF;
1.
X1
Y3
Y3
Y4
2.
1.The first Y3 tuns ON because X1 is ON. The
contacts associated with Y3 also energize
when the coil of output Y3 energizes. Hence,
output Y4 turns ON.
X2
Y3
2.The last and most important line in this
program looks at the status of input X2.
If this is NOT ON then the second Y3 coil does NOT activate. Therefore the status of the Y3
coil updates to reflect this new situation, i.e. it turns OFF. The final outputs are then Y3 = OFF
and Y4 = ON.
Use of dual coils:
• Always check programs for incidents of dual coiling. If there are dual coils the
program will not operate as expected - possibly resulting in unforeseen physical
The last coil effect:
• In a dual coil designation, the coil operation designated last is the effective coil. That
is, it is the status of the previous coil that dictates the behavior at the current point in
the program.
Input durations:
t secs
1
5
2
4
4
6
7
: Input ON state NOT recognized
: Input ON state recognized
: Input OFF state NOT recognized
: 1 program processing
: Input processing
: Output processing
: A full program scan/operation cycle
3
The ON or OFF duration of the PLC inputs
must be longer than the operation cycle
time of the PLC.
Taking a 10 msec (standard input filter)
response delay into account, the ON/OFF
duration must be longer than 20 msec if
the operation cycle (scan time) is 10 msec.
Therefore, in this example, input pulses of
more than 25Hz (1sec/(20msec ON +
20msec OFF)) cannot be sensed.
There are applied instructions provided to
handle such high speed input requests.
2-5
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.6
Basic Program Instructions 2
And, And Inverse
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Function
Format
FX0N
Devices
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
AND
(AND)
Serial connection
of NO (normally
open) contacts
X, Y, M, S, T, C
1
ANI
(AND Inverse)
Serial connection
of NC (normally
closed) contacts
X, Y, M, S, T, C
1
Program example:
AND
X2
X0
Y3
Y3
X3
M101
T1
ANI
Y4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
LD
AND
OUT
LD
ANI
OUT
AND
OUT
X 2
X 0
Y 3
Y 3
X 3
M 101
T 1
Y 4
AND
Basic points to remember:
- Use the AND and ANI instructions for serial connection of contacts. As many contacts as
required can be connected in series (see following point headed “Peripheral limitations”).
- The output processing to a coil, through a contact, after writing the initial OUT instruction
is called a “follow-on” output (for an example see the program above; OUT Y4). Followon outputs are permitted repeatedly as long as the output order is correct.
Peripheral limitations:
• The PLC has no limit to the number of contacts connected in series or in parallel.
However, some programming panels, screens and printers will not be able to display
or print the program if it exceeds the limit of the hardware. It is preferable for each
line or rung of ladder program to contain up to a maximum of 10 contacts and 1 coil.
Also, keep the number of follow-on outputs to a maximum of 24.
2-6
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.7
Basic Program Instructions 2
Or, Or Inverse
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
Function
Format
FX0N
FX
Devices
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
OR
(OR)
Parallel
connection of NO
(normally open)
contacts
X, Y, M, S, T, C
1
ORI
(OR Inverse)
Parallel
connection of NC
(normally closed)
contacts
X, Y, M, S, T, C
1
Program example:
X4
Y5
X6
OR
M102
ORI
Y5
X7
X10
M103
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
LD
OR
ORI
OUT
LDI
AND
OR
ANI
OR
OUT
X
X
M
Y
Y
X
M
X
M
M
4
6
102
5
5
7
103
10
110
103
M103
M110
Basic points to remember:
- Use the OR and ORI instructions for parallel connection of contacts. To connect a block
that contains more than one contact connected in series to another circuit block in
parallel, use an ORB instruction.
- Connect one side of the OR/ORI instruction to the left hand bus bar.
Peripheral limitations:
• The PLC has no limit to the number of contacts connected in series or in parallel.
However, some programming panels, screens and printers will not be able to display
or print the program if it exceeds the limit of the hardware. It is preferable for each
line or rung of ladder program to contain up to a maximum of 10 contacts and 1 coil.
Also keep number of follow-on outputs to a maximum of 24.
2-7
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.8
Basic Program Instructions 2
Load Pulse, Load Trailing Pulse
Mnemonic
Function
FX0(S)
Format
FX0N
Devices
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
LDP
(LoaDPulse)
Initial logical
operation Rising edge
pulse
X, Y, M, S, T, C
2
LDF
(LoaD Falling
pulse)
Initial logical
operation Falling
/ trailing edge
pulse
X, Y, M, S, T, C
2
Program example:
LDP
X0
M100
X1
LDF
X0
0
2
3
4
6
LDP
OR
OUT
LDF
OUT
X
0
X
1
M 100
X
0
Y
0
Y0
Basic points to remember:
- Connect the LDP and LDF instructions directly to the left hand bus bar.
- Or use LDP and LDF instructions to define a new block of program when using the ORB
and ANB instructions (see later sections).
- LDP is active for one program scan after the associated device switches from OFF to ON.
- LDF is active for one program scan after the associated device switches from ON to
OFF.
Single Operation flags M2800 to M3071:
• The pulse operation instructions, when used with auxiliary relays M2800 to M3071,
only activate the first instruction encountered in the program scan, after the point in
the program where the device changes. Any other pulse operation instructions will
remain inactive.
• This is useful for use in STL programs (see chapter 3) to perform single step
operation using a single device.
• Any other instructions (LD, AND, OR, etc.) will operate as expected.
For more details please see page 4-5.
2-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.9
Basic Program Instructions 2
And Pulse, And Trailing Pulse
Mnemonic
Function
FX0(S)
Format
FX0N
FX
Devices
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ANP
(ANd Pulse)
Serial connection
of Rising edge
pulse
X, Y, M, S, T, C
2
ANF
(ANd Falling
pulse)
Serial connection
of Falling /
trailing edge
pulse
X, Y, M, S, T, C
2
Program example:
ANP
M40
T10
M100
X1
ANF
X0
C0
0
1
2
4
5
6
8
LD
OR
ANP
OUT
LDF
ANF
OUT
M 40
X
1
T 10
M 100
X
0
C
0
Y
4
Y4
Basic points to remember:
- Use the ANDP and ANDF instructions for the serial connection of pulse contacts.
- Usage is the same as for AND and ANI; see earlier.
- ANP is active for one program scan after the associated device switches from OFF to
ON.
- ANF is active for one program scan after the associated device switches from ON to
OFF.
Single operation flags M2800 to M3071:
• When used with flags M2800 to M3071 only the first instruction will activate. For
details see page 2-8
2-9
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.10
Basic Program Instructions 2
Or Pulse, Or Trailing Pulse
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Function
Format
FX0N
FX
Devices
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ORP
(OR Pulse)
Parallel
connection of
Rising edge
pulse
X, Y, M, S, T, C
2
ORF
(OR Falling
pulse)
Parallel
connection of
Falling / trailing
edge pulse
X, Y, M, S, T, C
2
Program example:
M40
SET M50
X1
ORP
X0
M24
Y7
X1
Y4
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
LD
ORP
SET
LD
AND
LD
ORF
ORB
OUT
M
X
M
X
M
Y
X
40
1
50
0
24
7
1
Y
4
ORF
Basic points to remember:
- Use the ORP and ORF instructions for the parallel connection of pulse contacts.
- Usage is the same as for OR and ORI; see earlier.
- ORP is active for one program scan after the associated device switches from OFF to
ON.
- ORF is active for one program scan after the associated device switches from ON to
OFF.
Single operation flags M2800 to M3071:
• When used with flags M2800 to M3071 only the first instruction will activate. For
details see page 2-8
2-10
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.11
Basic Program Instructions 2
Or Block
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
ORB
(OR Block)
Function
Format
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Devices
Program steps
N/A
1
Parallel connection
of multiple contact
circuits
Program example:
Recommended sequential
programming method
X0
X1
Y6
X2
X3
ORB
X4
X5
ORB
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LD
AND
LD
AND
ORB
LDI
AND
ORB
OUT
X
X
X
X
0
1
2
3
X 4
X 5
Y 6
Non-preferred batch
programming method
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LD
AND
LD
AND
LDI
AND
ORB
ORB
OUT
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
1
2
3
4
5
Y 6
Basic points to remember:
- An ORB instruction is an independent instruction and is not associated with any device
number.
- Use the ORB instruction to connect multi-contact circuits (usually serial circuit blocks) to
the preceding circuit in parallel. Serial circuit blocks are those in which more than one
contact connects in series or the ANB instruction is used.
- To declare the starting point of the circuit block use a LD or LDI instruction. After
completing the serial circuit block, connect it to the preceding block in parallel using the
ORB instruction.
Batch processing limitations:
• When using ORB instructions in a batch, use no more than 8 LD and LDI instructions
in the definition of the program blocks (to be connected in parallel). Ignoring this will
result in a program error (see the right most program listing).
Sequential processing limitations:
• There are no limitations to the number of parallel circuits when using an ORB
instruction in the sequential processing configuration (see the left most program
listing).
2-11
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.12
Basic Program Instructions 2
And Block
Mnemonic
ANB
(ANd Block)
FX0N
FX0(S)
Function
Format
Serial connection
of multiple
parallel circuits
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Devices
Program steps
N/A
1
Program example:
X0
Recommended sequential
programming method
LD
ANB
X2
X3
Y7
X1
X4
X5
X6
ORB
X3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
LD
OR
LD
AND
LDI
AND
ORB
OR
ANB
OR
OUT
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
1
2
3
4
5
X
6
X
Y
3
7
Basic points to remember:
- An ANB instruction is an independent instruction and is not associated with any device
number
- Use the ANB instruction to connect multi-contact circuits (usually parallel circuit blocks)
to the preceding circuit in series. Parallel circuit blocks are those in which more than one
contact connects in parallel or the ORB instruction is used.
- To declare the starting point of the circuit block, use a LD or LDI instruction. After
completing the parallel circuit block, connect it to the preceding block in series using the
ANB instruction.
Batch processing limitations:
• When using ANB instructions in a batch, use no more than 8 LD and LDI instructions
in the definition of the program blocks (to be connected in parallel). Ignoring this will
result in a program error (see ORB explanation for example).
Sequential processing limitations:
• It is possible to use as many ANB instructions as necessary to connect a number of
parallel circuit blocks to the preceding block in series (see the program listing).
2-12
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.13
Basic Program Instructions 2
MPS, MRD and MPP
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Function
Format
MPS
(Point Store)
Stores the current
result of the
internal PLC
operations
MPS
MRD
(Read)
Reads the current
result of the
internal PLC
operations
MRD
MPP
(PoP)
Pops (recalls and
removes) the
currently stored
result
MPP
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Devices
Program steps
N/A
1
N/A
1
N/A
1
Basic points to remember:
- Use these instructions to connect output coils to the left hand side of a contact.
Without these instructions connections can only be made to the right hand side of the
last contact.
- MPS stores the connection point of the ladder circuit so that further coil branches can
recall the value later.
- MRD recalls or reads the previously stored connection point data and forces the next
contact to connect to it.
- MPP pops (recalls and removes) the stored connection point. First, it connects the next
contact, then it removes the point from the temporary storage area.
- For every MPS instruction there MUST be a corresponding MPP instruction.
- The last contact or coil circuit must connect to an MPP instruction.
- At any programming step, the number of active MPS-MPP pairs must be no greater than
11.
MPS, MRD and MPP usage:
• When writing a program in ladder format, programming tools automatically add all
MPS, MRD and MPP instructions at the program conversion stage. If the generated
instruction program is viewed, the MPS, MRD and MPP instructions are present.
• When writing a program in instruction format, it is entirely down to the user to enter all
relevant MPS, MRD and MPP instructions as required.
2-13
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Basic Program Instructions 2
Multiple program examples:
X0
X1
Y0
X2
MPS
X3
X4
Y1
X5
X6
MRD
X7
Y2
X10
Y3
MPP
X 0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
LD
MPS
LD
OR
ANB
OUT
MRD
LD
AND
LD
AND
ORB
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LD
MPS
AND
MPS
AND
OUT
MPP
AND
OUT
X 0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LD
MPS
AND
MPS
AND
MPS
AND
MPS
AND
X 0
X 1
X 2
Y 0
X
X
X
X
3
4
5
6
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
ANB
OUT
MPP
AND
OUT
LD
OR
ANB
OUT
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
MPP
AND
MPS
AND
OUT
MPP
AND
OUT
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
OUT
MPP
OUT
MPP
OUT
MPP
OUT
MPP
OUT
Y
1
X 7
Y 2
X 10
X 11
Y
3
X
4
X
Y
5
2
X
Y
6
3
Y
0
Y
1
Y
2
Y
3
Y
4
X11
X0
X1
X2
Y0
MPS
MPP
X3
Y1
MPS
X4
X5
Y2
X6
MPP MPS
Y3
X 1
X 2
Y 0
X 3
Y 1
MPP
X0 X1 X2 X3 X4
Y0
MPS
Y1
Y2
Y3
X 1
X 2
X 3
X 4
Y4
MPP
2-14
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.14
Basic Program Instructions 2
Master Control and Reset
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Function
MC
(Master
Control)
Denotes the start
of a master control
block
MCR
(Master
Control Reset)
Denotes the end of
a master control
block
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Format
Devices
Program steps
MC N
Y, M (no special
M coils allowed)
N denotes the
nest level (N0 to
N7)
3
MCR N
N denotes the
nest level (N0 to
N7) to be reset.
2
Program example:
X0
MC
N0
N0
M100
0
1
M100
X1
Y0
X2
Y1
MCR N0
4
5
6
7
8
LD
MC
SP
LD
OUT
LD
OUT
MCR
X 0
N 0
M 100
X 1
Y 0
X 2
Y 1
N 0
Note: SP - space key
N - nest level of MC (N0 to N7)
Basic points to remember:
- After the execution of an MC instruction, the bus line (LD, LDI point) shifts to a point after
the MC instruction. An MCR instruction returns this to the original bus line.
- The MC instruction also includes a nest level pointer N. Nest levels are from the range
N0 to N7 (8 points). The top nest level is ‘0’ and the deepest is ‘7’.
- The MCR instruction resets each nest level. When a nest level is reset, it also resets ALL
deeper nest levels. For example, MCR N5 resets nest levels 5 to 7.
- When input X0=ON, all instructions between the MC and the MCR instruction execute.
- When input X0=OFF, none of the instruction between the MC and MCR instruction
execute; this resets all devices except for retentive timers, counters and devices driven
by SET/RST instructions.
- The MC instruction can be used as many times as necessary, by changing the device
number Y and M. Using the same device number twice is processed as a double coil
(see section 2.5.2). Nest levels can be duplicated but when the nest level resets, ALL
occurrences of that level reset and not just the one specified in the local MC.
2-15
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Basic Program Instructions 2
Nested MC program example:
A
N0
X0
MC
N0
M100
Level N0: Bus line (B) active when X0
is ON.
M100
X1
Y0
B
X2
MC
N1
N1
M101
Level N1: Bus line (C) active when
both X0 and X2 are ON.
M101
X3
Y1
C
X4
MC
N2
N2
M102
Level N2: Bus line (D) active when
X0,X2 and X4 are ON.
M102
X5
Y2
D
MCR N2
X6
Y3
C
Level N1: MCRN2 executes and
restores bus line (C). If the MCR had
reset N0 then the original bus bar (A)
would now be active as all master
controls below nest level 0 would reset.
MCR N1
X7
Y4
Level N0: MCRN1 executes and
restores bus line (B).
B
MCR N0
Initial state: MCR N0 executes and
restores the initial bus line (A).
Y5
Output Y5 turns ON/OFF according to
the ON/OFF state of X10, regardless of
the ON/OFF status of inputs X0, X2 or
X4.
X10
A
2-16
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.15
Basic Program Instructions 2
Set and Reset
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
Function
Format
SET
(SET)
Sets a bit device
permanently ON
RST
(ReSeT)
Resets a bit
device
permanently
OFF
FX0N
Devices
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SET
Y, M, S
Y,M:1
S, special M
coils:2
RST
Y, M, S, D, V, Z
(see section
2.16 for timers
and counters
T,C)
D, special D
registers, V and
Z:3
Program example:
X0
SET
Y0
RST
Y0
SET
M0
RST
M0
SET
S0
RST
S0
RST
D0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
LD
SET
LD
RST
LD
SET
LD
RST
LD
SET
LD
RST
LD
RST
X
Y
X
Y
X
M
X
M
X
S
X
S
X
D
0
0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
Basic points to remember:
- Turning ON X0 causes Y0 to turn ON.
Y0 remains ON even after X0 turns OFF.
- Turning ON X1 causes Y0 to turn OFF.
Y0 remains OFF even after X1 turns
OFF.
- SET and RST instructions can be used
for the same device as many times as
necessary.
However, the last instruction activated
determines the current status.
X0
X1
Y0
- It is also possible to use the RST instruction to reset the contents of data devices such
as data registers, index registers etc. The effect is similar to moving ‘K0’ into the data
device.
Resetting timers and counters:
• Please see next page.
2-17
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.16
Basic Program Instructions 2
Timer, Counter (Out & Reset)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Function
Format
FX0N
Devices
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
OUT
(OUT)
Driving timer or
counter coils
T, C
32 bit
counters:5
Others: 3
RST
(ReSeT)
Resets timer and
counter, coils
contacts and
current values
T, C
(see section
2.15 for other
resetable
devices)
T, C:2
RST
Program example:
2.16.1Basic Timers, Retentive Timers And
Counters
X0
RST T246
X1
T246
K1234
T246
Y0
X2
M8200
X3
RST C200
These devices can all be reset at any time by
driving the RST instruction (with the number
of the device to be reset).
On resetting, all active contacts, coils and
current value registers are reset for the
selected device. In the example, T246, a
1msec retentive timer, is activate while X1 is
ON. When the current value of T246 reaches
the preset ‘K’ value, i.e. 1234, the timer coil for
T246 will be activated. This drives the NO
contact ON. Hence, Y0 is switched ON.
Turning ON X0 will reset timer T246 in the
manner described previously.
Because the T246 contacts are reset, the
output Y0 will be turned OFF.
X4
C200
D0
C200
Y1
Retentive timers:
• For more information on retentive timers please see page 4-17.
2-18
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.16.2
Basic Program Instructions 2
Normal 32 bit Counters
The 32 bit counter C200 counts (up-count, down-count) according to the ON/OFF state of
M8200. In the example program shown on the previous page C200 is being used to count the
number of OFF ~ ON cycles of input X4.
The output contact is set or reset depending on the direction of the count, upon reaching a
value equal (in this example) to the contents of data registers D1,D0 (32 bit setting data is
required for a 32 bit counter).
The output contact is reset and the current value of the counter is reset to ‘0’ when input X3 is
turned ON.
32 bit counters:
• For more information on 32 bit counters please see page 4-21.
2.16.3
High Speed Counters
High speed counters have selectable count
directions. The directions are selected by
driving the appropriate special auxiliary M
coil. The example shown to the right works
in the following manner; when X10 is ON,
counting down takes place. When X10 is
OFF counting up takes place.
In the example the output contacts of
counter C∆∆∆ and its associated current
count values are reset to “0” when X11 is
turned ON. When X12 is turned ON the
driven counter is enabled. This means it will
be able to start counting its assigned input
signal (this will not be X12 - high speed
counters are assigned special input signals,
please see page 4-22).
X10
M8
X11
RST C
X12
C
K/D
C
Y2
Availability of devices:
• Not all devices identified here are available on all programmable controllers. Ranges
of active devices may vary from PLC to PLC. Please check the specific availability of
these devices on the selected PLC before use. For more information on high speed
counters please see page 4-22. For PLC device ranges please see chapter 8.
2-19
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.17
Basic Program Instructions 2
Leading and Trailing Pulse
Mnemonic
PLS
(PuLSe)
FX0(S)
Function
Format
Rising edge
pulse
PLF
Falling / trailing
(PuLse Falling) edge pulse
FX0N
Devices
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
PLS
Y, M
(no special M
coils allowed)
2
PLF
Y, M
(no special M
coils allowed)
2
Program example:
X0
PLS
M0
SET
Y0
PLF
M1
RST
Y0
0
1
3
4
5
6
8
9
M0
X1
M1
LD
PLS
LD
SET
LD
PLF
LD
RST
X
M
M
Y
X
M
M
Y
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
Basic points to remember:
- When a PLS instruction is
executed, object devices Y
and M operate for one
operation cycle after the drive
input signal has turned ON.
- When a PLF instruction is
executed, object devices Y
and M operate for one
operation cycle after the drive
input signal has turned OFF.
X0
X1
M0
M1
Y0
t msec
- When the PLC status is
changed from RUN to STOP and back to RUN with the input signals still ON, PLS M0 is
operated again. However, if an M coil which is battery backed (latched) was used instead
of M0 it would not re-activate. For the battery backed device to be re-pulsed, its driving
input (ex. X0) must be switched OFF during the RUN/STOP/RUN sequence before it will
be pulsed once more.
2-20
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.18
Basic Program Instructions 2
Inverse
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
INV
(Inverse)
Function
Format
Invert the current
result of the
internal PLC
operations
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Devices
Program steps
N/A
1
Program example:
X0
PLS
M0
SET
Y0
PLF
M1
RST
Y0
M0
X1
M1
0
1
3
4
5
6
8
9
LD
PLS
LD
SET
LD
PLF
LD
RST
X
M
M
Y
X
M
M
Y
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
Basic points to remember:
- The INV instruction is used to change (invert) the logical state of the current ladder
network at the inserted position.
- Usage is the same as for AND and ANI; see earlier.
Usages for INV
• Use the invert instruction to quickly change the logic of a complex circuit.
It is also useful as an inverse operation for the pulse contact instructions LDP, LDF,
ANP, etc.
2-21
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.19
Basic Program Instructions 2
No Operation
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Function
NOP
No operation or
(No Operation) null step
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Format
Devices
Program steps
N/A
N/A
1
Basic points to remember:
- Writing NOP instructions in the middle of a program minimizes step number changes
when changing or editing a program.
- It is possible to change the operation of a circuit by replacing programmed instructions
with NOP instructions.
- Changing a LD, LDI, ANB or an ORB instruction with a NOP instruction will change the
circuit considerably; quite possibly resulting in an error being generated.
- After the program ‘all clear operation’ is executed, all of the instructions currently in the
program are over written with NOP’s.
2-22
FX Series Programmable Controllers
2.20
Basic Program Instructions 2
End
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
END
(END)
Function
Forces the current
program scan to
end
Format
END
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Devices
Program steps
N/A
1
Basic points to remember:
- Placing an END instruction in a program forces that program to end the current scan and
carry out the updating processes for both inputs and outputs.
- Inserting END instructions in the middle of the program helps program debugging as the
section after the END instruction is disabled and isolated from the area that is being
checked. Remember to delete the END instructions from the blocks which have already
been checked.
- When the END instruction is processed the PCs watchdog timer is automatically
refreshed.
A program scan:
• A program scan is a single processing of the loaded program from start to finish, This
includes updating all inputs, outputs and watchdog timers. The time period for one
such process to occur is called the scan time. This will be dependent upon program
length and complexity. Immediately the current scan is completed the next scan
begins. The whole process is a continuous cycle. Updating of inputs takes place at
the beginning of each scan while all outputs are updated at the end of the scan.
2-23
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Basic Program Instructions 2
MEMO
2-24
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
STL Programming 3
FX Series Programmable Controllers
STL Programming 3
Chapter Contents
3. STL Programming .................................................................................3-1
3.1 What is STL, SFC And IEC1131 Part 3? ............................................................. 3-1
3.2 How STL Operates .............................................................................................. 3-2
3.2.1 Each step is a program ............................................................................................. 3-2
3.3 How To Start And End An STL Program ............................................................. 3-3
3.3.1 Embedded STL programs ......................................................................................... 3-3
3.3.2 Activating new states................................................................................................. 3-3
3.3.3 Terminating an STL Program .................................................................................... 3-4
3.4 Moving Between STL Steps ................................................................................ 3-5
3.4.1 Using SET to drive an STL coil ................................................................................. 3-5
3.4.2 Using OUT to drive an STL coil ................................................................................. 3-6
3.5 Rules and Techniques For STL programs........................................................... 3-7
3.5.1 Basic Notes On The Behavior Of STL programs....................................................... 3-7
3.5.2 Single Signal Step Control ........................................................................................ 3-9
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
Restrictions Of Some Instructions When Used With STL.................................. 3-10
Using STL To Select The Most Appropriate Program ....................................... 3-11
Using STL To Activate Multiple Flows Simultaneously...................................... 3-12
General Rules For Successful STL Branching .................................................. 3-14
General Precautions When Using The FX-PCS/AT-EE Software ..................... 3-15
Programming Examples .................................................................................... 3-16
3.11.1 A Simple STL Flow .................................................................................................. 3-16
3.11.2 A Selective Branch/ First State Merge Example Program....................................... 3-18
3.12 Advanced STL Use............................................................................................ 3-20
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.
STL Programming
STL Programming 3
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
This chapter differs from the rest of the contents in this manual as it has been written with a
training aspect in mind. STL/SFC programming, although having been available for many
years, is still misunderstood and misrepresented. We at Mitsubishi would like to take this
opportunity to try to correct this oversight as we see STL/SFC programming becoming as
important as ladder style programming.
3.1
What is STL, SFC And IEC1131 Part 3?
The following explanation is very brief but is designed to quickly outline the differences and
similarities between STL, SFC and IEC1131 part 3.
In recent years Sequential Function Chart (or SFC) style programming (including other similar
styles such as Grafcet and Funktionplan) have become very popular through out Europe and
have prompted the creation of IEC1131 part 3.
The IEC1131 SFC standard has been designed to become an interchangeable programming
language. The idea being that a program written to IEC1131 SFC standards on one
manufacturers PLC can be easily transferred (converted) for use on a second manufacturers
PLC.
STL programming is one of the basic programming instructions included in all FX PLC family
members. The abbreviation STL actually means STep Ladder programming.
STL programming is a very simple concept to understand yet can provide the user with one of
the most powerful programming techniques possible. The key to STL lies in its ability to allow
the programmer to create an operational program which ‘flows’ and works in almost exactly the
same manner as SFC. This is not a coincidence as this programming technique has been
developed deliberately to achieve an easy to program and monitor system.
One of the key differences to Mitsubishi’s STL programming system is that it can be entered
into a PLC in 3 formats. These are:
Ι) Instruction - a word/mnemonic entry system
ΙΙ) Ladder - a graphical program construction method using a relay logic symbols
ΙΙΙ) SFC - a flow chart style of STL program entry (similar to SFC)
Examples of these programming methods can be seen on page 2-1.
General note:
• IEC1131-3: 03.1993 Programmable controllers; part 3: programming languages.
The above standard is technically identical to the ‘Euro-Norm’
EN61131-3: 07.1993
3-1
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.2
STL Programming 3
How STL Operates
As previously mentioned, STL is a system which
allows the user to write a program which functions
in much the same way as a flow chart, this can be
seen in the diagram opposite.
STL derives its strength by organizing a larger
program into smaller more manageable parts.
Each of these parts can be referred to as either a
state or a step. To help identify the states, each is
given a unique identification number. These
numbers are taken from the state relay devices
(see page 4-6 for more details).
M8002
S0
X0
X1
X0
X1
S 22
S 26
T0
X15
S 27
T7
3.2.1
Each step is a program
Each state is completely isolated from all other states within the whole program. A good way to
envisage this, is that each state is a separate program and the user puts each of those
programs together in the order that they require to perform their task. Immediately this means
that states can be reused many times and in different orders. This saves on programming time
AND cuts down on the number of programming errors encountered.
A Look Inside an STL
On initial inspection the STL program looks as if it is a rather basic flow diagram. But to find out
what is really happening the STL state needs to be put ‘under a microscope’ so to speak.
When a single state is examined in more detail, the sub-program can be viewed.
With the exception of the STL instruction, it will be
immediately seen that the STL sub-program looks
just like ordinary programming.
2
The STL instruction is shown as a ‘fat’ normally
S 22
T0
open contact.
All programming after an STL instruction is only
active when the associated state coil is active.
The
transition condition is also written using
standard programming.
This idea re-enforces the concept that STL is really
a method of sequencing a series of events or as
mentioned earlier ‘of joining lots of smaller
programs together’.
1
2
STL
Y22
K20
T0
S 22
T0
SET S 27
1
3-2
FX Series Programmable Controllers
STL Programming 3
Combined SFC Ladder representation
Sometimes STL programs will be written in hard copy as a combination of both flow diagram
and internal sub-program. (example shown below).
Identification of contact states
• Please note the following convention
is used:
Normally Open contact
Normally Closed contact
M8002
S0
X0
X1
Common alternatives are ‘a’ and ‘b’
identifiers for Normally Open,
Normally Closed states or often a line
drawn over the top of the Normally
Closed contact name is used, e.g.
X000.
3.3
Y20
X0
X1
Y22
S 22
S 26
Y26
T0
K20
X15
T0
S 27
Y27
T7
K20
T7
How To Start And End An STL Program
Before any complex programming can be undertaken the basics of how to start and more
importantly how to finish an STL program need to be examined.
3.3.1
Embedded STL programs
An STL style program does not have to
entirely replace a standard ladder logic
program. In fact it might be very difficult to do
so. Instead small or even large section of STL
program can be entered at any point in a
program. Once the STL task has been
completed the program must go back to
processing standard program instructions until
the next STL program block. Therefore,
id en tify in g th e start and e nd of an ST L
program is very important.
3.3.2
LD
OUT
LD
SET
STL
OUT
LDI
OUT
RET
LD
OUT
RST
X000
Y004
X002
S009
S009
Y010
X003
Y006
Normal Ladder Program
Embedded STL Program
X005
Y007
M080
Activating new states
Once an STL step has been selected, how is it used and how is the program ‘driven’?
This is not so difficult, if it is considered that for an STL step to be active its associated state
coil must be ON. Hence, to start an STL sequence all that has to be done is to drive the
relevant state ON.
There are many different methods to drive a
state, for example the initial state coils could
be pulsed, SET or just included in an OUT
instruction. However, within Mitsubishi’s STL
programming language an STL coil which is
SET has a different meaning than one that is
included in an OUT instruction.
STL
Y22
S 22
K20
T0
T0
SET S 27
STL
S 27
Note: For normal STL operation it is recommended that the states are selected using the
SET instruction. To activate an STL step its state coil is SET ON.
3-3
FX Series Programmable Controllers
STL Programming 3
Initial Steps
For an STL program which is to be activated
on the initial power up of the PLC, a trigger
similar to that shown opposite could be used,
i.e. using M8002 to drive the setting of the
initial state.
The STL step started in this manner is often
referred to as the initial step. Similarly, the
step activated first for any STL sequence is
also called the initial step.
3.3.3
M8002
SET S005
STL
X001
Y000
S005
X000
Y011
X012
Y014
X013
Terminating an STL Program
Once an STL program has been started the programmable controllers CPU will process all following instructions as being part of that STL program. This means that when a second program scan is started the normal instructions at the beginning of the program are considered to
be within the STL program. This is obviously incorrect and the CPU will proceed to identify a
programming error and disable the programmable controllers operation.
This scenario may seem a little strange but it does make sense when it is considered that the
STL program must return control to the ladder program after STL operation is complete. This
means the last step in an STL program needs to be identified in some way.
Returning to Standard Ladder
This is achieved by placing a RET or RETurn
instruction as the last instruction in the last
STL step of an STL program block.
This instruction then returns programming control to the ladder sequence.
M8002
SET S005
STL
X001
Y000
S005
X000
Y011
X012
Y014
X013
RET
Note: The RET instruction can be used to separate STL programs into sections, with standard ladder between each STL program. For display of STL in SFC style format the RET
instruction is used to indicate the end of a complete STL program.
3-4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.4
STL Programming 3
Moving Between STL Steps
To activate an STL step the user must first drive the state coil. Setting the coil has already
been identified as a way to start an STL program, i.e. drive an initial state. It was also noted
that using an OUT statement to driving a state coil has a different meaning to the SET
instruction. These difference will now be explained:
3.4.1
Using SET to drive an STL coil
• SET is used to drive an STL state coil to make the step active. Once the current STL step
activates a second following step, the source STL coil is reset. Hence, although SET is
used to activate a state the resetting is automatic.
However, if an STL state is driven by a
series of standard ladder logic instructions,
X000 S040
S020
i .e . n o t a p r e c e d in g S T L s t a t e , t h e n
standard programming rules apply.
S020
S030
In the example shown opposite S20 is not
reset even after S30 or S21 have been
SET S021
driven. In addition, if S20 is turned OFF,
S 3 0 w ill a ls o st o p o pe r a tin g . T h is is
RST S022
because S20 has not been used as an STL
state. The first instruction involving the
status of S20 is a standard LoaD instruction and NOT an STL instruction.
Note: If a user wishes to forcibly reset an
STL step, using the RST or ZRST (FNC
40) instructions would perform this task.
X000
ZRST S21 S28
• SET is used to drive an immediately following STL step which typically will have a larger
STL state number than the current step.
• SET is used to drive STL states which occur within the enclosed STL program flow, i.e.
SET is not used to activate a state which appears in an unconnected, second STL flow
diagram.
3-5
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.4.2
STL Programming 3
Using OUT to drive an STL coil
This has the same operational features as using SET. However, there is one major function
which SET is not used. This is to make what is termed ‘distant jumps’.
OUT is used for loops and jumps
If a user wishes to ‘jump’ back up a program,
i.e. go back to a state which has already been
processed, the OUT instruction would be used
with the appropriate STL state number.
Alternatively the user may wish to make a
large ‘jump’ forwards skipping a whole section
of STL programmed states.
Partial
repeat
S0
S0
S 20
Program
jump
S 20
OUT
S 21
S 22
S 21
OUT
S 22
S 23
S 23
Out is used for distant jumps
If a step in one STL program flow was required
to trigger a step in a second, separate STL
program flow the OUT instruction would be
used.
STL
flow 1
S0
STL
flow 2
S 20
S1
S 40
S 21
S 41
OUT
S 42
S 22
S 43
S 23
S 44
Note: Although it is possible to use SET for jumps and loops use of OUT is needed for
display of STL in SFC like structured format.
3-6
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.5
STL Programming 3
Rules and Techniques For STL programs
It can be seen that there are a lot of advantages to using STL style programming but there are
a few points a user must be aware of when writing the STL sub-programs.
These are highlighted in this section.
3.5.1
Basic Notes On The Behavior Of STL programs
• When an STL state becomes active its program is processed until the next step is triggered.
The contents of the program can contain all of the programming items and features of a
standard ladder program, i.e. LoaD, AND OR, OUT, ReSeT etc., as well as applied
instructions.
• When writing the sub-program of an STL state, the first vertical ‘bus bar’ after the STL
instruction can be considered in a similar manner as the left hand bus bar of a standard ladder program.
Each STL step makes its own bus bar. This
means that a user, cannot use an MPS
instruction directly after the STL instruction
(see ), i.e. There needs to be at least a
single contact before the MPS instruction.
1
STL
X001
Y000
S005
Note: Using out coils and even applied
instructions immediately after an STL
instruction is permitted.
X000
Y011
X012
Y014
X013
RET
• In normal programming using dual coils is not an acceptable technique. However repetition
of a coil in separate STL program blocks is allowed.
This is because the user can take advantage of the STL’s
unique feature of isolating all STL steps except the active
STL steps.
This means in practice that there will be no conflict between
dual coils. The example opposite shows M111 used twice in a
single STL flow.
Caution: The same coil should NOT be programmed in steps
that will be active at the same time as this will result in the
same problem as other dual coils.
S 30
M111
S 31
M112
S 32
M111
3-7
FX Series Programmable Controllers
• When an STL step transfers control to the next STL
step there is a period (one scan) while both steps
are active. This can cause problems with dual coils;
particularly timers.
If timers are dual coiled care must be taken to
ensure that the timer operation is completed during
the active STL step.
If the same timer is used in consecutive steps then it
is possible that the timer coil is never deactivated
and the contacts of the timer will not be reset
leading to incorrect timer operation.
The example opposite identifies an unacceptable
use of timer T001. When control passes from S30 to
S31 T001 is not reset because its coil is still ON in
the new step.
STL Programming 3
K20
S 30
T001
T001
S 31
T001
S 32
T001
K50
Note: As a step towards ensuring the correct operation of the dual timers they
should not be used in consecutive STL steps.
Following this simple rule will ensure each timer will be reset correctly before its next
operation.
• As already mentioned, during the transfer between
steps, the current and the selected steps will be
simultaneously active for one program scan. This
could be thought of as a hand over or handshaking
period.
This means that if a user has two outputs contained
in consecutive steps which must NOT be active
simultaneously they must be interlocked. A good
example of this would be the drive signals to select
a motors rotation direction. In the example Y11 and
Y10 are shown interlocked with each other.
Y10
Y11
S 30
Y11
Y10
S 31
3-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.5.2
STL Programming 3
Single Signal Step Control
Transferring between active STL steps can be controlled by a single signal. There are two
methods the user can program to achieve this result.
Method 1 - Using locking devices
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
In this example it is necessary to program separate locking devices, and the controlling signal
must only pulse ON. This is to prevent the STL programs from running through.
The example shown below identifies the general program required for this method.
- S30 is activated when M0 is first pulsed ON.
- The operation of M1 prevents the sequence
from continuing because although M0 is ON,
the transfer requirements, need M0 to be ON
and M1 to be OFF.
M0
- After one scan the pulsed M0 and the ‘lock’
device M1 are reset.
M0
M1
PLS M1
S 30
- On the next pulse of M0 the STL step will
transfer program control from S31 to the next
step in a similar manner. This time using M2 as
t h e ‘ lo c k ’ d e v i c e b e c a u s e d u a l c o i ls in
successive steps is not allowed.
PLS M2
S 31
M0
M2
- The reason for the use of the ‘lock’ devices M1
and M2 is because of the handshaking period
when both states involved in the transfer of
program control are ON for 1 program scan. Without the ‘locks’ it would be possible to
immediately skip through all of the STL states in one go!
Method 2 - Special Single Pulse Flags
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Using the pulse contacts (LDP, LDF, ANP, etc.) and a special range of M devices (M2800 to
M3071) the FX2N(C) PLC’s achieves the same result as method 1. The special feature of
these devices prevents run through of the states, as only the first occurrence of the LDP
instruction will activate.
The example program below shows the necessary instructions.
- Assume S50 is already active.
- When X01 activates M2800, this in turn
activates the LDP M2800 instruction in
S50 and the flow moves on to step
S51.
- The LDP M2800 instruction in the
transition part of S51 does not execute
because this is the second occurrence
of M2800 in a pulse contact.
- When X01 next activates M2800, the
LDP instruction in S51 is the first
occurrence because S50 is now
inactive. Thus, control passes to the
next step in the same manner.
X001
LAD0
M2800
M2800
M2800
S 50
M2800
M2800
S 51
M2800
M2800
Do not use the
step control
device in a
pulse contact
within the main
program body.
SET
S51
SET
Snn
3-9
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.6
STL Programming 3
Restrictions Of Some Instructions When Used With STL
Although STL can operate with most basic and applied instructions there are a few exceptions.
As a general rule STL and MC-MCR programming formats should not be combined. Other
instruction restrictions are listed in the table below.
Basic Instructions
Operational State
Initial and general
states
LD, LDI, AND,
ANI, OR,ORI,
NOP, OUT,
SET, RST,
PLS,PLF
ANB, ORB,
MPS,MRD,
MPP
MC, MCR
STL
SET S**
STL
Branching and
merging
states
Output
processing
Transfer
processing
SET S**
STL
STL
STL
SET S**
Restrictions on using applied instructions
• Most applied instructions can be used within STL programs. Attention must be paid to
the way STL isolates each non-active step. It is recommended that when applied
instructions are used their operation is completed before the active STL step transfers to
the next step.
Other restrictions are as follows:
- FOR - NEXT structures can not contain STL program blocks.
- Subroutines and interrupts can not contain STL program blocks.
- STL program blocks can not be written after an FEND instruction.
- FOR - NEXT instructions are allowed within an STL program with a nesting of up to 4
levels.
For more details please see the operational compatibility listed in the two tables on
pages 7-12,7-13.
Using ‘jump’ operations with STL
• Although it is possible to use the program jump operations (CJ instruction) within STL
program flows, this causes additional and often unnecessary program flow
complications. To ensure easy maintenance and quick error finding it is recommended
that users do not write jump instructions into their STL programs.
3-10
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.7
STL Programming 3
Using STL To Select The Most
Appropriate Program
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
So far STL has been considered as a simple flow charting programming language. One of
STL’s exceptional features is the ability to create programs which can have several operating
modes. For example certain machines require a selection of ‘manual’ and ‘automatic’ modes,
other machines may need the ability to select the operation or manufacturing processes
required to produce products ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, or ‘D’. STL achieves this by allowing multiple program
branches to originate from one STL state. Each branch is then programmed as an individual
operating mode, and because each operating mode should act individually, i.e. there should be
no other modes active; the selection of the program branch must be mutually exclusive. This
type of program construction is called “Selective Branch Programming”. An example
instruction program can be seen below, (this is the sub-program for STL state S20 only) notice
how each branch is SET by a different contact.
STL
OUT
LD
SET
LD
SET
LD
SET
Y0
S 20
X0
X1
S 21
X2
S 31
S 41
S
Y
X
S
X
S
X
S
20
0
0
21
1
31
2
41
A programming construction to split the program flow between different branches is very useful
but it would be more useful if it could be used with a method to rejoin a set of individual
branches.
S 29
X10
S 50
Y10
S 39
X11
Y11
S 49
X12
Y12
STL
OUT
LD
SET
STL
OUT
LD
SET
STL
OUT
LD
SET
S
Y
X
S
S
Y
X
S
S
Y
X
S
29
10
10
50
39
11
11
50
49
12
12
50
This type of STL program construction is called a “First State Merge” simply because the first
state (in the example S29, S39 or S49) to complete its operation will cause the merging state
(S50) to be activated. It should be noticed how each of the final STL states on the different
program branches call the same “joining” STL state.
3-11
FX Series Programmable Controllers
STL Programming 3
Limits on the number of branches
• Please see page 3-14 for general notes on programming STL branches.
Notes on using the FX-PCS/AT-EE software
• Please see page 3-15 for precautions when using the FX-PCS-AT/EE software.
3.8
Using STL To Activate Multiple Flows
Simultaneously
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
In the previous branching technique, it was seen how a single flow could be selected from a
group. The following methods describe how a group of individual flows can be activated
simultaneously. Applications could include vending machines which have to perform several
tasks at once, e.g. boiling water, adding different taste ingredients (coffee, tea, milk, sugar) etc.
In the example below when state S20 is active and X0 is then switched ON, states S21, S31
and S41 are ALL SET ON as the next states. Hence, three separate, individual, branch flows
are ‘set in motion’ from a single branch point. This programming technique is often called a
‘Parallel Branch’. To aid a quick visual distinction, parallel branches are marked with horizontal,
parallel lines.
S 20
Y0
S 21
S 31
STL
OUT
LD
SET
SET
SET
X0
S
Y
X
S
S
S
20
0
0
21
31
41
S 41
3-12
FX Series Programmable Controllers
STL Programming 3
When a group of branch flows are activated, the user will often either;
a) ‘Race’ each flow against its counter parts. The flow which completes fastest would then
activate a joining function (“First State Merge” described in the previous section) OR
b) The STL flow will not continue until ALL branch flows have completed there tasks.
This is called a ‘Multiple State Merge”.
An explanation of Multiple State Merge now follows below.
In the example below, states S29, S39 and S49 must all be active. If the instruction list is
viewed it can be seen that each of the states has its own operating/processing instructions but
that also additional STL instructions have been linked together (in a similar concept as the
basic AND instruction). Before state S50 can be activated the trigger conditions must also be
active, in this example these are X10, X11 and X12. Once all states and input conditions are
made the merging or joining state can be SET ON. As is the general case, all of the states
used in the setting procedure are reset automatically.
S 29
Y10
S 39
Y11
S 49
X10
X11
X12
S 50
Y12
STL S 29
OUT Y 10
STL S 39
OUT Y 11
STL S 49
OUT Y 12
STL
STL
STL
LD
AND
AND
SET
S
S
S
X
X
X
S
29
39
49
10
11
12
50
Because more than one state is being simultaneously joined with further states (some times
described as a parallel merge), a set of horizontal parallel lines are used to aid a quick visual
recognition.
Limits on the number of branches
• Please see page 3-14 for general notes on programming STL branches.
Notes on using the FX-PCS/AT-EE software
• Please see page 3-15 for precautions when using the FX-PCS-AT/EE software.
3-13
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.9
STL Programming 3
General Rules For Successful STL Branching
For each branch point 8 further branches may be programmed. There are no limits to the number of states contained in a single STL flow. Hence, the possibility exists for a single initial state
to branch to 8 branch flows which in turn could each branch to a further 8 branch flows etc. If
the programmable controllers program is read/written using instruction or ladder formats the
above rules are acceptable. However, users of the FX-PCS/AT-EE programming package who
are utilizing the STL programming feature are constrained by further restrictions to enable
automatic STL program conversions (please see page 3-15 for more details).
When using branches, different types of branching /merging cannot be mixed at the same
branch point. The item marked with a ‘S’ are transfer condition which are not permitted.
The following branch configurations/modifications are recommended:
S 20
X0
S 30
X1
S 40
S 20
S 30
S 40
X2
S 20
X0
S 30
S 20
X1
X0
X1
X0
X3
S 30
X2
X4
S 50
S 50
S 60
X0
S 30
X1
S 40
S 50
S 40
S 50
S 30
S 20
S 30
Rewrite as
Rewrite as
S 20
S 40
S 60
S 20
S 30
S 40
X2
S 20
X0
X1
X0
X0
S 100 Dummy state
(S100)
X3
S 101 Dummy
state
Dummy
S 102
state
(S101)
(S100)
S 50
S 60
S 60
S
X
S
S
X
S
S
X
S
S
S
X
S
S
X
S
20
0
100
30
1
100
40
2
100
100
100
3
50
100
4
60
S 40
S 50
(S103)
(S103)
X1
X2
S 40
S 50
In Instruction
format...
In Instruction
format...
STL
LD
SET
STL
LD
SET
STL
LD
SET
STL
LD
AND
SET
LD
AND
SET
Dummy
state
(S102)
X4
S 50
S 103
STL
STL
STL
LD
SET
STL
LD
SET
SET
S 20
S 30
S 40
X
0
S 101
S 101
S 101
S 50
S 60
STL
LD
SET
STL
LD
SET
STL
LD
SET
SET
S
X
S
S
X
S
S
S
S
S
20
0
102
30
1
102
102
102
40
50
STL
STL
LD
SET
STL
LD
AND
SET
LD
AND
SET
S
S
X
S
S
S
X
S
S
X
S
20
30
0
103
103
103
1
40
103
2
50
3-14
FX Series Programmable Controllers
STL Programming 3
Further recommended program changes:
S 20
S 20
Rewrite as...
X0
X10
X4
X1
S 21
X2
X11
S 23
X5
S 22
X3
X12
S 24
X6
X7
S 25
S 26
X13
X0
X14
X0
X1
S 27
X15
X4
S 21
S 28
X17
X10
X11
X14
S 23
X2
X16
X10
X5
S 22
S 25
X12
S 24
S 27
X15
S 26
S 28
X3
X6
X13
X16
X7
X7
X17
X17
S 29
S 29
Program violation!
Rewrite as...
S 20
X0
X1
S 21
X2
S 23
X3
S 22
S 25
X4
S 24
X6
S 27
X5
S 26
S 28
X7
S 29
STL
LD
SET
SET
LD
SET
SET
3.10
General Precautions When Using
The FX-PCS/AT-EE Software
S
X
S
S
X
S
S
20
0
21
23
1
25
27
STL
STL
LD
SET
STL
STL
LD
SET
FX0(S)
FX0N
S
S
X
S
S
S
X
S
22
24
6
29
26
28
7
29
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
This software has the ability to program in SFC flow diagrams. As part of this ability it can read
and convert existing STL programs back into SFC flows even if they were never originally
programmed using the FX-PCS/AT-EE software. As an aid to allowing this automatic SFC flow
generation the following rules and points should be noted:
1) When an STL flow is started it should be initialized with one of the state devices from the
range S0 to S9.
2) Branch selection or merging should always be written sequentially moving from left to right.
This was demonstrated on page 3-11, i.e. on the selective branch S21 was specified before
S31 which was specified before S41. The merge states were programmed in a similar
manner, S29 proceeded S39 which proceeded S49.
3) The total number of branches which can be programmed with the STL programming mode
are limited to a maximum of 16 circuits for an STL flow. Each branch point is limited to a
maximum of 8 branching flows. This means two branch points both of 8 branch flows would
equal the restriction. These restrictions are to ensure that the user can always view the STL
flow diagram on the computer running the FX-PCS-AT/ EE software and that when it is
needed, the STL program flow can be printed out clearly.
3-15
FX Series Programmable Controllers
STL Programming 3
3.11
Programming Examples
3.11.1
A Simple STL Flow
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Loading hopper
Y10
Y12
Start button
X0
Y11
Ore truck
Y13
X2
X1
Ore dischange point
This simple example is an excerpt from a semi-automatic loading-unloading ore truck program.
This example program has a built in, initialization routine which occurs only when the PLC is
powered from OFF to ON. This is achieved by using the special auxiliary relay M8002.
This activates a Zone ReSeT (ZRST is applied
instruction 40) instruction which ensures all of
the operational STL states within the program
are reset. The program example opposite
shows an M8002/ZRST example.
M8002
ZRST S21 S25
The push button X0 acts as a start button and a mode selection button. The STL state S0 is
initialized with the ZRST instruction. The system waits until inputs X0 and X2 are given and Y
13 is not active. In the scenario this means the ore truck is positioned at the ore discharge
point, i.e. above the position sensor X2. The ore truck is not currently discharging its load, i.e.
the signal to open the trucks unloading doors (Y13) is not active and the start button (X0) has
been given. Once all of the points have been met the program steps on to state S21.
On this state the ore cart is moved (Y10) and positioned (X1) at the loading hopper. If the start
button (X0) is pressed during this stage the ore cart will be set into a repeat mode (M2 is reset)
where the ore truck is immediately returned to the loading hopper after discharging its current
load. This repeat mode must be selected on every return to the loading station.
Once at the loading point the program steps onto state S22. This state opens the hoppers
doors (Y11) and fills the truck with ore. After a timed duration, state S23 is activated and the
truck returns (Y12) to the discharge point (X2).
3-16
FX Series Programmable Controllers
STL Programming 3
Once at the discharge point the truck opens its bottom doors (Y13). After a timed duration in
which the truck empties its contents, the program checks to see if the repeat mode was
selected on the last cycle, i.e. M2 is reset. If M2 was reset (in state S21) the program ‘jumps’ to
step S21 and the ore truck is returned for immediate refilling. If M2 is not reset, i.e. it is active,
the program cycles back to STL state S0 where the ore truck will wait until the start push
button is given.
This is a simple program and is by no means complete but it identifies the way a series of tasks
have been mapped to an STL flow.
M8002
S0
SET S 0
X0
X2
ZRST S 21 S 25
Y13
STL X0 X2 Y13
Y10
S 21
X0
X1
RST M2
S 21
Y11
S 22
T1
T1
S 23
Y12
S 24
Y13
SET S 21
S0
STL
Y10
X0
RST M 2
X1
K70
SET S 22
STL
Y11
K70
T1
S 22
X2
T2
T2
T1
SET S 23
K50
STL
S 23
Y12
X2
SET S 24
M2
M2
Y13
K50
T2
S 24
SET M2
S 25
STL
M2
T2
M2
T2
M2
SET S 25
S0
LD M8002
SET S 0
ZRST 40
S 21
S 25
STL S 0
LD X 0
AND X 2
ANI Y 13
SET S 21
STL S 21
OUT Y 10
LD X 0
RST M 2
LD
SET
STL
OUT
OUT
K
LD
SET
STL
OUT
LD
SET
STL
OUT
X
S
S
Y
T
T
S
S
Y
X
S
S
Y
1
22
22
11
1
70
1
23
23
12
2
24
24
13
OUT
K
LD
ANI
SET
LD
AND
OUT
STL
SET
LD
OUT
RET
END
T 2
50
T 2
M 2
S 25
T 2
M 2
S 0
S 25
M 2
M 2
S 21
STL
S 25
SET M 2
M2
S 21
RET
END
Identification of normally closed contacts
This example has used the line convention to identify normally closed contacts, for further
variations and different methods used to perform this task please see the information note
page 3-3.
3-17
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.11.2
STL Programming 3
A Selective Branch/ First State Merge Example Program
The following example depicts an automatic sorting robot. The robot sorts two sizes of ball
bearings from a mixed ‘source pool’ into individual storage buckets containing only one type of
ball bearing.
X12
Y7
Y3
X1
X4
X3
X5
Y4
Y2
X2
Y0
Y1
X0
The sequence of physical events (from initial power On) are:
1) The pickup arm is moved to its zero-point when the start button (X12) is pressed. When the
pickup arm reaches the zero-point the zero-point lamp (Y7) is lit.
2) The pickup arm is lowered (Y0) until a ball is collected (Y1). If the lower limit switch (X2) is
made a small ball bearing has been collected; consequently no lower limit switch signal
means a large ball bearing has been collected. Note, a proximity switch (X0) within the
‘source pool’ identifies the availability of ball bearings.
3) Depending on the collected ball, the pickup arm retracts (output Y2 is operated until X3 is
received) and moves to the right (Y3) where it will stop at the limit switch (X4 or X5)
indicating the container required for storage.
4) The program continues by lowering the pickup arm (Y0) until the lower limit switch (X2) is
reached.
5) The collected ball being is released (Y1 is reset).
6) The pickup arm is retracted (Y2) once more.
7) The pickup arm is traversed back (Y4) to the zero-point (X1).
Points to note
• The Selective Branch is used to choose the delivery program for either small ball
bearings or large ball bearings. Once the destination has been reached (i.e. step S24
or S27 has been executed) the two independent program flows are rejoined at step
S30.
• The example program shown works on a single cycle, i.e. every time a ball is to be
retrieved the start button (X12) must be pressed to initiate the cycle.
3-18
FX Series Programmable Controllers
STL Programming 3
Full STL flow diagram/program.
S0
X12
Y7
S 21
This example uses the dot notation to identify
normally open and normally closed contacts.
Start
Zero-point arrival
Y0
T0
Normally open contacts
Normally closed contacts
Lower pickup arm
K20
T0
T0
X2
Lower limit = small ball
S 22
T1
X3
X2
Y0
Lower limit = large ball
S 25
T1
S 26
Raise
pickup arm
X3
Move to small ball bucket
S 30
SET Y1 Collect
ball
K10
T1
Y2
Raise
pickup arm
Upper limit reached
X5
S 27
Y3
X5
Move to large ball bucket
Lower pickup arm
Lower limit reached
S 31
RST Y1 Release ball
T2
T2
S 32
X1
Y2
K10
Upper limit reached
X4
S 24
Y3
X4
X3
SET Y1 Collect ball
T1
S 23
X2
Y2
K10
Raise pickup arm
Upper limit reached
X1
S 33
Y4 Return to zero-point
Zero-point reached
3-19
FX Series Programmable Controllers
3.12
STL Programming 3
Advanced STL Use
STL programming can be enhanced by using the Initial State Applied Instruction. This
instruction has a mnemonic abbreviation of IST and a special function number of 60. When the
IST instruction is used an automatic assignment of state relays, special auxiliary relays (M
coils) is made. The IST instruction provides the user with a pre-formatted way of creating a
multi-mode program. The modes available are:
a) Automatic:
- Single step
- Single cycle
- Continuous
b) Manual:
- Operator controlled
- Zero return
More details on this instruction can be found on page 5-67.
3-20
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
Devices in Detail 4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Devices in Detail 4
Chapter Contents
4. Devices in Detail....................................................................................4-1
4.1 Inputs ................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2 Outputs ................................................................................................................ 4-2
4.3 Auxiliary Relays ................................................................................................... 4-3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
General Stable State Auxiliary Relays ...................................................................... 4-3
Battery Backed/ Latched Auxiliary Relays................................................................. 4-4
Special Diagnostic Auxiliary Relays .......................................................................... 4-5
Special Single Operation Pulse Relays ..................................................................... 4-5
4.4 State Relays ........................................................................................................ 4-6
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
General Stable State - State Relays ......................................................................... 4-6
Battery Backed/ Latched State Relays ...................................................................... 4-7
STL Step Relays ....................................................................................................... 4-8
Annunciator Flags ..................................................................................................... 4-9
4.5 Pointers ............................................................................................................. 4-10
4.6 Interrupt Pointers ............................................................................................... 4-11
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
Input Interrupts ........................................................................................................ 4-12
Timer Interrupts ....................................................................................................... 4-12
Disabling Individual Interrupts ................................................................................. 4-13
Counter Interrupts ................................................................................................... 4-13
4.7 Constant K ......................................................................................................... 4-14
4.8 Constant H......................................................................................................... 4-14
4.9 Timers................................................................................................................ 4-15
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5
General timer operation........................................................................................... 4-16
Selectable Timers.................................................................................................... 4-16
Retentive Timers ..................................................................................................... 4-17
Timers Used in Interrupt and ‘CALL’ Subroutines ................................................... 4-18
Timer Accuracy ....................................................................................................... 4-18
4.10 Counters ............................................................................................................ 4-19
4.10.1 General/ Latched 16bit UP Counters ...................................................................... 4-20
4.10.2 General/ Latched 32bit Bi-directional Counters....................................................... 4-21
4.11 High Speed Counters ........................................................................................ 4-22
4.11.1
4.11.2
4.11.3
4.11.4
4.11.5
4.11.6
4.11.7
4.11.8
Basic High Speed Counter Operation ..................................................................... 4-23
Availability of High Speed Counters on FX0, FX0S and FX0N PCs......................... 4-24
Availability of High Speed Counters on FX, FX2C PCs ........................................... 4-25
Availability of High Speed Counters on FX2N PCs.................................................. 4-28
1 Phase Counters - User Start and Reset (C235 - C240) ....................................... 4-29
1 Phase Counters - Assigned Start and Reset (C246 to C250) .............................. 4-30
2 Phase Bi-directional Counters (C246 to C250) .................................................... 4-31
A/B Phase Counters (C252 to C255) ...................................................................... 4-32
4.12 Data Registers ................................................................................................... 4-33
4.12.1
4.12.2
4.12.3
4.12.4
4.12.5
General Use Registers ............................................................................................ 4-34
Battery Backed/ Latched Registers ......................................................................... 4-35
Special Diagnostic Registers................................................................................... 4-35
File Registers .......................................................................................................... 4-36
Externally Adjusted Registers ................................................................................. 4-37
4.13 Index Registers.................................................................................................. 4-38
4.13.1 Modifying a Constant............................................................................................... 4-39
4.13.2 Misuse of the Modifiers ........................................................................................... 4-39
4.13.3 Using Multiple Index Registers ................................................................................ 4-39
4.14 Bits, Words, BCD and Hexadecimal .................................................................. 4-40
4.14.1
4.14.2
4.14.3
4.14.4
Bit Devices, Individual and Grouped ....................................................................... 4-40
Word Devices .......................................................................................................... 4-42
Interpreting Word Data ............................................................................................ 4-42
Two’s Compliment ................................................................................................... 4-45
4.15 Floating Point And Scientific Notation ............................................................... 4-46
4.15.1 Scientific Notation.................................................................................................... 4-47
4.15.2 Floating Point Format .............................................................................................. 4-48
4.15.3 Summary Of The Scientific Notation and Floating Point Numbers.......................... 4-49
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.
Devices in Detail
4.1
Inputs
Devices in Detail 4
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: X
Purpose: Representation of physical inputs to the programmable controller (PLC)
Alias: I/P
Inp
(X) Input
Input contact
Available forms: NO ( ) and NC ( ) contacts only
(see example device usage for references)
Devices numbered in: Octal, i.e. X0 to X7, X10 to X17
Further uses: None
Example device usage:
X0
X1
Y10
1
2
Available devices:
• Please see the information point on page 4-2, Outputs. Alternatively refer to the
relevant tables for the selected PLC in chapter 8.
Configuration details:
• Please see chapter 9
4-1
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.2
Devices in Detail 4
Outputs
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: Y
Purpose: Representation of physical outputs from the programmable controller
Alias: O/P
Otp
Out (Y)
Output (Y)
Output (coil/ relay/ contact)
Available forms: NO ( ) and NC contacts and output coils ( )
(see example device usage for references)
Devices numbered in: Octal, i.e. Y0 to Y7, Y10 to Y17
Further uses: None
Example device usage:
X1
X0
Y10
Y10
2
1
Available devices:
PLC
FX0(S)
Maximum number of
inputs
Maximum number of
outputs
Set by selected base unit
Absolute total
available I/O
30
84 Max. input config’
(40)
(60)
64 Max. output config’
FX
128
128
256
FX(2C)
256 (addressable in
software)
256 (addressable in
software)
256 (Total addressed in
software/hardware)
FX0N
FX2N(C)
128
• Please note, these are all the absolute maximums which are available. The values are
subject to variations caused by unit selection. For configuration details please see
chapter 9.
• For more information about the device availability for individual PLC’s, please see
chapter 8.
4-2
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.3
Devices in Detail 4
Auxiliary Relays
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: M
Purpose: Internal programmable controller status flag
Alias: Auxiliary (coil/ relay/ contact/ flag)
M (coil/ relay/ contact /flag)
M (bit) device
Available forms: NO ( ) and NC contacts and output coils ( )
(see example device usage for references)
Devices numbered in: Decimal, i.e. M0 to M9, M10 to M19
Further uses: General stable state auxiliary relays - see page 4-3
Battery backed/ latched auxiliary relays - see page 4-4
Special diagnostic auxiliary relays - see page 4-5
Example device usage:
X0
X1
M507
M507
2
1
4.3.1
General Stable State Auxiliary Relays
• A number of auxiliary relays are used in the PLC. The coils of these relays are driven by
device contacts in the PLC in the same manner that the output relays are driven in the
program.
All auxiliary relays have a number of electronic NO and NC contacts which can be used by
the PLC as required. Note that these contacts cannot directly drive an external load. Only
output relays can be used to do this.
Available devices:
PLC
General auxiliary
relays
FX0(S)
496
(M0 - 495)
Battery backed/ 16
latched relays (M496 - 511)
Total available
512
FX0N
384
(M0 - 383)
FX
500
(M0 - 499)
524
128
(M500 (M384 - 511)
1023)
512
1024
FX(2C)
FX2N(C)
500
(M0 - 499)
500
(M0 - 499)
1036
(M500 1535)
2572
(M500 3071)
1536
3072
• For more information about device availability for individual PLC’s, please see chapter 8.
For device availability when using an FX fitted with an FX2-40AW/AP please see page 9-6.
4-3
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.3.2
Devices in Detail 4
Battery Backed/ Latched Auxiliary Relays
There are a number of battery backed or latched relays whose status is retained in battery
backed or EEPROM memory. If a power failure should occur all output and general purpose
relays are switched off. When operation is resumed the previous status of these relays is
restored.
The circuit shown on page 4-3 is an example of a self retaining circuit. Relay M507 is activated
when X0 is turned ON. If X0 is turned OFF after the activation of M507, the ON status of M507
is self retained, i.e. the NO contact M507 drives the coil M507.
However, M507 is reset (turned OFF) when the input X1 is turned ON, i.e. the NC contact is
broken.
A SET and RST (reset) instruction can be used to retain the status of a relay being activated
momentarily.
X0
SET M507
X1
RST M507
External loads:
• Auxiliary relays are provided with countless number of NO contact points and NC
contact points. These are freely available for use through out a PLC program. These
contacts cannot be used to directly drive external loads. All external loads should be
driven through the use of direct (Y) outputs.
4-4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.3.3
Devices in Detail 4
Special Diagnostic Auxiliary Relays
A PLC has a number of special auxiliary relays. These relays all have specific functions and
are classified into the following two types.
a) Using contacts of special auxiliary relays
- Coils are driven automatically by the PLC. Only the contacts of these coils may be
used by a user defined program.
Examples: M8000: RUN monitor (ON during run)
M8002: Initial pulse (Turned ON momentarily when PLC starts)
M8012: 100 msec clock pulse
b) Driving coils of special auxiliary relays
- A PLC executes a predetermined specific operation when these coils are driven by the
user.
Examples: M8033: All output statuses are retained when PLC operation is stopped
M8034: All outputs are disabled
M8039: The PLC operates under constant scan mode
Available devices:
• Not all PLC’s share the same range, quantity or operational meaning of diagnostic
auxiliary relays. Please check the availability and function before using any device.
PLC specific diagnostic ranges and meanings are available in chapter 6.
4.3.4
Special Single Operation Pulse Relays
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
When used with the pulse contacts LDP, LDF, etc., M devices in the range M2800 to M3072
have a special meaning. With these devices, only the next pulse contact instruction after the
device coil is activated.
M0
1
LDP
3
M0
SET
SET
SET
5
LDP
M51
6
M52
LDP
M53
7
LDP
SET
X0
M2800
M2800
M2800
M50
M2800
SET
M51
SET
M52
SET
M53
8
4
LD
LD
Turning ON X0 causes M0 to turn ON.
• Contacts ,
and
are pulse contacts and activate for 1 scan.
• Contact
is a normal LD contact and
activates while M0 is ON.
M2800 to M3072
M2800
M50
M0
M0
M0
LDP
SET
X0
2
LDP
M0 to M2799
Turning ON X0 causes M2800 to turn ON.
• Contact
is a pulse contact and activates for 1 scan.
• Contacts
and
are pulse contacts
of the same M device as contact .
Contact
has already operated, so
contact and do not operate.
• Contact
is a normal LD contact and
activates while M2800 is ON.
4-5
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.4
Devices in Detail 4
State Relays
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: S
Purpose: Internal programmable controller status flag
Alias: State (coil/ relay/ contact/ flag)
S (coil/ relay/ contact /flag)
STL step (coil/ relay/ contact /flag)
Annunciator flag
Available forms: NO ( ) and NC contacts and output coils ( )
(see example device usage for references)
Devices numbered in: Decimal, i.e. S0 to S9, S10 to S19
Further uses: General stable state - state relays - see page 4-6
Battery backed/ latched state relays - see page 4-7
STL step relays - see page 4-8
Annunciator flags - see page 4-9
Example device usage:
X0
X1
S20
S20
2
1
4.4.1
General Stable State - State Relays
A number of state relays are used in the PLC. The coils of these relays are driven by device
contacts in the PLC in the same manner that the output relays are driven in the program.
All state relays have a number of electronic NO and NC contacts which can be used by the
PLC as required. Note that these contacts cannot directly drive an external load. Only output
relays can be used to do this.
Available devices:
• Please see the information point on page 4-7 ‘Battery backed/ latched state relays’,
or see the relevant tables for the selected PLC in chapter 8.
4-6
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.4.2
Devices in Detail 4
Battery Backed/ Latched State Relays
There are a number of battery backed or latched relays whose status is retained in battery
backed or EEPROM memory. If a power failure should occur all output and general purpose
relays are switched off. When operation is resumed the previous status of these relays is
restored.
Available devices:
PLC
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C)
General state relays
64
(S0 - 63)
N/A
500
(S0 - 499)
Battery backed/
latched relays
N/A
128
(S0 - 127)
500
(S500 - 999)
Total available
64
128
1000
FX2N(C)
• For more information about device availability for individual PLC’s, see chapter 8.
External loads:
• State relays are provided with countless number of NO contact points and NC contact
points, and are freely available for use through out a PLC program. These contacts
cannot be used to directly drive external loads. All external loads should be driven
through the use of direct (ex. Y) outputs.
4-7
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.4.3
Devices in Detail 4
STL Step Relays
States (S) are very important devices when
programming step by step process control. They are
used in combination with the basic instruction STL.
When all STL style programming is used certain states
have a pre-defined operation. The step identified as in the figure opposite is called an ‘initial state’. All other
state steps are then used to build up the full STL
function plan. It should be remembered that even
though remaining state steps are used in an STL
format, they still retain their general or latched
operation status. The range of available devices is as
specified in the information point of the previous
section.
S2
1
X0
S20
Y0
X1
S21
Y1
X2
S22
Y2
X3
Assigned states:
• When the applied instruction IST (Initial STate function 60) is used, the following state
devices are automatically assigned operations which cannot be changed directly by a
users program:
S0
S1
S2
S10 to S19
: Manual operation initial state
: Zero return initial state
: Automatic operation initial state
: Allocated for the creation of the zero return program sequence
Monitoring STL programs:
• To monitor the dynamic-active states within an STL program, special auxiliary relay
M8047 must be driven ON.
STL/SFC programming:
• For more information on STL/SFC style programming, please see chapter 3.
IST instruction:
• For more information on the IST instruction please see page 5-67.
4-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.4.4
Devices in Detail 4
Annunciator Flags
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Some state flags can be used as outputs for external diagnosis (called annunciation) when
certain applied instructions are used. These instructions are;
ANS function 46: ANnunciator Set - see page 5-47
ANR function 47: ANnunciator Reset - see page 5-47
When the annunciator function is used the controlled state flags are in the range S900 to S999
(100 points). By programming an external diagnosis circuit as shown below, and monitoring
special data register D8049, the lowest activated state from the annunciator range will be
displayed.
Each of the states can be assigned to signify an error or fault condition. As a fault occurs the
associated state is driven ON. If more than one fault occurs simultaneously, the lowest fault
number will be displayed. When the active fault is cleared the next lowest fault will then be
processed.
This means that for a correctly prioritized diagnostic system the most dangerous or damaging
faults should activate the lowest state flags, from the annunciator range. All state flags used for
the annunciator function fall in the range of battery backed/ latched state registers.
Monitoring is enabled by driving special auxiliary
relay M8049 ON.
State S900 is activated if input X0 is not driven
within one second after the output Y0 has been
turned ON.
State S901 is activated when both inputs X1 and
X2 are OFF for more than two seconds.
If the cycle time of the controlled machine is less
than ten seconds, and input X3 stays ON, state
S902 will be set ON if X4 is not activated within
this machine cycle time.
If any state from S900 to S999 is activated, i.e.
ON, special auxiliary relay M8048 is activated to
turn on failure indicator output Y10.
The states activated by the users error / failure
diagnosis detection program, are turned OFF by
activating input X5. Each time X5 is activated, the
active annunciator states are reset in ascending
order of state numbers.
M8000
M8049
Y0
X0
FNC46
ANS T0 K10 S900
X1
X2
FNC46
ANS T1 K20 S901
X3
X4
FNC46
ANS T2 K100 S902
M8048
Y10
X5
FNC47
ANR (P)
4-9
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.5
Devices in Detail 4
Pointers
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: P
Purpose: Program flow control
Alias: Pointer
Program pointer
P
Available forms: Label: appears on the left of the left hand bus bar when the program is
viewed in ladder mode.
Devices numbered in: Decimal, i.e. P0 to P9, P10 to P19
Further uses: Can be used with conditional jump statements (CJ function 00)
- see page 5-5 and item on the example device usage diagram.
Can be used with call statements (CALL function 01 -not available on FX0 and
FX0N PLC’s)
- see page 5-7 and item on the example device usage diagram
Example device usage:
X20
X20
CALL P1
CJ P0
2
1
FEND
P0
P1
SRET
Available devices:
• FX0(S), FX0N and FX PLC’s have 64 pointers; available from the range of P0 to P63.
• FX(2C) and FX2N(C) PLC’s have 128 pointers; available from the range of P0 to P127.
Jumping to the end of the program:
• When using conditional jump instructions (CJ, function 00) the program end can be
jumped to automatically by using the pointer P63 within the CJ instruction. Labelling the
END instruction with P63 is not required.
Device availability:
• For more information about device availability for individual PLC’s, please see chapter 8.
4-10
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.6
Devices in Detail 4
Interrupt Pointers
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: I
Purpose: Interrupt program marker
Alias: Interrupt
High speed interrupt
I
Available forms: Label: appears on the left of the left hand bus bar when the program is
viewed in ladder mode
(see ¿ in the example device usage diagram).
Devices numbered in: Special numbering system based on interrupt device used and input
triggering method
Further uses: Input interrupts - see page 4-12
Timer interrupts - see page 4-12
Disabling interrupts - see page 4-13
Counter interrupts - see page 4-13
Example device usage:
FEND
I101
1
IRET
END
Additional applied instructions:
• Interrupts are made up of an interrupt device, an interrupt pointer and various usage of
three, dedicated interrupt applied instructions;
- IRET function 03: interrupt return - see page 5-9
- EI function 04: enable interrupt - see page 5-9
- DI function 05: disable interrupt - see page 5-9
Nested levels:
• While an interrupt is processing all other interrupts are disabled. To achieve nested interrupts the EI-DI instruction must be programmed within an interrupt routine.
Interrupts can be nested for two levels.
Pointer position:
• Interrupt pointers may only be used after an FEND instruction (first end instruction, function 06).
4-11
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.6.1
Devices in Detail 4
Input Interrupts
Identification of interrupt pointer number:
I
0
0: interrupt triggered on trailing/ falling edge of input signal
1: interrupt triggered on leading/ rising edge of input signal
Input number; each input number can only be used once.
FX0(S) and FX0N have 4 points (0 to 3 which map to X0 to X3)
Other units have 6 points (0 to 5 which map to X0 to X5)
Example: I001
The sequence programmed after the label (indicated by the I001 pointer) is executed on the
leading or rising edge of the input signal X0. The program sequence returns from the
interruption program when an IRET instruction is encountered.
Rules of use:
• The following points must be followed for an interrupt to operate;
- Interrupt pointers cannot have the same number in the ‘100’s’ position, i.e. I100 and
I101 are not allowed.
- The input used for the interrupt device must not coincide with inputs already allocated
for use by other high speed instructions within the user program.
4.6.2
Timer Interrupts
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Identification of interrupt pointer number:
I
10 to 99 msec: the interrupt is repeatedly triggered at intervals of the
specified time.
Timer interrupt number 3 points (6 to 8)
Example: I610
The sequence programmed after the label (indicated by the I610 pointer) is executed at
intervals of 10msec. The program sequence returns from the interruption program when an
IRET instruction is encountered.
Rules of use:
• The following points must be followed for an interrupt to operate;
- Interrupt pointers cannot have the same number in the ‘100’s’ position, i.e. I610 and
I650 are not allowed.
4-12
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.6.3
Devices in Detail 4
Disabling Individual Interrupts
Individual interrupt devices can be temporarily or permanently disabled by driving an
associated special auxiliary relay. The relevant coils are identified in the tables of devices in
chapter 6. However for all PLC types the head address is M8050, this will disable interrupt
I0.
Driving special auxiliary relays:
• Never drive a special auxiliary coil without first checking its use. Not all PLC’s assign the
same use to the same auxiliary coils.
Disabling high speed counter interrupts
• These interrupts can only be disabled as a single group by driving M8059 ON.
Further details about counter interrupts can be found in the following section.
4.6.4
Counter Interrupts
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Identification of interrupt pointer number:
I 0
0
Counter interrupt number 6 points (1 to 6). Counter interrupts can be
entered as the output devices for High Speed Counter Set (HSCS, FNC
53). To disable the Counter Interrupts Special Auxiliary Relay M8059 must
be set ON.
Example:
M8000
DHSCS K100 C255 I030
The sequence programmed after the label
(indicated by the I030 pointer) is executed once
t h e v a lu e o f H i g h S p e e d C o u n te r C 2 5 5
reac hes/equa ls th e prese t limit of K 100
identified in the example HSCS.
Additional notes:
• Please see the following pages for more details on the HSSC applied instruction.
- High Speed Counter Set, HSCS FNC 53 - see page 5-55
4-13
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.7
Constant K
Devices in Detail 4
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: K
Purpose: Identification of constant decimal values
Alias: Constant
K (value/ constant)
K
Available forms: Numeric data value, when used for 16bit data, values can be selected from
the range -32,768 to +32,767
For 32bit data, values from the range -2,147,483,648 to + 2,147,483,647
can be used.
Devices numbered in: N/A. This device is a method of local instruction data entry.
There is no limit to the number of times it can be used.
Further uses: K values can be used with timers, counters and applied instructions
Example device usage: N/A
4.8
Constant H
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: H
Purpose: Identification of constant hexadecimal values
Alias: Constant
H (value/ constant)
Hex (value/ constant)
H
Available forms: Alpha-numeric data value, i.e. 0 to 9 and A to F (base 16).
When used for 16bit data, values can be selected from the range 0 to
FFFF.
For 32bit data, values from the range 0 to FFFFFFFF can be used.
Devices numbered in: N/A. This device is a method of local instruction data entry.
There is no limit to the number of times it can be used.
Further uses: Hex values can be used with applied instructions
Example device usage: N/A
4-14
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.9
Devices in Detail 4
Timers
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: T
Purpose: Timed durations
Alias: Timer(s)
T
Available forms: A driven coil sets internal PLC contacts (NO and NC contacts available).
Various timer resolutions are possible, from 1 to 100 msec, but availability
and quantity vary from PLC to PLC. The following variations are also
available:Selectable timer resolutions - see page 4-16
Retentive timers - see page 4-17
Timers used in interrupt and ‘CALL’ subroutines - see page 4-18
Devices numbered in: Decimal, i.e T0 to T9, T10 to T19.
Further uses: None
Example device usage:
X0
T20
K123
Available devices:
Timer Resolution
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C)
100 msec
56
(T0 - 55)
63
(T0 - 62)
200
(T0 - 199)
10 msec
\ 24
(T32 - 55)
\ 31
(T32 - 62)
46
(T200 - 245)
1 msec
N/A
1
(T63)
N/A
Retentive 1 msec
N/A
N/A
4
(T246 - 249)
Retentive 100 msec
N/A
N/A
6
(T250 - 255)
FX2N(C)
\ Selectable timers taken from the main range of 100 msec timers, see page 4-16.
Timer accuracy:
• See page 4-18.
4-15
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.9.1
Devices in Detail 4
General timer operation
Timers operate by counting clock pulses (1, 10 and 100 msec). The timer output contact is
activated when the count data reaches the value set by the constant K. The overall duration or
elapsed time, for a timers operation cycle, is calculated by multiplying the present value by the
timer resolution, i.e.
A 10 msec timer with a present value of 567 has actually been operating for:
567× 10 msec
567× 0.01 sec = 5.67 seconds
Timers can either be set directly by using the constant K to specify the maximum duration or
indirectly by using the data stored in a data register (ex. D). For the indirect setting, data
registers which are battery backed/ latched are usually used; this ensures no loss of data
during power down situations. If however, the voltage of the battery used to perform the battery
backed service, reduces excessively, timer malfunctions may occur.
4.9.2
Selectable Timers
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
On certain programmable controllers, driving a special auxiliary coil redefines approximately
half of the 100 msec timers as 10 msec resolution timers. The following PLC’s and timers are
subject to this type of selection.
- FX0, FX0S driving M8028 ON, timers T32 to 55 (24 points) are changed to 10 msec
resolution.
- FX0N driving M8028 ON, timers T32 to 62 (31 points) are changed to 10 msec resolution.
Driving special auxiliary coils:
• Please check the definition of special auxiliary coils before using them.
Not all PLC’s associate the same action to the same device.
4-16
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.9.3
Devices in Detail 4
Retentive Timers
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
A retentive timer has the ability to retain the currently reached present value even after the
drive contact has been removed. This means that when the drive contact is re-established a
retentive timer will continue from where it last reached.
Because the retentive timer is not reset when the drive contact is removed, a forced reset must
be used. The following diagram shows this in a graphical format.
Non-retentive timer operation
X0
T20
K123
T20
Y0
Retentive timer operation
X1
T250
K345
T250
Y1
X2
RST T250
t1
1.23 s
X0
Present value
Y0
t2
t1 + t2 = 34.5s
X1
Present value
Y1
X2
Using timers in interrupt or ‘CALL’ subroutines:
• Please see page 4-18.
Available devices:
• Please see the information table on page 4-15.
4-17
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.9.4
Devices in Detail 4
Timers Used in Interrupt and ‘CALL’ Subroutines
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
If timers T192 to T199 and T246 to T249 are used in a CALL subroutine or an interruption
routine, the timing action is updated at the point when an END instruction is executed. The
output contact is activated when a coil instruction or an END instruction is processed once the
timers current value has reached the preset (maximum duration) value.
Timers other than those specified above cannot function correctly within the specified
circumstances.
When an interrupt timer (1 msec resolution) is used in an interrupt routine or within a ‘CALL’
subroutine, the output contact is activated when the first coil instruction of that timer is
executed after the timer has reached its preset (maximum duration) value.
4.9.5
Timer Accuracy
Timer accuracy can be affected by the program configuration. That is to say, if a timer contact
is used before its associated coil, then the timer accuracy is reduced.
The following formulas give maximum and minimum errors for certain situations.
However, an average expected error would be approximately;
1.5 × The program scan time
Condition 1:
The timer contact appears after the timer coil.
X10
T0
T0
Y10
Maximum timing error:
2 × Scan time + The input filter time
Minimum timing error:
Input filter time - The timer resolution
Condition 2:
The timer contact appears before the timer coil.
T0
Y10
X10
T0
Maximum timing error:
3 × Scan time + The input filter time
Minimum timing error:
Input filter time- The timer resolution
Internal timer accuracy:
• The actual accuracy of the timing elements within the PLC hardware is;
± 10 pulses per million pulses. This means that if a 100 msec timer is used to time a single day, at the end of that day the timer will be within 0.8 seconds of the true 24 hours or
86,400 seconds. The timer would have processed approximately 864,000; 100 msec
pulses.
4-18
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.10
Devices in Detail 4
Counters
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: C
Purpose: Event driven delays
Alias: Counter(s)
C
Available forms: A driven coil sets internal PLC contacts (NO and NC contacts available).
Various counter resolutions are possible including;
General/latched 16bit up counters - see page 4-20
General/latched 32bit bi-directional counters - see page 4-21
(The availability and use of all these counters is PLC specific - please
check availability before use)
Devices numbered in: Decimal, i.e C0 to C9, C10 to C19
Further uses: None
Example device usage:
X1
C12
K345
X2
RST C12
Available devices:
Counter Resolution
FX0(S)
FX0N
General 16bit up
counter
14
(C0 - 13)
2
(C14 - 15)
16
(C0 - 15)
16
(C16 - 31)
General 32bit
bi-directional counter
N/A
N/A
Latched 32bit
bi-directional counter
N/A
N/A
Latched 16bit up
counter
FX
FX(2C)
FX2N(C)
100
(C0 - 99)
100
(C100 - 199)
20
(C200 - 219)
15
(C220 - 234)
High speed counters:
• For high speed counters please see page 4-22.
Setting ranges for counters:
• 16bit counters: -32,768 to +32,767
• 32bit counters: -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
4-19
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.10.1
Devices in Detail 4
General/ Latched 16bit UP Counters
The current value of the counter increases
each time coil C0 is turned ON by X11. The
output contact is activated when the coil is
turned ON for the tenth time (see diagram).
After this, the counter data remains unchanged
when X11 is turned ON. The counter current
value is reset to ‘0’ (zero) when the RST
instruction is executed by turning ON X10 in
the example. The output contact Y0 is also
reset at the same time.
Counters can be set directly using constant K
or indirectly by using data stored in a data
register (ex. D). In an indirect setting, the
d es ig n a ti o n o f D 10 f o r e x am pl e , w h ic h
contains the value “123” has the same effect
as a setting of “K123”.
If a value greater than the counter setting is
written to a current value register, the counter
counts up when the next input is turned ON.
This is true for all types of counters.
Generally, the count input frequency should be
around several cycles per second.
X10
RST C0
X11
C0
K10
Y0
C0
X10
X11
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Y0
Battery backed/latched counters:
• Counters which are battery backed/ latched are able to retain their status information,
even after the PLC has been powered down. This means on re-powering up, the latched
counters can immediately resume from where they were at the time of the original PLC
power down.
Available devices:
• Please see the information table on page 4-19.
4-20
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.10.2
Devices in Detail 4
General/ Latched 32bit Bi-directional Counters
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The counter shown in the example below, activates when its coil is driven, i.e. the C200 coil is
driven. On every occasion the input X14 is turned from OFF to ON the current value or current
count of C200 is incremented.
X12
Up counting
Up counting
Down counting
X13
X14
X12
M8200
Counters
present
value
0
X13
1
2
3
4
5
4
RST C200
3
2
1
X14
-1
If output is already
Y1 turned ON
C200
0
0
C200
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
K-5
Y1
The output coil of C200 is set ON when the current value increases from “-6” to “-5”. However,
if the counters value decreases from “-5” to “-6” the counter coil will reset. The counters current
value increases or decreases independently of the output contact state (ON/OFF). Yet, if a
counter counts beyond +2,147,483,647 the current value will automatically change to
-2,147,483,648. Similarly, counting below -2,147,483,648 will result in the current value
changing to +2,147,483,647. This type of counting technique is typical for “ring counters”. The
current value of the active counter can be rest to "0" (zero) by forcibly resetting the counter
coil; in the example program by switching the input X13 ON which drives the RST instruction.
The counting direction is designated with special auxiliary relays M8200 to M8234.
Battery backed/ latched counters:
• Counters which are battery backed/ latched are able to retain their status information,
even after the PLC has been powered down. This means on re-powering up, the latched
counters can immediately resume from where they were at the time of the original PLC
power down.
Available devices:
• Please see the information table on page 4-19.
Selecting the counting direction:
• If M8 for C is turned ON, the counter will be a down counter. Conversely,
the counter is an up counter when M8 is OFF.
4-21
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11
Devices in Detail 4
High Speed Counters
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: C
Purpose: High speed event driven delays
Alias: Counter (s)
C
High speed counter (s)
Phase counters
Available forms: A driven coil sets internal PLC contacts (NO and NC contacts available).
There are various types of high speed counter available but the quantity
and function vary from PLC to PLC. Please check the following sections for
device availability;
FX0,FX0S and FX0N - see page 4-24
FX, FX2C, FX2N(C) - see page 4-25
The following sections refer to counter types;
1 phase counters (user start and reset) - see page 4-29
1 phase counters (assigned start and reset) - see page 4-30
2 phase bi-directional counters - see page 4-31
A/B phase counters - see page 4-32
Devices numbered in: Decimal, i.e C235 to C255
Further uses: None
Example device usage:For examples on each of the available forms please see the relevant
sections.
Basic high speed counter operation:
• For information on basic high speed counters please see page 4-23.
4-22
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11.1
Devices in Detail 4
Basic High Speed Counter Operation
Although counters C235 to C255 (21 points) are all high speed counters, they share the same
range of high speed inputs. Therefore, if an input is already being used by a high speed
counter, it cannot be used for any other high speed counters or for any other purpose, i.e as an
interrupt input.
The selection of high speed counters are not free, they are directly dependent on the type of
counter required and which inputs are available.
Available counter types;
a) 1 phase with user start/reset: C235 to C240
b) 1 phase with assigned start/reset: C241 to C245
c) 2 phase bi-directional: C246 to C250
d) A/B phase type: C251 to C255
Please note ALL of these counters are 32bit devices.
High speed counters operate by the principle of interrupts. This means they are event
triggered and independent of cycle time. The coil of the selected counter should be driven
continuously to indicate that this counter and its associated inputs are reserved and that other
high speed processes must not coincide with them.
Example:
When X20 is ON, high speed counter C235 is
selected. The counter C235 corresponds to
count input X0. X20 is NOT the counted
signal. This is the continuous drive mentioned
earlier. X0 does not have to be included in the
program. The input assignment is hardware
related and cannot be changed by the user.
X20
X20
C235
K4789
C236
D4
When X20 is OFF, coil C235 is turned OFF and coil C236 is turned ON. Counter C236 has an
assigned input of X1, again the input X20 is NOT the counted input.
The assignment of counters and input devices is dependent upon the PLC selected. This is
explained in the relevant, later sections.
Driving high speed counter coils:
• The counted inputs are NOT used to
drive the high speed counter coils.
X0
This is because the counter coils
C235
need to be continuously driven ON
K4789
X1
to reserve the associated high speed
C236
inputs.
D4
Therefore, a normal non-high speed
drive contact should be used to drive
the high speed counter coil.
Ideally the special auxiliary contact M8000 should be used. However, this is not
compulsory.
4-23
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11.2
Devices in Detail 4
Availability of High Speed Counters on
FX0, FX0S and FX0N PLC’s
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The following device table outlines the range of available high speed counters on both the FX0,
FX0S and the FX0N;
I
N
P
U
T
X0
1 Phase counter
assigned
start/reset
1 Phase counter
user start/reset
2 Phase counter
bi-directional
A/B Phase counter
C235 C236 C237 C238 C241 C242 C244 C246 C247 C249 C251 C252 C254
U/D
X1
U/D
X2
U/D
U/D
U
U
U
A
A
A
R
R
D
D
D
B
B
B
R
R
R
R
U/D
X3
U/D
U/D
Key:
C235
C236
R
S
S
S
U - up counter input
D - down counter input
R - reset counter (input)
S - start counter (input)
A - A phase counter input
B - B phase counter input
- Counter is backed up /latched on both FX0, FX0S and FX0N
- Counter is backed up /latched on FX0N only
(FX0, FX0S has no backup/latch on this device)
Input assignment:
• Different types of counters can be used at the same time but their inputs must not coincide. Inputs X0 to X3 cannot be used for more than one counter. For example, if C251 is
used the following counters and instructions cannot be used; C235, C236, C241, C244,
C247, C249, C252, C254, I0, I1.
Counter speeds and operational rules:
Unit
type
Max. 1 phase
counting
speed
Sum of the
speeds of the
active 1 phase
counters
Max. 2 phase
counting
speed
Max. combined
Max. number of
sum of 1 and 2
2 phase
phase counting
counters
speeds
FX0,
FX0N
5kHz
≤ 5kHz
2 kHz
1
1 phase and 2
phase counters
cannot be mixed
FX0S
7kHz
≤ 14kHz
2 kHz
1
≤ 14kHz see
note below
• All inputs identified are 5 kHz inputs.
• Only one 2 phase or A/B phase counter should be operated at any one time.
• A high speed counter specified in an applied instruction may not be modified by V or Z
indexes.
Calculating the maximum combined counting speed on FX0S:
This is calculated as follows:(2 phase counter speed x number of counted edges) (the sum of the speeds of the active 1 phase counters).
4-24
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11.3
Devices in Detail 4
Availability of High Speed Counters
on FX, FX2C PLC’s
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The following device table outlines the range of available high speed counters on both the FX,
FX2C.
I
N
P
U
T
X0
X1
p
1 Phase counter
assigned
start/reset
1 Phase counter
user start/reset
2 Phase counter
bi-directional
A/B Phase counter
C235 C236 C237 C238 C239 C240 C241 C242 C243 C244 C245 C246 C247 C248 C249 C250 C251 C252 C253 C254 C255
U/D
U/D
X2
X3
U/D
U/D
U/D
U
U
U
A
A
A
R
R
D
D
D
B
B
B
R
R
R
R
U/D
U/D
X4
R
U/D
p
X5
U/D
p
U/D
X6
S
R
C235
U
A
A
D
D
B
B
R
R
R
R
R
S
S
Key:
S
U/D
S
X7
U
S
S
S
U - up counter input
D - down counter input
R - reset counter (input)
S - start counter (input)
A - A phase counter input
B - B phase counter input
- Counter is backed up / latched
Input assignment:
• X6 and X7 are also high speed inputs, but function only as start signals. They cannot be
used as the counted inputs for high speed counters.
• Different types of counters can be used at the same time but their inputs must not coincide. For example, if counter C247 is used, then the following counters and instructions
cannot be used;
C235, C236, C237, C241, C242, C244, C245, C246, C249, C251, C252, C254, I0,
I1, I2.
• The inputs marked
are 7 kHz inputs, while those marked are 10 kHz inputs.
4-25
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Devices in Detail 4
Counter speeds:
• The maximum counting speed is dependent on the type, quantity of counters and on
how many high speed counter instructions are being used. The following tables give the
approximate maximum counting speed for each identified case.
• Please take care when using the speed instruction (SPD, FNC 56). This instruction is
treated as if it was a single phase counter. This must be accounted for when the sum
counting speeds are calculated.
1 Phase Counters
Counter
input
X0, X2, X3
(10 kHz inputs)
X0 to X5
(When X0, X2
and X3 are not
used exclusively)
Frequency in kHz
Number
of
counters
No execution of high
speed instructions
Execution of
(D)HSCS/R
(1 to 6 instructions)
Execution of (D)HSZ
(1 to 2 instructions)
1
10
7
5
2
10
4
3
6.6
2.5
1
7
5
2
3.5
2.5
3
4
5
2.5
4
2
2.5
1.5
1.5
6
A/B Phase Counters
Counter
input
C251 - C255
Number
of
counters
1
2
Frequency in kHz
No execution of high
speed instructions
2
Execution of
(D)HSCS/R
(1 to 6 instructions)
Execution of (D)HSZ
(1 to 2 instructions)
2
2
1.5
1.5
A/B Phase Counters Used with Either a 1 or 2 Phase Counter
The frequency of the A/B phase counter must be kept below 1 kHz. The maximum frequency
of the 1, 2 phase counter is listed in the following table:
Counter
input
With 1 A/B
phase counter
at 1 kHz
Frequency in kHz
Number
of
counters
No execution of high
speed instructions
Execution of
(D)HSCS/R
(1 to 6 instructions)
Execution of (D)HSZ
(1 to 2 instructions)
1
5
4
3
2
4
3
3
4
2
2
1
1
4-26
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Devices in Detail 4
Note: Bi-directional counters are designed such that the up count signal and the down count
signal never operate at the same time. Therefore it is really using only one phase at one time.
Thus, they can be treated in the same way as the 1 phase counters when calculating the
combined frequency.
Combined frequencies:
• The combined frequency is the sum of the maximum frequencies of all the signals
simultaneously appearing at the inputs of the PLC. The criteria is that in order for the
high speed counters to count correctly they must have a combined frequency of less
than 20 kHz.
Example:
1 Phase counters
Corresponding input
Maximum signal frequency
C235
X0
4.2 kHz
C237
X2
4 kHz
C240
X3
6 kHz
14.2kHz
Combined frequency
The combined frequency of 14.2 kHz is lower than the maximum of 20 kHz, so this example is
valid.
A/B Phase counters:
When calculating a combined frequency which includes an A/B phase counter, the maximum
counting frequency should be multiplied by a factor of 4 before adding the maximum
frequencies of the combining counters.
Example:
1 Phase counters
Corresponding input
Maximum signal frequency
1- Phase C237
X2
3 kHz
Bi-directional C246
X0, X1
4 kHz
A/B Phase C255
X3, X4
1 kHz × 4
Combined frequency
3 + 4 + (1 × 4) = 11kHz
The combined frequency of 11 kHz is lower than the maximum of 20 kHz, so this example is
valid.
2 Phase counters:
• When pulses arrive at the up and down count inputs at the same time, treat this as 2
single phase counters when calculating the combined frequency.
ClockWise - Counter-ClockWise format encoders:
• When encoders with CW and CCW format inputs are used, the bi-directional counters
can count at a much higher frequency than the A/B phase counters, there is also no loss
in resolution.
4-27
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11.4
Devices in Detail 4
Availability of High Speed Counters
on FX2N(C) PLC’s
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
The following device table outlines the range of available high speed counters on FX2N(C).
1 Phase counter
assigned
start/reset
1 Phase counter
user start/reset
A
A
R
R
D
D
D
B
B
B
R
R
R
R
X5
U/D
U
U
A
A
U/D
D
D
B
B
R
R
R
R
R
X6
S
X7
S
S
Key:
C235
C255
A
U/D
C254
C252
U
R
C253
C251
U
S
C250
U
R
C249
U/D
U/D
C248
C247
X4
A/B Phase counter
U/D
U/D
U/D
X3
2 Phase counter
bi-directional
C246
U/D
C245
X2
C244
U/D
C243
X1
C242
X0 U/D
C241
C240
C239
C238
C237
C236
C235
I
N
P
U
T
S
S
S
U - up counter input
D - down counter input
R - reset counter (input)
S - start counter (input)
A - A phase counter input
B - B phase counter input
- Counter is backed up/latched
Input assignment:
• X6 and X7 are also high speed inputs, but function only as start signals. They cannot be
used as the counted inputs for high speed counters.
• Different types of counters can be used at the same time but their inputs must not
coincide. For example, if counter C247 is used, then the following counters and
instructions cannot be used;
C235, C236, C237, C241, C242, C244, C245, C246, C249, C251, C252, C254, I0,
I1, I2.
Counter Speeds:
• General counting frequencies:
- Single phase and bi-directional counters; up to 10 kHz.
- A/B phase counters; up to 5 kHz.
- Maximum total counting frequency; 20 kHz (A/B phase counter count twice).
• Inputs X0 and X1 are equipped with special hardware that allows very high speed
counting as follows:
- Single phase or bi-directional counting with C235, C236 or C246; up to 60 kHz.
- Two phase counting with C251; up to 30 kHz.
If any high speed comparison instructions (FNC’s 53, 54, 55) are used, X0 and X1 must resort
to software counting. In this case, please see the table below:
Function
Number
Max. Combined
Signal Frequency
53 or 54
11 kHz
55
5.5 kHz
4-28
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11.5
Devices in Detail 4
1 Phase Counters - User Start and Reset (C235 - C240)
These counters only use one input each.
When direction flag M8235 is ON, counter
C235 counts down. When it is OFF, C235
counts up.
When X11 is ON, C235 resets to 0 (zero). All
contacts of the counter C235 are also reset.
When X12 is ON, C235 is selected. From the
previous counter tables, the corresponding
counted input for C235 is X0. C235 therefore
counts the number of times X0 switches from
OFF to ON.
X10
M8235
X11
RST C235
X12
C235
K1234
Device specification:
• All of these counters are 32bit up/down ring counters. Their counting and contact
operations are the same as normal 32bit up/down counters described on page 4-21.
When the counters current value reaches its maximum or setting value, the counters
associated contacts are set and held when the counter is counting upwards.
However, when the counter is counting downwards the contacts are reset.
Setting range:
• -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
Direction setting:
• The counting direction for 1 phase counters is dependent on their corresponding flag
M8; where is the number of the corresponding counter, (C235 to C240).
When M8 is ON the counter counts down,
When M8 is OFF the counter counts up.
Using the SPD instruction:
• Care should be taken when using the SPD applied instruction (FNC 56). This instruction
has both high speed counter and interrupt characteristics, therefore input devices X0
through X5 may be used as the source device for the SPD instruction. In common with
all high speed processes the selected source device of the SPD instruction must not
coincide with any other high speed function which is operating, i.e. high speed counters
or interrupts using the same input.
When the SPD instruction is used it is considered by the system to be a 1 phase high
speed counter. This should be taken into account when summing the maximum combined input signal frequencies - see the previous section.
4-29
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11.6
Devices in Detail 4
1 Phase Counters - Assigned Start and Reset (C241 to C245)
These counters have one countable input
and 1 reset input each. Counters C244 and
C245 also have a start input.
X13
M8245
When the direction flag M8245 is ON, C245
counts down. When it is OFF C245 will count
X14
up.
RST C245
When X14 is ON, C245 resets in the same
X15
manner as normal internal 32bit counters, but
C245
C245 can also be reset by input X3. This is
D0
assigned automatically when counter C245 is
used (see previous counter tables).
Counter C245 also has an external start contact, again automatically assigned. This is actually
input X7. Once again this data can be found on the previous counter tables.
When X7 is ON, C245 starts counting, conversely when X7 is OFF C245 stops counting. The
input X15 selects and reserves the assigned inputs for the selected counter, i.e. in this case
C245.
The reason why these counters use assigned start (X7) and reset (X3) inputs is because they
are not affected by the cycle (scan) time of the program. This means their operation is
immediate and direct.
In this example C245 actual counts the number of OFF to ON events of input X2.
Note: Because C245 is a 32bit counter, its setting data, specified here by a data register also
has to be of a 32bit format. This means that data registers D1 and D0 are used as a pair to
provide the 32bit data format required.
Device specification:
• All of these counters are 32bit up/down ring counters. Their counting and contact
operations are the same as normal 32bit up/down counters described on page 4-21.
When the counters current value reaches its maximum or setting value, the counters
associated contacts are set and held when the counter is counting upwards.
However, when the counter is counting downwards the contacts are reset.
Setting range:
• -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
Direction setting:
• The counting direction for 1 phase counters is dependent on their corresponding flag
M8; where is the number of the corresponding counter, (C241 to C245).
- When M8 is ON the counter counts down.
- When M8 is OFF the counter counts up.
4-30
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11.7
Devices in Detail 4
2 Phase Bi-directional Counters (C246 to C250)
These counters have one input for counting up and one input for counting down. Certain
counters also have reset and start inputs as well.
When X10 is ON, C246 resets in the same
way as standard 32bit counters.
Counter C246 uses inputs;
X0 to count up and
X1 to count down
X10
RST C246
X11
For any counting to take place the drive input
X11 must be ON to set and reserve the
assigned inputs for the attached counter, i.e. C246.
C246
D2
Note:
X0 moving from OFF to ON will increment C246 by one
X1 moving from ON to OFF will decrement C246 by one
Bi-directional counter C250 can be seen to
have X5 as its reset input and X7 as its start
X13
input. Therefore, a reset operation can be
C250
made externally without the need for the RST
K1234
C250 instruction.
X13 must be ON to select C250. But start
input X7 must be ON to allow C250 to actually count. If X7 goes OFF counting ceases.
Counter C250 uses input X3 to count up and input X4 to count down.
Device size:
• All of these counters have 32bit operation.
Setting range:
• -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
Direction setting:
• The counting direction for 1 phase counters is dependent on their corresponding flag
M8; where is the number of the corresponding counter, (C241 to C245).
- When M8 is ON the counter counts down,
- When M8 is OFF the counter counts up.
4-31
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.11.8
Devices in Detail 4
A/B Phase Counters (C252 to C255)
With these counters only the input identified in the previous high speed counter tables can be
used for counting. The counting performed by these devices is independent of the program
cycle (scan) time. Depending on the counter used, start, reset and other associated inputs are
automatically allocated.
The A phase, B phase input signal not only
provide the counted signals but their
relationship to each other will also dictate the
counted direction.
While the wave form of the A phase is in the
ON state and...
the B phase moves from OFF to ON the
counter will be counting up.
However, if...
the B phase moves from ON to OFF the
counter will be in a down configuration.
One count is registered after both A and B
phase inputs have been given and released in
the correct order.
C251 counts the ON/OFF events of input X0
(the A phase input) and input X1 (the B phase
input) while X11 is ON.
C255 starts counting immediately when X7 is
turned ON while X13 is ON. The counting
inputs are X3 (A phase) and X4 (B phase).
C255 is reset when X5 is turned ON. It can
also be reset with X12 in the sequence.
Up-count
A-phase
B-phase
Down-count
A-phase
B-phase
X10
RST C251
X11
X12
C251
K1234
RST C255
X13
C255
D0
Device specification:
• A maximum of 2 points - 2 phase, 32bit, up/down counters can be used. The operation of
the output contact in relation to the counted data is the same as standard 32bit counters
described in section 4.11.
Setting range:
•
-2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
Direction setting:
• Check the corresponding special relay M8 to determine if the counter is counting
up or down.
4-32
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.12
Devices in Detail 4
Data Registers
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: D
Purpose: A storage device capable of storing numeric data or 16/32bit patterns
Alias: Data (register/ device/ word)
D (register)
D
Word
Available forms: General use registers - see page 4-34
Battery backed/latched registers - see page 4-35
Special diagnostic registers - see page 4-35
File registers - see page 4-36
RAM file registers - see page 4-36
Externally adjusted registers - see page 4-37
Devices numbered in: Decimal, i.e. D0 to D9, D10 to D19
Further uses: Can be used in the indirect setting of counters and timers
Example device usage: None
Available devices:
FX0
FX0N
General use
registers
30
(D0 - 29)
128
(D0 - 127)
Latched
registers
2
(D30 - 31)
128
(D128 - 256)
Diagnostic
registers
File registers R
27
39
(D8000 - 8069) (D8000 - 8255)
N/A
RAM file
registers M
Adjustable
registers F
1
(D8013)
1500
(D1000 - 2499)
FX (CPU Ver. 2.3)
FX(2C)
FX2N(C)
200
(D0 - 199)
312
(D200 - 512)
800
(D200 - 999)
7800
(D200 - 7999)
256
(D8000 - 8255)
2000
(D1000 - 2999)
N/A
2000
(D6000 - 7999)
2
(D8030 - 8031)
N/A
7000
(D1000 - 7999)
N/A
R - These devices are allocated by the user at the expense of available program steps.
On FX2N(C) these devices are a subset of the latched registers.
F - These devices are also included under the count for diagnostic registers.
M - These devices are activated when special auxiliary relay M8074 is turned ON.
No program steps are occupied by RAM file registers.
4-33
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.12.1
Devices in Detail 4
General Use Registers
Data registers, as the name suggests, store data. The stored data can be interpreted as a
numerical value or as a series of bits, being either ON or OFF.
A single data register contains 16bits or one word. However, two consecutive data registers
can be used to form a 32bit device more commonly known as a double word.
If the contents of the data register is being considered numerically then the Most Significant Bit
(MSB) is used to indicate if the data has a positive or negative bias. As bit devices can only be
ON or OFF, 1 or 0 the MSB convention used is, 0 is equal to a positive number and 1 is equal
to a negative number.
D0
1
2
0:
1:
D1
0:
1:
MSB - Most Significant Bit
D0
MSB - Most Significant Bit
The diagram above shows both single and double register configurations. In the diagram
identified as ¡, it should be noted that the ‘lower’ register D0 no longer has a ‘Most Significant
Bit’. This is because it is now being considered as part of a 32bit-double word. The MSB will
always be found in the higher 16 bits, i.e. in this case D1. When specifying a 32 bit data
register within a program instruction, the lower device is always used e.g. if the above example
was to be written as a 32bit instructional operand it would be identified as D0. The second
register, D1, would automatically be associated.
Once the data is written to a general data register, it remains unchanged until it is overwritten.
When the PLC is turned from RUN to STOP all of the general data registers have their current
contents overwritten with a 0 (zero).
Data retention:
• Data can be retained in the general use registers when the PLC is switched from RUN to
STOP if special auxiliary relay M8033 is ON.
Data register updates:
• Writing a new data value to a data register will result in the data register being updated
with the new data value at the end of the current program scan.
4-34
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.12.2
Devices in Detail 4
Battery Backed/ Latched Registers
Once data is written to a battery backed register, it remains unchanged until it is overwritten.
When the PLC’s status is changed from RUN to STOP, the data in these registers is retained.
The range of devices that is battery backed can be changed by adjusting the parameters of the
PLC. For details of how to do this please refer to the appropriate programming tools manual.
Using the FX2-40AW/AP:
• When using an FX with either the FX2-40AWor the FX2-40AP a proportion of the latched
data registers are automatically assigned for communications use by the FX2-40AW/AP
module.
Communication between Master and Slave 100 points M800 to M899
10 points D490 to D499
Communication between Slave and Master 100 points M900 to M999
10 points D500 to D509
4.12.3
Special Diagnostic Registers
Special registers are used to control or monitor various modes or devices inside the PLC. Data
written in these registers are set to the default values when the power supply to the PLC is
turned ON.
- Note: When the power is turned ON, all registers are first cleared to 0 (zero) and then the
default values are automatically written to the appropriate registers by the system
software. For example, the watchdog timer data is written to D8000 by the system
software. To change the setting, the user must write the required value over what is
currently stored in D8000.
Data stored in the special diagnostic registers will remain unchanged when the PLC is
switched from STOP mode into RUN.
Use of diagnostic registers:
• On no account should unidentified devices be used. If a device is used, it should only be
for the purpose identified in this manual. Please see chapter 6 for tables containing data
and descriptions of the available devices for each PLC.
4-35
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.12.4
Devices in Detail 4
File Registers
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
File registers are available in two forms:
- Program memory registers - these occupy program steps in blocks of 500 and are available on FX0N, FX, FX2C and FX2N(C) products
- RAM registers - these occupy a special data area and are available on all FX2C units and
FX units with CPU version 3.07 or greater.
Program memory registers
File registers can be secured in the program memory (RAM, EEPROM or EPROM) in units of
500 points. These registers can be accessed with a peripheral device. While the PLC is
operating, data in the file registers can be read to the general-use/ battery backed/ latched
registers by using the BMOV instruction.
File registers are actually setup in the parameter area of the PLC. For every block of 500 file
registers allocated and equivalent block of 500 program steps are lost.
Note: The device range for file registers in the FX2N(C) overlaps with the latched data registers.
The allocation of these devices as file registers ensures that the data is kept with the program.
Writing to file registers:
• FX0N and FX file register data can only be changed by a peripheral device such as a
hand held programmer or a personal computer running the appropriate software.
For details of how to carry out the changes please reference the relevant operation
manual for guidance.
• FX(2C) and FX2N(C) file register data can also be changed by the program using the
BMOV instruction.
• Only file registers in RAM or internal memory can be changed during RUN, but both
RAM, internal and EEPROM memory cassette memories can be changed when the PLC
is in STOP mode.
Special caution when using FX0N:
• No file registers can be modified during RUN.
Special caution when using FX:
• While the FX PLC is in RUN mode, alteration of the file registers D1000 to D1119 (120
points) is not allowed. Attempts to change these devices during RUN may result in a program error when the PLC is next switched into RUN.
RAM registers
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
RAM file registers are 2000 points which can be activated by driving a special auxiliary relay
M8074 ON. These registers can then be accessed just like normal program file registers. RAM
registers occupy no program steps but do occupy the sampling trace data register area when
M8074 is active.
Available devices:
• Please refer to the table on page 4-33 or chapters 6 and 8, where further details of the
availability of devices can be found.
4-36
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.12.5
Devices in Detail 4
Externally Adjusted Registers
The FX0 and FX0N have built in “setting
po ts ” w h ich ar e u s ed to a d ju st t he
co n te nt s o f ce rta in de d ica te d da ta
registers. The contents of these registers
RUN
Setting pot
5 6 7
can range from 0 to 255. This is a built in
of an FX0
STOP
5
feature and requires no additional setup
or programming.
The FX, FX 2C and FX 2N(C) do not have
this feature, however, an additional
special function unit is available which
provides the same function. For the FX
and FX 2C the unit is the FX-8AV. For
FX2N(C) the unit is the FX2N-8AV-BD. To
use this unit requires the applied instructions VRRD function 85 (Volume Read) and VRSC
function 86 (Volume Scale).
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C)
FX2N(C)
Number of
setting pots
1 point
2 points
8 points: Supplied by using the additional special
function block
FX-8AV or FX2N-8AV-BD
Number of
controlled
data registers
1: D8013
1: D8013 or
D8030,
2: D8031
Selected by the user when applied instructions
VRRD and VRSC are used.
Uses:
• This facility is often used to vary timer settings, but it can be used in any application
where a data register is normally found, i.e. setting counters, supplying raw data, even
selection operations could be carried out using this option.
4-37
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.13
Devices in Detail 4
Index Registers
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Device Mnemonic: V,Z
Purpose: To modify a specified device by stating an offset.
Alias: (V/ Z) Register
Index (register/ addressing/ modifier)
Offset(s) (register/ addressing/ modifier)
Indices
Modifier
Available forms:
For 16bit data V or Z
(2 devices)
For 32bit data V and Z combined
(1 device - Z is specified)
Operation is similar to data registers.
16 Bit
16 Bit
V
Z
32 Bit
V
Z
Devices numbered in: N/A. FX0(S),FX0N, FX, FX2C there are two devices V and/ or Z.
For FX2N(C) there are 16 devices V0 - V7 and Z0 - Z7
Further uses: Can be used to modify the following devices under certain conditions;
X, Y, M, S, P, T, C, D, K, H, KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS
Example device usage:
The program shown right transfers data from D5V to D10Z.
If the data contained in register V is equal to 8 and the data in register Z is equal to 14, then:
V=8
D5V
D5 +8 =13 Ì D13
Z = 14
D10Z
D10 + 14 = 24 Ì D24
Hence, the actual devices used after the modifiers V and Z have been taken into account are;
D13 and D24 and not D5 and D10 respectively.
Use of Modifiers with Applied Instruction Parameters:
• All applied instruction parameters should be regarded as being able to use index registers to modify the operand except where stated otherwise.
Special note for FX0 and FX0N users:
• Users of FX0 and FX0N PLC’s should note that when high speed counters (C235 to
C255) are used as operands in applied instructions, they may not be modified with V or Z
index registers.
4-38
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.13.1
Devices in Detail 4
Modifying a Constant
Constants can be modified just as easily as data registers or bit devices. If, for example, the
constant K20 was actually written K20V the final result would equal:
K20 + the contents of V
Example:
K
If V = 3276 then K20V V
20
(3276)
3296
4.13.2
Misuse of the Modifiers
Modifying Kn devices when Kn forms part of a device description such as KnY is not possible,
i.e. while the following use of modifiers is permitted;
K3Z
K1M10V
Y20Z
Statements of the form:
K4ZY30
are not acceptable.
• Modifiers cannot be used for parameters entered into any of the 20 basic instructions,
i.e. LD, AND, OR etc.
4.13.3
Using Multiple Index Registers
T h e u s e o f m u lt i p l e in d e x r e g i s t e r s i s
sometimes necessary in larger programs or
programs which handle large quantities of
data. There is no problem from the PLC’s
point of view in using both V and Z registers
many times through out a program. The point
to be aware of is that it is sometimes
confusing for the user or a maintenance
person reading such programs, as it is not
always clear what the current value of V or Z
is.
X0
V
MOV K20
Z
X1
X2
ADD D 5V D 15Z D40Z
M8000
MOV
Example:
V = 10 (K10)
Z = 20 (K20)
D5V = D15 (D5 + V = D5 + 10 = D15)
D15Z = D35 (D15 + Z = D15 + 20 = D35)
D40Z = D60 (D40 + Z = D40 + 20 = D60)
MOV K10
K0
V
X3
DADD D 0 D 2 D 4Z
Both V and Z registers are initially set to K10 and K20 respectively.
The contents of D15 is added to that of D35 and store in D60.
V is then reset to 0 (zero) and both V and Z are used in the double word addition (DADD).
The contents of D1, D0 are then added to D3, D2 and then finally stored in D25, D24.
4-39
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.14
Devices in Detail 4
Bits, Words, BCD and Hexadecimal
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The following section details general topics relating to good device understanding. The section
is split into several smaller parts with each covering one topic or small group of topics. Some of
the covered topics are;
Bit devices, individual and grouped
Word devices
Interpreting word data
Two’s compliment
- see page 4-40
- see page 4-42
- see page 4-42
- see page 4-45
Available devices:
• For PLC specific available devices please see chapter 8.
4.14.1
Bit Devices, Individual and Grouped
Devices such as X, Y, M and S are bit devices. Bit devices are bi-stable, this means there are
only two states, ON and OFF or 1 and 0. Bit devices can be grouped together to form bigger
representations of data, for example 8 consecutive bit devices are some-times referred to as a
byte. Further more, 16 consecutive bit devices are referred to as a word and 32 consecutive bit
devices are a double word.
The PLC identifies groups of bit devices which should be regarded as a single entity by looking
for a range marker followed by a head address. This is of the form KnP where P represents the
head address of the bit devices to be used. The Kn portion of the statement identifies the
range of devices enclosed. “n” can be a number from the range 0 to 8. Each “n” digit actual
represents 4 bit devices, i.e K1 = 4 bit devices and K8 = 32 bit devices. Hence all groups of bit
devices are divisible by 4.
The diagram and example on the following page explain this idea further........
4-40
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Devices in Detail 4
Assigning grouped bit devices:
As already explained, bit devices can be grouped into 4 bit units. The “n” in KnM0 defines the
number of groups of 4 bits to be combined for data operation. K1 to K4 are allowed for 16bit
data operations but K1 to K8 are valid for 32bit operations.
K2M0, for example identifies 2 groups of 4 bits; M0 to M3 and M4 to M7, giving a total of 8 bit
devices or 1 byte. The diagram below identifies more examples of Kn use.
X37 X36 X35 X34 X33 X32 X31 X30
0 1 0 0 0 1 0
X16 X15 X14 X13 X12 X11 X10 X7 X6 X5 X4 X3 X2 X1 X0
0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
K1X6
K1X0
K3X0
K8X0
K1X0
K1X6
K3X0
K8X0
:
:
:
:
X0 to X3 4 bit devices with a head address of X0
X6 to X11 4 bit devices with a head address of X6
X0 to X13 12 bit devices with a head address of X0
X0 to X37 32 bit devices with a head address of X0
Moving grouped bit devices:
• If a data move involves taking source data and moving it into a destination which is
smaller than the original source, then the overflowing source data is ignored. For example;
If K3M20 is moved to K1M0 then only M20 to M23 or K1M20 is actually moved. The
remaining data K2M24 or M24 to M31 is ignored.
Assigning I/O:
• Any value taken from the available range of devices can be used for the head address
‘marker’ of a bit device group. However, it is recommended to use a 0 (zero) in the lowest digit place of X and Y devices (X0, X10, X20.....etc). For M and S devices, use of a
multiple of “8” is the most device efficient. However, because the use of such numbers
may lead to confusion in assigning device numbers, it recommended to use a multiple of
“10”. This will allow good correlation to X and Y devices.
4-41
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.14.2
Devices in Detail 4
Word Devices
Word devices such as T, C, D, V and Z can store data about a particular event or action within
the PLC. For the most part these devices are 16 bit registers. However, certain variations do
have 32 bit capabilities, as can pairs of consecutive data registers or combined V and Z
registers.
It may seem strange to quote the size of a word device in bits. This is not so strange when it is
considered that the bit is the smallest unit of data within the PLC. So by identifying every thing
in bit format a common denomination is being used, hence comparison etc is much easier.
Additional consequences of this bit interpretation is that the actual data can be interpreted
differently. The physical pattern of the active bits may be the important feature or perhaps the
numerical interpretation of the bit pattern may be the key to the program. It all comes down to
how the information is read.
4.14.3
Interpreting Word Data
As word data can be read in many ways the significance of certain parts of the word data can
change. PLC’s can read the word data as:
- A pure bit pattern
- A decimal number
- A hexadecimal number
- Or as a BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) number
The following examples will show how the same piece of data can become many different
things depending wholly on the way the information is read or interpreted.
a) Considering a bit pattern
The following bit pattern means nothing - it is simply 16 devices which have two states.
Some of the devices are randomly set to one of the states. However, if the header
notation (base 2) is added to the 16 bit data the sum, decimal, total of the active bits can
be calculated, e.g.,
1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1
MSB 214 213 212 211 210 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1
Decimal value =
(20 x 1) + (22 x 1) + (24 x 1) + (25 x 1)
+(25 x 1) + (29 x 1) + (210 x 1) + (211 x 1) + (212 x 1)
Decimal value =
7797
This is in fact incorrect!
There is one bit device which has been shaded in. If its header notation is studied
carefully it will be noted that it says MSB. This is the Most Significant Bit. This single bit
device will determine if the data will be interpreted as a positive or negative number. In
this example the MSB is equal to 1. This means the data is negative.
The answer however, is not -7797.
4-42
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Devices in Detail 4
The reason this is not -7797 is because a negative value is calculated using two’s
compliment (described later) but can quickly be calculated in the following manner:
Because this is a negative number, a base is set as -32768. This is the smallest number
available with 16bit data. To this the positive sum of the active bits is added, i.e. -32768 +
7797.
The correct answer is therefore -24971.
Remember this is now a decimal representation of the original 16 bit - bit pattern. If the
original pattern was re-assessed as a hexadecimal number the answer would be
different.
b) A hexadecimal view
Taking the same original bit pattern used in point a) and now adding a hexadecimal
notation instead of the binary (base 2) notation the bit patterns new meaning becomes:
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
8
4
2
1
8
4
2
1
8
4
2
1
8
4
2
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
Hexadecimal value = ((1 x 8) + (1 x 1)), ((1 x 8) + (1 x 4) + (1 x 2)),
((1 x 4) + (1 x 2) + (1 x 1)), ((1 x 4) + (1 x 1))
Hexadecimal value = 9E75
Two things become immediately obvious after a hexadecimal conversion. The first is that
there is sign bit as hexadecimal numbers are always positive.
The second is there is an "E" appearing in the calculated data. This is actually
acceptable as hexadecimal counts from 0 to 15. But as there are only ten digits (0 to 9),
substitutes need to be found for the remaining base 16 numbers, i.e. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
and 15. The first six characters from the alphabet are used as the replacement indices,
e.g. A to F respectively.
As a result of base 16 counting, 4 binary bits are required to represent one base 16 or
hexadecimal number. Hence, a 16 bit data word will have a 4 digit hexadecimal code.
There is actually a forth interpretation for this bit sequence. This is a BCD or Binary
Coded Decimal reading. The following section converts the original bit pattern into a
BCD format.
4-43
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Devices in Detail 4
c) ABCD conversion
Using the original bit pattern as a base but adding the following BCD headers allows the
conversion of the binary data into a BCD format.
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
8
4
2
1
8
4
2
1
8
4
2
1
8
4
2
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
Binary Coded Decimal value= ERROR!!!!!
It will be noticed that this will produce an ERROR. The conversion will not be correct.
This is because BCD numbers can only have values from 0 to 9, but the second block of
4 bit devices from the left would have a value of 14. Hence, the error.
The conversion process is very similar to that of hexadecimal except for the mentioned
limit on values of 0 to 9. If the other blocks were converted just as an example the
following values would be found;
Extreme Left Hand Block= ((1 × 8) + (1 × 1)) = 9
Second Right Hand Block= ((1 × 4) + (1 × 2) + (1 × 1)) = 7
Extreme Right Hand Block= ((1 × 4) + (1 × 1)) = 5
BCD data is read from left to right as a normal number would be read. Therefore, in this
example the “9” would actually represent “9000”. The second right hand block is actually
“70” not “7”. The units are provided by the extreme right hand block, i.e. 5. The hundreds
“100’s” would have been provided by the second left hand block (which is in error).
It is also important to note that there is no sign with BCD converted data. The maximum
number allowable for a single data word is “9999” and the minimum is “0000”.
Word Data Summary
In each of the previous cases the original bit pattern had a further meaning. To recap the three
new readings and the original bit pattern,
1
0
Decimal
Hexadecimal
BCD
0
:
:
:
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
-24971
9E75
Error (9?75)
Each meaning is radically different from the next yet they are all different ways of describing
the same thing. They are in fact all equal to each other!
4-44
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.14.4
Devices in Detail 4
Two’s Compliment
Programmable controllers, computers etc, use a format called 2’s compliment. This is a
mathematical procedure which is more suited to the micro processors operational hardware
requirements. It is used to represent negative numbers and to perform subtraction operations.
The procedure is very simple, in the following example “15 - 7” is going to be solved:
Step1: Find the binary values (this example uses 8 bits)
15
=
00001111
7
=
00000111
Step2: Find the inversion of the value to be subtracted.
Procedure: invert all 1ís to 0ís and all 0ís to 1’s.
7
=
00000111
Inverted 7 =
11111000
Step3: Add 1 to the inverted number.
Procedure: add 1 to the right hand most bit. Remember this is binary addition hence, when a
value of 2 is obtained 1 is moved in to the next left hand position and the remainder is set to 0
(zero);
Inverted7
Additional1
Answer
11111000
00000001
11111001
This result is actually the same as the negative value for 7 i.e. -7.
Step4: Add the answer to the number the subtraction is being made from (i.e. 15).
Procedure: Remember 1+1 = 0 carry 1 in base 2 (binary).
Original value15
00001111
Answer found in step3
11111001
Solution
(1) 00001000
The “(1)” is a carried “1” and is ignored as this example is only dealing with 8 bits.
Step 5: Convert the answer back.
00001000 = 8
The answer is positive because the MSB (the most left hand bit) is a 0 (zero). If a quick mental
check is made of the problem it is indeed found that “15-7 = 8”.
In fact no subtraction has taken place. Each of the steps has either converted some data or
performed an addition. Yet the answer is correct 15 - 7 is 8. This example calculation was
based on 8 bit numbers but it will work equally well on any other quantity of bits.
4-45
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.15
Devices in Detail 4
Floating Point And Scientific Notation
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
PLC’s can use many different systems and methods to store data.
The most common have already been discussed in previous sections e.g. BCD, Binary,
Decimal, Hex. These are what is known as ‘integer’ formats or ‘whole number formats’.
As the titles suggest these formats use only whole numbers with no representation of fractional
parts. However, there are two further formats which are becoming increasingly important and
they are:
a) Floating point and
b) Scientific notation
Both of these formats are in fact closely related. They both lend themselves to creating very
large or very small numbers which can describe both whole and fractional components.
General note:
• Sometimes the words ‘Format’, ‘Mode’ and ‘Notation’ are interchanged when descriptions of these numerical processes are made. However, all of these words are providing
the same descriptive value and as such users should be aware of their existence.
Some useful constants
π
2π
π/4
π2
The speed of light
Gravity, g
e
3.141 100
6.283 100
7.853 10-1
9.869 100
2.997 108 m/s
9.807 100 m/s2
2.718 100
Fixed points:
Boiling point of liquid oxygen
Melting point of ice
Triple point of water
Boiling point of water
-1.8297 102 °C
0.00 100 °C
1.00 10-2 °C
1.00 102 °C
4-46
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.15.1
Devices in Detail 4
Scientific Notation
This format could be called the step between the ‘integer’ formats and the full floating point
formats. In basic terms Scientific Notation use two devices to store information about a number
or value. One device contains a data string of the actual characters in the number (called the
mantissa), while the second device contains information about the number of decimal places
used in the number (called the exponent). Hence, Scientific Notation can accommodate values
greater/smaller than the normal 32 bit limits, i.e. -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 where
Scientific Notation limits are;
Maximums
9999 1035
-9999 1035
Minimums
9999 10-41
-9999 10-41
Scientific Notation can be obtained by using the BCD, or EBCD in FX2N, instruction (FNC 18 or
FNC 118) with the float flag M8023 set ON. In this situation floating point format numbers are
converted by the BCD instruction into Scientific Notation - see page 5-22 for details. When
using the FX2N the INT instruction (FNC 129) can be used.
Scientific Notation can be converted back to floating point format by using the BIN instruction
(FNC 19) with the float flag M8023 set ON - see page 5-22 for details.
The following points should be remembered about the use of Scientific Notation within
appropriate FX units;
• The mantissa and exponent are stored
in consecutive data registers.
Each part is made up of 16 bits and can
be assigned a positive or negative value
indicated by the value of the most
significant bit (MSB, or bit 15 of the data
register) for each number.
EXPONENT
Data Register D+1
b15
MANTISSA
Data Register D
b0 b15
Sign bit (MSB)
1= Negative
0 = Positive
b0
Sign bit (MSB)
1= Negative
0= Positive
• The mantissa is stored as the first 4
significant figures without any rounding
of the number, i.e. a floating point number of value 2.34567 103 would be stored as a
mantissa of 2345 at data register D and an exponent of 0 (zero) at data register D+1.
• The range of available mantissa values is 0, 1000 to 9999 and -1000 to -9999.
• The range of available exponent values is +35 through to -41.
• Scientific format cannot be used directly in calculations, but it does provide an ideal method
of displaying the data on a monitoring interface.
4-47
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.15.2
Devices in Detail 4
Floating Point Format
Floating point format extends the abilities and ranges provided by Scientific Notation with the
ability to represent fractional portions of whole numbers, for example;
Performing and displaying the calculation of 22 divided by 7 would yield the following results:
a) Normal FX operation using decimal (integers) numbers would equal 3 remainder 1
b) In floating point it would equal 3.14285 (approximately)
c) In Scientific format this calculation would be equal to 3142 10 -3
So it can be seen that a greater degree of accuracy is provided by floating point numbers, i.e.
through the use of larger numerical ranges and the availability of more calculable digits.
Hence, calculations using floating point data have some significant advantages. Decimal data
can be converted in to floating point by using the FLT, float instruction (FNC 49). When this
same instruction is used with the float fag M8023 set ON, floating point numbers can be
converted back to decimal. see page 5-49 for more details.
The following points should be remembered about the use of Floating Point within appropriate
FX units;
• Floating point numbers, no matter what numerical value, will always occupy two consecutive data registers (or 32 bits).
• Floating point values cannot be directly monitored, as they are stored in a special format
recommended by the I.E.E.E (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) for personal
and micro computer applications.
• Floating point numbers have both mantissa and exponents (see Scientific Notation for an
explanation of these terms). In the case of floating point exponents, only 8 bits are used.
Additionally there is a single sign bit
for the mantissa. The remaining bits
of the 32 bit value, i.e. 23 bits, are
used to ‘describe’ the mantissa
value.
FX Data Register Contruction
Data register 'D+1'
(16 bits)
b0 b15
b15
Exponet
(8 bits)
Sign bit
Data register 'D'
(16 bits)
b0
Mantissa
(23 bits)
Floating Point Format
Valid ranges for floating point numbers as used in FX Main Processing Units:
Description
Sign
Exponent
(bit pattern)
Mantissa
(bit pattern)
Remark
Normal Float 0 or 1
11111110
00000001
11111111111111111111111
Largest number +/- 3.403 1038
11111111111111111111110
Accuracy: 7 significant figures
00000000000000000000001
Smallest number +/- 1.175 10-38
00000000000000000000000
0 or 1
00000000
00000000000000000000000
Zero
All digits are 0 (zero)
4-48
FX Series Programmable Controllers
4.15.3
Devices in Detail 4
Summary Of The Scientific Notation and Floating Point Numbers
The instruction needed to convert between each number format are shown below in a
diagrammatically format for quick and easy reference.
FX, FX2C
View as either integer of
hexadecimal
Perform all mathematical
operations as normal
(M8023 OFF)
Floating Point
Numbers
(1 × 32 bit)
NC
(F
T
FL
Integers
(16 or 32 bit)
(Data registers)
Use to view the
mantissa and
exponent of a floating
point number as
integer values
BCD
(
+ M8 FNC 18
)
023
ON
)
49
)
49
C
N
FN O
T ( 023
L
F M8
+
BIN
(F
+ M8 NC 19)
023
ON
Perform all mathematical operation with
M8023 ON using double word functions
(DADD, DSUB, DMUL, DDIV, DSQR, etc.)
Scientific
Notation
(2 × 16 bit)
Perform all mathematical operations using the special
floating point instructions using double word format
(DEADD, DESUB, DEMUL, DEDIV, DESQR, etc.)
FLT
(FNC
49)
INT (
FNC
129)
FX2N (C)
E
D
BC
NC
(F
8)
11
EB
IN
NC
(F
9)
11
Floating Point
Numbers
(1 × 32 bit)
4-49
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Devices in Detail 4
MEMO
4-50
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
Applied Instructions 5
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Applied Instructions 5
Chapter Contents
5. Applied Instructions ...............................................................................5-1
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
Program Flow-Functions00 to 09 ..................................................................................... 5-4
5.1.1
5.1.3
5.1.5
5.1.7
CJ (FNC 00) ........................................................... 5-5
SRET (FNC 02)...................................................... 5-8
FEND (FNC 06)...................................................... 5-11
FOR, NEXT (FNC 08, 09) ...................................... 5-13
5.1.2
5.1.4
5.1.6
CALL (FNC 01).......................................... 5-7
IRET, EI, DI (FNC 03, 04, 05).................... 5-9
WDT (FNC 07)........................................... 5-12
Move And Compare - Functions 10 to 19....................................................................... 5-16
5.2.1
5.2.3
5.2.5
5.2.7
5.2.9
CMP (FNC 10) ................................................ 5-17
MOV (FNC 12) ................................................ 5-18
CML (FNC 14)................................................. 5-19
FMOV (FNC 16) .............................................. 5-21
BCD (FNC18).................................................. 5-22
5.2.2
5.2.4
5.2.6
5.2.8
5.2.10
ZCP (FNC 11)............................................ 5-17
SMOV (FNC 13) ........................................ 5-18
BMOV (FNC 15) ....................................... 5-20
XCH (FNC 17) ........................................... 5-21
BIN (FNC 19)............................................. 5-22
Arithmetic And Logical Operations -Functions 20 to 29 ................................................. 5-24
5.3.1
5.3.3
5.3.5
5.3.7
5.3.9
ADD (FNC 20)................................................. 5-25
MUL (FNC 22)................................................. 5-27
INC (FNC 24) ................................................. 5-29
WAND (FNC 26) ............................................. 5-30
WXOR (FNC 28) ............................................. 5-31
5.3.2
5.3.4
5.3.6
5.3.8
5.3.10
SUB (FNC 21) .......................................... 5-26
DIV (FNC 23)............................................. 5-28
INC (FNC 24) ............................................ 5-29
WOR (FNC 27) .......................................... 5-30
NEG (FNC 29) .......................................... 5-31
Rotation And Shift - Functions 30 to 39.......................................................................... 5-34
5.4.1
5.4.3
5.4.5
5.4.7
5.4.9
ROR (FNC 30) ................................................ 5-35
ROR (FNC 32) ................................................ 5-36
ROR (FNC 34) ................................................ 5-37
ROR (FNC 36) ................................................ 5-38
SFWR (FNC 38).............................................. 5-39
5.4.2
5.4.4
5.4.6
5.4.8
5.4.10
ROR (FNC 31)........................................... 5-35
ROR (FNC 33)........................................... 5-36
ROR (FNC 35)........................................... 5-37
ROR (FNC 37)........................................... 5-38
SFRD (FNC 39) ......................................... 5-40
Data Operation - Functions 40 to 49 .............................................................................. 5-42
5.5.1
5.5.3
5.5.5
5.5.7
5.5.9
ZRST (FNC 40) ............................................... 5-43
ENCO (FNC 42) .............................................. 5-44
BON (FNC 44)................................................. 5-45
ANS (FNC 46) ................................................. 5-47
SQR (FNC 48)................................................. 5-48
5.5.2
5.5.4
5.5.6
5.5.8
5.5.10
ROR (FNC 41)........................................... 5-43
SUM (FNC 43)........................................... 5-45
MEAN (FNC 45) ........................................ 5-46
ANR (FNC 47) ........................................... 5-47
FLT (FNC 49) ............................................ 5-49
High Speed Processing - Functions 50 to 59 ................................................................. 5-52
5.6.1
5.6.3
5.6.5
5.6.7
5.6.9
REF (FNC 50) ................................................. 5-53
MTR (FNC 52)................................................. 5-54
HSCR (FNC 54) .............................................. 5-56
SPD (FNC 56) ................................................. 5-60
PWM (FNC 58)................................................ 5-62
5.6.2
5.6.4
5.6.6
5.6.8
5.6.10
REFF (FNC 51) ......................................... 5-53
HSCS (FNC 53)......................................... 5-55
HSZ (FNC 55)............................................ 5-57
SPD (FNC 56) ........................................... 5-61
PLSR (FNC 59) ......................................... 5-63
Handy Instructions - Functions 60 to 69 ......................................................................... 5-66
5.7.1
5.7.3
5.7.5
5.7.7
5.7.9
IST (FNC 60)................................................... 5-67
ABSD (FNC 62)............................................... 5-70
TTMR (FNC 64) .............................................. 5-72
TTMR (FNC 66) .............................................. 5-73
ROTC (FNC 68) .............................................. 5-75
5.7.2
5.7.4
5.7.6
5.7.8
5.7.10
SER (FNC 61) ........................................... 5-69
INCD (FNC 63) .......................................... 5-71
STMR (FNC 65)......................................... 5-72
RAMP (FNC 67) ........................................ 5-73
SORT (FNC 69)......................................... 5-77
External FX I/O Devices - Functions 70 to 79 ................................................................ 5-80
5.8.1
5.8.3
5.8.5
5.8.7
5.8.9
TKY (FNC 70) ................................................. 5-81
DSW (FNC 72) ................................................ 5-83
SEGL (FNC 74)............................................... 5-85
SEGL (FNC 75)............................................... 5-88
PR (FNC 77) ................................................... 5-90
5.8.2
5.8.4
5.8.6
5.8.8
5.8.10
HKY (FNC 71) ........................................... 5-82
SEGD (FNC 73)......................................... 5-84
SEGL (FNC 75) ......................................... 5-87
PR (FNC 77).............................................. 5-89
PR (FNC 77).............................................. 5-91
External FX Serial Devices - Functions 80 to 89 ............................................................ 5-94
5.9.1
5.9.3
5.9.5
5.9.7
RS (FNC 80) ................................................... 5-96
ASCI (FNC 82) ................................................ 5-99
CCD (FNC 84)............................................... 5-101
VRSD (FNC 86) ............................................ 5-102
5.9.2
5.9.4
5.9.6
5.9.8
RS (FNC 80).............................................. 5-97
HEX (FNC 83) ......................................... 5-100
VRRD (FNC 85)....................................... 5-102
PID (FNC 88)........................................... 5-103
5.10 External F2 Units - Functions 90 to 99 ......................................................................... 5-111
5.10.1
5.10.3
5.10.5
5.10.7
5.10.9
ANRD (FNC 91) ............................................ 5-112
ANWR (FNC 92) ........................................... 5-113
RMMR (FNC 94) ........................................... 5-114
RMMN (FNC 96) ........................................... 5-115
MCDE (FNC 98)............................................ 5-117
5.10.2
5.10.4
5.10.6
5.10.8
ANRD (FNC 91)....................................... 5-112
RMST (FNC 93)....................................... 5-113
RMRD (FNC 95) ...................................... 5-115
BLK (FNC 97) .......................................... 5-116
5.11 Floating Point 1 & 2 - Functions 110 to 129 ................................................................. 5-119
5.11.1
5.11.3
5.11.5
5.11.7
5.11.9
ECMP (FNC 110) .......................................... 5-121
EBCD (FNC 118) .......................................... 5-122
EADD (FNC 120) .......................................... 5-123
EMUL (FNC 122) .......................................... 5-124
ESQR (FNC 127) .......................................... 5-125
5.11.2
5.11.4
5.11.6
5.11.8
5.11.10
ECMP (FNC 110) .................................... 5-121
EBCD (FNC 118)..................................... 5-122
EAUB (FNC 121) ..................................... 5-124
EDIV (FNC 123) ...................................... 5-125
INT (FNC 129) ......................................... 5-126
5.12 Trigonometry - FNC 130 to FNC 139 ........................................................................... 5-128
5.12.1
5.12.3
SIN (FNC 130) .............................................. 5-129
TAN (FNC 132) ............................................. 5-130
5.12.2
COS (FNC 131) ....................................... 5-130
5.13 Data Operations 2 - FNC 140 to FNC 149 ................................................................... 5-132
5.13.1
SWAP (FNC 147).......................................... 5-133
5.14 Real Time Clock Control - FNC 160 to FNC 169.......................................................... 5-136
5.14.1
5.14.3
5.14.5
TCMP (FNC 160) .......................................... 5-137
TADD (FNC 162)........................................... 5-139
TRD (FNC 166) ............................................. 5-141
5.14.2
5.14.4
5.14.6
TZCP (FNC 161) ..................................... 5-138
TSUB (FNC 163) ..................................... 5-140
TWR (FNC 167)....................................... 5-142
5.15 Gray Codes - FNC 170 to FNC 179 ............................................................................. 5-144
5.15.1
GRY (FNC 170)............................................. 5-145
5.15.2
GBIN (FNC 171) ...................................... 5-145
5.16 Inline Comparisons - FNC 220 to FNC 249.................................................................. 5-148
5.16.1
5.16.3
LD compare (FNC 224 to 230)...................... 5-149
OR compare (FNC 240 to 246) ..................... 5-151
5.16.2
AND compare (FNC 232 to 238) ............. 5-150
FX Series Programmable Controllers
5.
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Applied Instructions are the ‘specialist’ instructions of the FX family of PLC’s. They allow the
user to perform complex data manipulations, mathematical operations while still being very
easy to program and monitor. Each applied instruction has unique mnemonics and special
function numbers. Each applied instruction will be expressed using a table similar to that
shown below:
Mnemonic
CJ
FNC 00
(Conditional
Jump)
Operands
Function
A method of
jumping to an
identified pointer
position
Program steps
D
Valid pointers from the range 0 to 63
CJ,CJP:3steps
Jump pointer
:1 step
P
The table will be found at the beginning of each new instruction description. The area identified
as ‘Operands’ will list the various devices (operands) that can be used with the instruction.
Various identification letters will be used to associate each operand with its function, i.e. Ddestination, S- source, n, m- number of elements. Additional numeric suffixes will be attached
if there are more than one operand with the same function.
Not all instructions and conditions apply to all PLC’s. Applicable CPU’s are identified by the
boxes in the top right hand corner of the page. For more detailed instruction variations a
second indicator box is used to identify the availability of pulse, single (16 bit) word and double
(32 bit) word format and to show any flags that are set by the instruction.
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS Carry M8022
No modification of the instruction mnemonic is required for 16 bit operation. However, pulse
operation requires a ‘P’ to be added directly after the mnemonic while 32 bit operation requires
a ‘D’ to be added before the mnemonic. This means that if an instruction was being used with
both pulse and 32 bit operation it would look like..... DP where was the basic
mnemonic.
The ‘pulse’ function allows the associated instruction to be activated on the rising edge of the
control input. The instruction is driven ON for the duration of one program scan.
Thereafter, while the control input remains ON, the associated instruction is not active.
To re-execute the instruction the control input must be turned from OFF to ON again.
The FLAGS section identifies any flags that are used by the instruction. Details about the
function of the flag are explained in the instructions text.
5-1
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
• For instructions that operate continuously, i.e. on every scan of the program the instruction
will operate and provide a new, different result, the following identification symbol will be
used ‘’ to represent a high speed changing state. Typical instructions covered by this
situation have a strong incremental, indexable element to their operation.
• In most cases the operands of applied instructions can be indexed by a users program. For
those operands which cannot be indexed, the symbol ‘ ’ has been used to signify an
operand as being ‘fixed’ after it has been written.
• Certain instructions utilize additional data registers and/or status flags for example a math
function such as ADD (FNC 20) can identify a zero result, borrow and carry conditions by
using preset auxiliary relays, M8020 to M8021 respectively.
5-2
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-3
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.1
Applied Instructions 5
Program Flow-Functions00 to 09
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Contents:
Page
CJ -
Conditional jump
FNC 00
5-5
CALL -
Call Subroutine
FNC 01
5-7
SRET -
Subroutine Return
FNC 02
5-8
IRET -
Interrupt Return
FNC 03
5-9
EI -
Enable Interrupt
FNC 04
5-9
DI -
Disable Interrupt
FNC 05
5-9
FEND -
First End
FNC 06
5-11
WDT -
Watchdog Timer
FNC 07
5-12
FOR -
Start of a For/Next Loop
FNC 08
5-13
NEXT -
End a For/Next Loop
FNC 09
5-13
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-4
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.1.1
Applied Instructions 5
CJ (FNC 00)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
Valid pointers from the range 0 to 63
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
Jumps to the
identified pointer
position
CJ
FNC 00
(Conditional
Jump)
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
FX0N
CJ, CJP:3steps
Jump pointer
PPP: 1 step
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[D]
X20
CJ
P9
P9
When the CJ instruction is active it forces the program
to jump to an identified program marker. While the
jump takes place the intervening pro-gram steps are
skipped. This means they are not processed in any
way. The resulting effect is to speed up the programs
operational scan time.
Points to note:
X20
a) Many CJ statements can reference a single pointer.
b) Each pointer must have a unique number. Using
pointer P63 is equivalent to jumping to the END
instruction.
c) Any program area which is skipped, will not update
output statuses even if the input devices change.
For example, the program opposite shows a
situation which loads X1 to drive Y1. Assuming X1
is ON and the CJ instruction is activated the load
X1, out Y1 is skipped. Now even if X1 is turned
OFF Y1 will remain ON while the CJ instruction
forces the program to skip to the pointer P0. The
reverse situation will also apply, i.e. if X1 is OFF to
begin with and the CJ instruction is driven, Y1 will
not be turned ON if X1 is turned ON. Once the CJ
instruction is deactivated X1 will drive Y1 in the
normal manner. This situation applies to all types of
outputs, e.g. SET, RST, OUT, Y, M and S devices
CJ
P9
CJ
P9
CJ
P0
X21
P9
X0
X1
Y1
M8000
P0
Y0
END
d) The CJ instruction can jump to any point within the main program body or after an FEND
instruction
5-5
FX Series Programmable Controlers
e) A CJ instruction can be used to Jump forwards
through a program, i.e. to-wards the END
instruction OR it can jump backwards towards step
0. If a backwards jump is used care must be taken
not to overrun the watchdog timer setting otherwise
the PLC will enter an error situation. For more
information on the watchdog timer please see page
5-12.
Applied Instructions 5
P10
X22
CJ
P 10
f) Unconditional jumps can be entered by using special auxiliary coils such as M8000. In this
situation while the PLC is in RUN the program will ALWAYS execute the CJ instruction in an
unconditional manner.
IMPORTANT:
• Timers and counters will freeze their current values if they are skipped by a CJ instruction.
For example if Y1 in the previous program (see point c) was replaced by T0 K100 and the
CJ instruction was driven, the contents of T0 would not change/increase until the CJ
instruction is no longer driven, i.e. the current timer value would freeze.
High speed counters are the only exception to this situation as they are processed
independently of the main program.
Using applied instructions:
• Applied instructions are also skipped if they are programmed between the CJ instruction
and the destination pointer. However, The PLSY (FNC 57) and PWM (FNC 58) instructions
will operate continuously if they were active before the CJ instruction was driven, otherwise
they will be processed, i.e. skipped, as standard applied instructions.
Details of using CJ with other program flow instructions
• Further details can be found on pages 7-12 and 7-13 about the combined use of different
program flow techniques (such as master control, MC etc).
5-6
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.1.2
Applied Instructions 5
CALL (FNC 01)
Mnemonic
FX
Valid pointers from the range 0 to 62
Nest levels: 5 including the initial CALL
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
Executes the
subroutine
program starting
at the identified
pointer position
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
CALL
FNC 01
(Call subroutine)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
CALL, CALLP:
3 step
Subroutine pointer
PPP: 1 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[D]
CALL P 10
X0
FEND
P10
Subroutine D10
SRET
When the CALL instruction is active it forces the
program to run the subroutine associated with the
called pointer (area identified as subroutine P10). A
CALL instruction must be used in conjunction with
FEND (FNC 06) and SRET (FNC 02) instructions. The
program jumps to the subroutine pointer (located after
an FEND instruction) and processes the contents until
an SRET instruction is encountered. This forces the
p r o g r a m f l o w b a c k t o t h e l in e o f l a d d e r l o g i c
immediately following the original CALL instruction.
Points to note:
a) Many CALL statements can reference a single subroutine.
b) Each subroutine must have a unique pointer number. Subroutine pointers can be selected
from the range P0 to P62. Subroutine pointers and the pointers used for CJ (FNC 00)
instructions are NOT allowed to coincide.
c) Subroutines are not normally processed as they occur after an FEND instruction. When
they are called, care should be taken not to overrun the watchdog timer setting. For more
information on watchdog timers please see page 5-12.
d) Subroutines can be nested for 5 levels including
the initial CALL instruction. As an example the
program shown opposite shows a 2 level nest.
When X1 is activated the program calls subroutine
P11. Within this subroutine is a CALL to a second
subroutine P12. When both subroutines P11 and
P12 are active simultaneously, they are said to be
nested. Once subroutine P12 reaches its SRET
instruction it returns the program control to the
program step immediately following its original
CALL (see ). P11 then completes its operation,
and once its SRET instruction is processed the
program returns once again to the step following
the CALL P11 statement (see ).
X1
CALL P 11
2
FEND
P11
CALL P 12
1
SRET
P12
SRET
5-7
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Special subroutine timers:
• Because of the chance of intermittent use of the subroutines, if timed functions are
required the timers used must be selected from the range T192 to T199 and T246 to
T249.
Details of using CALL with other program flow instructions
• Further details can be found on pages 7-12 and 7-13 about the combined use of different
program flow techniques (such as master control, MC etc).
5.1.3
SRET (FNC 02)
Mnemonic
PULSE-P
FX
D
Returns operation N/A
from a subroutine Automatically returns to the step immediately
program
following the CALL instruction which activated
the subroutine.
return)
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
SRET
FNC 02
(Subroutine
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SRET:
1 step
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
SRET signifies the end of the current subroutine and returns the program flow to the step
immediately following the CALL instruction which activated the closing subroutine.
Points to note:
a) SRET can only be used with the CALL instruction.
b) SRET is always programmed after an FEND instruction - please see the CALL (FNC 01)
instruction for more details.
5-8
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.1.4
Applied Instructions 5
IRET, EI, DI
(FNC 03, 04, 05)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
FX0N
Operands
Function
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
IRET
FNC 03
(Interrupt
return)
Forces the
program to return
from the active
interrupt routine
N/A
IRET:
Automatically returns to the main program step 1 step
which was being processed at the time of the
interrupt call.
EI
FNC 04
(Enable
interrupts)
Enables interrupt
inputs to be processed
N/A
Any interrupt input being activated after an EI
instruction and before FEND or DI instructions
will be processed immediately unless it has
been specifically disabled.
DI
FNC 05
(Disable
interrupts)
Disables the
processing of
interrupt routines
DI:
N/A
1 step
Any interrupt input being activated after a DI
instruction and before an EI instruction will be
stored until the next sequential EI instruction is
processed.
I
Identifies the
beginning of an
interrupt routine
A 3 digit numeric code relating to the interrupt
type and operation.
(Interrupt
pointer)
EI:
1 step
I
:
1 step
General description of an interrupt routine:
An interrupt routine is a section of program which is, when triggered, operated immediately
interrupting the main program flow. Once the interrupt has been processed the main program
flow continues from where it was, just before the interrupt originally occurred.
Operation:
Interrupts are triggered by different input conditions, sometimes a direct input such as X0 is
used other times a timed interval e.g. 30 msec can be used. The availability of different
interrupt types and the number operational points for each PLC type are detailed on page 412, Interrupt Pointers. To program and operate interrupt routines requires up to 3 dedicated
instructions (those detailed in this section) and an interrupt pointer.
Defining an interrupt routine:
An interrupt routine is specified between its own
unique interrupt pointer and the first occurrence of an
IRET instruction.
Interrupt routines are ALWAYS programmed after an
FEND instruction.
The IRET instruction may only be used within
interrupt routines.
FEND
I001
Interrupt Program I001
IRET
I201
Interrupt Program I201
IRET
5-9
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Controlling interrupt operations:
The PLC has a default status of disabling interrupt operation. The EI instruction must be used
to activate the interrupt facilities. All interrupts which physically occur during the program scan
period from the EI instruction until the FEND or DI instructions will have their associated
interrupt routines run. If these interrupts are triggered outside of the enclosed range (EI-FEND
or EI-DI, see diagram below) they will be stored until the EI instruction is processed on the
following scan. At this point the interrupt routine will be run.
EI
Disabled Interrupts
Enabled Interrupts
EI
DI
Enabled Interrupts
Disabled Interrupts
FEND
I101
Interrupt
routine
IRET
I301
FEND
Interrupt
routine
IRET
If an individual interrupt is to be disabled its associated special M coil must be driven ON.
While this coil is ON the interrupt routine will not be activated. For details about the disabling M
coils see the PLC device tables in chapter 8.
Nesting interrupts:
Interrupts may be nested for two levels. This means that an interrupt may be interrupted during
its operation. However, to achieve this, the interrupt routine which may be further interrupted
must contain the EI and DI instructions; otherwise as under normal operation, when an
interrupt routine is activated all other interrupts are disabled.
Simultaneously occurring interrupts:
If more than one interrupt occurs sequentially, priority is given to the interrupt occurring first. If
two or more interrupts occur simultaneously, the interrupt routine with the lower pointer number
is given the higher priority.
Using general timers within interrupt routines:
FX PLC’s have a range of special timers which can be used within interrupt routines. For more
information please see page 4-18, Timers Used in Interrupt and ‘CALL’ Subroutines.
Input trigger signals - pulse duration:
Interrupt routines which are triggered directly by interrupt inputs, such as X0 etc., require a
signal duration of approximately 200µsec, i.e. the input pulse width is equal or greater than
200µsec. When this type of interrupt is selected, the hardware input filters are automatically
reset to 50µsec. (under normal operating circumstances the input filters are set to 10msec.).
Pulse catch function:
Direct high speed inputs can be used to ‘catch’ short pulsed signals. When a pulse is received
at an input a corresponding special M coil is set ON. This allows the ‘captured’ pulse to be
used to trigger further actions, even if the original signal is now OFF. FX0, FX0S and FX0N
units have this function permanently active for inputs X0 through X3 with special M coils
storing the pulse data at M8056 to M8059. FX(2C) and FX2N units require the EI instruction
(FNC 04) to activate pulse catch for inputs X0 through X5, with M8170 to M8175 indicating the
caught pulse. Note that, if an input device is being used for another high speed function, then
the pulse catch for that device is disabled.
5-10
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.1.5
Applied Instructions 5
FEND (FNC 06)
Mnemonic
FEND
FNC 06
(First end)
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
Operands
Function
Program steps
D
Used to indicate
the end of the
main program
block
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
N/A
FEND:
Note:
1 step
Can be used with CJ (FNC 00), CALL (FNC 01)
and interrupt routines
Operation:
An FEND instruction indicates the first end of a main program and the start of the program
area to be used for subroutines. Under normal operating circumstances the FEND instruction
performs a similar action to the END instruction, i.e. output processing, input processing and
watchdog timer refresh are all carried out on execution.
Points to note:
a) The FEND instruction is commonly used with CJ-P-FEND, CALL-P-SRET and I-IRET
program constructions (P refers to program pointer, I refers to interrupt pointer).
Both CALL pointers/subroutines and interrupt pointers (I) subroutines are ALWAYS
programmed after an FEND instruction, i.e. these program features NEVER appear in the
body of a main program.
0
0
Main program
X10
=
OFF
X11
=
ON
X10
CJ
P20
P 20
Main program
X11
CJ
P 21
Main program
Main program
FEND
FEND
Main program
X10
=
ON
FEND
END
P21
I100
X11
=
OFF
Subroutine
Interrupt prog'
END
b) Multiple occurrences of FEND instructions can be used to separate different subroutines
(see diagram above).
c) The program flow constructions are NOT allowed to be split by an FEND instruction.
d) FEND can never be used after an END instruction.
5-11
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.1.6
Applied Instructions 5
WDT (FNC 07)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
FX0N
FX
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
WDT, WDTP:
1 step
N/A
Can be driven at any time within the main
program body
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
Program steps
D
Used to refresh
the watch dog
timer during a
program scan
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
WDT
FNC 07
(Watch dog
timer refresh)
FX0N
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X0
The WDT instruction refreshes the PLC’s watchdog
timer. The watchdog timer checks that the program
WDT
scan (operation) time does not exceed an arbitrary time
limit. It is assumed that if this time limit is exceeded
there is an error at some point. The PLC will then cease operation to prevent any further errors
from occurring. By causing the watchdog timer to refresh (driving the WDT instruction) the
usable scan (program operation) time is effectively increased.
Main program
Main program pt1
END
Program(pt1) scan
time 60 msec
WDT
Program scan
time 120 msec
Main program pt2
Program(pt2) scan
time 60 msec
END
Points to note:
a) When the WDT instruction is used it will operate on every program scan so long as its input
condition has been made.
To force the WDT instruction to operate for only ONE scan requires the user to program
some form of interlock. FX users have the additional option of using the pulse (P) format of
the WDT instruction, i.e. WDTP.
X0
FX only
All PCs general
operation
X0
WDTP
Excuted in the
first program scan
X0
WDT
Excuted every program scan
b) The watchdog timer has a default setting of 100
msec for FX PLC’s and 200 msec for FX 0 /FX0N/
FX2N PLC’s. This time limit may be customized to
a users own requirement by editing the contents of
data register D8000, the watchdog timer register.
M8000
MOV K150 D8000
5-12
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.1.7
Applied Instructions 5
FOR, NEXT
(FNC 08, 09)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
Operands
Function
S
FOR
FNC 08
(Start of a
FOR-NEXT
loop)
Identifies the start K, H,
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
position and the
T, C, D, V, Z
number of
repeats for the
loop
NEXT
FNC 09
(End of a
FOR-NEXT
loop)
Identifies the end
position for the
loop
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
FOR:
3 step
N/A
NEXT:
Note:
1 step
The FOR-NEXT loop can be nested for 5 levels,
i.e. 5 FOR-NEXT loops are programmed within
each other.
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
FOR K1X0
The FOR and NEXT instructions allow the
specification of an area of program, i.e. the program
enclosed by the instructions, which is to be repeated
S number of times.
NEXT
Points to note:
a) The FOR instruction operates in a 16 bit mode hence, the value of the operand S may be
within the range of 1 to 32,767. If a number between the range -32,768 and 0 (zero) is
specified it is automatically replaced by the value 1, i.e. the FOR-NEXT loop would execute
once.
b) The NEXT instruction has NO operand.
c) The FOR-NEXT instructions must be programmed as a pair e.g. for every FOR instruction
there MUST be an associated NEXT instruction. The same applies to the NEXT
instructions, there MUST be an associated FOR instruction. The FOR-NEXT instructions
must also be programmed in the correct order. This means that programming a loop as a
NEXT-FOR (the paired NEXT instruction proceeds the associated FOR instruction) is NOT
allowed.
Inserting an FEND instruction between the FOR-NEXT instructions, i.e. FOR-FEND- NEXT,
is NOT allowed. This would have the same effect as programming a FOR without a NEXT
instruction, followed by the FEND instruction and a loop with a NEXT and no associated
FOR instruction.
d) A FOR-NEXT loop operates for its set number of times before the main program is allowed
to finish the current program scan.
e) When using FOR-NEXT loops care should be taken not the exceed the PLC’s watchdog
timer setting. The use of the WDT instruction and/or increasing the watchdog timer value is
recommended.
5-13
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Nested FOR-NEXT loops:
FOR-NEXT instructions can be nested for 5 levels. This means that 5 FOR-NEXT loops can be
sequentially programmed within each other.
In the example a 3 level nest has been programmed. As each new FOR-NEXT nest level is
encountered the number of times that loop is repeated is increased by the multiplication of all
of the surrounding/previous loops.
For example, loop C operates 4 times. But within
this loop there is a nested loop, B. For every
c o m p le t e d c y c le o f lo o p C , l o o p B w i l l b e
completely executed, i.e. it will loop D0Z times.
This again applies between loops B and A.
FOR
K4
FOR D 0Z
X10
The total number of times that loop A will operate
for ONE scan of the program will equal;
CJ
P 22
FOR K1X0
1) The number of loop A operations multiplied by
AB C
2) The number of loop B operations multiplied by
3) The number of loop C operations
NEXT
P22
If values were associated to loops A, B and C, e.g.
7, 6 and 4 respectively, the following number of
operations would take place in ONE program
scan:
NEXT
NEXT
Number of loop C operations = 4 times
Number of loop B operations = 24 times (C × B, 4 × 6)
Number of loop A operations = 168 times (C × B × A, 4 × 6 × 7)
Note:
The use of the CJ programming feature, causing the jump to P22 allows the ‘selection’ of
which loop will be processed and when, i.e. if X10 was switched ON, loop A would no longer
operate.
5-14
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-15
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.2
Applied Instructions 5
Move And Compare - Functions 10 to 19
Contents:
Page
CMP ZCP MOV SMOV CML BMOV FMOV XCH BCD BIN -
Compare
Zone Compare
Move
Shift Move
Compliment
Block Move
Fill Move
Exchange
Binary Coded Decimal
Binary
FNC 10
FNC 11
FNC 12
FNC 13
FNC 14
FNC 15
FNC 16
FNC 17
FNC 18
FNC 19
5-17
5-17
5-18
5-18
5-19
5-20
5-21
5-21
5-22
5-22
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-16
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.2.1
Applied Instructions 5
CMP (FNC 10)
Mnemonic
Function
CMP
FNC 10
(Compare)
FX0N
Operands
S2
S1
Compares two
K, H,
data values KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
results of <, = and T, C, D, V, Z
> are given.
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
FX0N
FX
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
Y, M, S
Note:
3 consecutive
devices are
used.
CMP, CMPP:
7 steps
DCMP,
DCMPP:
13 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X0
CMP K 100 C 20 M 0
M0
C20>K100,M0=ON
M1
C20=K100,M1=ON
M2
C20>K100,M2=ON
The data of S1 is compared to the data of S2. The
result is indicated by 3 bit devices specified from
the head address entered as D. The bit devices
indicate:
S2 is less than S1 - bit device D is ON
S2 is equal to S1 - bit device D+1 is ON
S2 is greater than S1 - bit device D+2 is ON
Note: The destination (D) device statuses will be kept even if the CMP instruction is
deactivated. Full algebraic comparisons are used, i.e. -10 is smaller than +2 etc.
5.2.2
ZCP (FNC 11)
Mnemonic
S1
S2
K, H,
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Compares a data
value against a
data range results of <, = and
Note:
> are given.
S1 should be less than S2
PULSE-P
FX0N
Operands
S3
Function
ZCP
FNC 11
(Zone
compare)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
FX0N
FX
FX0N
D
Y, M, S
Note:
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ZCP,Z CPP:
9 steps
3 consecutive DZCP,
DZCPP:
devices are
17 steps
used.
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ S3 ] [ D ]
X0
ZCP K 100 K 120 C 30 M 3
M3
C30<100,K120,M3=ON
M4
K100 C30 K120,M4=ON
M5
C30>K100,K120,M5=ON
The operation is the same as the CMP instruction
except a single data value (S3) is compared against
a data range (S1-S2).
S3 is less than S1and S2- bit device D is ON
S3 is equal to or between S1 and S2 - bit device D+1
is ON
S3 is greater than both S1 and S2 - bit device D+2 is
ON
5-17
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.2.3
Applied Instructions 5
MOV (FNC 12)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
[S]
X0
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
K, H,
KnY, KnM, KnS,
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS, T, C, D, V, Z
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
S
Moves data from
one storage area
to a new storage
area
(Move)
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
MOV
FNC 12
FX0N
MOV, MOVP:
5 steps
DMOV,
DMOVP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
The contents of the source device (S) is copied to
the destination (D) device when the control input is
active. If the MOV instruction is not driven, no
operation takes place.
[D]
MOV H0050 D 10
Note: This instruction has a special programming technique which allows it to mimic the
operation of newer applied instructions when used with older programming tools. See page
1-5 for more details.
5.2.4
SMOV (FNC 13)
Mnemonic
FX
m1
m2
n
Takes elements of K, H
an existing 4 digit Note: available
decimal number
range 1 to 4.
and inserts them into a new 4 digit
number
PULSE-P
FX0N
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
SMOV
FNC 13
(Shift move)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
S
D
K, H,
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T,C,D,V,Z
K, H,
KnY, KnM,
KnS,
T,C,D,V,Z
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SMOV,
SMOVP:
11 steps
Range 0 to 9,999 (decimal) or 0 to 9,999 (BCD)
when M8168 is used see note opposite
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 1:
This instruction copies a specified number of digits
SMOV D 1 K 4 K 2 D 2 K 3
from a 4 digit decimal source (S) and places them at
a specified location within a destination (D) number
(also a 4 digit decimal). The existing data in the
destination is overwritten. The decimal manipulation mode is available to all FX and FX2C units.
Key:
m1 - The source position of the 1st digit to be moved
m2 - The number of source digits to be moved
n- The destination position for the first digit
Note: The selected destination must NOT be smaller than the quantity of source data.
Digit positions are referenced by number: 1= units, 2= tens, 3= hundreds, 4=thousands.
X0
[ S ] m1 m2 [ D ] n
5-18
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 2: (Applicable units are FX units with CPU’s ver 3.07 or greater and FX2C‘s). This
modification of the SMOV operation allows BCD numbers to be manipulated in exactly the
same way as the ‘normal’ SMOV manipulates decimal numbers, i.e. This instruction copies a
specified number of digits from a 4 digit BCD source (S) and places them at a specified
location within a destination (D) number (also a 4 digit BCD number).
To select the BCD mode the SMOV instruction is
coupled with special M coil M8168 which is driven
ON. Please remember that this is a ‘mode’ setting
operation and will be active, i.e. all SMOV
instructions will operate in BCD format until the
mode is reset, i.e. M8168 is forced OFF.
X0
M8168
[ S ] m1 m2 [ D ] n
SMOV D 1 K 4 K 2 D 2 K 3
M8000
M8168
General note:
For more information about ‘decimal’ and ‘Binary Coded Decimal’ (BCD) numbers please
see the section titled ‘Interpreting Word Data’ on page 4-42 for more details.
5.2.5
CML (FNC 14)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
S
D
K, H,
Copies and
inverts the source KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
bit pattern to a
specified
destination
CML
FNC 14
(Compliment)
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
CML,CMLP:
5 steps
DCML,
DCMLP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X0
CML
[S]
[D]
D0
K1Y0
A copy of each data bit within the source device (S) is
inverted and then moved to a designated destination
(D).
This means each occurrence of a ‘1’ in the source data will become a ‘0’ in the destination data
while each source digit which is ‘0’ will become a ‘1’. If the destination area is smaller than the
source data then only the directly mapping bit devices will be processed.
5-19
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.2.6
Applied Instructions 5
BMOV (FNC 15)
Mnemonic
Operands
Function
S
BMOV
Copies a specified
FNC 15
block of multiple
(Block move) data elements to a
new destination
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
X0
FX0N
[S] [D]
D5 D7
D
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T,C,D, V, Z
(RAM) File
registers,
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
n
KnY, KnM,
KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
(RAM) File
registers, see
note d)
FX
K, H
D (FX2C,
FX2N only)
BMOV,
BMOVP:
7 steps
Note:
n≤ 512
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
n
A qu antity o f c ons ecu tive ly o ccu rring d ata
elements can be copied to a new destination. The
source data is identified as a device head address
(S) and a quantity of consecutive data elements (n). This is moved to the destination device
(D) for the same number of elements (n).
BMOV
K3
Points to note:
a) If the quantity of source devices (n) exceeds the actual number of available source devices,
then only those devices which fall in the available range will be used.
b) If the number of source devices exceeds the available space at the destination location,
then only the available destination devices will be written to.
c) The BMOV instruction has a built in automatic feature to prevent overwriting errors from
occurring when the source (S - n) and destination (D -n) data ranges coincide. This is
clearly identified in the following diagram:
(Note: The numbered arrows indicate the order in which the BMOV is processed)
X0
BMOV
D5
D7
K3
D5
D6
D7
3
2
X1
BMOV D 20 D 18 K 4
D 20
D 21 3
D 22
D 23 4
1
D7
D8
D9
1
2
D 18
D 19
D 20
D 21
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
d) Using file registers as the destination devices [D]may only be performed on FX Main
Processing Units (MPUs) with a CPU version 3.07 or greater or on any FX2C or FX2N(C)
MPU.
5-20
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.2.7
Applied Instructions 5
FMOV (FNC 16)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
FX0N
FX
FX0N
Program steps
n
KnY, KnM,
KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
FMOV,FMOVP:7
steps
DFMOV,DFMOVP
:
13 steps
K, H
Note:n≤ 512
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
D
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Copies a single
data device to a
range of
destination
devices
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
S
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
Operands
Function
FMOV
FNC 16
(Fill move)
FX0N
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
The data stored in the source device (S) is copied to
FMOV K 0 D 0 K 10
every device within the destination range. The range
is specified by a device head address (D) and a
quantity of consecutive elements (n). If the specified number of destination devices (n)
exceeds the available space at the destination location, then only the available destination
devices will be written to. Please note that double word (32 bit) operation can only be
performed by FX units with ver 3.07 CPU’s or greater and FX2C units.
[S]
X0
[D]
n
Note: This instruction has a special programming technique which allows it to mimic the
operation of newer applied instructions when used with older programming tools. See page 15 for more details.
5.2.8
XCH (FNC 17)
Mnemonic
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
Program steps
D2
KnY, KnM, KnS, T, C, D, V, Z
Note: when using the byte XCH (i.e.M8160 is
ON) D1 and D2 must be the same device otherwise a program error will occur and
M8067 will be turned ON
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
D1
Data in the
designated
devices is
exchanged
FX0N
Operands
Function
XCH
FNC 17
(Exchange)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
XCH,XCHP:
5 steps
DXCH, DXCHP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 1: (Applicable units: FX and FX2C).The contents of the two destination devices D 1
and D2are swapped, i.e. the complete word devices are exchanged. Ex.
[ D1 ] [ D2 ]
X0
XCH(P) D 1
D 17
Data register
Before XCH
After XCH
D1
20
530
D17
530
20
Operation 2: (Applicable units: FX(2C)) This function is equivalent to FNC 147 SWAP The bytes within
each word of the designated devices D1 are exchanged when ‘byte mode flag’ M8160 is ON. Please note
that the mode will remain active until it is reset, i.e. M8160 is forced OFF. Ex.
X20
M8160
[ D1 ] [ D2 ]
Values are in Hex for clarity Before DXCH
After DXCH
Byte 1
1FH
8BH
Byte 1
8BH
1FH
Byte 1
C4H
35H
Byte 1
35H
C4H
D10
DXCH(P) D 10 D 10
M8000
M8160
D11
5-21
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.2.9
Applied Instructions 5
BCD (FNC18)
Mnemonic
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
S
D
KnX,KnY, KnM, KnS,
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
T, C, D, V, Z
When using M8023 to convert data to scientific format, only double word (32 bit) data registers (D) may
be used. See page 4-46 for more details regarding
floating point format.
Converts binary
numbers to BCD
equivalents /
Converts floating
point data to
scientific format
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
BCD
FNC 18
(Binary coded
decimal)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
BCD, BCDP:
5 steps
DBCD,
DBCDP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 1: (Applicable to all units)
The binary source data (S) is converted into an
BCD D 12 K2Y0
equivalent BCD number and stored at the
destination device (D). If the converted BCD number
exceeds the operational ranges of 0 to 9,999 (16 bit
operation) and 0 to 99,999,999 (32 bit operation) an error will occur.This instruction can be
used to output data directly to a seven segment display.
Operation 2: (Applicable units: FX(2C))
X30
This function is equivalent to FNC 118 EBCD Data
M8023
[S] [D]
(S)is converted from ‘floating point’ format to
DBCD D 20 D 42
‘scientific format’ (D). This instruction requires
M8000
double word (32 bit) operation and data registers as
M8023
devices (S)and (D)to operate correctly.
[S]
X0
5.2.10
[D]
BIN (FNC 19)
Mnemonic
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
S
D
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS, KnY, KnM, KnS,
Converts BCD
T, C, D, V, Z
T, C, D, V, Z
numbers to their
binary equivalent / When using M8023 to convert data to floating
Converts scientific point format, only double word (32 bit) data regformat data to float- isters (D) may be used. See page 4-46 for more
ing point format
details regarding floating point format.
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
BIN
FNC 19
(Binary)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
Program steps
BIN, BINP:
5 steps
DBIN, DBINP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 1: (Applicable to all units)
The BCD source data (S) is converted into an
BIN K2X0 D 13
e quiva le nt b in ary n um ber and store d a t the
destination device (D). If the source data is not
provided in a BCD format an error will occur. This instruction can be used to read in data
directly from thumbwheel switches.
Operation 2: (Applicable units: FX(2C))
X10
This function is equivalent to FNC 119 EBIN Data
M8023
(S) is converted from ‘scientific format’ to ‘floating
[S] [D]
point’ format (D). This instruction requires double
DBIN D 10 D 12
word (32 bit) operation and data registers as
M8000
M8023
devices (S)and (D)to operate correctly.
X0
[S]
[D]
5-22
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-23
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.3
Applied Instructions 5
Arithmetic And Logical Operations Functions 20 to 29
Contents:
ADD SUB MUL DIV INC DEC WAND WOR WXOR NEG -
Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division
Increment
Decrement
Word AND
Word OR
Word Exclusive OR
Negation
Page
5-25
5-26
5-27
5-28
5-29
5-29
5-30
5-30
5-31
5-31
FNC 20
FNC 21
FNC 22
FNC 23
FNC 24
FNC 25
FNC 26
FNC 27
FNC 28
FNC 29
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-24
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.3.1
Applied Instructions 5
ADD (FNC 20)
Mnemonic
S1
The value of the
two source
devices is added
and the result
stored in the destination device
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
FX0N
S2
K, H, KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
KnY, KnM, KnS, ADD, ADDP:
T, C, D, V, Z
7 steps
When using M8023 to add floating point data,
only double word (32 bit) data registers (D) or DADD,
DADDP:
constants (K/H) may be used. See page 4-46
for more details regarding floating point format. 13 steps
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
ADD
FNC 20
(Addition)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Zero M8020
FLAGS
Borrow M8021
Carry M8022
Operation 1: (Applicable to all units)
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X0
ADD
D 10 D 12 D 14
The data contained within the source devices
(S1,S2) is combined and the total is stored at the
specified destination device (D).
Points to note:
a) All calculations are algebraically processed, i.e. 5 + (-8)= -3.
b) The same device may be used as a source (S1 or S2) and as the destination (D). If this is
the case then the ADD instruction would actually operate continuously. This means on
every scan the instruction would add the result of the last scan to the second source device.
To prevent this from happening the pulse modifier should be used or an interlock should be
programmed.
c) If the result of a calculation is “0" then a special auxiliary flag, M8020 is set ON.
d) If the result of an operation exceeds 32,767 (16 bit limit) or 2,147,483,647 (32 bit limit) the
carry flag, M8022 is set ON. If the result of an operation exceeds -32,768 or -2,147,483,648
the borrow flag, M8021 is set ON. When a result exceeds either of the number limits, the
appropriate flag is set ON (M8021 or M8022) and a portion of the carry/borrow is stored in
the destination device. The mathematical sign of this stored data is reflective of the number
limit which has been exceeded, i.e. when -32,768 is exceeded negative numbers are stored
in the destination device but if 32,767 was exceeded positive numbers would be stored at
D.
e) If the destination location is smaller than the obtained result, then only the portion of the
result which directly maps to the destination area will be written, i.e if 25 (decimal) was the
result, and it was to be stored at K1Y4 then only Y4 and Y7 would be active. In binary terms
this is equivalent to a decimal value of 9 a long way short of the real result of 25!
Continued over the page....
5-25
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
Operation 2: (Applicable units: FX(2C))
This function is equivalent to FNC 120 EADD.
M8023
When ‘floating point mode flag’ M8023 is active, i.e.
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
ON, DADD and DADDP instructions can be used to
DADDP H3F D 4 D 4
perform floating point additions.
M8000
When M8023 is reset, i.e. OFF floating point
M8023
manipulation will not occur. Constants (K/H) and
floating point numbers (stored in double data
registers D) can be added in any configuration. The
constants (K/H) will automatically be converted to the ‘floating point format’ for the addition
operation. Answers for an operation can only be stored in double (32 bit) data registers. Items a)
and b) above are also valid for this operating mode.
X10
FX2N Support for floating point operations
Note: The use of M8023 is not supported in FX2N units.
The appropriate dedicated floating point instruction should be used instead E.g. Instead of
DADD with M8023 ON, use FNC 120, DEADD.
- See section 5.11
5.3.2
SUB (FNC 21)
Mnemonic
FX
FX0N
FX
KnY, KnM, KnS, SUB, SUBP:
T, C, D, V, Z
7steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
When using M8023 to subtract floating point
data, only double word (32 bit) data registers
(D) or constants (K/H) may be used. See page
4-46 for more details regarding floating point
format.
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X0
FX
D
K, H, KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
S2
S1
One source
device
is subtracted from
the other - the
result is stored in
the destination
device
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
SUB
FNC 21
(Subtract)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
DSUB,
DSUBP:
13 steps
Zero M8020
FLAGS
Borrow M8021
Carry M8022
Operation 1: (Applicable to all units)
The data contained within the source device, S2 is
subtracted from the contents of source device S1.
The result or remainder of this calculation is stored
in the destination device D. Note: the ‘Points to note’, under the ADD instruction (previous
page) can also be similarly applied to the subtract instruction.
SUB
D 10 D 12 D 14
Operation 2: (Applicable units: FX(2C)) This function is equivalent to FNC 121 ESUB. The
information regarding ‘Operation2:’ of the ADD instruction apply similarly to this second
operation of the SUB instruction (with the exception of a subtraction being performed instead
of an addition). Again, only constants and double data words can be manipulated with only
DSUB, DSUBP instruction formats being valid.
5-26
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.3.3
Applied Instructions 5
MUL (FNC 22)
Mnemonic
Operands
Function
MUL
FNC 22
(Multiplica
-tion)
FX0N
FX0(S)
S1
Multiplies the two
source devices
together the result
is stored in the
destination device
S2
K, H, KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
See page 4-46 for more
details regarding floating
point format.
D
KnY,KnM,KnS,
T, C, D, Z(V)
Note: Z(V) may
NOT be used
for 32 bit operation
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
MUL, MULP:
7steps
DMUL,
DMULP:
13 steps
When using M8023 to subtract floating point
data, only double word (32 bit) data registers
(D) or constants (K/H) may be used.
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X0
MUL
D0
D2
D4
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 1: (Applicable to all units)
The contents of the two source devices (S1, S2)
are multiplied together and the result is stored at
the destination device (D). Note the normal rules of
algebra apply.
Points to note:
a) When operating the MUL instruction in 16bit mode, two 16 bit data sources are multiplied
together. They produce a 32 bit result. The device identified as the destination address is
the lower of the two devices used to store the 32 bit result. Using the above example with
some test data:
5 (D0) × 7 (D2) = 35 - The value 35 is stored in (D4, D5) as a single 32 bit word.
b) When operating the MUL instruction in 32 bit mode, two 32 bit data sources are multiplied
together. They produce a 64 bit result. The device identified as the destination address is
the lower of the four devices used to store the 64 bit result.
c) If the location of the destination device is smaller than the obtained result, then only the
portion of the result which directly maps to the destination area will be written, i.e if a result
of 72 (decimal) is to be stored at K1Y4 then only Y7 would be active. In binary terms this is
equivalent to a decimal value of 8, a long way short of the real result of 72!
Viewing 64 bit numbers
• It is currently impossible to monitor the contents of a 64 bit result. However, the result can
be monitored in two smaller,32 bit, blocks, i.e. a 64 bit result is made up of the following
parts: (upper 32 bits) × 2 32 + (lower 32 bits).
Operation 2: (Applicable units: FX(2C))
This function is equivalent to FNC 122 EMUL.
M8023
When ‘floating point mode flag’ M8023 is active,
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
i.e.
ON, DMUL and DMULP instructions can be
DMULP D 0 K 40 D 4
used
to perform floating point multiplications.
M8000
M8023
When M8023 is reset, i.e. OFF floating point
manipulation will not occur. Constants (K/H) and
floating point numbers (stored in double data
registers D) can be used in any configuration. The constants (K/H) will automatically be
converted to the ‘floating point format’ for the operation. Answers for an operation are stored
(completely) in one pair of double (32 bits) data registers and not 2 pairs (64 bits) as used in
‘Operation 1:’. The normal rules of algebra apply to floating point multiplication.
X10
5-27
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.3.4
Applied Instructions 5
DIV (FNC 23)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
DIV
FNC 23
(Division)
FX0N
S1
Divides one
source value by
another the result
is stored in the
destination device
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
D
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
K, H, KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,T, KnY, KnM, KnS, DIV,DIVP:
C, D, V, Z
T, C, D, Z(V)
7steps
See page 4-46 for more
details regarding floating
point format.
Note: Z(V) may
NOT be used for DDIV,
32 bit operation DDIVP:
13 steps
When using M8023 to subtract floating point
data, only double word (32 bit) data registers
(D) or constants (K/H) may be used.used to
perform
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 1: (Applicable to all units)
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X0
DIV
D0
D2
D4
The primary source (S1) is divided by the
secondary source (S2). The result is stored in the
destination (D). Note the normal rules of algebra
apply.
Points to note:
a) When operating the DIV instruction in 16bit mode, two 16 bit data sources are divided into
each other. They produce two 16 bit results. The device identified as the destination address
is the lower of the two devices used to store the these results.
This storage device will actually contain a record of the number of whole times S2 will divide
into S1 (the quotient).
The second, following destination register contains the remained left after the last whole
division (the remainder). Using the previous example with some test data:
51 (D0) ÷ 10 (D2) = 5(D4) 1(D5)
This result is interpreted as 5 whole divisions with 1 left over (5 × 10 + 1 = 51).
b) When operating the DIV instruction in 32 bit mode, two 32 bit data sources are divided into
each other. They produce two 32 bit results. The device identified as the destination address
is the lower of the two devices used to store the quotient and the following two devices are
used to store the remainder, i.e. if D30 was selected as the destination of 32 bit division
operation then D30, D31 would store the quotient and D32, D33 would store the remainder.
If the location of the destination device is smaller than the obtained result, then only the
portion of the result which directly maps to the destination area will be written. If bit devices
are used as the destination area, no remainder value is calculated.
c) If the value of the source device S2 is 0 (zero) then an operation error is executed and the
operation of the DIV instruction is cancelled.
Operation 2: (Applicable units FX (2C) ) This function is equivalent to FNC 123 EDIV. The
information regarding ‘Operation2:’ of the MUL instruction apply similarly to this second
operation of the DIV instruction (with the exception of a division being performed instead of a
multiplication). Again, only constants and double data words can be manipulated with only
DDIV, DDIVP instruction formats being valid. Answers for an operation are stored
(completely) in one pair of double (32 bits) data registers, i.e. answers are not split in to
quotient and remainder as in ‘Operation 1:’. The normal rules of algebra apply to floating
point division.
5-28
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.3.5
Applied Instructions 5
INC (FNC 24)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Standard V,Z rules apply for 32 bit operation
FX0N
FX
INC,INCP:
3 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[D]
X0
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
DINC,
DINCP:
5 steps
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
Program steps
D
The designated
device is
incremented by 1
on every
execution of the
instruction
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
INC
FNC 24
(Increment)
FX0N
On every execution of the instruction the device
specified as the destination D, has its current value
incremented (increased) by a value of 1.
In 16 bit operation, when +32,767 is reached, the
next increment will write a value of -32,768 to the destination device.
In 32 bit operation, when +2,147,483,647 is reached the next increment will write a value of 2,147,483,648 to the destination device.
In both cases there is no additional flag to identify this change in the counted value.
INC D 10
5.3.6
DEC (FNC 24)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
FX0N
Operands
Function
D
KnY, KnM, KnS,
DEC
The designated
T, C, D, V, Z
FNC 25
device is
(Decrement) decremented by 1 Standard V,Z rules apply for 32 bit operation
on every
execution of the
instruction
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
X1
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
[D]
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DEC,DECP:
3 steps
DDEC,
DDECP:
5 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
On every execution of the instruction the device
specified as the destination D, has its current value
decremented (decreased) by a value of 1.
In 16 bit operation, when -32,768 is reached the
next increment will write a value of +32,767 to the destination device.
In 32 bit operation, when -2,147,483,648 is reached the next increment will write a value of
+2,147,483,647 to the destination device.
In both cases there is no additional flag to identify this change in the counted value.
DEC D 10
5-29
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.3.7
Applied Instructions 5
WAND (FNC 26)
Mnemonic
FX
S1
A logical AND is
performed on the
source devices result stored at
destination
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
K, H,
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
WAND
FNC 26
(Logical
word AND)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
KnY, KnM, KnS, WAND,WANDP:
T, C, D, V, Z
7 steps
DAND,
DANDP:
13 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X0
The bit patterns of the two source devices are
analyzed (the contents of S 2is compared against
the contents of S 1). The result of the logical AND
analysis is stored in the destination device (D).
The following rules are used to determine the result of a logical AND operation. This takes
place for every bit contained within the source devices:
General rule: (S1) Bit n WAND (S2) Bit n = (D) Bit n
1 WAND 1 = 1
0 WAND 1 = 0
1 WAND 0 = 0
0 WAND 0 = 0
WAND D 10 D 12 D 14
5.3.8
WOR (FNC 27)
Mnemonic
S1
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
D
K,H,
KnX,KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
A logical OR is
performed on the
source devices result stored at
destination
PULSE-P
FX0N
Operands
Function
WOR
FNC 27
(Logical
word OR)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
KnY, KnM, KnS, WOR,WORP:
T, C, D, V, Z
7 steps
DOR,
DORP:
13 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X1
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
The bit patterns of the two source devices are
analyzed (the contents of S 2is compared against
the contents of S 1). The result of the logical OR
analysis is stored in the destination device (D).
The following rules are used to determine the result of a logical OR operation. This takes place
for every bit contained within the source devices:
General rule: (S1) Bit n WOR (S2) Bit n = (D) Bit n
1 WOR 1 = 1
0 WOR 1 = 1
1 WOR 0 = 1
0 WOR 0 = 0
WOR D 10 D 12 D 14
5-30
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.3.9
Applied Instructions 5
WXOR (FNC 28)
Mnemonic
S1
A logical XOR is
performed on the
source devices result stored at
destination
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
K, H
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
WXOR
FNC 28
(Logical
exclusive
OR)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
KnY, KnM, KnS, WXOR,
T, C, D, V, Z
WXORP:
7 steps
DXOR,DXORP
13 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X2
The bit patterns of the two source devices are
analyzed (the contents of S2 is compared against
the contents of S1). The result of the logical XOR
analysis is stored in the destination device (D).
The following rules are used to determine the result of a logical XOR operation. This takes
place for every bit contained within the source devices:
General rule: (S1)Bit n WXOR (S2)Bit n = (D)Bit n
1 WXOR 1 = 0
0 WXOR 1 = 1
1 WXOR 0 = 1
0 WXOR 0 = 0
WXOR D 10 D 12 D 14
5.3.10
NEG (FNC 29)
Mnemonic
PULSE-P
X0
FX
D
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Logically inverts
the contents of
the designated
device
FX0N
Operands
Function
NEG
FNC 29
(Negation)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
[D]
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
NEG,NEGP:
3 steps
DNEG,
DNEGP:
5 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
The bit pattern of the selected device is inverted.
This means any occurrence of a ‘1’ becomes a ‘0’
and any occurrence of a ‘0’ will be written as a ‘1’.
When this is complete, a further binary 1 is added to the bit pattern. The result is the total
logical sign change of the selected devices contents, e.g. a positive number will become a
negative number or a negative number will become a positive.
NEG D 10
5-31
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
MEMO
5-32
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-33
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.4
Applied Instructions 5
Rotation And Shift - Functions 30 to 39
Contents:
Page
ROR -
Rotation Right
FNC 30
5-35
ROL -
Rotation Left
FNC 31
5-35
RCR -
Rotation Right with Carry
FNC 32
5-36
RCL -
Rotation Left with Carry
FNC 33
5-36
SFTR -
(Bit) Shift Right
FNC 34
5-37
SFTL -
(Bit) Shift Left
FNC 35
5-37
WSFR -
Word Shift Right
FNC 36
5-38
WSFL -
Word Shift Left
FNC 37
5-38
SFWR -
Shift Register Write
FNC 38
5-39
SFRD -
Shift Register Read
FNC 39
5-40
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-34
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.4.1
Applied Instructions 5
ROR (FNC 30)
Mnemonic
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
K, H,
ROR, RORP:
5 steps
Note:
16 bit operation n≤ 16
32 bit operation n≤ 32
DROR,
DRORP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
Program steps
n
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Note:
16 bit operation
Kn=K4,
32 bit operation Kn=K8
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
D
The bit pattern of
the destination
device is rotated
‘n’ places to the
right on every
execution
FX0N
Operands
Function
ROR
FNC 30
(Rotation
right)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS Carry M8022
Operation:
X0
[D]
[n]
ROR D 0
K4
1111111100000000
M8022
After 1 rotation
Carry
MSB
0000111111110000
M8022
5.4.2
LSB
0
The bit pattern of the destination device (D) is rotated
n bit places to the right on every operation of the
instruction.
The status of the last bit rotated is copied to the carry
flag M8022.
The example shown left is based on the instruction
noted above it, where the bit pattern represents the
contents of D0.
ROL (FNC 31)
Mnemonic
PULSE-P
FX0N
S
The bit pattern of
the destination
device is rotated
‘n’ places to the
left on every
execution
FX
FX0N
D
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Note:
16 bit operation
Kn= K4,
32 bit operation
Kn= K8
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
ROL
FNC 31
(Rotation
left)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
FX0N
Note:
16 bit operation n ≤ 16
32 bit operation n≤ 32
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ROL,ROLP:
5 steps
K, H,
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
DROL,
DROLP:
7 steps
FLAGS Carry M8022
Operation:
[D]
ROL D 0
X0
[n]
K4
1111111100000000
M8022
MSB Carry
After 1 rotation
1111000000001111
1
M8022
LSB
The bit pattern of the destination device (D) is rotated
n bit places to the left on every operation of the
instruction.
The status of the last bit rotated is copied to the carry
flag M8022.
The example shown left is based on the instruction
noted above it, where the bit pattern represents the
contents of D0.
5-35
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.4.3
Applied Instructions 5
RCR (FNC 32)
Mnemonic
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
K, H,
RCR,RCRP:
5 steps
Note:
16 bit operation n≤ 16
32 bit operation n≤ 32
DRCR,
DRCRP:
7 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
Program steps
n
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Note:
16 bit operation
Kn= K4,
32 bit operation
Kn=K8
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
D
The contents of
the destination
device are rotated
right with 1 bit
extracted to the
carry flag
FX0N
Operands
Function
RCR
FNC 32
(Rotation
right with
carry)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS Carry M8022
Operation:
X0
[D]
[n]
RCR D 0
K4
The bit pattern of the destination device (D)is rotated
n bit places to the right on every operation of the
instruction.
The status of the last bit rotated is moved into the
carry flag M8022. On the following operation of the
instruction M8022 is the first bit to be moved back
into the destination device.
The example shown left is based on the instruction
noted above it, where the bit pattern represents the
contents of D0.
1111111100000000
M8022
Carry
0001111111110000
M8022
5.4.4
0
RCL (FNC 33)
Mnemonic
PULSE-P
FX0N
S
The contents of
the destination
device are
rotated
left with 1 bit
extracted to the
carry flag
FX0N
D
K, H,
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
RCL, RCLP:
5 steps
Note:
Note:
16 bit operation Kn= K4, 16 bit operation n≤ 16
32 bit operation n≤ 32
32 bit operation Kn= K8
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
FX0N
Operands
Function
RCL
FNC 33
(Rotation
left with
carry)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
DRCL,
DRCLP:
9 steps
FLAGS Carry M8022
Operation:
[D]
RCL D 0
X0
[n]
K4
1111111100000000
M8022
Carry
1111000000000111
1
M8022
The bit pattern of the destination device (D)is rotated
n bit places to the left on every operation of the
instruction.
The status of the last bit rotated is moved into the
carry flag M8022. On the following operation of the
instruction M8022 is the first bit to be moved back
into the destination device.
The example shown left is based on the instruction
noted above it, where the bit pattern represents the
contents of D0.
5-36
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.4.5
Applied Instructions 5
SFTR (FNC 34)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Operands
Function
S
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
n2
n1
D
X, Y, M, S
SFTR
The status of the
FNC 34
source devices are
(Bit shift right) copied to a
controlled bit stack
moving the existing
data to the right
FX0(s)
FX0N
Y, M, S
K,H,
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SFTR,SFTRP:
9 steps
Note:
FX users:
n2 ≤ n1 ≤ 1024
FX0,FX0N users:
n2 ≤ n1 ≤ 512
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S] [D] [n1] [n2]
X6
SFTR X 0 M 0 K 16 K 4
X3 X2 X1 X0
M15 M14 M13M12
5.4.6
M11 M10 M9 M8
M7 M6 M5 M4
M3 M2 M1 M0
The instruction copies n 2 source devices to a bit
stack of length n1. For every new addition of n2 bits,
the existing data within the bit stack is shifted n2 bits
to the right. Any bit data moving to a position
exceeding the n1 limit is diverted to an overflow area.
The bit shifting operation will occur every time the
instruction is processed unless it is modified with
either the pulse suffix or a controlled interlock.
SFTL (FNC 35)
Mnemonic
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
S
n1
D
The status of the
X, Y, M, S Y, M, S
source devices are
copied to a
controlled bit stack
moving the existing
data to the left
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
SFTL
FNC 35
(Bit shift left)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
n2
K,H,
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SFTL,SFTLP:
9steps
Note:
FX users: n2 ≤ n1 ≤ 1024
FX0,FX0N users:
n2 ≤ n1 ≤ 512
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S] [D] [n1] [n2]
X7
SFTLX 10 Y 0 K 12 K 3
X12 X11 X10
Y13 Y12 Y11
Y10 Y7 Y6
Y5 Y4 Y3
Y2 Y1 Y0
The instruction copies n 2 source devices to a bit
stack of length n1. For every new addition of n2 bits,
the existing data within the bit stack is shifted n2bits
to the le ft. An y bit data moving to a p osition
exceeding the n1 limit is diverted to an overflow area.
The bit shifting operation will occur every time the
instruction is processed unless it is modified with
either the pulse suffix or a controlled interlock.
5-37
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.4.7
Applied Instructions 5
WSFR (FNC 36)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
S
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
FX0N
FX
n2
n1
D
KnX, KnY, KnY,KnM,
The value of the
source devices are KnM,KnS, KnS,
T, C, D
T, C, D
copied to a
controlled word
stack moving the
existing data to the
right
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
WSFR
FNC 36
(Word
shift right)
FX0N
K,H,
Note:
FX users: n2 ≤ n1 ≤ 512
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
WSFR,
WSFRP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
X0
[D]
WSFR D 0
D2
D3
(5)
D1
D 10 K 16
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
D0
D25 D24 D23 D22 D21
D
D
D
D
D
13
17
21
25
3
-
D
D
D
D
D
10
14
18
22
0
The instruction copies n2 source devices to a word
stack of length n1. For each addition of n2words, the
existing data within the word stack is shifted n2words
to the right. Any word data moving to a position
exceeding the n1limit is diverted to an overflow area.
The word shifting operation will occur every time the
instruction is processed unless it is modified with
either the pulse suffix or a controlled interlock.
Note: when using bit devices as source (S) and
destination (D) the Kn value must be equal.
K4
D
D
D
D
13
17
21
25
-
D
D
D
D
10
14
18
22
D14 D13 D12 D11 D10
D18 D17
(4)
5.4.8
[ n1 ] [ n2 ]
(3)
(1)
(2)
WSFL (FNC 37)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
S
n1
D
KnX, KnY, KnY,KnM, K,H,
The value of the
source devices are KnM,KnS, KnS,
T, C, D
T, C, D
copied to a
Note:
controlled word
FX users:
stack moving the
n2 ≤ n1 ≤ 512
existing data to
the left
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
WSFL
FNC 37
(Word
shift left)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0N
FX
n2
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
WSFL,
WSFLP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
X0
[D]
WSFR D 0
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
D
D
D
D
D
25
21
17
13
3
-
D
D
D
D
D
22
18
14
10
0
D25 D24 D23 D22 D21
(1)
(2)
D
D
D
D
25
21
17
13
-
[ n1 ] [ n2 ]
D 10 K 16
D
D
D
D
22
18
14
10
D18 D17
(3)
D3
K4
D2
D1
D0
D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 (5)
(4)
The instruction copies n2 source devices to a word
stack of length n1. For each addition of n2words, the
existing data within the word stack is shifted n2words
to the left. Any word data moving to a position
exceeding the n1 limit is diverted to an overflow area.
The word shifting operation will occur every time the
instruction is processed unless it is modified with
either the pulse suffix or a controlled interlock.
Note: when using bit devices as source (S) and
destination (D) the Kn value must be equal.
5-38
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.4.9
Applied Instructions 5
SFWR (FNC 38)
Operands
Mnemonic
Function
SFWR
FNC 38
(Shift register
write)
This instruction
creates and builds
a FIFO stack n
devices long -must
be used with
SFRD FNC 39
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX0N
FX0(S)
S
K, H,
KnX, KnY,
KnM,KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D
FX
KnY, KnM,
KnS,
T, C, D,
N
K, H,
Note:
2≤ n≤ 512
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SFWR,
SFWRP:
7 steps
FLAGS Carry M8022
Operation:
X0
[S]
D0
[S]
[D]
[n]
SFWR D 0
D1
K 10
[n] = 10
D 10 D 9 D 8 D 7 D 6 D 5 D 4 D 3 D 2 D 1
(3) (2) (1)
The contents of the source device (S) are written to
the FIFO stack. The position of insertion into the
stack is automatically calculated by the PLC.
The destination device (D) is the head address of
the FIFO stack. The contents of D identify where the
next record will be stored (as an offset from D+1).
If the contents of D exceed the value “n-1” (n is the
length of the FIFO stack) then insertion into
the FIFO stack is stopped. The carry flag M8022 is
turned ON to identify this situation.
Points to note:
a) FIFO is an abbreviation for ‘First-In/ First-OUT’.
b) Although n devices are assigned for the FIFO stack, only n-1 pieces of information may be
written to that stack. This is because the head address device (D) takes the first available
register to store the information regarding the next data insertion point into the FIFO stack.
c) Before starting to use a FIFO stack ensure that the contents of the head address register
(D) are equal to ‘0’ (zero).
d) This instruction should be used in conjunction with SFRD FNC 39. The n parameter in both
instructions should be equal.
5-39
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.4.10
Applied Instructions 5
SFRD (FNC 39)
Mnemonic
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
[D] [n]
SFRD D 1
D 20 K 10
[n] = 10
D 10 D 9 D 8 D 7 D 6 D 5 D 4 D 3 D 2 D 1
KnY, KnM,
KnS,
T, C, D,
KnY,
KnM,KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
n
K,H,
Note:
2≤ n≤ 512
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
[S]
X1
D
KnY, KnM,
KnS,
T, C, D,
KnY,
KnM,KnS,
T, C, D
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
S
This instruction
reads and
reduces FIFO
stack- must be
used with SFWR
FNC 38
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
SFRD
FNC 39
(Shift
register read)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SFRD,
SFRDP:
7 steps
FLAGS Zero M8020
Operation:
[D]
D 20
The source device (S) identifies the head address
of the FIFO stack. Its contents reflect the last entry
point of data on to the FIFO stack, i.e. where the
end of the FIFO is (current position).
This instruction reads the first piece of data from
the FIFO stack (register S+1), moves all of the data
within the stack ‘up’ one position to fill the read
area and decrements the contents of the FIFO
head address (S) by 1. The read data is written to
the destination device (D).
When the contents of the source device (S) are
equal to ‘0’ (zero), i.e. the FIFO stack is empty, the
flag M8020 is turned ON.
Points to note:
a) FIFO is an abbreviation for ‘First-In/ First-OUT’.
b) Only n-1 pieces of data may be read from a FIFO stack. This is because the stack requires
that the first register, the head address (S) is used to contain information about the current
length of the FIFO stack.
c) This instruction will always read the source data from the register S+1.
d) This instruction should be used in conjunction with SFWR FNC 38. The n parameter in both
instructions should be equal.
5-40
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-41
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.5
Applied Instructions 5
Data Operation - Functions 40 to 49
Contents:
Page
ZRST -
Zone Reset
FNC 40
5-43
DECO -
Decode
FNC 41
5-43
ENCO -
Encode
FNC 42
5-44
SUM -
The Sum Of Active Bits
FNC 43
5-45
BON -
Check Specified Bit Status
FNC 44
5-45
MEAN -
Mean
FNC 45
5-46
ANS -
(Timed) Annunciator Set
FNC 46
5-47
ANR -
Annunciator Reset
FNC 47
5-47
SQR -
Square Root
FNC 48
5-48
FLT -
Float, (Floating Point)
FNC 49
5-49
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-42
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.5.1
Applied Instructions 5
ZRST (FNC 40)
Mnemonic
S
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
Y, M,S,
ZRST,
T, C, D
ZRSTP:
Note:
5 steps
D1must be less than or equal ( ≤ ) to D2.
Standard and High speed counters cannot be mixed.
Used to reset a
range of like
devices in one
operation
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
ZRST
FNC 40
(Zone
Reset)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[D1]
M8002
[D2]
The range of devices, inclusive of those specified as
the two destinations are reset, i.e. for data devices the
current value is set to 0 (zero) and for bit elements,
the devices are turned OFF, i.e. also set to 0 (zero).
ZRST M 500 M 599
The specified device range cannot contain mixed device types, i.e. C000 specified as the first
destination device (D1) cannot be paired with T199 as the second destination device (D2). When
resetting counters, standard and high speed counters cannot be reset as part of the same
range.
If D1is greater than (>) D2 then only device D1 is reset.
5.5.2
DECO (FNC 41)
Mnemonic
S
Source data value
Q identifies the
Qth bit of the
destination device
which will be
turned ON
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
FX0N
D
n
K, H,
K, H,
Y, M, S,
X, Y, M,S, T, C, D
T, C, D, V,
Z
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
DECO
FNC 41
(Decode)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
Note:
D= Y,M,S then n range =
1-8
D= T,C,D then
n range = 1-4
n= 0, then no
processing
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DECO,
DECOP:
7 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X4
[S]
[D]
[n]
DECO X 0 M 10 K 3
X2 X1 X0
0
1
1
4
2
1
+
=3
7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. 0.
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
M17 M16 M15 M14 M13 M12 M11 M10
Source data is provided by a combination of operands
S and n. Where S specifies the head address of the
data and n, the number of consecutive bits. The
source data is read as a single number (binary to
decimal conversion) Q. The source number Q is the
location of a bit within the destination device (D) which
will be turned ON (see example opposite). When the
destination device is a data device n must be within
the range 1 to 4 as there are only 16 available
destination bits in a single data word. All unused data
bits within the word are set to 0.
5-43
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.5.3
Applied Instructions 5
ENCO (FNC 42)
Mnemonic
S
D
n
X, Y, M, S, T, C, D, V,
Then location of
the highest active T, C, D, V, Z
Z
bit is stored as a
numerical position
from the head
address
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
ENCO
FNC 42
(Encode)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
K, H,
Note:
S=X, Y, M, S then
n range=1-8
S= T,C,D then
n range = 1-4
n = 0, then no
processing
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ENCO,
ENCOP:
7 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
[D]
[n]
ENCO M 10 D 10
K3
X5
7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. 0.
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
M17 M16 M15 M14 M13 M12 M11 M10
The highest active bit within the readable range has
its location noted as a numbered offset from the
source head address (S). This is stored in the
destination register (D).
D10
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
. . 4 2 1
+
=3
Points to note:
a) The readable range is defined by the largest number storable in a binary format within the
number of destination storage bits specified by n, i.e. if n was equal to 4 bits a maximum
number within the range 0 to 15 can be written to the destination device. Hence, if bit
devices were being used as the source data, 16 bit devices would be used, i.e. the head bit
device and 15 further, consecutive devices.
b) If the stored destination number is 0 (zero) then the source head address bit is ON, i.e. the
active bit has a 0 (zero) offset from the head address. However, if NO bits are ON within the
source area, 0 (zero) is written to the destination device and an error is generated.
c) When the source device is a data or word device n must be taken from the range 1 to 4 as
there are only 16 source bits available within a single data word.
5-44
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.5.4
Applied Instructions 5
SUM (FNC 43)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
S
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
SUM,SUMP:
7 steps
DSUM,
DSUMP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
Program steps
D
K, H,
The number
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
(quantity) of
active bits in the
T, C, D, V, Z
source data is
stored in the
destination device
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
SUM
FNC 43
(Sum of
active bits)
FX0N
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS Zero M8020
Operation:
X0
SUM
[S]
[D]
D0
D2
The number of active (ON) bits within the source
device (S), i.e. bits which have a value of “1" are
counted. The count is stored in the destination
register (D). If a double word format is used, both the
source and destination devices use 32 bit, double
registers. The destination device will always have its
upper 16 bits set to 0 (zero) as the counted value can
never be more than 32.
If no bits are ON then zero flag, M8020 is set.
D0
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1
b15
b0
D2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
. . 8 4 2 1
5.5.5
BON (FNC 44)
Mnemonic
S
The status of the
specified bit in the
source device is
indicated at the
destination
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
FX0N
D
n
Y, M, S
K, H,
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V,
Z
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
BON
FNC 44
(Check
specified
bit status)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
K,H,
Note:
16 bit operation
n=0 to 15
32 bit operation
n=0 to 31
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
BON, BONP:
7steps
DBONP,
DBON:
13 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X0
[S]
[D]
[n]
BON D 10 M 0
K 15
D 10
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
b0
b15
b15 = 1, M0 = 1
0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
b15 = 0, M0 = 0
A single bit position (n) is specified from within a
source device/area (S). n could be regarded as a
specified offset from the source head address (S),
i.e. 0 (zero) being the first device (a 0 offset) where
as an offset of 15 would actually be the 16th device.
If the identified bit becomes active, i.e. ON, the
destination device (D) is activated to “flag” the new
status.
The destination device could be said to act as a
mirror to the status of the selected bit source.
5-45
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.5.6
Applied Instructions 5
MEAN (FNC 45)
Mnemonic
FX0N
S
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T, C, D
Calculates the
mean of a range
of devices
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
MEAN
FNC 45
(Mean)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
KnY, KnM,
KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
n
K,H,
Note:
n= 1 to 64
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
MEAN,
MEANP:
7 steps
DMEAN,
DMEANP:
13steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
[D]
[n]
MEAN D 0
D 10
K3
X0
General rule
Sn
D=
Σ S = ( S0 + S1 + < + Sn )
S0
n
n
Example
D10=
(D0) + (D1) + (Dn)
3
The range of source data is defined by operands
Sand n. S is the head address of the source data
and n specifies the number of consecutive source
devices used.
The value of all the devices within the source
range is summed and then divided by the number
of devices summed, i.e. n. This generates an
in te g e r m e a n v a l u e w h i c h i s s to r e d in t h e
destination device (D). The remainder of the
calculated mean is ignored.
Points to note:
If the source area specified is actually smaller than the physically available area, then only the
available devices are used. The actual value of n used to calculate the mean will reflect the
used, available devices. However, the value for n which was entered into the instruction will
still be displayed. This can cause confusion as the mean value calculated manually using this
original n value will be different from that which is displayed.
If the value of nis specified outside of the stated range (1 to 64) an error is generated.
5-46
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.5.7
Applied Instructions 5
ANS (FNC 46)
Mnemonic
FX0N
FX
S
This instruction
starts a timer.
Once timed out
the selected
annunciator flag is
set ON
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D
S
Note:
annunciator
range S900 to
S999
T
Note:
available
range
T0 to T199
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
ANS
FNC 46
(Timed
annunciator
set)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
n
ANS:
7 steps
K
Note:
n range 1 to
32,767 - in
units of
100msec
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X0
X1
[S]
[n]
[D]
T0
K 10 S900
This instruction, when energized, starts a timer (S)
for n,100 msec. When the timer completes its cycle
the assigned annunciator (D) is set ON.
If the instruction is switched OFF during or after completion of the timing cycle the timer is
automatically reset. However, the current status of the annunciator coil remains unchanged.
ANS
Note: This is only one method of driving annunciator coils, others such as direct setting can
also be used.
5.5.8
ANR (FNC 47)
Mnemonic
PULSE-P
FX
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ANR,ANRP:
1step
N/A
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D
The lowest active
annunciator is
reset on every
operation of this
instruction
reset)
FX0N
Operands
Function
ANR
FNC 47
(Annunciator
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X3
Annunciators which have been activated are
sequentially reset one-by-one, each time the ANR
instruction is operated.
If the ANR instruction is driven continuously it will carry out its resetting operation on every
program scan unless it is modified by the pulse, P prefix or by a user defined program
interlock.
ANR
5-47
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.5.9
Applied Instructions 5
SQR (FNC 48)
Mnemonic
S
D=
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX0N
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SQR, SQRP:
5
steps
When using M8023 in float mode, only
DSQR,
double word (32bit) data can be processed.
See page 4- 46 for more details regarding float- DSQRP:
9 steps
ing point.
S
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
D
K,H,D
Performs a
mathematical
square root e.g.:
PULSE-P
FX0N
Operands
Function
SQR
FNC 48
(Square
root)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
D
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
Zero M8020
Borrow M8021
Operation1:
X3 X10
SQR
[S]
[D]
K5
D2
X7
M8023
DSQR
D5
D 30
M8000
M8023
This instruction performs a square root operation
on source data (S) and stores the result at
destination device (D). The operation is conducted
entirely in whole integers rendering the square root
answer rounded to the lowest whole number. For
example, if (S) = 154, then (D) is calculated as
being 12. M8020 is set ON when the square root
operation result is equal to zero. Answers with
rounded values will activate M8021.
Operation 2: This function is equivalent to FNC 127 ESQR This operation is similar to
Operation 1. However, it is only activated when the mode setting float flag, M8023 is used.
This then allows the SQR instruction to process answers in floating point format. The source
data (S) must either be supplied in floating point format for data register use, or it can be
supplied as a constant (K,H). When constants are used as a source, they are automatically
converted to floating point format. Operation 2 is only valid for double word (32 bit) operation,
hence both (S) and (D) will be 32 bit values and the SQR instruction will be entered as DSQR
or DSQRP.
General note:
Performing any square root operation (even on a calculator) on a negative number will result
in an error. This will be identified by special M coil M8067 being activated:
-168 = Error and M8067 will be set ON
This is true for both operating modes.
5-48
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.5.10
Applied Instructions 5
FLT (FNC 49)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
FLT
FNC 49
(Floating
point)
FX0N
Operands
Function
S
D
M8023 = OFF data is converted from decimal
to floating point format
M8023 = ON data is converted from floating
point format to decimal format
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
D
Used to convert
data to and from
floating point
format
FX
FLT, FLTP:
5 steps
DFLT,
DFLTP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 1:
X15
FLT
[S]
[D]
D15
D2
X27
M8023
FLT D100 D120
M8000
M8023
When the float instruction is used without the float
flag (M 8023 = O FF) the source data (S) is
converted in to an equivalent value stored in float
format at the destination device (D).
Please note that two consecutive devices (D and
D +1 ) will be used to store the converted float
number. This is true regardless of the size of the
source data (S), i.e. whether (S) is a single device
(16 bits) or a double device (32 bits) has no effect
on the number of destination devices (D) used to
store the floating point number. Examples:
Decimal source data
(S)
Floating point
destination value (D)
1
1
-26700
-2.67 × 104
404
4.04 × 102
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 2: (Applicable units: FX(2C)) This function is equivalent to FNC 129 INT.
When the float instruction is performed and the float flag M8023 is ON, the float operation will
be conducted in reverse to Operation 1. Any floating point format number stored at source (S)
will be converting to its decimal equivalent and stored at destination (D).
Continued over the page...
5-49
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Points to Note:
a) When floating point numbers are used the zero, borrow and carry flags (M8020, M8021 and
M8022 respectively) operate at the following times; M8020, Zero: is activated when the
result is Zero.
M8021, Borrow: is activated when the result is smaller than the smallest possible number.
The result is forced to equal the smallest number and the associated flag is set ON.
M8022, Carry: is activated when the result is larger than the largest possible number. The
result is forced to equal the largest number and the associated flag is set ON.
b) Floating point numbers always
occupy 32 consecutive bits, i.e. 2
consecutive data registers. When
converting between float and
decimal numbers please al-low
enough destination devices, i.e.
Instruction
FLT
FLT (INT)
DFLT
DFLT
(DINT)
YES
Positive Value
Very small
Carry
M8022
Borrow
M8021
Infinity
Negative Value
Carry
M8022
Number of
source
registers (S)
Number of
destination
registers (D)
OFF
1 (S)
2 (D, D+1)
ON
2 (S, S+1)
1 (D)
OFF
2 (S, S+1)
2 (D, D+1)
Convert to floating point
ON
2 (S, S+1)
2 (D, D+1)
Convert to decimal
Double word Status of
operation
M8023
NO
Zero M8020
Infinity
Remark
Convert to floating point
Convert to decimal
General note:
For more information about float and scientific notations please see Chapter 4, Advanced
Devices, page 4-46
5-50
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-51
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.6
Applied Instructions 5
High Speed Processing - Functions 50 to 59
Contents:
Page
REF -
Refresh
FNC 50
5-53
REFF -
Refresh and filter adjust
FNC 51
5-53
MTR -
Input matrix
FNC 52 5-54
HSCS -
High speed counter set
FNC 53
5-55
HSCR -
High speed counter reset
FNC 54
5-56
HSZ -
High speed counter
zone compare
FNC 55
5-57
SPD -
Speed detect
FNC 56
5-60
PLSY -
Pulse Y output
FNC 57
5-61
PWM -
Pulse width modulation
FNC 58
5-62
PLSR -
Ramp Pulse output
FNC 59
5-63
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-52
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.6.1
Applied Instructions 5
REF (FNC 50)
Mnemonic
D
Forces an
immediate update
of inputs or
outputs as
specified
FX
X, Y
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
K, H
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
REF, REFP:
5 steps
Note:
D should always be a
multiple of 10, i.e. 00,
10, 20, 30 etc.
FX
Program steps
n
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
REF
FNC 50
(Refresh)
å
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
Note:
n should always be a
multiple of 8, i.e. 8, 16,
24, 32 etc.
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X0
Standard PLC operation processes output and input
REF X 10 K 8
status between the END instruction of one program
scan and step 0 of the following program scan. If an
immediate update of the I/O device status is required
the REF instruction is used. The REF instruction can only be used to update or refresh blocks of
8 (n) consecutive devices. The head address of the refreshed devices should always have its
last digit as a 0 (zero), i.e. in units of 10.
[D]
[n]
Note: A short delay will occur before the I/O device is physically updated, in the case of inputs
a time equivalent to the filter setting, while outputs will delay for their set energized time.
5.6.2
REFF (FNC 51)
Mnemonic
n
K, H,
Inputs are
refreshed, and
their input filters
are reset to the
newly designated
value
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
Note: n= 0 to 60 msec (0 = 50µs)
X000 to X007 (X000 to X017 for FX2N) are
automatically designated when using this
instruction
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
REFF
FNC 51
(Refresh
and filter
adjust)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
REFF,
REFFP:
3 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
PLC’s are provided with input filters to overcome
REFF K 1
problems generated by mechanical switch gear.
However, as this involves ensuring a steady input
signal is received for a fixed time duration, the use of
input filters slows down the PLC response times. For high speed applications, especially where
solid state switching provides the input signal, input filter times may be reduced. The default
setting for the input filters is approximately 10 msec. Using this instruction input filter times of 0
to 60 msec may be selected. The setting ‘0’ (zero) is actually 50 µsec. This is the minimum
available setting. It is automatically selected when direct input, interrupts or high speed counting
functions are used. The REFF instruction needs to be driven for each program scan if it is to be
effective, otherwise, the standard 10 msec filter time is used.
X10
[n]
5-53
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.6.3
Applied Instructions 5
MTR (FNC 52)
Mnemonic
FX
X
FX0N
FX
FX
Y
Y, M, S
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
n
MTR: 9 steps
K, H,
Note:
Note:
These operands should always be n=2 to 8
a multiple of 10, i.e. 00, 10, 20, 30
etc.
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
D2
D1
S
Multiplexes a
bank of inputs
into a number of
sets of devices.
Can only be used
ONCE
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
MTR
FNC 52
(Input
matrix)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation:
M8000
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ] [ n ]
This instruction allows a selection of 8 consecutive
input devices (head address S) to be used multiple
(n) times, i.e. each physical input has more than
one, separate and quite different (D1) signal being
processed. The result is stored in a matrix-table (head address D2).
MTR X 10 Y 20 M 30 K 3
Points to note:
a) The MTR instruction involves high speed input/output switching. For this reason this
instruction is only recommended for use with transistor output modules.
b) For the MTR instruction to operate correctly, it must be driven continuously. It is
recommended that special auxiliary relay M8000, the PLC RUN status flag, is used. After
the completion of the first full reading of the matrix, operation complete flag M8029 is turned
ON. This flag is automatically reset when the MTR instruction is turned OFF.
c) Each set of 8 input signals are grouped into a ‘bank’ (there are n number of banks).
d) Each bank is triggered/selected by a dedicated output (head address D1). This means the
quantity of outputs from D1, used to achieve the matrix are equal to the number of banks n.
As there are now additional inputs entering the PLC these will each have a status which
needs recording. This is stored in a matrix-table. The matrix-table starts at the head address
D2. The matrix construction mimics the same 8 signal by n bank configuration. Hence, when
a certain input in a selected bank is read, its status is stored in an equivalent position within
the result matrix-table.
e) The matrix instruction operates on an interrupt format, processing each bank of inputs
every 20msec. This time is based on the selected input filters being set at 10msec. This
wouldresultinan8bankmatrix, i.e. 64inputs(8inputs´8banks) beingreadin160msec.
If high speed inputs (ex. X0) is specified for operand S, the reading time of each bank
becomes only 10msec, i.e. a halving of the
reading speed. However, additional pull down
Matrix device
resistors are required on the drive outputs to
ensure the high speed reading does not detect
24V 0V S/S X0 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7
any residual currents from the last operation.
+V Y40 Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 Y45 Y46 Y47
These should be placed in parallel to the input
bank and should be of a value of approximately
3.3kΩ, 0.5W. For easier use, high speed inputs Pull down
should not be specified at S.
resistors
5-54
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
f) Because this instruction uses a series of
multiplexed signals it requires a certain amount of
‘hard wiring’ to operate. The example wiring
diagram to the right depicts the circuit used if the
previous example instruction was programmed. As
a general precaution to aid successful operation
diodes should be places after each input device
(see diagram opposite). These should have a
rating of 0.1A, 50V.
3.
Diode
0,1 A
50 V
2.
Input
devices
1.
g) Example Operation
When output Y20 is ON only those inputs in the
first bank are read. These results are then stored;
24V 0V S/S X10 X11 X12 X13 X14 X15 X16 X17
in this example, auxiliary coils M30 to M37. The
Transistor output unit
second step involves Y20 going OFF and Y21
(source)
coming ON. This time only inputs in the second
+V Y20 Y21 Y22 Y23 Y24 Y25 Y26 Y27
bank are read. These results are stored in devices
M40 to M47. The last step of this example has Y21
going OFF and Y22 coming ON. This then allows all of the inputs in the third bank to be
read and stored in devices M50 to M57. The processing of this instruction example would
take 20 × 3 = 60msec.
Notice how the resulting matrix-table does not use any of the P8 and P9 bit devices when
state S or auxiliary M relays are used as the storage medium.
5.6.4
HSCS (FNC 53)
Mnemonic
Operands
Function
S2
S1
Sets the selected
output when the
specified high
speed counter
value equals the
test value
HSCS
FNC 53
(High speed
counter set)
FX0N
FX0(S)
C
Note:
C = 235 to 254,
or available
high speed
counters
K, H,
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
n
Y, M, S
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DHSCS:
13 steps
Interrupt pointers
I010 to I060
can be set on
FX units from
CPU ver 3.07
and FX2C units
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
The HSCS set, compares the current value of the
selected high speed counter (S2)against a selected
value (S 1 ). When the counters current value
changes to a value equal to S1the device specified
as the destination (D)is set ON.The example above shows that Y10 would be set ON only
when C255’s value stepped from 99-100 OR 101-100. If the counters current value was forced
to equal 100, output Y10 would NOT be set ON.
M8000
DHSCS K100 C255 Y10
Points to note:
a) It is recommended that the drive input used for the high speed counter functions; HSCS,
HSCR, HSCZ is the special auxiliary RUN contact M8000.
5-55
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
b) If more than one high speed counter function is used for a single counter the selected flag
devices (D) should be kept within 1 group of 8 devices, i.e. Y0-7, M10-17.
c) All high speed counter functions use an interrupt process, hence, all destination devices (D)
are updated immediately.
Note:
FX 0 ,FX 0N users - Max. 4 simultaneously active HSCS/R instructions. FX users Max. 6
simultaneously active HSCS/R and HSZ instructions. Please remember that the use of high
speed counter functions has a direct impact on the maximum allowable counting speed! See
page 4-22 for further details.
Use of interrupt pointers
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX(2C) and FX2N MPUs can use interrupt pointers I010 through I060 (6 points) as destination
devices (D). This enables interrupt routines to be triggered directly when the value of the
specified high speed counter reaches the value in the HSCS instruction.
5.6.5
HSCR (FNC 54)
Mnemonic
HSCR
FNC 54
(High speed
counter
reset)
Operands
Function
Resets the
selected output
when the
specified high
speed counter
equals the test
value
FX0N
FX
S2
D
C
Note:
C = C235 to
C255, or
available high
speed
counters
Y, M, S
C
Note:
If C, use same
counter as S2
S1
K, H,
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DHSCR:
13 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
M8000
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
The HSCR, compares the current value of the
selected high speed counter (S 2 ) against a
selected value (S 1 ). When the counters current
value changes to a value equal to S 1, the device
specified as the destination (D) is reset. In the example above, Y10 would be reset only when
C255’s value stepped from 199 to 200 or from 201 to 200. If the current value of C255 was
forced to equal 200 by test techniques, output Y10 would NOT reset.
For further, general points, about using high speed counter functions, please see the
subsection ‘Points to note’ under the HSCS (FNC 53). Relevant points are; a, b, and c.
Please also reference the note about the number of high speed instructions allowable.
DHSCR K200 C255 Y10
5-56
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.6.6
Applied Instructions 5
HSZ (FNC 55)
Operands
S2
S3
S1
Operation 1:
K, H,
C
The current value KnX, KnY,
Note:
of a high speed
KnM, KnS,
C = 235 to
counter is checked T, C, D, V, Z
255,
against a specified
range
D
K,H
Operation 2:
Using
The designated
values
range is held in a
data table driving
from
‘Y’ outputs directly
1 to
128
(deciOperation 3:
mal)
The designated
range is held in a
data table driving
PLSY frequencies
directly using
D8132
Mnemonic
Function
HSZ
FNC 55
(High
speed zone
compare)
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX0(S)
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
Y, M, S
DHSZ:
Note:
17 steps
3 consecutive
devices are
used
M8130 (only)
This flag can
only be used
with one
DHSZ
instr’ at a time
M8132 (only)
This flag can
only be used
with one
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation 1 - Standard: (Applicable to all units)
This instruction works in exactly the same way as
M8000
DHSZ K1000 K1200 C251 Y10
the standard ZCP (FNC11). The only difference is
that the device being compared is a high speed
counter (specified as S3).
Also, all of the outputs (D) are updated immediately due to the interrupt operation of the DHSZ.
It should be remembered that when a device is specified in operand D it is in fact a head
address for 3 consecutive devices. Each one is used to represent the status of the current
comparison, i.e. using the above example as a basis,
Y10
(D)
C251 is less than S1, K1000 (S3< S1)
Y11
(D+1)
C251 is greater than S1, K1000 but less than S2, K1200 (S3> S1, S3< S2)
Y12
(D+2)
C251 is greater than S2, K1200 (S3> S2)
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ S3 ] [ D ]
For further, general points, about using high speed counter functions please see the
subsection ‘Points to note’ under the HSCS (FNC 52). Relevant points are; a, b, and c. Please
also reference the note about the number of high speed instructions allowable.
Operation 2 - Using HSZ With A Data Table: (Applicable units: FX(2C) and FX2N)
Operation 2 is selected when the destination device (D) is assigned special M coil M8130. This
then allows devices (S1, S2) to be used to define a data table using (S1) as the head address
and (S2) as the number of records in the table - maximum number of records is 128. Each
record occupies 4 consecutive data registers proportioned in the following manner (for a
single record of data registers D through D+3):
Single Record
D,
D+1
Data
D+2
registers
D+3
Used as a double (32 bit) data register to contain the comparison data
Stores the I/O device number, in HEX, of the ’Y’ Output device to be controlled, i.e.
H10=Y10. Note: Hex digits A through F are not used.
Stores the action (SET/RESET) to be performed on the Output device D+2. Note:
For a SET (ON) operation D+3 must equal 1, for a RESET (OFF) D+3 must equal 0.
5-57
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
The following points should be read while studying the example on the right of the page.
Please note, all normal rules associated with high speed counters still apply.
The data table is processed one ‘record
number’ at a time, i.e only 1 record is ever
active as the comparison data. The currently
active record number is stored in data register
D8130. As the comparison value for the active
record is ‘reached’, the assigned ‘Y’ device is
SET or RESET and the active ‘Record number’
is incremented by 1. Once all records in a data
table have been processed, the current record
pointer (D8130) is reset to 0 (the table is then
ready to process again) and the operation
complete flag M8131 is set ON.
Record Comparison Selected 'Y'
number
value
Output
(lower/upper
Device
register)
[D8130]
[D, D+1]
[D+2]
0
1
2
3
4
[D150, D151]
K321
[D154, D155]
K432
[D158, D159]
K543
[D162, D163]
K765
[D166, D167]
K765
SET/RESET
'Y'Device
(1=SET,
0=RESET)
[D+3]
[D152]
H10 (Y10)
[D156]
H10 (Y10)
[D160]
H10 (Y10)
[D164]
H10 (Y10)
[D168]
H37 (Y37)
[D153]
K1
[D157]
K0
[D161]
K1
[D165]
K0
[D169]
K1
C251 - count value
equals HSZ
comparison value
If the high speed counter is reset (by program
K9999
M8000
or hardware input), when it resumes counting
C251
and reaches the first record’s comparison value,
X17
the M8131 flag will be reset. Both the status of
K5
DHSZ D150
C251 M8130
M8131 and contents of D8130 are not editable
by the user. If the DHSZ instruction is turned
C251 reset
OFF then all associated flags are reset.
Care should be exercised when resetting the
765
high speed counter or turning OFF the DHSZ
654
instruct as all associated ‘Y’ output devices will
543
432
remain in their last state, i.e. if an output was
321
ON it will remain ON until independently reset
by the user.
Y10
Th e da ta w ith in ina ctiv e rec ord s ca n b e
Y37
changed during operation allowing data tables
M8131
to be updated. Any change made is processed
D8130 0 1 2 3 4 0
at the end of the current program scan. The
HSZ instruction will continue to process only the
active data record, i.e. it will not reset due to the
updating of an inactive data record.
When the DHSZ instruction is initially activated it will not process a comparison until the
following program scan as the CPU requires a slight time delay to initialize the comparison
table.
ON
OFF
5-58
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Operation 3 - Combined HSZ and PLSY Operation: (Applicable units: FX(2C) and FX2N(C))
Operation 3 allows the HSZ and PLSY instructions to be used together as a control loop. This
operation is selected when the destination device (D) is assigned special M coil M8132. This
then allows devices (S1, S2) to be used to define a data table using (S1) as the head address
and (S2) as the number of records in the table - maximum number of records is 128. Each
record occupies 4 consecutive data registers (D through D+3) proportioned in to two 32 bit data
areas.
As with Operation 2 only one record in the data
table is active at any one time. The current
‘Record number’ being processed is stored in
data register D8131. To observe the current
comparative value, data registers D8134 and
D8135 should be monitored as a double word
(32 bit) device.
Once the final entry in the data table has been
processed, the operation complete flag M8133
is set ON and the record counter (D8131) cycles
back to the first record.
It is recommended that if the high speed counter
and PLSY operations form a closed loop that
the last record entry in the data table is set to K0
for the comparison value and K0 for the PLSY
output frequency. This will bring the controlled
system to a stop and the ‘Record number ’
counter will not be able to cycle back to the start
of the data table until the associated high speed
counter is reset by either pro-gram or hardware
methods. This situation can be easily monitored
by checking the paired data registers D8134
and D8135 for the ‘0’ value.
[D8131]
0
1
2
3
4
Comparison value
(lower/upper
register)
[D, D+1]
[D180, D181]
K40
[D184, D185]
K100
[D188, D189]
K400
[D192, D193]
K800
[D196, D197]
K0
Output Frequency
For PLSY
Instruction
[D+2, D+3]
[D182, D183]
K100
[D186, D187]
K600
[D190, D191]
K550
[D194, D195]
K40
[D198, D199]
K0
K9999
C251
M8000
X17
DHSZ D180
K5
C251 M8132
PLS
M10
M10
PLSY D8132 K0
C251 - count value
equals HSZ
comparison value
Special data register D8132 can be used as the
so u r ce d a ta fo r a P L S Y ( F N C 5 7) o u tp u t
enabling the output to be varied with relative
count data.
Record
number
D8132, output value
in Hz for PLSY
instruction
The first pair of data registers (D,D+1) contain
the comparison value for use with the high
s p e e d c o u n te r. T h e s e c o n d p a ir o f d a ta
registers (D+2 ,D+3) contain a value (from 0 to
1000) which represents an output frequency in
Hz. This value is loaded in to special data
register D8132 when the comparison made by
the DHSZ instruction gives a ‘TRUE’ output.
Y7
C251 reset
800
400
100
40
D8131 0 1 2
3
4
600
550
100
40
PLSY Output Frequency in Hz
It is recommended that the operation of the
PLSY instruction is delayed for 1 scan to allow
the DHSZ data table to be constructed on initial
operation. A suggested program using a pulsed
flag is shown in the example on this page.
5-59
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.6.7
Applied Instructions 5
SPD (FNC 56)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
FX0N
X0 to X5
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
FX0N
S2
D
K, H,
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V,
Z
T, C, D, Z (V)
Note:
3 consecutive devices
are used. In the case
of
D= Z monitor D8028,
D8029 and D8030
S1
Detects the
number of
‘encoder’ pulses
in a given time
frame. Results
can be used to
calculate speed
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
SPD
FNC 56
(Speed
detection)
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SPD:
7 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
SPD X 0 K100 D 0
X10
X10
S1
2
1
S2
S2
The number of pulses received at S1 are counted
and stored in D +1; this is the current count value.
The counting takes place over a set time frame
specified by S2 in msec. The time remaining on the
current ‘timed count’, is displayed in device D +2.
The number of counted pulses (of S1) from the last
timed count are stored in D. The timing chart
opposite shows the SPD operation in a graphical
sense. Note:
¿: Current count value, device D+1
¡: Accumulated/ last count value, device D
¬: Current time remaining in msec, device D+2
3
Points to note:
a) When the timed count frame is completed the data stored in D+1 is immediately written to D.
D+1 is then reset and a new time frame is started.
b) Because this is both a high speed and an interrupt process only inputs X0 to X5 may be
used as the source device S1. However, the specified device for S1 must NOT coincide with
any other high speed function which is operating, i.e. a high speed counter using the same
input. The SPD instruction is considered to act as a single phase counter.
c) Multiple SPD instructions may be used, but the identified source devices S1 restrict this to a
maximum of 6 times.
d) Once values for timed counts have been collected, appropriate speeds can be calculated
using simple mathematics. These speeds could be radial speeds in rpm, linear speeds in M/
min it is entirely down to the mathematical manipulation placed on the SPD results. The
following interpretations could be used;
Linear speed N (km/h) =
3600 × (D)
n × S2
× 103
where n = the number of linear encoder divisions per kilometer.
Radial speed N (rpm) =
60 × (D)
n × S2
× 103
where n = the number of encoder pulses per revolution of the encoder disk.
5-60
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.6.8
Applied Instructions 5
PLSY (FNC 57)
Mnemonic
FX
FX0N
FX
FX
Y
Note:
FX0(S)/FX0N users:
Y000 only .
FX users:
any YPPP.
FX2N(C) users: Y000 or
Y001 only .
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
K, H,
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
S2
S1
Outputs a
specified number
of pulses at a set
frequency
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
PLSY
FNC 57
(Pulse Y
output)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
PLSY:
7 steps
DPLSY:
13steps
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation:
X10
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
PLSY K1000 D 0 Y 0
A specified quantity of pulses S2is output through
devic e D at a spe cifie d fre quenc y S 1 . Th is
instruction is used in situations where the quantity
of outputs is of primary concern.
Points to note:
a) Users of the FX PLC can specify output
frequencies (S 1 ) of 1 to 1000Hz. Users of FX
Version 2.2 or earlier will need to initialize the
PLSY instruction. The program to the right can be
used to achieve this. FX 0 /FX 0N users may use
frequencies of 10to 2000Hz. FX2N users may use
frequencies of 2 to 20000Hz.
M8002
M8034
PLSY
S1
S2
D
M8002
b) The maximum number of pulses: 16 bit operation:
1 to 32,767 pulses, 32 bit operation: 1 to 2,147,483,647 pulses.
Note: special auxiliary coil M8029 is turned ON when the specified number of pulses has
been completed. The pulse count and completion flag (M8029) are reset when the PLSY
instruction is de-energized. If “0" (zero) is specified the PLSY instruction will continue
generating pulses for as long as the instruction is energized.
c) A single pulse is described as having a 50% duty cycle. This means it is ON for 50% of the
pulse and consequently OFF for the remaining 50% of the pulse. The actual output is
controlled by interrupt handling, i.e. the output cycle is NOT affected by the scan time of the
program.
d) The data in operands S1 and S2 may be changed during execution. However, the new data
in S2 will not become effective until the current operation has been completed, i.e. the
instruction has been reset by removal of the drive contact.
e) This instruction can only be used once within a program scan. Also, only one of either FNC
57 PLSY or FNC 59 PLSR can be in the active program at once.
It is possible to use subroutines or other such programming techniques to isolate different
instances of this instructions. In this case, the current instruction must be deactivated before
changing to the new instance.
f) Because of the nature of the high speed output, transistor output units should be used with
this instruction. Relay outputs will suffer from a greatly reduced life and will cause false
outputs to occur due to the mechanical ‘bounce’ of the contacts.
To ensure a ‘clean’ output signal when using transistor units, the load current should be
200mA or higher. It may be found that ‘pull up’ resistors will be required.
5-61
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
g) FX(2C) and FX2N(C) units can use the HSZ (FNC 55) instruction with the PLSY instruction
when source device S1 is set to D8132. Please see page 5-59 for more details.
h) FX units with CPU version 3.07 or greater and FX2C units can monitor the number of pulses
which have been output as a double word using devices D8136 and D8137.
FX2N(C) units can also monitor the number of pulses output to Y0 using devices D8140 and
D8141 and the number of output pulses output to Y1 using devices D8142 and D8143. The
total number of pulses output can be monitored using D8136 and D8137.
5.6.9
PWM (FNC 58)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
Y
PWM:
Note:
7 steps
FX0(S)/FX0N users:
Y001 only .
FX users: any YPPP.
FX2N(C) users: Y000 or
Y001 only K, H,
KnX, KnY, KnM,
KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Note:
S1
S2
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
S2
S1
Generates a
pulse train with
defined pulse
characteristics
PWM
FNC 58
(Pulse width
modulation)
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
FX0N
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X10
PWM D10
S1
D
S2
K50
Y0
A continuous pulse train is output through device D
when this instruction is driven. The characteristics
of the pulse are defined as:
The distance, in time (msec), between two
identical parts of consecutive pulses (S2).
And how long, also in time (msec), a single pulse
will be active for (S1).
Points to note:
a) Because this is a 16 bit instruction, the available time ranges for S1 and S2 are 1 to 32,767.
b) A calculation of the duty cycle is easily made by dividing S1 by S2. Hence S1 cannot have a
value greater than S 2 as this would mean the pulse is on for longer than the distance
between two pulses, i.e. a second pulse would start before the first had finished. If this is
programmed an error will occur.
This instruction is used where the length of the pulse is the primary concern.
c) The PWM instruction may only be used once in a users program.
d) Because of the nature of the high speed output, transistor output units should be used with
this instruction. Relay outputs will suffer from a greatly reduced life and will cause false
outputs to occur due to the mechanical ‘bounce’ of the contacts. To ensure a ‘clean’ output
signal when using transistor units, the load current should be 200mA or higher. It may be
found that ‘pull up’ resistors will be required.
5-62
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.6.10
Applied Instructions 5
PLSR (FNC 59)
FX0(S)
Function
PLSR
FNC 59
(Pulse ramp)
Outputs a
specified number
of pulses,
ramping up to a
set frequency and
back down to stop
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
S3
FX
Y
FX0N
FX
PLSR:
9 steps
DPLSR:
17 steps
FX2N users:
Y000 or Y001 only.
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
Program steps
D
K, H,
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Note:
S1
S2
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
S1
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
Operands
Mnemonic
FX0(s)
FX0N
FLAGS
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation:
M54
PLSR
K500
D0
K3600
Y00
A specified quantity of pulses S2is output through
device D. The output frequency is first ramped up
in 10 steps to the maximum frequency S 1 in
acceleration time S3 ms, then ramped down to stop
also in S3 ms. This instruction is used to generate
simple acceleration/deceleration curves where the
quantity of outputs is of primary concern.
[S1] 10 - 20,000 Hz
Hz
1
10
2
9
7
6
5
4
3
2
[S1]/10
3
8
Total [S2]
Pulses
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
secs
[S3] Max 5000 ms
[S3] Max 5000 ms
Points to Note:
a) FX2N users may use frequencies of 10 to 20,000Hz. The frequency should be set to a
multiple of 10. If not it will be rounded up to the next multiple of 10.
The acceleration and deceleration steps are set to 1/10 of the maximum frequency. Take
this in to consideration to prevent slipping, when using stepping motors.
b) The maximum number of pulses: 16 bit operation: 110 to 32,767 pulses,
32 bit operation: 110 to 2,147,483,647 pulses.
Correct pulse output can not be guaranteed for a setting of 110.
c) The acceleration time must conform to the limitations described on the next page.
5-63
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
d) The output device is limited to Y0 or Y1 only and should be transistor type.
e) This instruction can only be used once within a program scan. Also, only one of either FNC
57 PLSY or FNC 59 PLSR can be in the active program at once.
It is possible to use subroutines or other such programming techniques to isolate differen
instances of this instructions. In this case, the current instruction must be deactivated before
changing to the new instance.
f) If the number of pulses is not enough to reach the maximum frequency then the frequency is
automatically cut
g) Special auxiliary coil M8029 turns ON when the specified number of pulses has been
completed. The pulse count and completion flag (M8029) are reset when the PLSR
instruction is de-energized.
h)
Acceleration time limitations
The acceleration time S3 has a maximum limit of 5000 ms. However, the actual limits of S3are
determined by other parameters of the system according to the following 4 points.
1) Set S3 to be more than 10 times the maximum program scan time (D8012).
If set to less than this, then the timing of the acceleration steps becomes uneven.
S3
≥
90000 ×
5
S1
2) The following formula gives the minimum value for S3.
3) The following formula gives the maximum value for S3.
S3
≤
S2
S1
× 818
4) The pulse output always increments in 10 step up to the maximum frequency as shown on
the previous page.
If the parameters do not meet the above conditions, reduce the size of S1.
• Possible output frequency is limited to 2 to 20,000 Hz. If either the maximum frequency or
the acceleration step size are outside this limit then they are automatically adjusted to bring
the value back to the limit.
• If the drive signal is switch off, all output stops. When driven ON again, the process starts
from the beginning.
• Even if the operands are changed during operation, the output profile does not change.
The new values take effect from the next operation.
5-64
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-65
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.7
Applied Instructions 5
Handy Instructions - Functions 60 to 69
Contents:
Page
IST -
Initial State
FNC 60
5-67
SER -
Search
FNC 61
5-69
ABSD -
Absolute Drum
FNC 62
5-70
INCD -
Incremental Drum
FNC 63
5-71
TTMR -
Teaching Timer
FNC 64
5-72
STMR -
Special Timer - Definable
FNC 65
5-72
ALT -
Alternate State
FNC 66
5-73
RAMP -
Ramp - Variable Value
FNC 67
5-73
ROTC -
Rotary Table Control
FNC 68
5-75
SORT -
Sort Data
FNC 69
5-77
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-66
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.7.1
Applied Instructions 5
IST (FNC 60)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
IST
FNC 60
(Initial state)
FX0N
FX
Operands
Function
X, Y, M, S,
Note:
uses 8
consecutive devices
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
S1
Automatically sets
up a multi-mode
STL operating
system
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
S3
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
IST:
S,
7 steps
Note:
FX0 users S20 to S63
FX0N users S20 to S127
FX users S20 to S899
D1must be lower than D2
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ]
M8000
IST
X20
S20
S40
This instruction automatically sets up a multi-mode
STL operating system. This consists of variations
of ‘manual’ and ‘automatic’ operation modes.
Points to note:
a) The IST instruction automatically assigns
and uses many bit flags and word devices;
these are listed in the boxed column on the
right of this page.
b) The IST instruction may only be used
ONCE.
It should be programmed close to the
be ginn ing o f th e prog ram, be fore the
controlled STL circuits.
c) The required operation mode is selected by
driving the devices associated with
operands
S+0through to S+4(5 inputs). None of the
devices within this range should be ON at
the same time. It is recommended that these
‘inputs’ are selected through use of a rotary
switch.
If the currently selected operating mode is
changed before the ‘zero return complete’
flag (M8043) is set, all outputs will be turned
OFF.
d) The ‘zero position’ is a term used to identify
a datum position from where the controlled
device, starts from and returns too after it
has completed its task. Hence, the operating
mode ‘zero return’, causes the controlled
system to return to this datum.
Assigned devices
Indirect user selected devices:
S+0 Manual operation
S+1 Zero return
S+2 Step operation
S+3 One cycle operation
S+4 Cyclic operation
S+5 Zero return start
S+6 Automatic operation start
S+7 Stop
Initial states:
S0 initiates ‘manual’ operation
S1 initiates ‘zero return’ operation
S2 initiates ‘automatic’ operation
General states:
S10 to S19 ‘zero return’ sequence
D1 to D2 ‘automatic return’ sequence
Special bit flags:
M8040 = ON STL state transfer is inhibited
M8041 = ON initial states are enabled
M8042 = Start pulse given by start input
M8043 = ON zero return completed
M8044 = ON machine zero detected
M8047 = ON STL monitor enabled
The ‘zero’ position is sometimes also referred to as a home position, safe position, neutral
position or a datum position.
5-67
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
e) The available operating modes are split into two main groups, manual and automatic. There
are sub-modes to these groups. Their operation is defined as:
Manual
Manual (selected by device S+0)- Power supply to individual loads is turned ON and OFF by
using a separately provided means, often additional push buttons.
Zero Return (selected by device S+1) -Actuators are returned to their initial positions when the
Zero input (S+5) is given.
Automatic
One Step (selected by device S+2)- The controlled sequence operates automatically but will
only proceed to each new step when the start input (S+6) is given.
One Cycle (selected by device S+3) - The controlled actuators are operated for one operation
cycle. After the cycle has been completed, the actuators stop at their ‘zero’ positions. The
cycle is started after a ‘start’ input (S+6) has been given.
A cycle which is currently being processed can be stopped at any time by activating the ‘stop’
input (S+7). To restart the sequence from the currently ‘paused’ position the start input must be
given once more.
Automatic (selected by device S+4)-Fully automatic operation is possible in this mode. The
programmed cycle is executed repeatedly when the ‘start’ input (S+6) is given. The currently
operating cycle will not stop immediately when the ‘stop’ input (S+7)is given.
The current operation will proceed to then end of the current cycle and then stop its operation.
Note: Start, stop and zero inputs are often given by additional, manually operated push
buttons.
Please note that the ‘stop’ input is only a program stop signal. It cannot be used as a
replacement for an ‘Emergency stop’ push button. All safety, ‘Emergency stop’ devices should
be hardwired systems which will effectively isolate the machine from operation and external
power supplies. Please refer to local and national standards for applicable safety practices.
5-68
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.7.2
Applied Instructions 5
SER (FNC 61)
Mnemonic
SER
FNC 61
(Search a
Data Stack)
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
Operands
Function
S1
S2
D
Generates a list KnX, KnY, KnX, KnY,
of statistics
KnM, KnS, KnM, KnS,
about a single T, C, D
T, C, D
data value
V, Z
located/found in
K, H
a data stack
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0N
FX
KnY, KnM,
KnS
T, C, D
Note: 5
consecutive
devices
are used
n
K,H, D
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SER, SERP:
9 steps
Note:
n= 1~256 for 16 DSER,
DSERP:
bit operation
17 steps
n= 1~128 for
32 bit
operation
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ] n
X72
SER D 50 K 20 D 35 K100
Destination
device
D
The SER instruction searches a defined data stack
from head address S1, with a stack length n. The
data searched for is specified in parameter S2 and
the results of the search are stored at destination
device D for 5 consecutive devices.
Device description
Total number of occurrences of the searched value S2 (0 if no occurrences are found)
D+1
The position (within the searched data stack) of the first occurrence of the searched value S2
D+2
The position (within the searched data stack) of the last occurrence of the searched value S2
D+3
The position (within the searched data stack) of the smallest value found in the data
stack (last occurrence is returned if there are multiple occurrences of the same value)
D+4
The position (within the searched data stack) of the largest value found in the data stack
(last occurrence is returned if there are multiple occurrences of the same value)
Points to note:
a) Normal rules of algebra are used to determine the largest and smallest values, i.e. -30 is
smaller than 6 etc.
b) If no occurrence of the searched data can be found then destination devices D, D+1 and
D+2will equal 0 (zero).
c) When using data register s as the destination device D please remember that 16 bit
operation will occupy 5 consecutive, data registers but 32 bit operation will occupy 10 data
registers in pairs forming 5 double words.
d) When multiple bit devices are used to store the result (regardless of 16 or 32 bit operation),
only the specified size of group is written to for 5 consecutive occurrences, i.e. K1Y0 would
occupy 20 bit devices from Y0 (K1 = 4 bit devices and there will be 5 groups for the 5
results). As the maximum data stack is 256 (0 to 255) entries long, the optimum group of bit
devices required is K2, i.e. 8 bit devices.
5-69
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.7.3
Applied Instructions 5
ABSD (FNC 62)
Mnemonic
ABSD
FNC 62
(Absolute
drum
sequencer)
Operands
Function
S2
S1
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
(in groups
of 8)
T, C, D
Generates
multiple output
patterns in
response to
counter data
D
C
Note: High speed
counters are not
allowed
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
n
Y,M,S
K,H
Note:
n consecutive
devices
are used
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ABSD:
9 steps
Note:
n≤ 64
DABSD:
17 steps.
see f).
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ] [ n ]
X0
ABSD D300 C 0 M 0
K4
This instruction generates a variety of output
patterns (there are n number of addressed
outputs) in response to the current value of a
selected counter, S2.
Points to note:
a) The current value of the selected counter (S2) is compared against a user defined data
table. This data table has a head address identified by operand S1. S1should always have
an even device number.
b) For each destination bit (D) there are two consecutive values stored in the data table. The
first allocated value represents the event number when the destination device (D) will be
turned ON. The second identifies the reset event. The data table values are allocated as a
consecutive pair for each sequential element between D and D+n.
c) The data table has a length equal to 2 × n data entries. Depending on the format of the data
table, a single entry can be one data word such as D300 or a group of 16 bit devices e.g.
K4X000.
d) Values from 0 to 32,767 may be used in the data table.
e) The ABSD instruction may only be used ONCE.
f) FX CPU’s ver 3.07 or greater and FX2C units have double word option on this instruction.
From the example instruction and the data table below, the following timing diagram for
elements M0 to M3 can be constructed.
When counter S2 equals the
value below, the destination
device D is
turned ON
Assigned
destination
device D
M0
40
100
turned OFF
D300 - 40
D301 - 140
M0
M1
D302 - 100
D303 - 200
M1
M2
D304 - 160
D305 - 60
M2
D306 - 240
D307 - 280
M3
Count value
140
60
200
160
240 280
ON
M3
0
OFF
180
360
5-70
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.7.4
Applied Instructions 5
INCD (FNC 63)
Mnemonic
INCD
FNC 63
(Incremental
drum
sequencer)
Generates a
single output
sequence in
response to
counter data
S2
S1
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS,
(in groups of
8)
T, C, D
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
Operands
Function
D
C
Uses 2
consecutive
counters
Note: High speed
counters are not allowed
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
K,H
Note:
n consecutive
devices
are used
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
n
Y, M, S
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
INCD:
9 steps
Note:
n≤ 64
FLAGS
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ] [ n ]
X0
INCD D300 C 0
M0
This instruction generates a sequence of
sequential output patterns (there are n number of
addressed outputs) in response to the current
value of a pair of selected counters (S2, S2+1).
K4
Points to note:
a) This instruction uses a ‘data table’ which contains a single list of values which are to be
selected and compared by two consecutive counters (S2and S2+1). The data table is
identified as having a head address S1and consists of n data elements.
b) Counter S2 is programmed in a conventional way. The set value for counter S2 MUST be
greater than any of the values entered into the data table. Counter S2 counts a user event
and compares this to the value of the currently selected data element from the data table.
When the counter and data value are equal, S2 increments the count of counter S2+1and
resets its own current value to ‘0’ (zero).
This new value of counter S2+1selects the new data element from the data table and
counter S2now compares against the new data elements value.
c) The counter S2+1 may have values from 0 to n. Once the nth data element has been
processed, the operation complete flag M8029 is turned ON. This then automatically resets
counter S2+1hence, the cycle starts again with data element S1+0.
d) Values from 0 to 32,767 may be used in the data table.
e) The INCD instruction may only be used
ONCE.
From the example instruction and the data table
identified left, the following timing diagram for elements
M0 to M3 can be constructed.
Data table
X0
C0
Data
element
Data value / count value
for counter S2
Value of
counter
S2+1
D300
20
0
M1
D301
30
1
M2
D302
10
2
M3
D303
40
3
M8029
C1
M0
0
40
30
10
20
1
2
20
3
0 1
Cycle restarts
5-71
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.7.5
Applied Instructions 5
TTMR (FNC 64)
Mnemonic
TTMR
FNC 64
(Teaching
timer)
FX0N
Operands
Function
D
Monitors the
duration of a
signal and places
the timed data
into a data register
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Note:
Note:
2 devices 16 bit words n= 0: (D) = (D+1) × 1
are used D and D+1
n= 1: (D) = (D+1) × 10
n= 2: (D) = (D+1) × 100
FX
5.7.6
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
The duration of time that the TTMR instruction is
energized, is measured and stored in device D +1
(as a count of 100ms periods).
The data value of D +1 (in secs), multiplied by the
factor selected by the operand n, is moved in to
register D. The contents of D could be used as the
source data for an indirect timer setting or even as
raw data for manipulation.
When the TTMR instruction is de-energized D+1 is
automatically reset (D is unchanged).
X10
duration D+1), is stored in D
D301
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
TTMR D300 K 0
Equivalet time data (n
D301
STMR (FNC 65)
Mnemonic
STMR
FNC 65
(Special
timer)
FX0N
X0
FX
Operands
Function
S
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
[S]
FX0N
[n]
FX
[D]
STMR T 10 K 100 M 0
X0
M0
n
T
Note:
Timers 0 to 199
(100msec
devices)
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
Provides
dedicated
off-delay, one
shot and flash
timers
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
TTMR:
5 steps
K, H
[D] [n]
X10
FX
Program steps
n
D
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
D
K, H
Note:
n=
1 to 32,767
Y, M, S
Note:uses 4
consecutive
devices
D+0to D+3
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
STMR:
7 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
The designated timer Swill operate for the duration
n with the operational effect being flagged by
devices D+0to D+3. Device D+0is an off-delay
timer, D+1is a one shot timer. When D+3is used in
the configuration below, D+1and D+2act in a
alternate flashing sequence.
X0 M3
STMR T 10 K 100 M 0
M1
X0
M2
M2
M3
M1(M3)
5-72
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.7.7
Applied Instructions 5
ALT (FNC 66)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
ALT
FNC 66
(Alternate
state)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
Operands
Function
The status of the Y, M, S
assigned device
is inverted on
every operation of
the instruction
FX0(s)
FX0N
ALT, ALTP:
3 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[D]
X0
The status o f th e d estin atio n de vic e (D) is
a l t e r n a t e d o n e v e r y o p e r a t i o n o f t h e A LT
instruction.
ALT M 0
X0
This means the status of each bit device will flipflop between ON and OFF. This will occur on every
program scan unless a pulse modifier or a program
interlock is used.
The ALT instruction is ideal for switching between
two modes of operation e.g. start and stop, on and
M0
off etc.
5.7.8
RAMP (FNC 67)
Mnemonic
RAMP
FNC 67
(Ramp variable value)
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
Operands
Function
FX0N
D
D
Note:
Device D uses two consecutive
registers identified as D and D+1
these are read only devices.
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
S2
S1
Ramps a device
from one value to
another in the
specified number
of steps
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
n
K, H
FX
RAMP:
9 steps
Note:
n= 1 to
32,767
FLAGS
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X0
RAMP D 1
D2
[n]
D 3 K1000
[S2] [S1]
[D]
[D]
[S2]
[S1]
n
S1 < S2
n
S1 > S2
The RAMP instruction varies a current value (D)
between the data limits set by the user (S1and S2).
The ‘journey’ between these extreme limits takes n
program scans. The current scan number is stored
in device D+1. Once the current value of D equals
the set value of S2the execution complete flag
M8029 is set ON.
The RAMP instruction can vary both increasing
and decreasing differences between S1and S2.
5-73
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Points to note:
a) FX users may set the operation mode of the
RAMP instruction by controlling the state of
special auxiliary relay M8026. When M8026 is
OFF, the RAMP instruction will be in repeat
mode. This means when the current value of D
equals S2the RAMP instruction will
automatically reset and start again, i.e. the
contents of D will be reset to that of S1 and the
device D+1 (the number of current scans) will
reset to ‘0’ (zero). This is shown in the diagram
opposite.
When M8026 is set ON, FX users will be
operating the RAMP instruction in ‘Hold mode’.
This means once the current value of D equals
that of S2, the RAMP instruction will ‘freeze’ in
this state. This means the M8029 will be set
ON for as long as the instruction remains
energized and the value of D will not reset until
the instruction is re-initialized, i.e. the RAMP
instruction is turned from OFF to ON again.
X0
[S2]
[S1]
[D]
M8029
X0
[S2]
[S1]
[D]
M8029
b) Users of FX0 and FX0N PLC’s cannot change the operating mode of the RAMP instruction.
For these PLC’s the mode is fixed as in the same case as FX PLC’s when M8026 has been
set ON, i.e. HOLD mode.
c) If the RAMP instruction is interrupted before completion, then the current position within the
ramp is ‘frozen’ until the drive signal is re-established. Once the RAMP instruction is redriven registers D and D+1 reset and the cycle starts from its beginning again.
d) If the RAMP instruction is operated with a constant scan mode, i.e. D8039 is written to with
the desired scan time (slightly longer than the current scan time) and M8039 is set ON. This
would then allow the number of scans n (used to create the ramp between S1and S2) to be
associated to a time. If 1 scan is equal to the contents of D8039 then the time to complete
the ramp is equal to n × D8039.
The RAMP instruction may also be used with special M flags M8193 and M8194 to mimic the
operation of the SER (FNC 61) and RS (FNC 80) respectively when being programmed on
older versions of programming peripherals. See page 1-5 for more details.
5-74
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.7.9
Applied Instructions 5
ROTC (FNC 68)
Mnemonic
ROTC
FNC 68
(Rotary
table
control)
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
D
Note:
uses 3
consecutive
devices
S+1≤ m1
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
m2
m1
S
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
Controls a rotary
tables movement
is response to a
requested
destination/
position
FX0N
D
K, H
K, H
Y, M, S
Note:
m1= 2 to
32,767
Note:
m2= 0 to
32,767
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
m1≥ m2
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ROTC:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S ] [ m1 ] [ m2 ] [ D ]
X10
ROTC D200 K10 K 2
M0
The ROTC instruction is used to aid the tracking
and positional movement of the rotary table as it
moves to a specified destination.
Points to note:
a) This instruction has many automatically defined devices. These are listed on the right of
this page.
b) The ROTC instruction may only be used
ONCE.
c) The ROTC instruction uses a built in 2-phase
counter to detect both movement direction
and distance travelled. Devices D+0and D+1
are used to input the phase pulses, while
device D+2is used to input the ‘zero position’
on the rotary table. These devices should be
programmed as shown in the example below
(where the physical termination takes place
at the associated X inputs).
X0
M0
X1
M1
X2
M2
The movement direction is found by checking
the relationship of the two phases of the 2
phase counter, e.g.
A-phase
A phase leads B phase
B-phase
Assigned devices
Indirect user selected devices:
D+0 A-phase counter signal - input
D+1 B-phase counter signal - input
D+2 Zero point detection - input
D+3 High speed forward - output
D+4 Low speed forward - output
D+5 Stop - output
D+6 Low speed reverse - output
D+7 High speed reverse - output
Rotary table constants:
m1 Number of encoder pulses per
table revolution
m2 Distance to be travelled at low
speed (in encoder pulses)
Operation variables:
S+0 Current position at the ‘zero point’
READ ONLY
S+1 Destination position (selected
station to be moved to) relative to
the ‘zero point’ - User defined
S+2 Start position (selected station to
be moved) relative to the ‘zero
point’ -User defined
A-phase
B phase leads A phase
B-phase
5-75
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
d) When the ‘zero point’ input (D+2) is received the contents of device S+0is reset to ‘0’ (zero).
Before starting any new operation it is advisable to ensure the rotary table is initialized by
moving the ‘zero point’ drive dog or marker around to the ‘zero point’ sensor. This could be
considered as a calibration technique. The re-calibration of the rotary table should be
carried out periodically to ensure a consistent/accurate operation.
e) Devices D+3 to D+7 are automatically set by the ROTC instruction during its operation.
These are used as flags to indicate the operation which should be carried out next.
f) All positions are entered in the form of the required encoder pulses. This can be seen in the
following example:
- Example:
A rotary table has an encoder which outputs 400 (m1) pulses per revolution. There are 8
stations (0 to 7) on the rotary table. This means that when the rotary table moves from one
station to its immediately following station, 50 encoder pulses are counted. The ‘zero
position’ is station ‘0’ (zero). To move the item located at station 7 to station 3 the following
values must be written to the ROTC
instruction:
S+1=3 × 50 = 150 (station 3’s position in encoder pulses from the zero point)
S+2=7 × 50 = 350 (station 7’s position in encoder pulses from the zero point)
m1= 400 (total number of encoder pulses per rev)
The rotary table is required approach the destination station at a slow speed starting from
1.5 stations before the destination. Therefor;
m2= 1.5 × 50 = 75 slow speed distance either side of the destination station (in encoder
pulses)
5-76
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.7.10
Applied Instructions 5
SORT (FNC 69)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
Data in a defined
D
table can be
sorted on selected
fields while
retaining record
integrity
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
[ S ] m1 m2 [ D ]
X21
D
Note:
n = 1 to
m2
32 BIT OPERATION
FX0N
SORT:
11 steps
K, H
D
Note:
m1= 1 to 32
m2= 1 to 6
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
Program steps
n
D
K, H
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
m2
m1
S
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
Operands
Function
SORT
FNC 69
(SORT
Tabulated
Data)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation:
n
This instruction constructs a data table of m 1
records with m 2 fields having a start or head
address of S. Then the data in field nis sorted in to
numerical order while retaining each individual
records integrity. The resulting (new) data table is stored from destination device D.
SORT D100 K 4 K 3 D100 K 2
Points to note:
a) When a sort occurs each record is sorted in to ascending order based on the data in the
selected sort field n.
b) The source (S) and destination (D) areas can be the same BUT if the areas are chosen to
be different, there should be no overlap between the areas occupied by the tables.
c) Once the SORT operation has been completed the ‘Operation Complete Flag’ M8029 is
turned ON. For the complete sort of a data table the SORT instruction will be processed
m1times.
d) During a SORT operation, the data in the SORT table must not be changed. If the data is
changed, this may result in an incorrectly sorted table.
e) The SORT instruction may only be used ONCE in a program.
From the example instruction and the ‘data table’ below left, the following data manipulation
will occur when nis set to the identified field
Table1st table sort when n= 2
Original
FIELD (m2)
R
E
C
O
R
D
(m1)
1
2
3
4
2nd table sort when n=1
FIELD (m2)
FIELD (m2)
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
(D100)
32
(D101)
74
(D102)
100
(D103)
7
(D104)
162
(D105)
6
(D106)
80
(D107)
34
(D108)
4
(D109)
200
(D110)
62
(D111)
6
(D100)
74
(D101)
7
(D102)
100
(D103)
32
(D104)
6
(D105)
34
(D106)
80
(D107)
162
(D108)
200
(D109)
6
(D110)
62
(D111)
4
(D100)
7
(D101)
32
(D102)
74
(D103)
100
(D104)
34
(D105)
162
(D106)
6
(D107)
80
(D108)
6
(D109)
4
(D110)
200
(D111)
62
R
E
C
O
R
D
(m1)
1
2
3
4
R
E
C
O
R
D
(m1)
1
2
3
4
5-77
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
MEMO
5-78
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-79
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.8
Applied Instructions 5
External FX I/O Devices - Functions 70 to 79
Contents:
Page
TKY -
Ten Key Input
FNC 70
5-81
HKY -
Hexadecimal Input
FNC 71
5-82
DSW -
Digital Switch
(Thumbwheel input)
FNC 72
5-83
SEGD -
Seven Segment Decoder
FNC 73
5-84
SEGL -
Seven Segment
With Latch
FNC 74
5-85
ARWS -
Arrow Switch
FNC 75
5-87
ASC -
ASCII Code
FNC 76
5-88
PR-
‘Print’ To A Display
FNC 77
5-89
FROM -
Read From A Special
FNC 78
5-90
FNC 79
5-91
Function Block
TO -
Write To A Special
Function Block
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-80
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.8.1
Applied Instructions 5
TKY (FNC 70)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
TKY
FNC 70
(Ten key
input)
FX0N
Reads 10 devices
with associated
decimal values
into a single
number
FX
S
D1
X, Y, M, S
Note: uses 10
consecutive
devices
(identified as
S+0 to S+9)
KnY, KnM,
KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Note: uses 2
consecutive
devices for 32
bit operation
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D2
Y, M, S
Note: uses 11
consecutive
devices
(identified
D2+0 to D2+10)
TKY:
7 steps
DTKY:
13 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ]
X30
TKY
X0
D 0 M 10
This instruction can read from 10 consecutive
devices(S +0 to S +9 ) and will store an entered
numeric string in device D1.
Points to note:
a) When a source device becomes active its associated destination (bit) device D2 also
becomes active. This destination device will remain active until another source device is
operated. Each source device maps directly to its own D2 device, i.e. S+0 maps to D2+0, S+7
maps to D2+7 etc. These in turn, map directly to decimal values which are then stored in the
destination data devices specified by D1.
b) One source device may be active at any one time. The destination device D2+10 is used to
signify that a key (one of the 10 source devices) has been pressed. D2+10 will remain active
for as long as the key is held down. When the TKY instruction is active, every press of a key
adds that digit to the stored number in D1. When the TKY is OFF, all of the D2 devices are
reset, but the data value in D1 remains intact.
c) When the TKY instruction is used with 16 bit operation, D1 can store numbers from 0 to
9,999 i.e. max. 4 digits. When the DTKY instruction is used (32 bit operation) values of 0 to
99,999,999 (max. 8 digits) can be accommodated in two consecutive devices D1and D1+1.
In both cases if the number to be stored exceeds the allowable ranges, the highest digits
will overflow until an allowable number is reached. The overflowed digits are lost and can
no longer be accessed by the user. Leading zero’s are not accommodated, i.e. 0127 will
actually be stored as 127 only.
d) The TKY instruction may only be used ONCE.
e) Using the above instruction as a brief example: If the
‘keys’ identified (a) to (d) are pressed in that order
the number 2,130 will be entered into D1. If the key
identified as (e) is then pressed the value in D1 will
become 1,309. The initial ‘2’ has been lost.
Input 'keys'and their decimal values
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
(d) (b) (a) (c)
(e)
(d)
X0
(b)
X1
X2
(a)
X3
(c)
M10
M11
M12
24V 0V S/S X0 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X10 X11
Example key connections
M13
.
.
.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
M20
5-81
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.8.2
Applied Instructions 5
HKY (FNC 71)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Multiplexes inputs
and outputs to
create a numeric
keyboard with 6
function keys
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D1
D2
D3
X,
Note:
uses 4
consecutive
devices
Y,
Note:
uses 4
consecutive
devices
T, C, D, V, Z
Note: uses 2
consecutive
devices
for 32 bit
operation
Y, M, S
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
S
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX
Operands
Function
HKY
FNC 71
(Hexadecimal
key input)
FX0N
HKY:
9 steps
DHKY:
17 steps
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation 1 - Standard:
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ] [ D3 ]
X4
HKY
X0
Y0
D0
M0
This instruction creates a multiplex of 4 outputs
(D 1 ) and 4 inputs (S) to read in 16 different
devices. Decimal values of 0 to 9 can be stored
while 6 further function flags may be set.
Points to note:
a) Each of the first 10 multiplexed source devices (identified as 0 to 9) map directly to decimal
values 0 to 9. When entered, i.e. a source device is activated, then its associated decimal
value is added to the data string currently stored in D2. Activation of any of these keys
causes bit device D3+7 to turn ON for the duration of that key press.
b) The last 6 multiplexed source devices (identified as function keys A to F) are used to set bit
devices D3+0 to D3+5 respectively. These bit flags, once set ON, remain ON until the next
function key has been activated. Activation of any of these keys causes bit device D3+6 to
turn ON for the duration of that key press.
c) In all key entry cases, when two or more keys are pressed, only the key activated first is
effective. When the pressing of a key is sensed the M8029 (execution complete flag) is
turned ON. When the HKY instruction is OFF, all D3 devices are reset but data value D 2
remains intact.
d) When the HKY instruction is used with 16 bit
operation, D2 can store numbers from 0 to 9,999
i.e. max. 4 digits. When the DHKY instruction is
used (32 bit operation) values of 0 to 99,999,999
(max. 8 digits) can be accommodated in two
consecutive devices D2 and D2+1. In both cases if
the number to be stored exceeds the allowable
ranges, the highest digits will overflow until an
allowable number is reached. The over-flowed
digits are lost and can no longer be accessed by
the user. Leading zero’s are not accommodated,
i.e. 0127 will actually be stored as 127 only. This
operation is similar to that of the TKY instruction.
Input keys0-9,A-F
24V 0V S/S X0
C
D
E
F
8
9
A
B
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
X1
X2
X3
Transistor Outputs (source)
+V
Y0
Y1
Y2
Y3
5-82
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
e) The HKY instruction may only be used ONCE.
EI
f) Normal operation requires 8 scans to read the key
inputs. To achieve a steady and repeatable
performance, constant scan mode should be used,
i.e. M8039 is set ON and a user defined scan time
is written to register D8039. However, for a faster
response the HKY instruction should be
programmed in a timer interrupt routine as shown
in the example opposite.
FEND
I 610 M8000
HKY
DSW
FNC 72
(Digital
switch)
Multiplexed
reading of n sets
of digital (BCD)
thumbwheels
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX0N
K8
SET M8167
HKY X 10 Y 60 D 5 M90
RST M8167
D2
FX
Y0
X17
FX0N
FX
T, C, D, V, Z K, H
Note: If
n=2 then 2 Note:
devices
n= 1 or 2
else 1.
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
n
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
REF
These two program examples
perform the same task.
D1
Y
Note:
uses 4
consecutive
devices
M0
HKY X 10 Y 60 D 5 M90
Operands
X
Note:
If n=2 then
8
devices
else 4.
D0
M8167
FX0(S)
S
Y0
X0
X17
DSW (FNC 72)
Function
K8
END
(Applicable units: FX(2C) and FX2N)
When the HKY instruction is used with flag M8167 ON
(as shown right), the operation of keys A through F
allow actual entry of the Hexadecimal values of A
through F respectively into the data device D2. This is
in addition to the standard 0 through 9 keys. All other
operation is as specified in ‘Operation 1 - Standard’.
Maximum storage values for this operation become
FFFF in 16 bit mode and FFFFFFFF in 32 bit (double
word) mode.
Mnemonic
X0
IRET
Operation 2 - Using the HKY Instruction With
M8167:
5.8.3
REF
DSW:
9 steps
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation:
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ] [ n ]
X0
DSW X 10 Y 10 D 0
K1
This instruction multiplexes 4 outputs (D1) through 1
or 2(n) sets of switches. Each set of switches
consists of 4 thumbwheels providing a single digit
input.
Points to note:
a) When n = 1 only one set of switches are read. The
multiplex is completed by wiring the thumbwheels
in parallel back to 4 consecutive inputs from the
head address specified in operand S. The (4 digit)
data read is stored in data device D2.
Continued on next page...
BCD digital
switches
(1st set)
0
10
4
1
10
3
2
10
2
1
2
4
8
24V 0V S/S X10 X11 X12 X13
3
10
1
2nd
switch
set inputs
1
2
4
8
X14 X15 X16 X17
Transistor Outputs (source)
+V Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13
5-83
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
b) When n= 2, two sets of switches are read. This configuration requires 8 consecutive inputs
taken from the head address specified in operand S. The data from the first set of switches,
i.e. those using the first 4 inputs, is read into data device D2. The data from the second set
of switches (again 4 digits) is read into data device D2+1.
c) The outputs used for multiplexing (D1) are
cycled for as long as the DSW instruction is
driven. After the completion of one reading, the
execution complete flag M8029 is set. The
number of outputs used does not depend on
the number of switches n.
Start of repetitive operation Restart
X0
Y10
Y11
d) If the DSW instruction is suspended during midoperation, when it is restarted it will start from
the beginning of its cycle and not from its last
status achieved.
Y12
Y13
e) It is recommended that transistor output units
are used with this instruction. However, if the
program technique at the right is used, relay
output units can be successfully operated as
the outputs will not be continually active.
X0
FX0N
FX
DSW X 10 Y 10 D 0
K1
RST
M0
M8029
S
FX0N
D
K, H
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Note: Uses only the
lower 4 bits
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
M0
FX0(S)
Hex data is
decoded into a
format used to
drive seven
segment displays
SEGD
FNC 73
(Seven
segment
decoder)
SET
M0
SEGD (FNC 73)
Mnemonic
Cycle complete
M8029
f) The DSW instruction may be used ONCE on
FX controllers with CPU versions lower than
3.07. FX units with CPU ver 3.07 or greater and
all FX2C units can operate a maximum of TWO
DSW instructions.
5.8.4
Suspended
operation
FX
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Note: The upper 8 bits
remain unchanged
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SEGD,
SEGDP:
5 steps
FLAGS Zero M8020
Operation:
[S] [D]
X0
SEGD D 0 K2Y0
B0
B5 B6 B1
B4
B2
B3
It can be seen that
B7 is NOT used.
Hence B7 of the
destination device D
will always be OFF,
A sin gle he xa de cim al dig it (0 to 9, A to F)
occupying the lower 4 bits of source device S is
decoded into a data format used to drive a seven
segment display. A representation of the hex digit
is then displayed. The decoded data is stored in
the lower 8 bits of destination device D. The upper
8 bits of the same device are not written to. The
diagram opposite shows the bit control of the
seven segment display. The active bits correspond
to t h os e s e t to 1 in t he lo w e r 8 b it s o f th e
destination device D.
5-84
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.8.5
Applied Instructions 5
SEGL (FNC 74)
Mnemonic
FX0N
S
Writes data to
multiplexed single
digit displays - 4
digits per set,
max. 2 sets
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D
FX
n
Y
Note:
n = 0 to 3, 8
outputs are
used
n = 4 to 7, 12
outputs are
used
K, H
KnX, KnY,
KnM, KnS
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
SEGL
FNC 74
(Seven
segment
with latch)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
SEGL:
K, H,
7 steps
Note:
n= 0 to 3, 1 set
of 7 Seg active
n= 4 to 7, 2 sets
of 7 Seg active
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation:
[S] [D] [n]
X0
This instruction takes a source decimal value (S)
and writes it to a set of 4 multiplexed, outputs (D).
Because the logic used with latched seven
segment displays varies between display manufactures, this instruction can be modified to suit
most logic requirements. Configurations are selected depending on the value of n, see the
following page.
SEGL D 0
Y0
K4
Points to note:
a) Data is written to a set of multiplexed outputs (D+0 to D+7, 8 outputs) and hence seven
segment displays. A set of displays consists of 4 single digit seven segment units. A
maximum of two sets of displays can be driven with this instruction. When two sets are used
the displays share the same strobe outputs (D +4 to D +7 are the strobe outputs). An
additional set of 4 output devices is required to supply the new data for the second set of
displays (D+10 to D+13, this is an octal addition). The strobe outputs cause the written data to
be latched at the seven segment display.
b) Source data within the range of 0 to 9,999 (decimal) is written to the multiplexed outputs.
When one set of displays are used this data is taken from the device specified as operand
S. When two sets of displays are active the source device S+1 supplies the data for the
second set of displays. This data must again be within the range 0 to 9,999. When using
two sets of displays the data is treated as two separate numbers and is not combined to
provide a single output of 0 to 99,999,999.
c) The SEGL instruction takes 12 program scans to complete one output cycle regardless of
the number of display sets used. On completion, the execution complete flag M8029 is set.
Note: A single set of strobe signals are always used
regardless of the number of display sets.
Transistor Output (Source)
+V0
Y0
1
Y1
2
Y2
4
3
10
Y3 +V1
8
2
10
1
Y5
Y6
Y7
+V2 Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13
1
2
4
8
0
3
10 10
1
2
4
8
BCD
data
signals
Y4
10
2
10
1
Display set 1
0
10 10
1
V+ 2
4
8
V+
In this example it has
been assumed that the
seven segment displays
accept data HIGH inputs
and latch when a HIGH
signal is received
Display set 2
5-85
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
d) If the SEGL instruction is suspended during mid-operation, when it is restarted it will start
from the beginning of its cycle and not from its last status achieved.
e) The SEGL instruction may be used ONCE on FX controllers with CPU versions lower than
3.07. FX units with CPU ver 3.07 or greater and all FX2C units can operate a maximum of
TWO SEGL instructions.
Selecting the correct value for operand n
The selection of parameter n depends on 4 factors;
1) The logic type used for the PLC output
2) The logic type used for the seven segment data lines
3) The logic type used for the seven segment strobe signal
4) How many sets of displays are to be used
Device considered
Positive logic
Negative logic
Source output
Sink output
+V1
Pull-up
resistor
V+
V+
HIGH
Y
PLC Logic
Y
LOW
0V
0V
COM
Pull-down
With a source output, when the
With a sink output, when the output
output is HIGH the internal logic is ‘1’ is LOW the internal logic is ‘1’
Seven
segment
Display
logic
Strobe
Data is latched and held when this
signal logic signal is HIGH, i.e. its logic is ‘1’
Data is latched and held when this
signal is LOW, i.e. its logic is ‘1’
Data
Active data lines are held HIGH,
signal logic i.e. they have a logic value of ‘1’
Active data lines are held LOW, i.e.
they have a logic value of ‘1’
There are two types of logic system available, positive logic and negative logic. Depending on
the type of system, i.e. which elements have positive or negative logic the value of n can be
selected from the table below with the final reference to the number of sets of seven segment
displays being used:
PLC Logic
Seven segment display logic
Data Logic
Strobe logic
Positive (Source)
Positive (High)
Positive (High)
Negative (Sink)
Negative (Low)
Negative (Low)
Positive (Source)
Positive (High)
Negative (Low)
Negative (Sink)
Negative (Low)
Positive (High)
Positive (Source)
Positive (High)
Negative (Low)
Negative (Sink)
Negative (Low)
Positive (High)
Positive (Source)
Positive (High)
Positive (High)
Negative (Sink)
Negative (Low)
Negative (Low)
n
1 display set
2 display sets
0
4
1
5
2
6
3
7
5-86
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.8.6
Applied Instructions 5
ARWS (FNC 75)
Mnemonic
ARWS
FNC 75
(Arrow
switch)
Creates a user
defined, (4 key)
numeric data
entry panel
FX0N
FX
FX0N
D2
S
D1
X, Y, M, S
Note:
uses 4
consecutive
devices
T, C, D, V, Z
Note: data
is stored in
a decimal
format
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
Program steps
n
Y
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
K, H
ARWS:
9 steps
Note:
n= 0 to 3,
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ] [ n ]
X0
This instruction displays the contents of a single
data device D 1on a set of 4 digit, seven segment
displays. The data within D 1 is actually in a
standard decimal format but is automatically converted to BCD for display on the seven
segment units. Each digit of the displayed number can be selected and edited. The editing
procedure directly changes the value of the device specified as D1.
ARWS X 10 D 0
Y0
K0
Points to note:
Increase digit value (S+1)
a) The data stored in destination device D1can have a
value from the range 0 to 9,999 (decimal), i.e. 4 digit
data. Each digits data value, can be incremented (S+1)
or decremented (S+0) by pressing the associated control
keys. The edited numbers automatically ‘wrap-around’
from 9 - 0 - 1 and 1 -0 - 9. The digit data is displayed by
the lower 4 devices from D2, i.e. D2+0 to D2+3.
b) On initial activation of the ARWS instruction,
the digit in the numeric position 10 3 is currently
selected. Each digit position can be
sequentially ‘cursored through’ by moving to
the left (S+2) or to the right (S+3). When the last
d i g i t i s r e a c h e d , t h e A RW S in s tr u c t io n
autom atically wraps the cursor position
around, i.e. after position 10 3, position 10 0 is
selected and vice-versa. Each digit is
physically selected by a different ‘strobe’
output.
X11
Cursor
left (S+3)
X13
X12
X10
Decrease digit value (S+0)
Additional
indicator lamps
-see point c.
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
3
10
Y0
Y1
Y2
Y3
Cursor
right (S+2)
2
10
1
0
10 10
1
2
4
8
Digit
position
c) To aid the user of an operation panel controlled with the ARWS instruction, additional lamps
could be wired in parallel with the strobe outputs for each digit. This would indicate which
digit was currently selected for editing.
d) The parameter n has the same function as parameter n of the SEGL instruction - please
seepage5-86, ‘Selectingthecorrectvalueforoperand n‘. Note: as the ARWS instruction only
controls one set of displays only values of 0 to 3 are valid for n.
e) The ARWS instruction can be used ONCE. This instruction should only be used on
transistor output PLC’s.
5-87
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.8.7
Applied Instructions 5
ASC (FNC 76)
Mnemonic
ASC
FNC 76
(ASCII code
conversion)
An entered
alphanumeric
string can be
converted to its
ASCII codes
FX0N
FX
FX0N
D1
S
Alphanumeric data e.g.
0-9, A - Z and a - z etc.
Note: Only one, 8
character string may be
entered at any one
time.
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
T, C, D
Note:
uses 4 consecutive
devices
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ASC
: 7 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
X0
[D]
ASC F X - 6 4 M R ! D300
The source data string S consists of up to 8
ch a r a ct e rs t ak e n f ro m t h e pr i n t a b l e A S C I I
character (Char) set. If less than 8 Char are used,
the difference is made up with null Char (ASCII
00).
The source data is converted to its associated ASCII codes. The codes are then stored in the
destination devices D, see example shown below.
D
Byte
High
Low
D300
58 (X)
46 (F)
D301
36 (6)
2D (-)
D302
4D (M)
34 (4)
D303
21 (!)
52 (R)
Note: ASCII Char cannot be entered from a hand held programmer.
5-88
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.8.8
Applied Instructions 5
PR (FNC 77)
Mnemonic
PR
FNC 77
(Print)
Outputs ASCII
data to items
such as display
units
FX0N
FX
T, C, D
Note: 8 byte mode (M8027=OFF)
uses 4 consecutive devices
16 byte mode (M8027= ON) uses 8
consecutive devices
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D1
S
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
PR:
Y
Note: uses 5 steps
10
consecutive
devices.
FLAGS
Operation
Complete M8029
Operation:
[S]
X0
[D]
Source data (stored as ASCII values) is read byte
by byte from the source data devices. Each byte is
m a p p e d d i re c t l y t o t h e f ir s t 8 c o n s e c u t iv e
destination devices D+0 to D+7). The final two destination bits provide a strobe signal (D+10,
numbered in octal) and an execution/busy flag (D+11, in octal).
PR
D300 Y 0
Points to note:
a) The source byte-data maps the lowest bit to the first destination device D+0. Consequently
the highest bit of the byte is sent to destination device D+7.
b) The PR instruction may be used ONCE on FX units fitted with CPU versions earlier than
3.07. FX units with CPU ver3.07 or later and all FX 2C units can operate TWO PR
instructions. This instruction should only be used on transistor output PLC’s. The PR
instruction will not automatically repeat its operation unless the drive input has been turned
OFF and ON again.
c) The operation of the PR instruction is program scan dependent. Under standard
circumstances it takes 3 program scans to send 1 byte. However, for a faster operation the
PR instruction could be written into a timer interrupt routine similar to the one demonstrated
for HKY on page 5-82.
d)8 byte operation has the following timing diagram. It
should be noted that when the drive input (in the
example X0) is switched OFF the PR instruction will
cease operation. When it is restarted the PR instruction
will start from the beginning of the message string.
Once all 8 bytes have been sent the execution/busy flag
is dropped and the PR instruction suspends operation.
e) 16 byte operation requires the special auxiliary flag
M8027 to be driven ON (it is recommended that
M8000 is used as a drive input). In this operation
mode the drive input (in the example X0) does not
have to be active all of the time. Once the PR
instruction is activated it will operate continuously
until all 16 bytes of data have been sent or the value
00H (null) has been sent. Once the operation is
complete the execution/busy flag (D +11 , octal) is
turned OFF and M8029 the execution complete flag
is set.
Note:To=scan time, see note c.
X0
F
Y0 - Y7
X
-
6
(D+0 - D+7)
T0
T0
T0
Y10
(D+10)
Y11
(D+11)
Note:To=scan time, see note c.
X0
Y0 - Y7
(D+0 - D+7)
T0
T0
T0
Y10
(D+10)
Y11
(D+11)
M8029
5-89
!
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.8.9
Applied Instructions 5
FROM (FNC 78)
Mnemonic
FROM
FNC 78
(FROM)
FX0(S)
FX0N
X1
Operands
Function
FX
m2
m1
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
D
KnY, KnM,
K, H K, H KnS, T, C,
Note:
Note:
m1= 0 to 7 m2 = FX(2C) D, V, Z
0 to 31,
FX2N 0 to
32767
Read data from
the buffer
memories of
attached special
function blocks
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0N
FX
n
K, H Note:
16 bit op:
n= 1 to 32
32 bit op:
n= 1 to 16
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
FROM,
FROMP:
9 steps
DFROM,
DFROMP:
17 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ m1 ][ m2 ] [ D ] [ n ]
The FROM instruction reads n words of data
starting from the buffer memory address m 2 of the
special function block with the logical block
position specified as m1, The read data is stored in the PLC at head address D for n word
devices.
FROM K2
K10 D10
K6
Points to note:
a) All special function blocks which are addressable with the FROM/TO instructions are
connected to the extension bus on the right hand side of the PLC. Each special function
block can be inserted at any point within the chain of extended units (as long as the system
configuration rules are not broken). Each special function block is consecutively addressed
from 0 to 7 beginning with the one closest to the base unit.
Special function
block 0
FX-80MR
FX-4AD
Output block Special function Special function
Y50-57
block 1
block 2
24V
24V
A-D
D-A
FX-1HC
FX-2DA
POWER
OFFSET
POWER
CH1
READY
CH2
OFFSET
GAIN
GAIN
UP
DOWN
POWER
CH1
CH2
READY
CH3
CH4
FX-8EYT
POWER
b) Each special function unit has different buffer memory registers. These often have a
dedicated use for each individual unit. Before any reading or writing of data is undertaken
ensure that the correct buffer memory allocations for the unit used are known.
m2: This defines the head address of the (special function blocks) buffer memories being
accessed. m2 may have a value from the range 0 to 31.
n: This identifies the number of words which are to be transferred between the special
function block and the PLC base unit. n may have a value of 1 to 31 for 16 bit operation but
a range of 1 to 16 is available for 32 bit operation.
c) The destination head address for the data read FROM the special function block is
specified under the D operand; and will occupy n further devices.
d) This instruction will only operate when the drive input is energized.
5-90
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
e) Users of FX PLC’s have the option of allowing interrupts to occur immediately, i.e. during the
operation of the FROM/TO instructions or to wait until the completion of the current FROM/TO
instruction. This is achieved by controlling the special auxiliary flag M8028. The following table
identifies certain points associated with this control and operation.
Interruption Disabled
Interruption Enabled
M8028 = OFF
M8028 = ON
Jumps called by interrupt operation are delayed
until the completion of the data transfer of the
FROM/TO instruction
Jumps called by interrupt operation occur
immediately
Data transfer will resume upon return from the
A small delay of (800m +200) µsec can be
interrupt program. This may not be desirable if a
expected in the worst case. Note: m = the number
FROM/TO
instruction has been programmed
of 32 bit words
within the called interrupt
Ensures that FROM/TO instructions included in
an interrupt program will not interact with others
elsewhere
M8028 should only be used when a very short
delay is required in applications where timing and
accuracy’s are important
Users of FX 0N have no option for interruption of the FROM/TO instructions and hence
always operate in a mode equivalent to having M8028 switched OFF.
5.8.10
TO (FNC 77)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
FX0N
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
[ m1 ][ m2 ] [ S ] [ n ]
X0
TO
H2
K10 D20
m2
S
n
K, H Note:
m2 =FX(2C)
0 to 31,
FX2N 0 to
32767
K,H, KnX,
KnY, KnM,
KnS, T, C,
D, V, Z
K, H Note:
16 bit op:
n= 1 to 32
32 bit op:
n= 1 to 16
m1
Writes data to the K, H buffer memories
Note:
of attached
m1= 0 to 7
special function
blocks
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
TO
FNC 79
(TO)
FX0N
K1
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
TO, TOP:
9 steps
DTO, DTOP:
17 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
The TO instruction writes n words of data to the
head buffer memory address m 2 of the special
function block with the logical block position
specified in m1. The written data is taken from the
PLC’s head address S for n word devices.
Points to note:
All points are the same as the FROM instruction (see previous page) except point c) which is
replaced by the following:
a) The source head address for the data written TO the special function block is specified
under the S operand.
5-91
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
MEMO
5-92
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-93
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.9
Applied Instructions 5
External FX Serial Devices - Functions 80 to 89
Contents:
Page
RS -
RS Communications
FNC 80
5-95
PRUN -
FX2-40AP Parallel Run
FNC 81
5-96
ASCI -
Hexadecimal to ASCII
FNC 82
5-98
HEX -
ASCII to Hexadecimal
FNC 83
5-99
CCD -
Check Code
FNC 84
5-100
VRRD -
FX-8AV Volume Read
FNC 85
5-101
VRSC -
-
FX-8AV Volume Scale
FNC 86
5-101
Not Available
FNC 87
PID -
PID Control Loop
FNC 88
Not Available
FNC 89
-
5-102
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-94
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.9.1
Applied Instructions 5
RS (FNC 80)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
RS
FNC 80
(Serial Communications
instruction)
FX0N
FX
S
D
(including
file
registers)
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
Used to control
serial
communications
from/to the
programmable
controller
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0N
FX
m
D
K, H,
D
n
D
K, H,
D
Program steps
RS: 9 steps
m = 1 to
256, FX2N
1 to 4096
Transmit Delay M8121
32 BIT OPERATION
FX0N
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
m = 1 to
256, FX2N
1 to 4096.
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
Trans Request M8122
Data Received M8123
Operation:
X3
RS
[S]
[m]
[D]
[n]
D10
K5
D20
K5
This instruction performs the direct control of
communications over FX and FX0N communication
adapters which connect to the left hand port of the
Main Processing Unit, i.e. FX 0N -232ADP, FX232ADP etc.
Points to note:
a) This instruction has many automatically
defined devices. These are listed in the
boxed column to the right of this page.
b) The RS instruction has two parts, send
(or transmission) and receive. The first
elements of the RS instruction specify the
transmission data buffer (S) as a head
address, which contains m number of
elements in a sequential stack.
The specification of the receive data area
is contained in the last two parameters of
the RS instruction. The destination (D)
for received messages has a buffer or
stack length of n data elements. The size
of the send and receive buffers dictates
how large a single message can be.
Buffer sizes may be updated at the
following times:
1) Transmit buffer - before transmission
occurs, i.e. before M8122 is set ON
2) Receive buffer - after a message has
been received and before M8123 is
reset.
c) Data cannot be sent while a message is
being received, the transmission will be
delayed - see M8121.
d) More than one RS instruction can be
programmed but only one may be active
at any one time.
Assigned devices
Data devices:
D8120 - Contains the configuration parameters for
communication, i.e. Baud rate,Stop bits etc. Full
details over the page
D8122 - Contains the current count of the number of
remaining bytes to be sent in the currently
transmitting message.
D8123 - Contains the current count of the number of
received bytes in the ‘incoming’ message.
D8124 - Contains the ASCII code of the character used
to signify a message header - default is ‘STX’,
02 HEX.
D8125 - Contains the ASCII code of the character used
to signify a message terminator -default is
‘ETX’, 03 HEX.
Operational flags:
M8121 - This flag is ON to indicate a transmission is
b e i n g d e l a y e d u n t i l t h e c u r r e n t r e c e iv e
operation is completed.
M8122 - This flag is used to trigger the transmission of
data when it is set ON.
M8123 - This flag is used to identify (when ON) that a
complete message has been received.
M8124 - Carrier detect flag. This flag is for use with FX
and FX2C Main Processing Units. It is typically
useful in modem communications
M8161 - 8 or 16 bit operation mode ON = 8 bit mode
where only the lower 8 bits in each source or
destination device are used, i.e. only one ASCII
character is stored in one data register OFF =
16bit mode where all of the available source/
destination register is used, i.e. two ASCII
characters are stored in each data register.
5-95
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.9.2
Applied Instructions 5
RUN (FNC 81)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
Operands
Function
S
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
KnY, KnY
Note:
n = 1 to 8
For ease and convenience, the head address
bit
should be a multiple of ‘10’, e.g. X10, M100,
Y30 etc.
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
KnX, KnM
PRUN
Used to control
FNC 81
the FX parallel
(Parallel run) link adapters:
FX2-40AW/AP
FX0(s)
FX0N
PRUN,
PRUNP:
5 steps
DPRUN,
DPRUNP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
X6
[D]
PRUN K2X10 K2M810
This instruction is used with the FX parallel link
adapters. It allows source data to be moved into
the bit transmission area. The actual control of the
parallel link communication is by special M flags.
Points to note:
a) Parallel link communications automatically take
place when both systems are ‘linked’ and the
Master station (M8070), Slave station flags
(M8071) have been set ON (there is no need to
have a PRUN instruction for communications).
There can only be one of each type of station as
this system connects only two FX PLC’s. The
programs shown opposite should be inserted
into the appropriate FX PLC’s programs.
Master FX PC
M8000
M8070
Slave FX PC
M8000
M8071
Once the station flags have been set, they can only be cleared by either forcibly resetting
them when the FX PLC is in STOP mode or turning the power OFF and ON again.
b) During automatic communications the following data is ‘swapped’ between the Master and
Slave PLC’s.
Master station
M8070 =
ON
Slave Station
Bit Data
Communication
direction
Bit Data
M800 to M899 (100 points)
→
M800 to M899 (100 points)
M900 to M999 (100 points)
←
M900 to M999 (100 points) M8071 =
ON
Data words
D490 to D499 (10 points)
→
D490 to D499 (10 points)
D500 to D509 (10 points)
←
D500 to D509 (10 points)
Data words
Continued...
5-96
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
c) The PRUN instruction enables data to be moved into the bit transmission area or out of the
(bit) data received area. The PRUN instruction differs from the move statement in that it
operates in octal. This means if K4X20 was moved using the PRUN instruction to K4M920,
data would not be written to M928 and M929 as these devices fall outside of the octal
counting system. This can be seen in the diagram below.
K4X20
X37
X36
X35
X34
X33
X32
X31
X30
X27
X26
X25
X24
X23
X22
X21
X20
K4M920
M937 M936 M935 M934 M933 M932 M931 M930 M929 M928 M927 M926 M925 M924 M923 M922 M921 M920
These devices are not written to with
the PRUN instruction
d) For more information please see page 9-6.
5-97
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.9.3
Applied Instructions 5
ASCI (FNC 82)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
FX0N
S
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
D
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
n
KnY, KnM,
KnS
T, C, D
K, H, KnX,
KnY,
KnM, KnS
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX
Operands
Function
Converts a data
value from
hexadecimal to
ASCII
ASCI
FNC 82
(Converts
HEX to
ASCII)
FX0N
K, H
Note:
n = 1 to 256
ASCI,
ASCIP:
7 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X7
ASCI
[S]
[D]
[n]
D8
D20
K6
Th is in s tru cti on re ad s n he xa d ec im a l da ta
characters from head source address (S) and
converts them in to the equivalent ASCII code.
This is then stored at the destination (D) for n
number of bytes.
Points to note:
Please note that data is converted ‘as read’, i.e. using the example above with the following
data in (D9,D8) ABCDH,EF26H. Taking the first n hexadecimal characters (digits) from the right
(in this case n= 6) and converting them to ASCI will store values in 6 consecutive bytes from
D20, i.e. D20 = (67, 68), D21 = (69, 70) and D22 = (50, 54) respectively. In true characters
symbols that would be read as CDEF26.
This can be shown graphically as in the table
Source (S) Data
to the right. Please take special note that the
A
Destination ASCII Code
b12-15
source data (S) read from the most significant
Symbol
(D)
B
HEX DEC
b8-11
device to the least significant. While the D9
b4-7
b8-15
43
67
'C'
C
destination data (D) is read in the opposite
D20
b0-3
b0-7
44
68
'D'
D
direction.
b8-15
45
69
'E'
E
The ASCI instruction can be used with the
b12-15
D21
b0-7
46
70
'F'
F
b8-11
M8161, 8 bit/16bit mode flag. The effect of this
D8
b4-7
b8-15
flag is exactly the same as that detailed on
32
50
'2'
2
D22
b0-3
page 10-20. The example to the right shows
b0-7
36
54
'6'
6
the effect when M8161 is OFF.
If M8161 was set ON, then only the lower
destination byte (b0-7) would be used to store data and hence 6 data registers would be
required (D20 through D25).
ASCII Character Codes
The table below identifies the usable hexadecimal digits and their associated ASCII codes
HEX
Character
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
ASCII HEX 30
Code DEC 48
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
41
42
43
44
45
46
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
65
66
67
68
69
70
’1’
’2’
’3’
’4’
’5’
’6’
’7’
’8’
’9’
’A’
’B’
’C’
’D’
’E’
’F’
Character
Symbol
’0’
5-98
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.9.4
Applied Instructions 5
HEX (FNC 83)
Mnemonic
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
S
FX0N
D
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
n
K, H, KnX, KnY, KnY, KnM, KnS K, H
KnM, KnS
T, C, D, V, Z
T, C, D
Note:
n = 1 to 256
HEX,
HEXP:
7 steps
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
Converts a data
value from ASCII
in to a
hexadecimal
equivalent
HEX
FNC 83
(Converts
ASCII to
HEX)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
M10
HEX
[D]
[n]
D50 D20
K4
This instruction reads n ASCII data bytes from
head source address (S) and converts them in to
the equivalent Hexadecimal character. This is then
stored at the destination (D) for n number of bytes.
Points to note:
Please note that this instruction ‘works in reverse’ to the ASCI instruction, i.e. ASCII data
stored in bytes is converted into associated hexadecimal characters. The HEX instruction can
be used with the M8161 8bit/16bit flag. In this case the source data (S)is read from either the
lower byte (8bits) when M8161 is ON, or the whole word when M8161 is OFF i.e. using the
example above with the following data in devices D50 and D51 respectively (43 H ,41 H )
(42H,31H) and assuming M8161 is ON.
The ASCII data is converted to its
hexadecimal equivalent and stored
sequentially digit by digit f r om the destination
head address.
If M8161 had been OFF, then the contents of
D20 would read CAB1H.
Source (S)
D51
D50
ASCII Code
Symbol
Destination
Data
(D)
67
'C'
b12-15
41
65
'A'
42
66
'B'
31
49
'1'
HEX
DEC
b8-15
43
b0-7
b8-15
b0-7
-
b8-11
-
b4-7
A
b0-3
1
D20
For further details regarding the use of the HEX instruction and about the available ASCII data
ranges, please see the following information point ‘ASCII Character Codes’ under the ASCI
instruction on the previous page.
Important:
If an attempt is made to access an ASCII Code (HEX or Decimal) which falls outside of the
ranges specified in the table on previous page, the instruction is not executed. Error 8067 is
flagged in data register D8004 and error 6706 is identified in D8067. Care should be taken
when using the M8161 flag, and additional in the specification of the number of element ‘n‘
which are to be processed as these are the most likely places where this error will be caused.
5-99
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.9.5
Applied Instructions 5
CCD (FNC 84)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
FX0N
S
Checks the
‘vertical’ parity of
a data stack
D
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
n
CCD,
CCDP:
7 steps
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnY, KnM, KnS K, H
KnS
T, C, D
D
T, C, D
Note:
n = 1 to 256
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX
Operands
Function
CCD
FNC 84
(Check
Code)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
X0
[D]
[n]
CCD D100 D0
This instruction looks at a byte (8 bit) stack of data
from head address (S)for n bytes and checks the
vertical bit pattern for parity and sums the total
data stack. These two pieces of data are then
stored at the destination (D).
K6
Points to note:
a) The SUM of the data stack is stored at destination D while the Parity for the data stack is
stored at D+1.
b) During the Parity check an even result is indicated by the use of a 0 (zero) while an odd
parity is indicated by a 1 (one).
c) This instruction can be used with the 8 bit/ 16 bit mode flag M8161. The following results will
occur under these circumstances. See page 10-20 for more details about M8161.
M8161=OFF
H FF
D100
L FF
H FF
D101
L 00
H F0
D102
L 0F
Vertical
party
D1
SUM D0
M8161=ON
Bit patterm
Sourse (S)
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3FC
Bit patterm
Sourse (S)
1
1
1
0
1
0
D100 L
D101 L
D102 L
D103 L
D104 L
D105 L
Vertical
party
D1
SUM D0
FF
00
0F
F0
F0
0F
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2FD
It should be noted that when M8161 is OFF ‘n’ represents the number of consecutive bytes
checked by the CCD instruction. When M8161 is ON only the lower bytes of ‘n’ consecutive
words are used.
The ‘SUM’ is quite simply a summation of the total quantity of data in the data stack. The Parity
is checked vertically through the data stack as shown by the shaded areas.
5-100
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.9.6
Applied Instructions 5
VRRD (FNC 85)
Mnemonic
VRRD
FNC 85
(Volume
read)
FX0N
Operands
Function
S
Reads an analog
value from 1 of 8
volume inputs on
the FX-8AV
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
KnY, KnM, KnS VRRD,
T, C, D, V, Z
VRRDP:
5 steps
K, H
Note:
S= 0 to 7
corresponding to the 8 available
volumes on the FX-8AV
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
[D]
VRRD K 0
D0
X0
The identified volume (S) on the FX-8AV is read as
an analog input. The analog data is in an 8 bit
format, i.e. values from 0 to 255 are readable. The
read data is stored at the destination device
identified under operand D.
Note:
The FX-8AV volume ‘inputs’ are able to be read in two formats, a) as an analog value and b)
as an 11 (0 to 10) position rotary switch. The second use is described in the VRSC instruction
(FNC 86).
5.9.7
VRSD (FNC 86)
Mnemonic
VRSC
FNC 86
(Volume
scale)
FX0N
Operands
Function
S
Reads the set
position value, 0
to 10, from
volume inputs on
the FX-8AV
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D
K, H
Note:
S= 0 to 7
corresponding to the 8 available
volumes on the FX-8AV
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
KnY, KnM, KnS VRSC,
T, C, D, V, Z
VRSCP:
5 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
[D]
VRSC K 1
D1
X0
The identified volume (S) on the FX-8AV is read as
a rotary switch with 11 set positions (0 to 10). The
position data is stored at device D as an integer
from the range 0 to 10.
Note:
The FX-8AV volume ‘inputs’ are able to be read in two formats, a) as a 11 (0 to 10) position
rotary switch and b) as an analog value. The second use is described in the VRRD
instruction (FNC 85).
5-101
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.9.8
Applied Instructions 5
PID (FNC 88)
Mnemonic
PID
FNC 88
(PID
control loop)
register each
FX0N
FX
Operands
Function
Receives a data
input and
calculates a
corrective action
to a specified
level based on
PID control
S1
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
S3
D
D
FX
D
D
Note: S1 and S2 Note: S3
use a single
uses 25
data register
consecutive
data registers
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0(S)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
PID:
9 steps
Note: D
uses a single
data register
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ S3 ] [ D ]
This instruction takes a current value (S 2 ) and
compares it to a predefined set value (S 1). The
difference or error between the two values is then
processed through a PID loop to produce a
correction factor which also takes into account previous iterations and trends of the calculated
error. The PID process calculates a correction factor which is applied to the current output
value and stored as a corrected output value in destination device (D). The setup parameters
for the PID control loop are stored in 25 consecutive data registers S3+0 through S3+24.
X10
PID D18 D 19 D 20 D 46
Points to note:
a) Every PID application is different. There will be a certain amount of “trial and error”
necessary to set the variables at optimal levels.
b) The PID instruction is only available on FX and FX2C Main Processing Units fitted with CPU
versions 3.11 or greater.
c) On FX2N MPUs a Pre-tuning feature is available that can quickly provide initial values for the
PID process. Refer to page 10-28 for more details.
d) As 25 data register are required for the setup parameters for the PID loop, the head address
of this data stack cannot be greater than D975. The contents of this data stack are
explained later in this section. Multiple PID instructions can be programmed, however
each PID loop must not have conflicting data registers.
e) There are control limits in the PLC intended to help the PID controlled machines operate in
a safe manner. If it becomes necessary to reset the Set Point Value (S1) during operation,
it is recommended to turn the PID command Off and restore the command after entering the
new Set Point Value. This will prevent the safety control limits from stopping the operation
of the PID instruction prematurely.
f) The PID instruction has a special set of error codes associated with it. Errors are identified
in the normal manner. The error codes associated with the PID loop will be flagged by
M8067 with the appropriate error code being stored in D8067. These error devices are not
exclusive to the PID instruction so care should be taken to investigate errors properly.
Please see chapter 6, ‘Diagnostic Devices’ for more information.
g) A full PID iteration does not have to be performed. By manipulation of the setup parameters
P (proportional), I (Integral) or D (derivative) loops may be accessed individually or in a user
defined/selected group. This is detailed later in this section.
5-102
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
PID Equations
Forward
PVnf > SV
TS


∆MV = K P  ( EV n – EV ( n – 1 ) ) + ------ EV n + D n 
T
I


EV n = PV nf – SV
KD ⋅ T D
TD
D n = ------------------------------- ( – 2PV nf – 1 + PV nf + PV nf – 2 ) + ------------------------------- ⋅ D n – 1
TS + KD ⋅ TD
TS + KD ⋅ TD
MV n =
Reverse
∑ ∆MV
SV > PVnf
TS


∆MV = K P  ( EV n – EV n – 1 ) + ------ EV n + D n 
T
I


EV n = SV – PV nf
TD
KD ⋅ TD
- ( 2PV nf – 1 – PV nf – PV nf – 2 ) + ------------------------------ ⋅ Dn – 1
D n = -----------------------------TS + KD ⋅ TD
TS + KD ⋅ TD
MV n =
∑ ∆MV∆
PVnf = PVn + α(PVnf-1 - PVn)
EVn = the current Error Value
EVn-1 = the previous Error Value
SV = the Set Point Value (S1)
PVn = the current Process Value (S2)
PVnf = the calculated Process Value
PVnf-1 = the previous Process Value
PVnf-2 = the second previous Process Value
∆MV = the change in the Output
Manipulation Values
MVn = the current Output Manipulation Value (D)
Dn = the Derivative Value
Dn-1 = the previous Derivative Value
KP = the Proportion Constant
α = the Input Filter
TS = the Sampling Time
TI = the Integral Time Constant
TD = the Time Derivative Constant
KD = the Derivative Filter Constant
Please see the Parameter setup section for a more detailed description of the variable
parameters and in which memory register they must be set.
Forward and Reverse operation (S3+1, b0)
The Forward operation is the condition where the Process Value, PVnf, is greater than the Set
Point, SV. An example is a building that requires air conditioning. Without air conditioning, the
temperature of the room will be higher than the Set Point so work is required to lower PVnf.
The Reverse operation is the condition where the Set Point is higher than the Process Value.
An example of this is an oven. The temperature of the oven will be too low unless some work
is done to raise it, i.e. - the heating element is turned On.
The assumption is made with PID control that some work will need to be performed to bring
the system into balance. Therefore, ∆MV will always have a value. Ideally, a system that is
stable will require a constant amount of work to keep the Set Point and Process Value equal.
5-103
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
PID setup parameters; S3
The PID setup parameters are contained in a 25 register data stack. Some of these devices
require data input from the user, some are reserved for the internal operation and some return
output data from the PID operation.
Parameters S3+0 through S3+6 must be set by the user.
Parameter
S3 + P
S3+0
S3+1
S3+2
S3+3
S3+4
S3+5
S3+6
S3+7 to
S3+19
S3+20
S3+21
S3+22
S3+23
S3+24
Parameter
name/function
Setting
range
Description
The time interval set between the reading the current
1 to 32767
Process Value of the system (PVnf)
msec
Forward operation(0),
b0
Reverse operation (1)
Action - reaction
Process Value (PVnf) alarm enable, OFF(0)/
Not
direction and b1
ON(1)
applicable
alarm control
b2
Output Value (MV) alarm enable, OFF(0)/ON(1)
b3 - 15 Reserved
Input filter α
Alters the effect of the input filter.
0 to 99%
This is a factor used to align the proportional output in a
Proportional
1 to
known magnitude to the change in the Process Value
gain KP
32767%
(PVnf). This is the P part of the PID loop.
This is the I part of the PID loop.
This is the time taken for the corrective integral value to
Integral time
(0 to 32767)
reach a magnitude equal to that applied by the
constant TI
x 100 msec
proportional or P part of the loop.
Selecting 0 (zero) for this parameter disables the I effect.
This is a factor used to align the derivative output in a
Derivative
known
proportion to the change in the Process Value
1 to 100%
gain KD
(PVnf)
This is the D part of the PID loop.
is the time taken for the corrective derivative value to (0 to 32767)
Derivative time This
reach a magnitude equal to that applied by the
constant TD
x 10 msec
proportional or P part of the loop.
Selecting 0 (zero) for this parameter disables the D effect.
Sampling time
TS
Reserved for use for the internal processing
This is a user defined maximum limit for the
Process Value (PVnf). If the Process Value
(PVnf) exceeds the limit, S3+24, bit b0 is set On.
This is a user defined lower limit for the Process
Value. If the Process Value (PVnf) falls below the
limit, S3+24, bit b1 is set On.
This is a user defined maximum limit for the
0 to 32767
Output Value,
quantity of positive change which can occur in
maximum
Active
one PID scan. If the Output Value (MV) exceeds
positive change when
this, S3+24, bit b2 is set On.
S3+1,
This is a user defined maximum limit for the
b2 is
Output Value,
set ON. quantity of negative change which can occur in
maximum
one PID scan. If the Output Value (MV) falls
negative change
below the lower limit, S3+24, bit b3 is set On.
High limit exceeded in Process Value (PVnf)
b0
Below low limit for the Process Value (PVnf)
b1
Not
Alarm flags
b2
Excessive
positive change in Output Value (MV) applicable
(Read Only)
b3
Excessive negative change in Output Value (MV)
b4 - 15 Reserved
Process Value,
Active
maximum
positive change when
S3+1,
Process Value, b1 is
minimum value set ON.
See Initial values for PID loops for basic guidance on initial PID values; page 5-114.
See page 10-24 for additional parameters available with FX2N MPUs.
5-104
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Configuring the PID loop
The PID loop can be configured to offer variations on PID control. These are as follows:
Selection via setup registers
Control
method
S3 +3 (KP)
S3+ 4 (TI)
S3 + 6 (TD)
P
User value
Set to 0 (zero)
Set to 0 (zero)
Proportional effect only
PI
User value
User value
Set to 0 (zero)
Proportional and integral effect
PD
User value
Set to 0 (zero)
User value
Proportional and derivative effect
PID
User value
User value
User value
Full PID
Description
It should be noted that in all situations there must be a proportional or ‘P’ element to the loop.
P - proportional change
When a proportional factor is applied, it calculates the difference between the Current Error
Value, EVn, and the Previous Error Value, EVn-1. The Proportional Change is based upon how
fast the Process Value is moving closer to (or further away from) the Set Point Value NOT
upon the actual difference between the PVnf and SV.
Note: Other PID systems might operate using an equation that calculates the Proportional
change based upon the size of the Current Error Value only.
I - integral change
Once a proportional change has been applied to an error situation, ‘fine tuning’ the correction
can be performed with the I or integral element.
Initially only a small change is applied but as time increases and the error is not corrected the
integral effect is increased. It is important to note how TI actually effects how fast the total
integral correction is applied. The smaller TI is, the bigger effect the integral will have.
Note: The T I value is set in data register S3+4. Setting zero for this variable disables the
Integral effect.
The Derivative Change
The derivative function supplements the effects caused by the proportional response. The
derivative effect is the result of a calculation involving elements TD, TS, and the calculated
error. This causes the derivative to initially output a large corrective action which dissipates
rapidly over time. The speed of this dissipation can be controlled by the value TD: If the value
of TD is small then the effect of applying derivative control is increased.
Because the initial effect of the derivative can be quite severe there is a ‘softening’ effect which
can be applied through the use of K D , the derivative gain. The action of K D could be
considered as a filter allowing the derivative response to be scaled between 0 and 100%.
The phenomenon of chasing, or overcorrecting both too high and too low, is most often
associated with the Derivative portion of the equation because of the large initial correction
factor.
Note: The TD value is set in Data register S3+6. Setting zero for this variable disables the
Derivative effect.
5-105
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Effective use of the input filter α S3+2
To prevent the PID instruction from reacting immediately and wildly to any errors on the
Current Value, there is a filtering mechanism which allows the PID instruction to observe and
account for any significant fluctuations over three samples.
The quantitative effect of the input filter is to calculate a filtered Input Value to the PID
instruction taken from a defined percentage of the Current Value and the previous two filtered
Input Values.
This type of filtering is often called first-order lag filter. It is particularly useful for removing the
effects of high frequency noise which may appear on input signals received from sensors.
The greater the filter percentage is set the longer the lag time. When the input filter is set to
zero, this effectively removes all filtering and allows the Current Value to be used directly as
the Input Value.
Initial values for PID loops
The PID instruction has many parameters which can be set and configured to the user’s
needs. The difficulty is to find a good point from which to start the fine tuning of the PID loop to
the system requirements. The following suggestions will not be ideal for all situations and
applications but will at least give users of the PID instruction a reasonable points from which to
start.
A value should be given to all the variables listed below before turning the PID instruction ON.
Values should be chosen so that the Output Manipulated Value does not exceed ± 32767.
Recommended initial settings:
TS = Should be equal to the total program scan time or a multiple of that scan time, i.e. 2 times,
5 times, etc.
α = 50%
KP = This should be adjusted to a value dependent upon the maximum corrective action
to reach the set point - values should be experimented with from an arbitrary 75%
TI = This should ideally be 4 to 10 times greater than the TD time
KD = 50%
T D = This is set dependent upon the total system response, i.e. not only how fast the
programmable controller reacts but also any valves, pumps or motors.
For a fast system reaction TD will be set to a quick or small time, this should however never be
less than TS. A slower reacting system will require the TD duration to be longer. A
beginning value can be TD twice the value of TS.
Care should be taken when adjusting PID variables to ensure the safety of the operator and
avoid damage to the equipment.
On FX2N MPUs pre-tuning feature is available that can quickly provide initial values for the
PID process. Refer to page 10-28 for more details.
With ALL PID values there is a degree of experimentation required to tune the PID loop
to the exact local conditions. A sensible approach to this is to adjust one parameter at a
time by fixed percentages, i.e. say increasing (or decreasing) the KP value in steps of
10%. Selecting PID parameters without due consideration will result in a badly
configured system which does not perform as required and will cause the user to
become frustrated. Please remember the PID process is a purely mathematical
calculation and as such has no regard for the ‘quality’ of the variable data supplied by
the user/system - the PID will always process its PID mathematical function with the
data available.
5-106
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Example PID Settings
The partial program shown at below demonstrates which parameters must be set for the
functioning of the FX2N. The first step sets the user values for S 3+0 to S 3 +6. The PID
instruction will be activated when M4 is On.
From the PID instruction at the bottom of the ladder, S1 = D200; S2 = D201; S3 = D500; and D
or MV = D525.
D500: Ts = 500 ms
M8002
FNC 12
MOV P
K500
D500
D501: Forward Operation,
Alarms Not Enabled
FNC 12
MOV P
D502: Input Filter = 50%
FNC 12
MOV P
K50
D502
D503: KP = 75%
FNC 12
MOV P
K75
D503
D504: TI = 4000 ms
FNC 12
MOV P
K2000
D504
D505: KD = 50%
FNC 12
MOV P
K50
D505
D506: TD = 1000 ms
FNC 12
MOV P
K3000
D506
FNC 12
MOV P
K 1000 D200
M8002
D200: Set Point = 1000
D201: PVnf (an analog
input value)
Begin the PID instruction
D525: PID Output Value
M1
M4
H0000 D501
FNC 79
TO
K2
K1
K4
K4
FNC 78
FROM
K2
K5
D201
K4
FNC 88
PID
D200
D201
D500
D525
5-107
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
MEMO
5-108
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-109
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.10
Applied Instructions 5
External F2 Units - Functions 90 to 99
Contents:
Page
MNET -
F-16NP, Melsec Net Mini
FNC 90
5-111
ANRD -
F2-6A, Analog Read
FNC 91
5-111
ANWR -
F2-6A, Analog Write
FNC 92
5-112
RMST -
F2-32RM, RM Start
FNC 93
5-112
RMWR -
F2-32RM, RM Write
FNC 94
5-113
RMRD -
F2-32RM, RM Read
FNC 95
5-114
RMMN -
F2-32RM, RM Monitor
FNC 96
5-114
BLK -
F2-30GM, Block
FNC 97
5-115
MCDE -
F2-30GM, Machine Code
FNC 98
5-116
Not Available
FNC 99
-
Please note: All of the instructions in this section reference chapter, Assigning System Devices
for further information.
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-110
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.10.1
Applied Instructions 5
MNET (FNC 90)
Mnemonic
MNET
FNC 90
(F-16NT/NP
Melsec net
mini)
FX0N
FX
S
16 BIT OPERATION
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
Used to control
X
the F series net
mini module - use Note:
with an FX2-24EI
uses 8 consecutive
devices
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
Y
Note:
uses 8 consecutive
devices
MNET,
MNETP:
5 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
X0
[D]
The MNET instruction is used for communicating
bit status signals between an FX PLC and an F16NP/NT Melsec Net Mini interface.
The head address I/O numbers for both S and D are determined by the position of the FX224EI (connected to the F-16NT/NP) within the FX PLC’s expansion chain. The devices
specified for S and D can be used directly within the FX users program.
For more information please see page 9-3.
MNET X 40 Y 30
5.10.2
ANRD (FNC 91)
Mnemonic
ANRD
FNC 91
(F2-6A
Analog
read)
Used to read the
F series analog
module - use with
an FX2-24EI
FX0N
FX
FX0N
D2
S1
X
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
D2
Y
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
n
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
KnY, KnM, K, H
ANRD,
KnS, T, C, ANRDP:
D, V, Z
9 steps
Note:
n= 10 to 13
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X0
[ S ] [D1] [D2] [ n ]
The ANRD instruction is used to read input
channel n of an F 2 -6A analog module. The read
analog value is stored at destination device D2.
The head address I/O numbers for both Sand D1 are determined by the position of the FX224EI (connected to the F2-6A) within the FX PLC’s expansion chain. The analog data stored at
the destination device D2 is in an 8 bit format. The operand nis used to specify which analog
channel is being read, i.e. 10 to 13. For more information please see page 9-4.
ANRD X40 Y30 D300 K10
5-111
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.10.3
Applied Instructions 5
ANWR (FNC 92)
Mnemonic
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D2
S1
D2
KnY, KnM, X KnS, T, C, Note:
D, V, Z
uses 8
consecutive
devices
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
Used to write to
the F series
analog module use
with an
FX2-24EI
ANWR
FNC 92
(F2-6A
Analog
write)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
n
Y
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
K, H
Note:
n= 0 or 1
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
ANWR,
ANWRP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X0
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ] [ n ]
ANWR D310 X40 Y30 K 0
The ANWR instruction is used to write output data
to channel n of an F 2 -6A analog module. The
written analog value is stored in source device S1.
The head address I/O numbers for both S2 and Dare determined by the position of the FX224EI (connected to the F2-6A) within the expansion chain.
The analog data to be written is stored at the source device S1 in an 8 bit format.
The operand nis used to specify which analog channel is being written to, i.e. 0 or 1.
For more information please see page 9-4.
5.10.4
RMST (FNC 93)
Mnemonic
RMST
FNC 93
RM start)
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
FX0N
D1
S1
X
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
Used to start the
F series CAM
module - use with
an FX2-24EI
(F2-32RM
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
D2
Y
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
Y, M, S
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
n
K, H
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
RMST:
9 steps
Note:
n= 0 or 1
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ] [ n ]
X0
RMST X40 Y30 M300 K 0
The RMST instruction is used to start the operation
of an F2-32RM under FX control and to monitor the
current status of the F 2-32RM.
Points to note:
a) The head address I/O numbers for both S2 and Dare determined by the position of the FX224EI (connected to the F2-6A) within the FX PLC’s expansion chain.
b) The operand nis used to specify which F2-32RM program is active, i.e. 0 or 1.
5-112
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
c) Operand D2 stores the F2-32RM status information.
Status of bit device D2+m
ON
OFF
D2+0
BANK 1 (program 1) selected
BANK 0 (program 0) selected
D2+1
-
Normally OFF
D2+2
START
STOP
D2+3
1.0 degree steps
0.5 degree steps
D2+4
Normally ON
-
D2+5
Clockwise operation (CW)
Counter-clockwise operation (CCW)
D2+6
Normal operation - No error
Hardware Error
D2+7
Normal operation - No error
Software Error
d) For more information please see page 9-4.
5.10.5
RMMR (FNC 94)
Mnemonic
RMWR
FNC 94
(F2-32RM
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
S1
FX0N
S2
Y, M, S
Note: 16 bit operation
uses 16 devices,
32 bit mode uses 32
consecutive devices.
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
Disables outputs
of the F series
CAM module -use
with an
FX2-24EI
RM write)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
X
Note:
uses 8
consecutiv
e
devices
D
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
Y
RMWR,RMWRP
:7 steps
Note:
DRMWR,
uses 8
consecutiv DRMWRP:
13 steps
e
devices
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X0
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
This instruction sends output disable data to an F232RM programmable CAM switch from an FX
PLC.
2
The head address I/O numbers for both S and Dare determined by the position of the FX224EI (connected to the F2-32RM) within the FX PLC’s expansion chain.
The operand S1 is the head address of either 16 or 32 source bits. The source bits map directly
over F2-32RM outputs Y0 to Y37 (numbered in octal)
When a source device is turned ON at the FX PLC the F 2 -32RMs associated devices is
disabled.
RMWR M500 X40 Y30
For more information please see page 9-4.
5-113
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.10.6
Applied Instructions 5
RMRD (FNC 95)
Mnemonic
RMRD
FNC 95
(F2-32RM
RM read)
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
X
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Y, M, S
Note: 16 bit operation
uses 16 devices,
32 bit mode uses 32
consecutive devices.
RMRD,RMRDP
: 7 steps
DRMRD,
DRMRDP
: 13 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ]
X0
Y
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
FX
Program steps
D2
D1
S
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
Reads output
status of F series
CAM module -use
with an
FX2-24EI
FX0N
This instruction reads the current status of the
outputs of an F2-32RM programmable CAM switch
to an FX PLC.
The head address I/O numbers for both Sand D 1
are determined by the position of the FX 2 -24EI (connected to the F 2 -32RM) within the
expansion chain.
Output statuses of Y0-Y17 (16 bit operation) or Y0-Y37 (32 bit operation are read from the F232RM. The read data is mapped directly over the FX destination devices (head address D 2).
The D2devices will retain their last status even when the RMRD instruction is turned OFF. For
more information please see page 9-4.
RMRD X40 Y30 M600
5.10.7
RMMN (FNC 96)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
Monitors data
states of F series
CAM module -use
with an
RMMN
FNC 96
(F2-32RM
RM
monitor)
FX2-24EI
FX0N
FX
X
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
D2
D1
S
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
Y
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
KnY, YnM, YnS
T, C, D, V, Z
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
RMMN,
RMMNP:
7 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ]
RMMN X40 Y30 D100
X0
Switch
Example
Operand
#4
value
ON
350
D2
OFF
830
Data
type
angle
(degrees)
speed
(r.p.m)
The RMMN instruction is used to read speed
(r.p.m.) or current angular position from the F 2 32RM to an FX PLC. There it is stored at the
device specified by operand D2. The decision for
which data is read, i.e. speed or position is made
by the F 2-32RM through its hardware switch #4.
The head address I/O numbers for both S and D 1
are deter-mined by the position of the FX 2 -24EI
(connected to the F 2-32RM) within the FX PLC’s
expansion chain.
For more information please see page 9-4.
5-114
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.10.8
Applied Instructions 5
BLK (FNC 97)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
BLK
FNC 97
(F2-30GM
Block)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
S1
FX
D
X
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
K, H
KnX, KnY,
KnM,
KnS
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
Identifies a block
number to the
F2-30GM - use
with an FX2-24EI
FX0N
Y
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
BLK, BLKP:
7 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
X0
BLK K 0 X40 Y30
The BLK instruction is used to designate a block
number (S1)to an F 2 -30GM pulse output unit
through a controlling FX PLC.
Points to note:
a) The head address I/O numbers for both Sand D1 are determined by the position of the FX224EI (connected to the F2-30GM) within the FX PLC’s expansion chain.
b) Effective block numbers which can be specified for S1 are 0 to 31 (in decimal). Data which is
to be used for S1 cannot be in a BCD format, i.e data should not be read directly in (using
KnX for example) from BCD thumbwheels.
c) When an F2-30GM is used and the BLK
in str uc tio n is n o t re qu ire d , th e p rog ra m
opposite is needed to ensure the FX 2 -24EI
recognizes and operates correctly for the
connected F2-30GM.
M8000
BLK K 0 X40 Y30
d) For more information please see page 9-5.
5-115
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.10.9
Applied Instructions 5
MCDE (FNC 98)
Mnemonic
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
FX0N
X
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
FX
D2
D1
S
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
Reads a set
codes from the
F2-30GM - use
with an FX2-24EI
MCDE
FNC 98
(F2-30GM
Machine
code)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
Y
Note:
uses 8
consecutive
devices
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
MCDE,
Y, M, S Note: uses 64 MCDEP:
7 steps
consecutive
(numbered in
octal) devices
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S ] [ D1 ] [ D2 ]
X0
MCDE X40 Y30 M500
This instruction allows an FX PLC to read the
machine codes of an F 2 -30GM. There are 64
machine code points in the F 2-30GM. These are
numbered in octal, i.e. 0 to 77 and are prefixed by
M.
Points to note:
a) The head address I/O number for both Sand D1 is determined by the position of the FX224EI (connected to the F2-30GM) within the expansion chain.
b) When the F2-30GM operates a machine code (one of the M0 to M77 devices), an
associated destination device (D2) is activated. D2 devices directly map to the machine
codes of the F2-30GM, i.e. when the F2-30GM activates M7, D2+7 (in octal) at the FX PLC
also activates. If the data used in the sample instruction above is used and M77 at the F230GM is ON - so will (D2+77 an octal addition) M577 at the FX PLC be ON (while the MCDE
instruction is active).
c) To make the associate numbering easy between FX and F2-30GM it is recommended that
the lower two digits of the head address used to specify D2 are zero, i.e.’00’ when S or M
devices are used in the FX PLC.
d) For more information please see page 9-5.
5-116
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-117
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.11
Applied Instructions 5
Floating Point 1 & 2 - Functions 110 to 129
Contents:
Floating Point 1
Page
ECMP -
Float Compare
FNC 110
5-119
EZCP -
Float Zone Compare
FNC 111
5-119
Not Available
FNC 112 to 117
EBCD -
Float to Scientific
FNC 118
5-120
EBIN -
Scientific to Float
FNC 119
5-120
EADD -
Float Add
FNC 120
5-121
ESUB -
Float Subtract
FNC 121
5-122
EMUL -
Float Multiplication
FNC 122
5-122
EDIV -
-
Float Division
FNC 123
5-123
Not Available
FNC 124 to 126
ESQR -
Float Square Root
FNC 127
PPP -
Not Available
FNC 128
INT -
Float to Integer
FNC 129
Floating Point 2
5-123
5-124
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-118
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.11.1
Applied Instructions 5
ECMP (FNC 110)
Mnemonic
ECMP
FNC 110
(Floating
Point
Compare)
FX0(S)
FX0N
Operands
Function
FX
FX0N
D
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DECMP,
K, H - integer value automati- Y, M, S
DECMPP:
cally converted to floating point
13 steps
Note:
D - must be in floating point
3 consecutive
format (32bits).
devices are
used.
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
S2
S1
Compares two
floating point
values - results of
<, = and > are
given
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[ S1 ]
M8000
DECMP D12
[ S2 ]
[D]
D20
M16
The data of S1 is compared to the data of S 2. The
result is indicated by 3 bit devices specified with
the head address entered as D. The bit devices
indicate:
M16
D20 < D12
M17
S2 is less than < S1 - bit device D is ON
S2 is equal to = S1 - bit device D+1 is ON
S2 is greater than > S1 - bit device D+2 is ON
D20 = D12
M18
D20 > D12
Points to note:
The status of the destination devices will be kept even if the ECMP instruction is deactivated.
Full algebraic comparisons are used: i.e. -1.79 × 10 27 is smaller than 9.43 × 10 -15
5.11.2
EZCP (FNC 111)
Mnemonic
EZCP
FNC 111
(Floating
Point Zone
Compare)
FX0N
FX
S3
K, H - integer value automatically
converted to floating point
D
Y, M, S
Note: 3
D - must be in floating point format consecutive devices
(32 bits).
Note: S1 must be less than S2
are used.
16 BIT OPERATION
FX0N
S2
S1
Compares a float
range with a float
value - results of
<, = and > are
given
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DEZCP,
DEZCPP:
13 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
M8000
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ S3 ] [ D ]
DEZCP D50 D60 D100 M50
M50
D100 < D50,D60
M51
D100 £ D50 £ D60
M52
The operation is the same as the ECMP instruction
except that a single data value (S3) is compared to
a data range (S1 - S2).
S3 is less than S1 and S2 - bit device D is ON
S3 is between S1 and S2 - bit device D+1 is ON
S3 is greater than S2 - bit device D+2 is ON
D100 > D50,D60
5-119
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.11.3
Applied Instructions 5
EBCD (FNC 118)
Mnemonic
EBCD
FNC 118
(Float to
Scientific
conversion)
FX0N
FX
S
16 BIT OPERATION
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
Converts floating D - must be in floating
point number
point format (32 bits).
format to scientific
number format
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
D - 2 consecutive
devices are used
DEBCD,
DEBCDP:
9 steps
D - mantissa
D+1 - exponent.
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X14
Converts a floating point value at S into separate
DEBCD D102
D200
mantissa and exponent parts at D and D+1
(scientific format).
Points to note:
a) The instruction must be double word format. The destinations D and D+1 represent the
mantissa and exponent of the floating point number respectively.
b) To provide maximum accuracy in the conversion the mantissa D will be in the range 1000 to
9999 (or 0) and the exponent D+1 corrected to an appropriate value.
c) E.g. S= 3.4567 × 10 -5 will become D= 3456, D+1 = -8
5.11.4
EBIN (FNC 119)
Mnemonic
EBIN
FNC 119
(Scientific
to Float
conversion)
FX0N
FX
S
D
Converts scientific D - 2 consecutive
number format to devices are used
floating point
number format
S- mantissa
S+1 - exponent.
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
D - a floating point
value
(32 bits).
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DEBIN,
DEBINP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X15
DEBIN D202
D110
Generates a floating point number at D from
scientific format data at source S.
Points to note:
a) The instruction must be double word format. The source data Sand S+1 represent the
mantissa and exponent of the floating point number to be generated.
b) To provide maximum accuracy in the conversion the mantissa S must be in the range 1000
to 9999 (or 0) and the exponent S+1 corrected to an appropriate value.
c) E.g. S= 5432, S+1 = 12 will become D= 5.432 x 10 9
5-120
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.11.5
Applied Instructions 5
EADD (FNC 120)
Mnemonic
EADD
FNC 120
(Floating
Point
Addition)
Adds two floating
point numbers
together
FX0N
FX
FX0N
S2
S1
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
K, H - integer value automatically D - a floating
converted to floating point
point value
(32 bits).
D - must be in floating point
format (32 bits).
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
DEADD,
DEADDP:
13 steps
Zero M8020
FLAGS
Borrow M8021
Carry M8022
Operation:
X07
DEADD K52000 D106 D108
The floating point values stored in the source
devices S1 and S2 are algebraically added and the
result stored in the destination device D.
Points to note:
a) The instruction must use the double word format; i.e., DEADD or DEADDP. All source data
and destination data will be double word; i.e. uses two consecutive data registers to store
the data (32 bits).
Except for K or H, all source data will be regarded as being in floating point format and the
result stored in the destination will also be in floating point format.
b) If a constant K or H is used as source data, the value is converted to floating point before
the addition operation.
c) The addition is mathematically correct: i.e., 2.3456 × 10 2 + (-5.6 × 10 -1) = 2.34 × 10 2
d) The same device may be used as a source and as the destination. If this is the case then,
on continuous operation of the DEADD instruction, the result of the previous operation will
be used as a new source value and a new result calculated.
This will happen every program scan unless the pulse modifier or an interlock program is
used.
e) If the result of the calculation is zero “0” then the zero flag, M8020 is set ON.
If the result of the calculation is larger than the largest floating point number then the carry
flag, M8021 is set ON and the result is set to the largest value.
If the result of the calculation is smaller than the smallest floating point number then the
borrow flag, M8022 is set ON and the result is set to the smallest value.
For more information about the format of floating point number refer to page 4-46.
5-121
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.11.6
Applied Instructions 5
EAUB (FNC 121)
FX0(S)
Mnemonic
Function
ESUB
FNC 121
(Floating
Point
Sub-traction)
Subtracts one
floating point
number from
another
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
Operands
FX0N
S2
S1
K, H - integer value automatically
converted to floating point
D - must be in floating point
number format (32 bits).
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
D - a floating
point value
(32 bits).
DESUB,
DESUBP:
13 steps
Zero M8020
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
Borrow M8021
Carry M8022
Operation:
X17
The floating point value of S2 is subtracted from the
floating point value of S 1 and the result stored in
destination device D.
DESUB D120 K79124 D128
Points to note:
All points of the EADD instruction apply, except that a subtraction is performed.
See page 5-122.
5.11.7
EMUL (FNC 122)
Mnemonic
S2
S1
D
D - a floating
point value
(32 bits).
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DEMUL,
DEMULP:
13 steps
D - must be in floating point
format (32 bits).
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
Multiplies two
K, H - integer value automatifloating point
cally
numbers together converted to floating point
EMUL
FNC 122
(Floating
Point Multiplication)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
M12
DEMUL D108 K1000 D130
The floating point value of S1is multiplied with the
floating point value of S 2 . The result of the
multiplication is stored at D as a floating point
value.
Points to note:
Point a, b, c and d of the EADD instruction apply, except that a multiplication is performed.
See page 5-122.
5-122
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.11.8
Applied Instructions 5
EDIV (FNC 123)
Mnemonic
EDIV
FNC 123
(Floating
Point
Division)
FX0N
S2
S1
K, H - integer value automatically
converted to floating point
Divides one
floating point
number by
another.
FX0N
Operands
Function
D
D - a floating
point value
(32 bits).
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DEDIV,
DEDIVP:
13 steps
D - must be in floating point
format (32 bits).
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
X10
DEDIV D128 K500 D106
The floating point value of S 1 is divided by the
floating point value of S 2. The result of the division
is stored in D as a floating point value. No
remainder is calculated.
Points to note:
Points a, b, c, d of the EADD instruction apply, except that a division is performed.
See page 5-122.
• If S2 is 0 (zero) then a divide by zero error occurs and the operation fails.
5.11.9
ESQR (FNC 127)
Mnemonic
ESQR
FNC 127
(Floating
Point
Square
Root)
Calculates the
square root of
a floating point
value.
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
S
D
K, H - integer value automatically
converted to floating point
D - a floating
point value
(32 bits).
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DESQR,
DESQRP:
9 steps
D - must be in floating point
number format (32 bits).
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS Zero M8020
Operation:
M24
DESQR D302 D510
A square root is performed on the floating point
value of Sand the result is stored in D.
Points to note:
Points a, b, c, d of the EADD instruction apply, except that a square root is performed.
See page 5-122.
• If S is negative then an error occurs and error flag M8067 is set ON.
5-123
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
5.11.10 INT (FNC 129)
Mnemonic
INT
FNC 129
(Float to
Integer)
Converts a
number from
floating point
format to decimal
format
FX0N
FX
S
FX0N
D - decimal format
for INT, INTP - 16 bits
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
INT, INTP:
5 steps
for DINT, DINTP - 32
bits
FX
FX
Program steps
D
D - must be in floating
point number format
(always 32 bits).
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
DINT, DINTP:
9 steps
Zero M8020
FLAGS
Borrow M8021
Carry M8022
Operation:
M25
The floating point value of S is rounded down to
DINT
D510 D254
the nearest integer value and stored in normal
binary format in D.
Points to note:
a) The source data is always a double (32 bit) word; a floating point value.
For single word (16 bit) operation the destination is a 16 bit value.
For double word (32 bit) operation the destination is a 32 bit value.
b) This instruction is the inverse of the FLT instruction. (See page 5-49)
c) If the result is 0 then the zero flag M8020 is set ON.
If the source data is not a whole number it must be rounded down. In this case the borrow
flag M8021 is set ON to indicate a rounded value.
If the resulting integer value is outside the valid range for the destination device then an
overflow occurs. In this case the carry flag M8022 is set on to indicate overflow.
Note: If overflow occurs, the value in the destination device will not be valid.
5-124
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-125
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.12
Applied Instructions 5
Trigonometry - FNC 130 to FNC 139
Contents:
Floating point 3
Page
SIN -
Sine
FNC 130
5-127
COS -
Cosine
FNC 131
5-128
TAN -
Tangent
FNC 132
5-128
Not Available
FNC 133 to 139
-
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-126
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.12.1
Applied Instructions 5
SIN (FNC 130)
Mnemonic
SIN
FNC 130
(Sine)
FX0(S)
FX0N
Operands
Function
S
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D
D - must be in floating
point number format
(32 bits).(radians)
Calculates the
sine of a floating
point value
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
D - a floating point
value
(32 bits).
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DSIN,
DSINP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Contents:
X03
DSIN D510 D314
This instruction performs the mathematical SIN
operation on the floating point value in S. The
result is stored in D.
Points to note:
a) The instruction must use the double word format: i.e., DSIN or DSINP. All source and
destination data will be double word; i.e., uses two consecutive data registers to store the
data (32 bits).
The source data is regarded as being in floating point format and the destination is also in
floating point format.
b) The source value must be an angle between 0 to 360 degrees in radians; i.e.,
0° ≤ S< 360°
Radian Angles
Below is an program example of how to calculate angles in radians using floating point.
X001
X002
M8000
MOVP K45
D0
K45 degrees to D0
MOVP K90
D0
K90 degrees to D0
D4
Convert D0 to float in D4,D5
FLT
D0
D4
D20
[S]
D30
[D]
Calculate π in radians (π/180)
Store as a float in D20,D21
Calculate angle in radians in D30,D31
(deg° × π/180 = rads)
DSIN
D30
D100
Calculate SIN of angle in D100
DEDIV K31415926 K1800000000 D20
DEMUL
5-127
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.12.2
Applied Instructions 5
COS (FNC 131)
Mnemonic
COS
FNC 131
(Cosine)
Calculates the
cosine of a
floating point
value
FX0N
FX
S
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
D - must be in floating
point number format
(32 bits).
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
D - a floating point
value
(32 bits).
DCOS,
DCOSP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Contents:
X04
DCOS D510 D316
This instruction performs the mathematical COS
operation on the floating point value in S. The
result is stored in D.
Points to note:
All the points for the SIN instruction apply, except that COS is calculated.
See page 5-127.
5.12.3
TAN (FNC 132)
Mnemonic
TAN
FNC132
(Tangent)
Calculates the
tangent of a
floating point
value
FX0N
FX
S
FX0N
D
D - must be in floating
point number format
(32 bits).
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
D - a floating point
value
(32 bits).
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
DTAN,
DTANP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Contents:
X05
DTAN D510 D318
This instruction performs the mathematical TAN
operation on the floating point value in S. The
result is stored in D.
Points to note:
All the points for the SIN instruction apply, except that COS is calculated.
See page 5-127.
5-128
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-129
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.13
Applied Instructions 5
Data Operations 2 - FNC 140 to FNC 149
Contents:
Page
-
Not Available
FNC 140 to 146
SWAP -
Float to Scientific
FNC 147
Not Available
FNC 148 to 149
-
5-131
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-130
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.13.1
Applied Instructions 5
SWAP (FNC 147)
Mnemonic
SWAP
FNC 147
(Byte
Swap)
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
FX0N
KnY, KnM, KnS, T, C, D, V, Z
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
S
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
Operands
Function
The high and low
byte of the
designated
devices are
exchanged
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
SWAP,SWAPP
: 5 steps
DSWAP,
DSWAPP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Contents:
X34
SWAPP
D10
The upper byte and the lower byte of the source
device are swapped.
This instruction is equivalent to operation 2 of FNC
17 XCH (see page 5-21).
Points to note:
a) In single word (16 bit) operation the upper and lower byte of the source device are
exchanged.
b) In double word (32 bit) operation the upper and lower byte of each or the two 16 bit devices
are exchanged.
Result of DSWAP(P) D10:
Values are in Hex for clarity
D10
D11
Byte 1
Before DSWAP After DSWAP
1FH
8BH
Byte 2
8BH
1FH
Byte 1
C4H
35H
Byte 2
35H
C4H
c) If the operation of this instruction is allowed to execute each scan, then the value of the
source device will swap back to its original value every other scan. The use of the pulse
modifier or an interlock program is recommended.
5-131
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
MEMO
5-132
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-133
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.14
Applied Instructions 5
Real Time Clock Control - FNC 160 to FNC 169
Contents:
Page
TCMP -
Time Compare
FNC 160
5-135
TZCP -
Time Zone Compare
FNC 161
5-136
TADD -
Time Add
FNC 162
5-137
TSUB -
Time Subtract
FNC 163
5-138
Not Available
FNC 164 to 165
TRD -
Read RTC data
FNC 166
5-139
TWR -
Set RTC data
FNC 167
5-140
Not Available
FNC 168 to 169
-
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-134
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.14.1
Applied Instructions 5
TCMP (FNC 160)
Mnemonic
S1
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
S3
K, H,
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D,
V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
Compares two
times - results of
<, = and > are
given
TCMP
FNC 160
(Time
Compare)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
S
T, C, D
D
Y, M, S
Note:
3 consecutive
devices are used.
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
TCMP,
TCMPP:
11 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Contents:
X10
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ S3 ]
TCMP K10 K30 K50
M0
[S]
D0
[D]
D0
ON when D0,D1,D2 < 10:30:50
M1
ON when D0,D1,D2 = 10:30:50
M2
ON when D0,D1,D2 > 10:30:50
S 1 , S 2 and S 3 represent hours, minutes and
seconds respectively. This time is compared to the
time value in the 3 data devices specified by the
head address S. The result is indicated in the 3 bit
devices specified by the head address D.
The bit devices in D indicate the following:
D+0 is set ON, when the time in S is less than the time in S1, S2 and S3.
D+1 is set ON, when the time in S is equal to the time in S1, S2 and S3.
D+2 is set ON, when the time in S is greater than the time in S1, S2 and S3.
Points to note:
a) The status of the destination devices is kept, even if the TCMP instruction is deactivated.
b) The comparison is based on the time value specified in the source devices.
- The valid range of values for S1and S+0 is 0 to 23 (Hours).
- The valid range of values for S2and S+1 is 0 to 59 (Minutes).
- The valid range of values for S3and S+2 is 0 to 59 (Seconds).
c) The current time of the real time clock can be compared by specifying D8015 (Hours),
D8014 (Minutes) and D8013 (Seconds) as the devices for S1, S2 and S3 respectively.
5-135
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.14.2
Applied Instructions 5
TZCP (FNC 161)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
X10
S2
S1
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
[ S1 ] [ S2 ]
TZCP D20
M0
M1
M2
D30
[S]
[D]
D0
M15
FX0N
FX
Operands
Function
S
FX
ON when D20,D21,D22 £ D0,D1,D2 £ D30,D31,D32
ON when D30,D31,D32 < D0,D1,D2
TZCP,
TZCPP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
ON when D0,D1,D2 < D20,D21,D22
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
Compares a time T, C, D
Y, M, S
to a specified time S1 must be less than or equal to S2.
range - results of Note: 3 consecutive devices are used for all
<, = and > are
given
TZCP
FNC 161
(Time
Zone
Compare)
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Contents:
S 1 , S 2 a n d S r e p r e s e n t t i m e v a lu e s . E a c h
specifying the head address of 3 data devices. S is
compared to the time period defined by S1 and S2.
The result is indicated in the 3 bit devices specified
by the head address D.
The bit devices in D indicate the following:
D+0 is set ON, when the time in S is less than the times in S1 and S2.
D+1 is set ON, when the time in S is between the times in S1 and S2.
D+2 is set ON, when the time in S is greater than the times in S1 and S2.
Points to note:
a) The status of the destination devices is kept, even if the TCMP instruction is deactivated.
b) The comparison is based on the time value specified in the source devices.
- The valid range of values for S1and S+0 is 0 to 23 (Hours).
- The valid range of values for S2and S+1 is 0 to 59 (Minutes).
- The valid range of values for S3and S+2 is 0 to 59 (Seconds).
5-136
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.14.3
Applied Instructions 5
TADD (FNC 162)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
S2
S1
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
Operands
Function
D
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
Adds two time
TADD,
T, C, D
values together to
TADDP:
give a new time
Note: 3 consecutive devices are used to represent 7 steps
hours, minutes and seconds respectively.
TADD
FNC 162
(Time
Addition)
FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
Zero M8020
Carry M8022
Contents:
X13
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
TSUB D10
D20
D30
Each of S1, S2 and D specify the head address of 3
data devices to be used a time value.
The time value in S1 is added to the time value in
S2, the result is stored to D as a new time value.
Points to note:
a) The addition is performed according to standard time values. Hours, minutes and seconds
are kept within correct limits. Any overflow is correctly processed.
S1
S2
D10: 10 hours
D20: 30 hours
D11: 30 mins
D21: 10 mins
D12: 27 secs
+
10:30:29
D22: 49 secs
D
D30: 13 hours
=
03:10:49
D31: 41 mins
D32: 16 secs
13:41:16
b) If the addition of the two times results in a value greater than 24 hours, the value of the
result is the time remaining above 24 hours.
S1
S2
D10: 10 hours
D20: 18 hours
D11: 17 mins
D21: 12 mins
D12: 29 secs
10:17:29
+
D22: 34 secs
D
D30: 13 hours
=
18:12:34
D31: 41 mins
D32: 16 secs
04:30:03
M8022 ON
When this happens the carry flag M8022 is set ON.
c) If the addition of the two times results in a value of zero (0:00:00: 0 hours, 0 minutes, 0
seconds) then the zero flag M8020 is set ON.
d) The same device may be used as a source (S1 or S2) and destination device. In this case
the addition is continually executed; the destination value changing each program scan. To
prevent this from happening, use the pulse modifier or an interlock program.
5-137
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.14.4
Applied Instructions 5
TSUB (FNC 163)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
S2
S1
D
T, C, D
Note: 3 consecutive devices are used.
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
Subtracts one
time value from
another to give a
new time
TSUB
FNC 163
(Time
Subtraction)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FLAGS
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
TSUB,
TSUBP:
7 steps
Zero M8020
Borrow M8021
Contents:
X13
[ S1 ] [ S2 ] [ D ]
TSUB D10
D20
D30
Each of S1, S2 and D specify the head address of 3
data devices to be used a time value.
The time value in S 1 is subtracted from the time
value in S2, the result is stored to D as a new time
value.
Points to note:
a) The subtraction is performed according to standard time values. Hours, minutes and
seconds are kept within correct limits. Any underflow is correctly processed.
S1
S2
D10: 10 hours
D20: 3 hours
D11: 30 mins
D21: 10 mins
D12: 27 secs
-
10:30:27
D22: 49 secs
D
D30: 7 hours
=
D31: 19 mins
D32: 38 secs
03:10:49
07:19:38
b) If the subtraction of the two times results in a value less than 00:00:00 hours, the value of
the result is the time remaining below 00:00:00 hours.
S1
S2
D10: 10 hours
D20: 18 hours
D11: 17 mins
D21: 12 mins
D12: 29 secs
10:17:29
-
D22: 34 secs
D
D30: 13 hours
=
D31: 41 mins
D32: 16 secs
18:12:34
16:04:55
M8021 ON
When this happens the borrow flag M8021 is set ON.
c) If the subtraction of the two times results in a value of zero (00:00:00 hours) then the zero
flag M8020 is set ON.
d) The same device may be used as a source (S1 or S2) and destination device. In this case
the subtraction is continually executed; the destination value changing each program scan.
To prevent this from happening, use the pulse modifier or an interlock program.
5-138
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.14.5
Applied Instructions 5
TRD (FNC 166)
Mnemonic
FX
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
Reads the current T, C, D
value of the real
time clock to a
Note: 7 consecutive devices are used.
group of registers
PULSE-P
FX0N
FX0N
Operands
Function
TRD
FNC 166
(Time
Read)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
TRD, TRDP:
5 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Contents:
M34
[D]
TRD D12
The current time and date of the real time clock are
read and stored in the 7 data devices specified by
the head address D.
The 7 devices are set as follows:
Device
Meaning
Values
Device
Meaning
D8018
Year
00-99
⇒
D+0
Year
D8017
Month
01-12
⇒
D+1
Month
D8016
Date
01-31
⇒
D+2
Date
D8015
Hours
00-23
⇒
D+3
Hours
D8014
Minutes
00-59
⇒
D+4
Minutes
D8013
Seconds
00-59
⇒
D+5
Seconds
D8019
Day
0-6 (Sun-Sat)
⇒
D+6
Day
Points to note:
The year is read as a two digit number. This can be change to a 4 digit number by setting
D8018 to 2000 during the first program scan; see following program extract.
M8002
MOV K2000 D8018
If this is done then the clock year should not be used during the first scan as it will be a two
digit number before the instruction and a value of 2000 after the instruction until the END
instruction executes. After the first scan the year is read and written as a 4 digit number.
The FX-10DU-E, FX-20DU-E and FX-25DU-E only support a 2 digit year.
5-139
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.14.6
Applied Instructions 5
TWR (FNC 167)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
T, C, D
FX0N
TWR, TWRP:
5 steps
Note: 7 consecutive devices are used.
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
S
Sets the real time
clock to the value
stored in a group
of registers
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX
Operands
Function
TWR
FNC 167
(Time
Write)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Contents:
M34
[S]
TWR D20
The 7 data devices specified with the head address S are used to set a new current value of the
real time clock.
The seven devices
Device
Meaning
Values
Device
Meaning
S+0
Year
00-99
⇒
D8018
Year
S+1
Month
01-12
⇒
D8017
Month
S+2
Date
01-31
⇒
D8016
Date
S+3
Hours
00-23
⇒
D8015
Hours
S+4
Minutes
00-59
⇒
D8014
Minutes
S+5
Seconds
00-59
⇒
D8013
Seconds
S+6
Day
0-6 (Sun-Sat)
⇒
D8019
Day
Points to note:
This instruction removes the need to use M8015 during real time clock setting. When setting
the time it is a good idea to set the source data to a time a number of minutes ahead and then
drive the instruction when the real time reaches this value.
5-140
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-141
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.15
Applied Instructions 5
Gray Codes - FNC 170 to FNC 179
Contents:
Page
GRY -
Decimal to Gray Code
FNC 170
5-143
GBIN -
Gray Code to Decimal
FNC 171
5-143
Not Available
FNC 172 to 177
-
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
P - A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
D - An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
DP - A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-142
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.15.1
Applied Instructions 5
GRY (FNC 170)
Mnemonic
GRY
FNC 170
(Gray
Code)
FX0N
S
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
D
K, H,
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
Calculates the
gray code value
of an integer
FX
FX0N
Operands
Function
PULSE-P
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
GRY,GRYP:
5 steps
DGRY,DGRYP
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
[S]
M45
[D]
GRY K1234 K3Y10
The binary integer value in S is converted to the
GRAY CODE equivalent and stored at D.
Points to Note:
The nature of gray code numbers allows numeric values to be quickly output without the need
for a strobing signal. For example, if the source data is continually incremented, the new output
data can be set each program scan.
5.15.2
GBIN (FNC 171)
Mnemonic
FX
S
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
D
K, H,
KnX, KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX0N
Operands
Function
Calculates the
integer value of a
gray code
GBIN
FNC 171
(Gray
Code)
FX0(s)
FX0(S)
FX
KnY, KnM, KnS,
T, C, D, V, Z
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
GBIN,GBINP:
5 steps
DGBIN,
DGBINP:
9 steps
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation:
T24
[S] [D]
GBIN K3X20 D10
The GRAY CODE value in S is converted to the
normal binary equivalent and stored at D.
Points to Note:
This instruction can be used to read the value from a gray code encoder.
If the source is set to inputs X0 to X17 it is possible to speed up the reading time by adjusting
the refresh filter with FNC 51 REFF.
5-143
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
MEMO
5-144
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
Applied Instructions:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1.
FNC 00 - 09
Program Flow
5-4
2.
FNC 10 - 19
Move And Compare
5-16
3.
FNC 20 - 29
Arithmetic And Logical Operations (+, -, ×, ÷)
5-24
4.
FNC 30 - 39
Rotation And Shift
5-34
5.
FNC 40 - 49
Data Operation
5-42
6.
FNC 50 - 59
High Speed Processing
5-52
7.
FNC 60 - 69
Handy Instructions
5-66
8.
FNC 70 - 79
External FX I/O Devices
5-80
9.
FNC 80 - 89
External FX Serial Devices
5-94
10.
FNC 90 - 99
External F2 Units
5-110
11.
FNC 110-129
Floating Point 1 & 2
5-118
12.
FNC 130-139
Trigonometry (Floating Point 3)
5-126
13.
FNC 140-149
Data Operations 2
5-130
14.
FNC 160-169
Real Time Clock Control
5-134
15.
FNC 170-179
Gray Codes
5-142
16.
FNC 220-249
In-line Comparisons
5-146
5-145
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.16
Applied Instructions 5
Inline Comparisons - FNC 220 to FNC 249
Contents:
Page
LD -
LoaD compare
FNC 224 to 230
5-119
AND -
AND compare
FNC 232 to 238
5-120
OR compare
FNC 240 to 246
5-120
OR -
Symbols list:
D - Destination device.
S - Source device.
m, n- Number of active devices, bits or an operational constant.
Additional numeric suffixes will be attached if there are more than one operand with the same
function e.g. D1, S3 or for lists/tabled devices D3+0, S+9 etc.
MSB - Most Significant Bit, sometimes used to indicate the mathematical sign of a number, i.e.
positive = 0, and negative = 1.
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
Instruction modifications:
-
P D D -
An instruction operating in 16 bit mode, where
mnemonic.
identifies the
instruction
A 16 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
An instruction modified to operate in 32 bit operation.
A 32 bit mode instruction modified to use pulse (single) operation.
- A repetitive instruction which will change the destination value on every scan unless
modified by the pulse function.
- An operand which cannot be indexed, i.e. The addition of V or Z is either invalid or will
have no effect to the value of the operand.
5-146
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.16.1
Applied Instructions 5
LD compare
(FNC 224 to 230)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
S1
FX
LD =
D
K,H, KnX, KnY, KnM,
KnS, T, C, D, V, Z
K,H, KnX, KnY, KnM,
KnS, T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
[ S1 ]
[ S2 ]
K200
C10
FX0N
Program steps
LD :
5 steps
2 is true.
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
DLD :
9 steps
S
PULSE-P
FX0N
S
Initial comparison
contact.
Active when the
comparison
where
is =, >, <,
<>, ≤, ≥
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
LD
(LoaD
compare)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Y010
X001
LD >
D200
SET
K-30
Y011
LD > K678493 C200
M50
M3
Operation:
The value of S 1 and S 2 are tested according to the comparison of the instruction. If the
comparison is true then the LD contact is active. If the comparison is false then the LD contact
is not active.
Points to note:
The LD comparison functions can be placed anywhere in a program that a standard LD
instruction can be placed. I.e., it always starts a new block.
(See page 2-3 for LD instruction)
FNC No.
Mnemonic
16 bit
32 bit
Active
when
Inactive
when
224
LD =
DLD =
S1 = S2
S1 ≠ S2
225
LD >
DLD >
S1 > S2
S1 ≤ S2
226
LD <
DLD <
S1 < S2
S1 ≥ S2
228
LD <>
DLD <>
S1 ≠ S2
S1 = S2
229
LD ≤
DLD ≤
S1 ≤ S2
S1 > S2
230
LD ≥
DLD ≥
S1 ≥ S2
S1 < S2
5-147
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.16.2
Applied Instructions 5
AND compare
(FNC 232 to 238)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
D
K,H, KnX, KnY, KnM,
KnS, T, C, D, V, Z
16 BIT OPERATION
PULSE-P
FX
X000
X001
X002
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
[ S1 ]
[ S2 ]
AND = K200
C10
AND > K-10
D0
FX
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Program steps
AND :
5 steps
DAND :
9 steps
FX0N
S
Serial comparison K,H, KnX, KnY, KnM,
KnS, T, C, D, V, Z
contact.
Active when the
comparison
S1 S2 is true.
where
is =, >, <,
<>, ≤, ≥
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
AND
(AND
compare)
FX0N
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Y010
SET
Y011
M50
DAND> K678493 D10
M3
Operation:
The value of S 1 and S 2 are tested according to the comparison of the instruction. If the
comparison is true then the AND contact is active. If the comparison is false then the AND
contact is not active.
Points to note:
The AND comparison functions can be placed anywhere in a program that a standard AND
instruction can be placed. I.e., it is a serial connection contact.
(See page 2-6 for AND instruction)
FNC No.
Mnemonic
16 bit
32 bit
Active
when
Inactive
when
232
AND =
DAND =
S1 = S2
S1 ≠ S2
233
AND >
DAND >
S1 > S2
S1 ≤ S2
234
AND <
DAND <
S1 < S2
S1 ≥ S2
236
AND <>
DAND <>
S1 ≠ S2
S1 = S2
237
AND ≤
DAND ≤
S1 ≤ S2
S1 > S2
238
AND ≥
DAND ≥
S1 ≥ S2
S1 < S2
5-148
FX Series Programmable Controlers
5.16.3
Applied Instructions 5
OR compare
(FNC 240 to 246)
Mnemonic
FX0(S)
D
K,H, KnX, KnY, KnM,
KnS, T, C, D, V, Z
K,H, KnX, KnY, KnM,
KnS, T, C, D, V, Z
FX
FX0N
X001
Program steps
OR :
5 steps
16 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
DOR :
9 steps
PULSE-P
FX0N
S
Parallel
comparison
contact.
Active when the
comparison
S1 S2 is true.
where
is =, >, <,
<>, ≤, ≥
FX0(s)
Operands
Function
OR
(OR
compare)
FX0N
FX
32 BIT OPERATION
FX(2C) FX2N(C) FX0(s)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Y000
[ S1 ]
[ S2 ]
OR =
X002
K200 C10
M30
OR£
D100 K100000
M60
Operation:
The value of S 1 and S 2 are tested according to the comparison of the instruction. If the
comparison is true then the OR contact is active. If the comparison is false then the OR contact
is not active.
Points to note:
The OR comparison functions can be placed anywhere in a program that a standard OR
instruction can be placed. I.e., it is a parallel connection contact.
(See page 2-7 for OR instruction)
FNC No.
Mnemonic
16 bit
32 bit
Active
when
Inactive
when
240
OR =
DOR =
S1 = S2
S1 ≠ S2
241
OR >
DOR >
S1 > S2
S1 ≤ S2
242
OR <
DOR <
S1 < S2
S1 ≥ S2
244
OR <>
DOR <>
S1 ≠ S 2
S1 = S2
245
OR ≤
DOR ≤
S1 ≤ S2
S1 > S2
246
OR ≥
DOR ≥
S1 ≥ S2
S1 < S2
5-149
FX Series Programmable Controlers
Applied Instructions 5
MEMO
5-150
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
Diagnostic Devices 6
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Diagnostic Devices 6
Chapter Contents
6. Diagnostic Devices ................................................................................6-1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
PC Status (M8000 to M8009 and D8000 to D8009) ............................................ 6-2
Clock Devices (M8010 to M8019 and D8010 to D8019) .................................... 6-3
Operation Flags ................................................................................................... 6-4
PC Operation Mode (M8030 to M8039 and D8030 to D8039) ........................... 6-5
Step Ladder (STL) Flags (M8040 to M8049 and D8040 to D8049) .................... 6-6
Interrupt Control Flags (M8050 to M8059 and D8050 to D8059) ....................... 6-7
Error Detection Devices (M8060 to M8069 and D8060 to D6069) ..................... 6-8
Link And Special Operation Devices (M8070 to M8099 and D8070 to D8099) .. 6-9
Miscellaneous Devices (M8100 to M8119 and D8100 to D8119) ..................... 6-10
Communication Adapter Devices, i.e. 232ADP, 485ADP
(M8120 to M8129 and D8120 to D8129) ........................................................... 6-10
High Speed Zone Compare Table Comparison Flags
(M8130 to M8139 and D8130 to D8139) .......................................................... 6-11
Miscellaneous Devices (M8160 to M8199) ....................................................... 6-12
Index Registers (D8180 to D8199) ................................................................... 6-13
Up/Down Counter Control (M8200 to M8234 and M8200 to D8234) ............... 6-14
High Speed Counter Control (M8235 to M8255 and D8235 to D8255) ............ 6-14
Error Code Tables ............................................................................................. 6-15
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.
Diagnostic Devices 6
Diagnostic Devices
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The following special devices are used by the PLC to highlight the current operational status
and identify any faults or errors that may be occurring. There are some variations in the
application of these devices to members of the FX PLC family, these are noted where
appropriate.
The Internal diagnostic devices consist of both auxiliary (M) coils and data (D) registers.
Often there is a correlation between both M and D diagnostic devices for example M8039
identifies that the PLC is in constant scan mode but D8039 contains the value or length of the
set constant scan.
Devices unable to be set by user:
Any device of type M or D that is marked with a “()” cannot be set by a users program. In the
case of M devices this means the associated coil cannot be driven BUT all contacts can be
read. And for data devices (D) new values cannot be written to the register by a user BUT the
register contents can be used in a data comparison.
Default Resetting Devices:
• Certain devices reset to their default status when the PLC is turned from OFF to ON.
These are identified by the following symbol “( )”.
Symbol summary:
•
•
•
•
not able to be set by user
automatically reset to default at power ON.
R Also reset to default when CPU is switched to RUN.
S Also reset to default when CPU is switched to STOP.
6-1
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.1
Diagnostic Devices 6
PLC Status (M8000 to M8009 and D8000 to D8009)
Diagnostic
Device
Operation
M8001 ( )
RUN monitor
NC contact
M8002 ( )
Initial pulse
NO contact
RUN
Input
M8061 error occurence
M8000
M8002
Program scan time
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
FX, FX2C: 100ms
FX0, FX0S, FX0N, FX2N: 200ms
See note 1
D8001 ( )
PLC type and
version
20Vvv FX0(S), FX0N, FX, FX2C
version V.vv
24Vvv: FX2N version V.vv
M8003
M8003 ( )
Initial pulse
NC contact
FX
D8000 ( )
Watchdog
timer
0002: 2K steps
0004: 4K steps
0008: 8K steps
(see also D8102)
00H = RAM, 01H = EPROM,
02H = EEPROM,
0AH = EEPROM (protected)
10H = MPU memory
D8002 ( )
Memory
capacity
M8001
FX0N
Diagnostic
Device
M8000 ( )
RUN monitor
NO contact
FX0(S)
D8003 ( )
Memory type
M8004 ( )
Error
occurrence
ON when one or more error
flags from the range M8060
to M8067 are ON
D8004 ( )
Error number
M
The contents of this register
identifies which error
=
flag is active, i.e. if
8060 identifies M8060
M8005
Battery
voltage Low
On when the battery voltage
is below the value set in
D8006
D8005
Battery
voltage
E.g. 36 = 3.6 volts
M8006
Battery error
latch
Latches the battery Low
error
D8006
Low battery
voltage
The level at which a battery
voltage low is detected
D8007
Power failure
count
The number of time a momentary power failure has occurred
since power ON.
M8007
Momentary
power failure
M8008
Power failure
Power loss has occurred
D8008
Power failure
detection
The time period before shut
down when a power failure
occurs (default 10ms)
M8009
24V DC Down
Power failure of 24V DC
service supply
D8009
24V DC
failed device
Lowest device affected by 24V
DC power failure
For symbol key see page 6-1.
Note 1:
• The contents of this register can be changed by the
user. Settings in 1 msec steps are possible. The
value should be set greater than the maximum scan
time (D8012) to ensure constant scan operation.
General note:
• When the power supply used is 200V AC, the power
down detection period is determined by the value of
D8008. This can be altered by the user within the
allowable range of 10 to 100msec.
AC
Power
M8000
Approx. 5msec
M8007
Momentry power failure
M8008
Power failure
D8008 (Power failure
10msec detection period)
6-2
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.2
Diagnostic Devices 6
Clock Devices (M8010 to M8019 and
D8010 to D8019)
Diagnostic
Device
Operation
M8010
Reserved
M8011 ()
10 msec
clock pulse
Oscillates in 10 msec cycles
M8012 ()
100 msec
clock pulse
Oscillates in 100 msec
cycles
M8013 ()
1 sec
clock pulse
M8014 ()
1 min
clock pulse
FX0(S)
Diagnostic
Device
D8010 ()
Present scan
time
D8011 ()
Minimum
scan time
D8012 ()
Maximum
scan time
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
Current operation cycle / scan
time in units of 0.1 msec
Minimum cycle/ scan time in
units of 0.1 msec
Maximum cycle/ scan time in
units of 0.1 msec
(waiting time for constant scan
mode is not included)
Oscillates in 1 sec cycles
Oscillates in 1 min cycles
The following devices apply to FX2N(C) PLC’s and to FX0N, FX and FX2C PLC’s when a
real time clock cassette is installed.
D8013
Seconds
Seconds data for use with
an RTC cassette (0 - 59)
(FX0(S), FX0N see note 2)
D8014
Minute data
Minute data for use with an
RTC cassette (0-59)
M8015
Time setting
When ON - clock stops, ON
OFF restarts clock
D8015
Hour data
Hour data for use with an RTC
cassette (0-23)
M8016
Register data
When ON D8013 to 19 are
frozen but clock continues
D8016
Day data
Day data for use with an RTC
cassette (1-31)
M8017
Min. rounding
When pulsed ON set RTC
to nearest minute
D8017
Month data
Month data for use with an
RTC cassette (1-12)
M8018 ( )
RTC available
When ON Real Time Clock
is installed
D8018
Year data
Year data for use with an RTC
cassette (0-99)
M8019
Setting error
Clock data has been set out
of range
D8019
Weekday data
Weekday data for use with an
RTC cassette (0-6)
For symbol key see page 6-1.
Note 2:
• For FX0, FX0S PLC’s and FX0N PLC’s not fitted with a RTC, the register D8013
represents the value read from the first setting ‘pot’ in msec, range (0 to 255).
6-3
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.3
Diagnostic Devices 6
Operation Flags
Diagnostic
Device
M8020 (
Zero
M8021 (
Borrow
FX0(S)
Operation
FX0N
Diagnostic
Device
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
)
Set when the result of an
ADD (FNC 20) or SUB (FNC
21) is “0”
D8020
(FX0/FX0S/
FX0N only)
Input filter setting for devices
X000 to X007 default is 10
msec, (0-15)
)
Set when the result of a SUB
(FNC 21) is less than the
min. negative number
D8020
(FX2N(C) only)
Input filter setting for devices
X000 to X017 default is 10
msec, (0-15)
Set when ‘carry’ occurs during an ADD (FNC 20) or
when an overflow occurs as
a result of a data shift operation
D8021
(FX0/FX0S
only)
Input filter setting for devices
X010 to X017 default is 10
msec, (0-15)
D8022 -D8027
Reserved
FX0(S), FX0N: Change
timers T32 to T55 to 10ms
type
FX, FX2C, FX2N: enable
interrupts during FROM/
TO
D8028 ()
Current value of the Z index
register
Set on the completion of
operations such as DSW
(FNC 72), RAMP (FNC 67)
etc.
D8029 ()
Current value of the V index
register
M8022 ( )
Carry
M8023 ( )
Float
operation flag
(FX2C only)
Set to enable floating point
operations. This flag can be
used with BCD, BIN, ADD,
SUB, MUL,DIV, SQR and
FLT applied instructions
M8024
Reserved
M8025
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
When ON HSC (FNC 53 - 55)
instructions are processed
even when the external HSC
reset input is activated
M8026
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
M8027
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
M8028
M8029 ()
Instruction
execution
complete
RAMP (FNC 67) hold mode
PR (FNC 77) 16 element
data string
For symbol key see page 6-1.
General note regarding input filters
• The settings for input filters only apply to the main processing units which use 24V DC
inputs. AC input filters are not adjustable.
6-4
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.4
Diagnostic Devices 6
PLC Operation Mode
(M8030 to M8039 and D8030 to D8039)
Diagnostic
Device
Operation
M8030 ( )
Battery LED
OFF
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
M8031 ( )
Non-latch
memory all
clear
M8032 ( )
Latch memory
all clear
Battery voltage is low but
BATT.V LED not lit
Current device settings are
reset at next END, i.e. contacts, coils and current data
values for Y, M, S, T, C and
D devices respectively. Special devices which have
default settings are
refreshed with those defaults
The device statuses and settings are retained when the
PLC changes from RUN to
STOP and back into RUN
All of the physical switch
gear for activating outputs is
disabled. However, the program still operates normally.
M8033 ( )
Memory hold
in ‘stop’ mode
M8034 ( )
All outputs
disable
M8035 ( S)
Forced
operation
mode
M8036 ( S)
Forced RUN
signal
M8037 ( S)
Forced STOP
signal
M8038( )
RAM file
registers clear
(FX(2C) only)
M8039 ( )
Constant
scan mode
By using forced operation
mode, i.e.M8035 is turned
ON, it is possible to perform
remote RUN/STOP or
pulsed RUN/ STOP operation.
Please see Chapter 10 for
example operation
FX0(S)
FX0N
Diagnostic
Device
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
D8030 ( )
(FX0N only)
Value read from first setting
“pot” in msec, (0 to 255)
D8030
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
This register is used as the
3rd storage device when Z or
V has been selected as the
destination for the SPD
instruction (FNC 56)
D8031 ( )
(FX0N only)
Value read from second setting “pot” in msec, (0 to 255)
D8032 -D8038
Reserved
Used to clear the contents of
the 2000 RAM file registers
of any data
When ON the PLC executes
the user program within a
constant scan duration. The
difference between the
actual end of the program
operation and the set constant scan duration causes
the PLC to ‘pause’.
D8039 ( )
Constant
scan duration
This register can be written to
by the user to define the duration of the constant scan. Resolutions of 1msec are
possible.
This register has a default setting 0 msec which will be initiated during power ON.
For symbol key see page 6-1.
6-5
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.5
Diagnostic Devices 6
Step Ladder (STL) Flags
(M8040 to M8049 and D8040 to D8049)
Diagnostic
Device
M8040 ( )
STL transfer
disable
Operation
FX0(S)
Diagnostic
Device
D8040 ( )
Lowest active
STL step
When ON STL transfer from
initial state is enabled during automatic operation
(ref. IST FNC 60)
D8041 ( )
2nd active
STL state
A pulse output is given in
response to a start input
(ref. IST FNC 60)
D8042 ( )
3rd active
STL state
M8043 ( S)
Zero return
complete
On during the last state of
ZERO RETURN mode
(ref. IST FNC 60)
D8043 ( )
4th active STL
state
M8044 ( S)
Zero point
condition
ON when the machine zero
is detected
(ref. IST FNC 60)
D8044 ( )
5th active STL
state
Disables the ‘all output reset’
function when the operation
mode is changed
(ref. IST FNC 60)
D8045 ( )
6th active STL
state
ON when STL monitoring
has been enabled (M8047)
and there is an active STL
state
D8046 ( )
7th active STL
state
M8047 ( )
Enable STL
monitoring
When ON D8040 to D8047
are enabled for active STL
step monitoring
D8047 ( )
8th active STL
state
M8048 ( )
Annunciator
ON (Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
ON when Annunciator monitoring has been enabled
(M8049) and there is an
active Annunciator flag
D8048
M8049 ( )
Enable
Annunciator
monitoring
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
When ON D8049 is enabled
for active Annunciator state
monitoring
D8049 ( )
Lowest active
Annunciator
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
M8042 ( )
Start pulse
M8045 ( )
All output
reset disable
M8046 ( )
STL state ON
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
When ON STL state transfer is disabled
M8041 ( S)
Transfer start
FX0N
Up to 8 active STL states,
from the range S0 to S899,
are stored in D8040 to D8047
in ascending numerical order.
(Updated at END)
Reserved
Stores the lowest currently
active Annunciator from the
range S900 to S999
(Updated at END)
For symbol key see page 6-1.
General note:
• All STL states are updated when the END instruction is executed.
6-6
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.6
Diagnostic Devices 6
Interrupt Control Flags
(M8050 to M8059 and D8050 to D8059)
Diagnostic
Device
M8051 ()
I10 disable
M8052 ()
I20 disable
M8050 ( )
I00 disable
M8053 ( )
I30 disable
Operation
When the EI (FNC 04)
instruction is driven in the
user program, all interrupts
are enabled unless the special M devices noted here
are driven ON. In that case
for each special M coil that is
ON, the associated interrupt
is disabled, i.e. will not operate.
Note
denotes all types of
that interrupt
M8054 ( )
I40 disable
M8059( )
I010 to I060
disabled as a
single group
(FX(2C), FX2N
only)
FX0N
Diagnostic
Device
D8050 -D8059
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
Reserved
The following assignments only refer to
FX, FX2C FX2N(C) PLC’s
M8055 ()
I50 disable
M8056 ()
I6 disable
M8057 ()
I7 disable
M8058 ()
I8 disable
FX0(S)
When the EI (FNC 04)
instruction is driven in the
user program, all interrupts
are enabled unless the special M devices noted here
are driven ON. In that case
for each special M coil that is
ON, the associated interrupt
is disabled, i.e. will not operate.
Note
denotes all types of
that interrupt
The following assignments only refer to
FX0, FX0S and FX0N PLC’s
M8054
Reserved
M8055
Reserved
M8056 ( )
When the leading edge of a
X0 pulse catch pulse is received at an input
from the range X0 to X3 the
M8057 ( )
X1 pulse catch associated M device detailed
here is set ON. By resetting
M8058 ( )
the same device within the
X2 pulse catch
user program the next pulse
occurrence will again set the
M coil ON. Hence, fast input
pulses are 'caught' and
stored.
This operation continM8059 ( )
ues
regardless
of any EI
X3 pulse catch
(FNC04) and DI (FNC 5)
instructions.
For FX, FX2C, FX2N operation
see page 6-12
For symbol key see page 6-1.
6-7
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.7
Diagnostic Devices 6
Error Detection Devices
(M8060 to M8069 and D8060 to D6069)
Diagnostic
Device
Operation
Detection
M8060 ( )
I/O configuration
error
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
While the
PLC is in
RUN
M8061 ( )
PLC hardware
error
M8062 ( )
PC/HPP
communication
error
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
PROG.E
PLC
LED
STATUS
D8060 ( )
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
Flash
STOP
D8061 (
M8065 ( )
Syntax error
M8066 ( )
Program
error
When the
program is
changed
(PLC in
STOP) and
Flash
when a
program is
transferred (PLC in
STOP)
M8067( )( R)
Operation
While in
error
PLC is in
OFF
M8068 ( )
RUN
Operation
error latch
M8069 ( )
I/O bus error
See note 4 (Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
RUN
)
When a
signal from
the HPP is
received
D8062 ( )
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
RUN
D8063( )(-R)
(Not FX0(S),
FX0N)
STOP
FX0N
Diagnostic
Device
OFF
When
paired sta- OFF
M8063( )( R) tions signal is
Parallel link/
received or
ADP error
ADP com(Not FX0(S),
municaFX0N)
tions are in
error
M8064 ( )
Parameter
error
FX0(S)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
The first I/O number of the unit
or block causing the error See note 3
Error code for hardware error See also appropriate PLC
hardware manual
Error code for PC/HPP Communications error -See appropriate error code table
Error code for parallel link
error - See also hardware
manual. Also identification of
ADP communication
error - See also FX-485PC-IF
users manual
D8064 (
)
Error code identifying parameter error - See appropriate
error code table
D8065 (
)
D8066 (
)
Error code identifying syntax
error - See appropriate error
code table
Error code identifying program
construction error
See appropriate error code
table
Error code identifying operaD8067( )( R) tion error. See appropriate
error code table
RUN
D8068 ( )
-
Operation error step number
latched
Step numbers for found errors
D8069( )( R) corresponding to flags M8065
to M8067
6-8
FX Series Programmable Controller
Diagnostic Devices 6
For symbol key see page 6-1.
• Please see the following page for the notes referenced in this table.
Note 3:
Contents of
D8060
• If the unit or block corresponding to a programmed
I / O number is not actually loaded, M8060 is set to
ON and the first device number of the erroneous
block is written to D8060.
1
0
2
0
= X 20
Device number:
10 to 177
Device type:
1 - Input X
0 - Output Y
Note 4:
• An I/O bus check is executed when M8069 is
turned ON. If an error occurs, error code 6103 or
6104 is written to D8069 and M8061 is turned ON.
General note:
• HPP refers to Handy programming panel.
6.8
Link And Special Operation
Devices (M8070 to M8099 and D8070 to D8099)
Diagnostic
Device
M8070 ( R)
M8071 ( R)
M8072 (
)
M8073 (
)
Operation
Driven when the PLC is a
master station in a parallel
link application
Driven when the PLC is a
slave station in a parallel
link application
ON while the PLC is operating in a parallel link
ON when M8070/ M8071
are incorrectly set during
parallel link operations
FX0(S)
FX0N
Diagnostic
Device
)
D8070 (
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
Parallel link watchdog time 500 msec
D8071 - D8098 Reserved
M8074
Activate RAM file registers
(FX(2C) only)
M8075 -M8098 Reserved
M8099 ( )
High speed free timer operation
D8099
Free ring timer, range: 0 to
32,767 in units of 0.1 msec
(for use in measuring input
pulse durations)
For symbol key see page 6-1.
6-9
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.9
Diagnostic Devices 6
Miscellaneous Devices
(M8100 to M8119 and D8100 to D8119)
Diagnostic
Device
Operation
FX0(S)
Diagnostic
Device
D8102 ( )
Memory
Capacity
M8109 ( )
6.10
Output refresh error
)
D8109 (
Communication Adapter
Devices, i.e. 232ADP, 485ADP
(M8120 to M8129 and D8120 to D8129)
Diagnostic
Device
M8120
M8121(
Operation
FX0N only setting data
backup flag for 485 network
RS- Data transmission
)( R)
delayed
M8123 (R)
Diagnostic
Device
D8120
D8121
Finished receiving data
D8123(
M8124
(FX/FX2C only)
RS- Carrier detection flag
D8124
M8125
Reserved
D8125
M8126
RS485 - global flag
RS485 - On Demand handshake flag
RS485 - On Demand error
flag
RS485 - On Demand Byte/
Word flag,
ON = Byte, OFF= Word
D8126
M8128
M8129
0002: 2K steps
0004: 4K steps
0008: 8K steps
0016: 16K steps
Output refresh error device
number; 0, 10, 20, etc.
D8128
D8129
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
Local station number for 485
data network
RS- Amount of remaining data
)( R)
to be transmitted
RS - Amount of data already
)( R)
received
RS - Data header, default STX
(02H)
232ADP - Data terminator,
default ETX (03H)
Reserved
RS485 - On Demand head
device register
RS485 - On Demand data
length register
D8127
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Communications format
D8122(
M8127
FX
Operation
FX0(S)
RS- Data transmission flag
M8122 ( R)
FX0N
RS485 data network ‘time-out’
timer value
6-10
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.11
Diagnostic Devices 6
High Speed Zone Compare
Table Comparison Flags
(M8130 to M8139 and D8130 to D8139)
Diagnostic
Device
Operation
FX0(S)
Diagnostic
Device
Selects comparison tables
to be used with the HSZ
instruction
D8130 (
Identifies when the HSZ
comparison table has been
processed.
D8131 (
M8132
Selects the use of the PLSY
instruction with the HSZ
comparison tables
D8132 (
M8133 (
Identifies when the HSZ
comparison table (when
used with the PLSY instruction) has been processed.
D8133
M8130
M8131 (
)()
)()
)()
)()
)()
D8134
D8135
( )( )
M8134M8139
FX0N
Reserved
D8136
D8137
( )( )
D8138 D8139
D8140
D8141
( )( )
(FX2N(C) only)
D8142
D8143
( )( )
(FX2N(C) only)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
Contains the number of the
current record being processed in the HSZ comparison table
Contains the number of the
current record being processed in the HSZ comparison table when the PLSY
operation has been enabled
Contains the source (output
pulse frequency) data for the
PLSY instruction when used
with the HSZ comparison
table
Reserved
Contains a copy of the value
for the current comparison
when the HSZ comparison
table and combined PLSY output are used. This data is only
available in 32 bit or double
word format.
Contains the total number of
pulses that have been output
using the PLSY (or PLSR)
instruction. This data is only
available in 32 bit or double
word format
Reserved
Contains the total number of
pulses that have been output
to Y0 using the PLSY or PLSR
instructions. This data is only
available in 32 bit or double
word format.
Contains the total number of
pulses that have been output
to Y1 using the PLSY or PLSR
instructions. This data is only
available in 32 bit or double
word format.
For symbol key see page 6-1
6-11
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.12
Diagnostic Devices 6
Miscellaneous Devices (M8160 to M8199)
Diagnostic
Device
Operation
Selection of XCH operation
to swap bytes in a single
data word
Selection of 8 bit operations
for applied instructions
ASC, RS, ASCI, HEX, CCD
High speed mode for the
PRUN instruction, 2 data
words Read/write only
M8160
M8161
M8162
M8163 -M8166 Reserved
Selection of hexadecimal
input mode for the HKY
instruction
Selection of BCD mode for
use with the SMOV instruction
M8167
M8168
M8169
Reserved
M8170 ( R)
X0 pulse catch
M8171 ( R)
X1 pulse catch
M8172 ( R)
X2 pulse catch
M8173 ( R)
X3 pulse catch
M8174 ( R)
X4 pulse catch
M8175 ( R)
X5 pulse catch
When the leading edge of a
pulse is received at an input
from the range X0 to X5 the
associated M device detailed
here is set ON. By resetting
the same device within the
user program the next pulse
occurrence will again set the
M coil ON. Hence, fast input
pulses are ‘caught’ and
stored. This operation
requires the EI (FNC04)
instruction to be active. For
details of FX0,FX0S and FX0N
operation see page 6-7
FX0(S)
FX0N
Diagnostic
Device
M8180
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
Reserved
M8181
(I010)
M8182
(I020)
M8183
(I030)
M8184
(I040)
M8185
(I050)
These special M coils can be
entered into the HSCS (FNC
53) and HSCR (FNC
54)instructions instead of the
associated Interrupt Pointers
when using old version of programming software or hand
held programmers.
More details on this can be
found in the ‘Introduction’ to
this manual.
M8186
(I060)
M8187 -M8189 Reserved
M8190
(+ MOV = SQR)
M8191
(+ MOV = FLT)
M8192
(+SMOV=SORT)
M8193
(+ RAMP = SER)
M8194
(+ RAMP = RS)
M8195
(+ FMOV = CCD)
M8196
(+FMOV = ASCI)
These special M coils modify
the instruction noted in the
brackets as ‘+
’ to perform the same task as the
instruction mnemonic identified as ‘=
’. This is to
allow old versions of programming software or hand held
programmers to access the
higher functions introduced on
the FX CPU ver 3.07 and the
FX2C units. More details on
this can be found in the ‘Introduction’ to this manual.
M8197
(+FMOV = HEX)
M8198
When this device is set ON it
reverses the operation of the
Source and Destination devices
specified in the instruction.
More details on this can be
found in the ‘Introduction’ to this
manual.
M8199
Reserved
M8176 -M8179 Reserved
For symbol key see page 6-1.
6-12
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.13
Diagnostic Devices 6
Index Registers (D8180 to D8199)
Diagnostic
Device
D8180 ( )
D8181 ()
D8182 ()
D8183 ()
D8184 ()
D8185 ()
D8186 ()
D8187 ()
D8188 ()
D8189 ()
Operation
Reserved
Z1 index register
V1 index register
Z2 index register
V2 index register
Z3 index register
V3 index register
Z4 index register
V4 index register
FX0(S)
Diagnostic
Device
D8190 ( )
D8191 ()
D8192 ()
D8193 ()
D8194 ()
D8195 ()
D8196 ()
D8197 ()
D8198 ()
D8199 ()
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
Z5 index register
V5 index register
Z6 index register
V6 index register
Z7 index register
V7 index register
Reserved
6-13
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.14
Diagnostic Devices 6
Up/Down Counter Control
(M8200 to M8234 and M8200 to D8234)
Diagnostic
Device
M8200 M8234 ( )
Operation
When M8
is operated,
functions as
counter C
a down counter. When
is not operated the
M8
associated counter operates as an up counter
FX0(S)
FX0N
Diagnostic
Device
D8200 -D8234
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
Reserved
For symbol key see page 6-1.
6.15
High Speed Counter Control
(M8235 to M8255 and D8235 to D8255)
Diagnostic
Device
Operation
When M8
is operated,
the 1 phase high speed
counter C
functions as
a down counter. When
M8235 -M8245
M8
is not operated the
( )
associated counter operates as an up counter.
The available counters
depends upon the PLC type.
When M8
is operated,
the 2 phase high speed
counter C
functions as
a down counter. When
M8246 - M8255
M8
is not operated the
( )( )
associated counter operates as an up counter.
The available counters
depends upon the PLC type.
Diagnostic
Device
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Operation
FX0(S)
D8235 -D8255
Reserved
For symbol key see page 6-1.
6-14
FX Series Programmable Controller
6.16
Diagnostic Devices 6
Error Code Tables
Error Detection
Device
D8061
PLC Hardware
error
FX0(S)
Stored Error
Number
0000
6101
6102
6103
6104
6105
Error Detection
Device
D8062
PC/HPP
communications error
Error Detection
Device
D8063
Serial communication errors
Stored Error
Number
0000
6201
6202
6203
6204
6205
Stored Error
Number
0000
6301
6302
6303
6304
6305
6306
6312
6313
6314
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Associated Meaning
Action
No error
RAM error
Operation circuit error
I/O bus error (M8069 = ON)
Extension unit 24V failure (M8069=ON)
Check the cable connection between the programming device and
the PLC
Watch Dog Timer error
Program execution time
has exceeded the WDT
time value set in D8000.
Associated Meaning
No error
Parity/ overrun/ framing error
Communications character error
Communication data sum check error
Data format error
Command error
Action
Check the cable connection between the programming device and
the PLC
Associated Meaning
Note
No error
Parity/ overrun/ framing error
Comms character error
Comms data sum check error
Comms data format error
Command error
485 Network - received command other
than GW (global) when station number
was FF
Watchdog timer error
Parallel link character error
Parallel link data sum check error
Parallel link data format error
Check both power and
communications connections
Special note regarding
the 485 network:
Because these errors
are not transmitted
through the network,
they must be monitored
by the unit acting as
Master to the network
6-15
FX Series Programmable Controller
Error Detection Stored Error
Device
Number
0000
6401
6402
D8064
6403
Parameter
6404
error
6405
6406 - 6408
6409
Diagnostic Devices 6
Associated Meaning
No error
Program sum check error
Memory capacity setting error
Latched device area setting error
Comment area setting error
File register area setting error
Reserved
Other setting error
Error Detection Stored Error
Associated Meaning
Device
Number
0000
No error
Incorrect instruction/ device symbol/
6501
device number combination
No timer or counter coil before setting
6502
value
1) No setting value following either a
timer or a counter coil
6503
2) Insufficient number of operands for an
applied instruction
1) The same label number is used more
than once
D8065
6504
2) The same interrupt input or high
Syntax error
speed counter input is used more than
once
Device number is outside the allowable
6505
range
6506
Invalid applied instruction
6507
Invalid P assignment
6508
Invalid I assignment
6509
Other error
6510
MC nesting (N) number error
Interrupt and high speed counter
6511
assigned inputs overlap
Action
STOP the PLC, select
the parameter mode, set
the correct data
Action
During programming,
each instruction is
checked as it is entered.
If a syntax error is
detected, re-enter the
instruction correctly
6-16
FX Series Programmable Controller
Error Detection Stored Error
Associated Meaning
Device
Number
0000
No error
LD and LDI is used continuously 9 or
6601
more times in succession
1) No LD/ LDI instruction.
Unauthorized use of the LD / LDI,
AND / ANI instructions
2) The following instructions are not con6602
nected to the active bus line:
STL, RET, MCR, (P)ointer, (I)nterrupt,
EI, DI, SRET, IRET, FOR, NEXT,
FEND and END
3) When MPP is missing
MPS is used continuously more than 12
6603
times
Unauthorized use of the MPS/ MRD/
6604
MPP instructions
1) A single STL branch drives 9 or more
parallel circuits
2) MC/ MCR or (I)nterrupts are desig6505
nated within an STL state
D8066
3) RET has not been designated or is
Circuit error
designated out of an STL state
1) No (P)ointer/ (I)nterrupt
2) No SRET/ IRET
3) An (I)nterrupt/ SRET or IRET has
been designated within the main body
6606
of the program
4) STL/ RET/ MC or MCR have been
designated within either a subroutine
or an interrupt routine
1) Unauthorized use of FOR - NEXT.
6 or more levels have been designated
6607
2) The following instructions have been
designated within a FOR -NEXT loop:
STL/ RET/ MC/ MCR/ IRET/ SRET/
FEND or END
1) Unauthorized MC/ MCR relationship
2) Missing MCR N0
6608
3) SRET/ IRET or an (I)nterrupt has been
designated within an MC/ MCR block
6609
Other error
Diagnostic Devices 6
Action
A circuit error occurs if a
combination of instructions is incorrect or badly
specified. Select programming mode and
correct the identified
error.
Continued on next page...
6-17
FX Series Programmable Controller
Error Detection Stored Error
Device
Number
6610
6611
6612
6613
6614
6515
6616
6617
6618
D8066
Circuit error
(FX2N(C) only)
6619
6620
6621
6622
6623
6624
6625
6626
6627
6628
6629
6630
6631
6632
Diagnostic Devices 6
Associated Meaning
Action
LD, LDI is used continuously 9 or more
times in succession
Number of LD/LDI instructions is fewer
than ANB/ORB instructions
Number of LD/LDI instructions is more
than ANB/ORB instructions
MPS is used continuously more than 12
times
MPS instruction missing
MPP instruction missing
Unauthorized use of the MPS/ MRD/
MPP instructions; possible coil missing
One of the following instructions is not
connected to the active bus line: STL,
RET, MCR, (P)ointer, (I)nterrupt, EI, DI,
SRET, IRET, FOR, NEXT, FEND and
END
STL/ RET/ MC or MCR programmed
within either a subroutine or an interrupt
routine
Invalid instruction programmed within a
FOR - NEXT loop:
STL/ RET/ MC/ MCR/ I/ IRET/ SRET
FOR - NEXT nesting exceeded
Unmatched number of FOR and NEXT
instructions
NEXT instruction not found
MC instruction not found
MCR instruction not found
A single STL branch drives 9 or more parallel circuits
Invalid instruction programmed within an
STL - RET block:
MC/ MCR/ I/ IRET/ SRET
RET instruction not found
I/ SRET/ IRET incorrectly programmed
within main program body
P or I label not found
SRET or IRET not found
SRET programmed in invalid location
IRET programmed in invalid location
A circuit error occurs if a
combination of instructions is incorrect or badly
specified.
Select programming
mode and correct the
identified error.
6-18
FX Series Programmable Controller
Diagnostic Devices 6
Error Detection Stored Error
Associated Meaning
Device
Number
0000
No error
1) No jump destination for CJ or CALL
instructions
2) A label is designated in a block that
6701
comes after the END instruction
3) An independent label is designated in
a FOR-NEXT loop or a subroutine
6 or more CALL instructions have been
6702
nested together
3 or more interrupts have been nested
6703
together
D8067
6 or more FOR - NEXT loops have been
6704
Operation
nested together
error
An incompatible device has been speci6705
fied as an operand for an applied instruction
A device has been specified outside of
6706
the allowable range for an applied instruction operand
A file register has been accessed which is
6707
outside of the users specified range
6708
FROM/ TO instruction error
Other error, i.e. missing IRE/ SRET, unau6709
thorized FOR - NEXT relationship
6730
Sampling time TS (TS<0 or >32767)
6732
Input filter value α (α<0 or >=101)
6733
Proportional gain KP (KP<0 or >32767)
6734
Integral time constant TI (TI<0 or >32767)
6735
Derivative gain KD (KD<0 or >=101)
Derivative time constant TD
6736
(TD<0 or >32767)
6740
D8067
PID
Operation
error
Sampling time TS is less than the program scan time.
6746
Current value ∆ exceeds its limits
Calculated error ε exceeds its limits
Integral result exceeds its limits
Derivative gain over, or differential value
exceeds allowable range
Derivative result exceeds its limits
6747
Total PID result exceeds its limits
6750
SV - PVnf < 150, or system is unstable
(SV - PVnf has wide, fast variations)
6751
Large Overshoot of the Set Value
6752
Large fluctuations during Autotuning Set
Process
6742
6743
6744
6745
Action
These error occur during
the execution of an operation.
When an operation error
occurs, STOP the PLC
enter programming ode
and correct the fault.
Note: operation errors
can occur even when the
syntax or circuit design
is correct, e.g.
D500Z is a valid statement within an FX PLC.
But if Z had a value of
100, the data register
D600 would be
attempted to be
accessed. This will
cause an operation error
as there is no D600
device available.
The identified parameter
is specified outside of its
allowable range
Execution ceases PID
instruction must be reset
before execution will
resume
TS is set to program
scan time Execution will continue.
Data affected resets to
the nearest limit value.
For all errors except
6745, this will either be a
minimum of -32768 or a
maximum of +32767.
Execution will continue.,
but user should reset
PID instruction.
The error fluctuation is
outside the normal operation limits for the PID
instruction. Execution
ceases. PID instruction
must be reset.
6-19
FX Series Programmable Controller
Diagnostic Devices 6
MEMO
6-20
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
Instruction Execution Times 7
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Instruction Execution Times 7
Chapter Contents
7. Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy........................................7-1
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
Basic Instructions ................................................................................................ 7-1
Applied Instructions ............................................................................................ 7-3
Hierarchical Relationships Of Basic Program Instructions ................................ 7-12
Batch Processing............................................................................................... 7-14
Summary of Device Memory Allocations ........................................................... 7-14
Limits Of Instruction Usage ............................................................................... 7-16
7.6.1 Instructions Which Can Only Be Used Once In The Main Program Area ............... 7-16
7.6.2 Instructions Which Are Not Suitable For Use With 110V AC Input Units ................ 7-16
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
7.
Execution Times And Instructional
Hierarchy
7.1
Basic Instructions
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Execution Time in µsec
Mnemonic
Object
Devices
Steps
FX0, FX0S
ON
LD
3.4
LDI
AND
ANI
OFF
X,Y,M,S,T,C
and special M
FX0N
ON
OFF
FX
FX
(< Ver 3.07)
ON
OFF
(> Ver 3.07),
ON
0.74
3.2
OFF
ON
OFF
3.4
1
OR
FX2N(C)
FX2C
0.48
0.08
3.2
ORI
LDP
43.2
LDF
ANP
ANF
X,Y,M,S,T,C
1
Function Not Available
37.4
ORP
ORF
ANB
2.2
ORB
MPS
MRD
Not applicable
2.2
0.74
1
2.0
0.48
0.08
2.0
MPP
INV
Function Not Available
MC
Nest level,
M,Y
3
MCR
Nest level
2
Not applicable
1
STL
S
(see note 1)
1
RET
Not applicable
NOP
END
17
18.2
19.2
20.4
42.8
47.8
27
30
24.8
27.5
6.0
6.2
40.4
19
20.8
1.6
1.6
0.74
0.48
0.08
410
470
960
700
508
4.2 + 8n
6.4 + 6.8n
39.1 + 21.1n
25 + 13.5n
27.3 + 12.6n
8.0
12.4
40.5
20
21.6
carried on over the page......
7-1
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
Execution Time in µsec
Mnemonic
Object
Devices
Steps
FX0, FX0S
ON
OFF
FX0N
ON
ON
OFF
FX2N(C)
FX2C
ON
0.74
OFF
ON
0.48
OFF
1
S
2
7.0
7.2
7.0
7.2
50.0
48.1
26
24
Special M
2
7.8
7.4
8.2
7.8
38.1
38.8
28
20
T-K
3
21.8
19.4
25.2
21.0
72.4
52.6
45
34
42.3
37.4
T-D
3
23.4
21.0
27.2
23.0
80.0
52.6
53
34
42.2
37.2
C-K (16 bit)
3
14.6
17.8
15.6
67.9
40.3
42
25
25.5
24.9
C-D (16 bit)
3
16.2
19.8
17.6
75.5
40.3
47
25
25.3
25.0
C-K (32 bit)
5
12.5
6.0
16.0
8.6
82.3
40.3
51
25
25.3
24.9
C-D (32 bit)
5
13.9
6.0
18.0
8.6
89.9
40.3
55
25
25.2
24.9
Y, M
1
3.6
2.0
3.6
2.0
6.8
2.6
7.0
2.8
S
3.2
(< Ver 3.07)
(> Ver 3.07),
Y, M
OUT
3.2
OFF
FX
FX
0.74
0.08
24.4
24.3
0.16
0.48
0.08
39.0
25.5
24
16
23.7
17.2
45.2+
14.2n
25.5
28 +
9n
16
27.3+
12.6n
17.2
41.9
28.5
26
18
S when used in
an STL step
(see note 1)
2
Special M
2
7.4
2.4
7.8
2.6
Y, M
1
3.4
1.8
3.6
1.8
S
2
6.0
2.6
6.2
2.8
40.5
25.5
23
16
Special M
2
7.4
2.4
7.8
2.6
41.8
28.9
26
18
T, C
2
20.8
18.0
22.4
19.6
50.1
38.3
31
24
27
25
D, V, Z and
special D
3
10.0
2.8
9.2
3.0
35.5
25.5
22
16
21.9
17.1
PLS
Y, M
2
41.9
41.5
27
26
0.32
PLF
Y, M
2
42.7
40.6
26
25
0.32
P
0 TO 63
1
I
Iooo
1
SET
RST
Function Not Available
19.4
21.8
1.6
1.6
0.74
0.74
0.16
0.48
0.08
23.1
17.3
0.16
0.48
0.08
Note 1:
• “n” in the formulae to calculate the ON/OFF execution time, refers to the number of STL
instructions at the current parallel/merge branch. Thus the value of “n” will fall in the
range 1 to 8.
7-2
FX Series Programmable Controllers
7.2
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
Applied Instructions
Mnemonic
00
CJ
01
CALL
02
SRET
03
IRET
04
EI
05
DI
06
FEND
07
WDT
08
FOR
09
NEXT
10
CMP
16/32
Bit
16
1
1
1
1
16
1
1
16
32
16
32
16
32
ON
OFF
19.4
9.6
20.0
10.0
11.2
11.6
6.4
7.8
410
9.2
470
46.6
27.4
49.5
27.4
5.6
9.8
16
32
16
FMOV
16
32
16
32
16
32
16
32
29
8.8
-
31
8.8
-
7.0
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX2N(C)
ON
OFF
29.0
6.4
32.2
6.4
34.0
21
-
21.2
36.7
33
-
18.1
62.6
34
8.8
-
55.8
37.7
17
8.8
-
18.5
960
35.9
25.1
700
23
8.8
-
26.3
6.4
29.8
39.9
25
-
27.6
12.4
12.4
29.1
19
-
5.2
122.6
129.2
140.0
197.8
46.2
52.6
22.0
30.4
25.0
36.4
18.0
23.4
112.2
118.6
128.4
137.8
47.2
53.8
22.6
31.6
25.8
38.0
18.4
24.2
Function Not Available
Function Not 103.2
+
Available
18.2n
20.8
Function Not Available
63.6
100.2
64.4
113.4
64.4
101.4
66.2
114.8
18.4
24.2
18.4
24.2
161.8
189.0
186.9
220.8
78.4
98.4
33.3
39.9
33.3
39.9
33.3
39.3
302.9
33.3
87.6
91.9
103.2
108.9
1.52
1.84
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
1.52
1.84
155.2
6.4
-
51.4
55.9
6.4
6.4
8.8
-
97.0+
1.7n
6.4
8.8
-
12.2
-
8.8
12.2
8.8
12.2
8.8
12.2
306
157
8.8
12.2
8.8
12.2
8.8
12.2
-
170
8.8
-
51
64
8.8
12.2
118+
10.6n
73+
3.3n
87+
4.5n
58
72
82
218
85
203
49
57
62
73
35
43
74.0 33.3
95.9 39.9
180.5
+
33.3
17.1n
107.6
33.3
+5.3n
Function Not
Available
90.3 33.3
113.8 39.8
130.9 33.3
342.0 39.9
135.4 33.3
314.3 39.9
P
508
29.0
16
2
19
BIN
OFF
16
16
18
BCD
ON
FX0N
Execution Time in µsec
FX(< Ver 3.07)
FX(> Ver 3.07), FX2C
2nd
ON OFF P ON
OFF FNC P
ON
Function Not Available
12
MOV
13
SMOV
14
CML
15
MOV
17
XCH
FX0N
16
11
ZCP
2
FX0, FX0S
FX0(S)
69.1+
2.8n
73.2+
5.2n
57.2
64.0
37.9
57.6
32.4
44.5
See end of section for notes...
7-3
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Mnemonic
20
ADD
21
SUB
22
MUL
23
DIV
24
INC
25
DEC
26
WAND
27
WOR
28
WXOR
29
NEG
30
ROR
3
31
ROL
3
32
RCR
3
33
RCL
3
34
SFTR
4
35
SFTL
4
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
Execution Time in µsec
FX0, FX0S
FX0N
FX(< Ver 3.07)
FX(> Ver 3.07), FX2C
FX2N(C)
16/32
2nd
Bit
ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF P ON
OFF FNC P ON OFF
ON
16
69.4
70.8 21.6 115.5 33.3
51
8.8
27.6
6.4
32
81.2
82.8 31.8 114.5 39.9
63
12.2
224
28.9
6.4
16
69.8
71.6 21.6 116.6 33.3
52
8.8
27.6
6.4
32
81.4
83.0 31.6 146.5 39.9
65
12.2
232
28.9
6.4
16
89.4
91.0 21.6 113.4 33.3
54
8.8
25.2
6.4
32
104.6
106.4 31.2 185.0 39.9
81
12.2
162
31.4
6.4
16
119.2
120.8 21.6 139.5 33.3
56
8.8
32.0
6.4
32
230.0
232.4 31.0 804.8 39.9
451 12.2
197
36.4
6.4
16
28.4
29.0 14.8 55.3 33.3
26
8.8
18.8
6.4
32
33.4
34.2 17.4 65.4 34.4
29
12.2
20.2
6.4
16
28.4
29.0 14.8 55.4 33.3
26
8.8
18.9
6.4
32
33.6
34.4 17.4 65.1 34.4
29
12.2
20.0
6.4
16
64.2
65.6 21.6 108.0 33.3
67
8.8
23.4
6.4
32
73.0
74.6 30.6 135.4 39.9
83
12.2
24.7
6.4
16
64.2
65.6 21.6 107.9 33.3
67
8.8
23.5
6.4
32
73.0
74.6 30.6 135.5 39.9
82
12.2
24.7
6.4
16
64.2
65.6 21.6 106.5 33.3
67
8.8
23.5
6.4
32
73.0
74.6 30.5 133.9 39.9
82
12.2
25.0
6.4
16
55.1 33.3
34
8.8
35.3
6.4
32
65.5 34.4
41
12.2
38.4
6.4
57+
91.9+
8.8
61.7
6.4
16
33.3
1.8n
3.0n
113.8
70+
32
39.9
12.2
65.3
6.4
+3.5n
2.1n
57+
91.9+
8.8
61.2
6.4
16
33.3
1.8n
3.0n
113.8
71+
Function Not Available
32
39.9
12.2
65.2
6.4
+3.5n
2.3n
66.3+
61+
99.0+
6.4
8.8
16
33.3
2.2n
0.9n
1.4n
120.8
75+
69.7+
32
39.9
12.2
6.4
+1.8n
1.2n
2.6n
65.8+
62+
99.0+
6.4
8.8
16
33.3
2.2n
0.9n
1.4n
120.8
75+
69.5+
32
39.3
12.2
6.4
+1.8n
1.2n
2.6n
180.8
145.2
156.4
172+
107+
16
24.6
25.4
+
33.3
8.8
6.4
+5.1n
+4.8n
42n
53.8n
70.0n
180.8
150.6
162.4
172+
105+
16
24.2
25.0
+
33.3
8.8
6.4
+5.1n
+4.8n
42n
53.8n
70.0n
P
See end of section for notes...
7-4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
Execution Time in µsec
FX0, FX0S
FX0N
FX(< Ver 3.07)
FX(> Ver 3.07), FX2C
FX2N(C)
2nd
ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF P ON
OFF FNC P ON OFF
ON
218.6
126+
147+
8.8
+
33.3
11.7n 6.4
11n
18.0n
218.6
125+
147+
8.8
+
33.3
11.7n 6.4
11n
18.0n
Function Not Available
Mnemonic
16/32
Bit
36
WSFR
16
37
WSFL
16
38
SFWR
16
138.1
33.3
87
8.8
-
83.9
6.4
39
SFRD
16
143.1
+6.8n
33.3
84
8.8
-
80.2
6.4
6.4
2
2
5
5
57.2+
1.6n
127.0
+2.9n
64.4+
3.3n
12.8
65.2+
3.3n
127.0+
0.08n
127.0
+3.5n
65.0+
161.3
1.6n
+3.2n
131.5
+2.9n
161.3
70.7+
+
3.3n
13.2 16.5n
71.5+
3.3n
131.5
+3.5n
161.3+
13.5n
131.5
+3.5n
39.9
16
881.4
20.6
932.0
21.4
114.8
28.8
16
618.3
20.6
692.4
21.4
125.6
28.8
16(D)
16(S)
16(C)
40
ZRST
6
16(T)
16(M)
16(Y)
41
DECO
42
ENCO
44
BON
121+
2n
-
121+
10.5n
8.8
-
133.5 33.3
196.6 39.9
168.9 33.3
177.6 39.9
133.4+
12.2n 33.3
Function Not
Available
84
123
98
112
84+
7.7n
105+
9.8n
8.8
12.2
8.8
12.2
-
8.8
-
12.1
-
16
192.6 165.6
120
110
-
16
86.5
54
8.8
-
208
220
98
114
62+
3.2n
8.8
12.2
8.8
12.2
344
-
8.8
-
32
49
FLT
16
32
16
32
50
REF 8
16
25.5
Function Not Available
53.6
12.8
65.4+
3.1n
13.4
145.3
+3.6n
33.3
83+
11.1n
89.2+
9.4n
-
-
-
121+
8.7n
8.8
Function Not Available
77+
1.7n
-
79
Q7
-
16
48
SQR
8.8
45
MEAN
46
ANS
47
ANR
72
16
32
16
32
43
SUM
P
76.0
6.4
81.8
6.4
72.8
94.6
78.2
82.3
83.8+
3.4n
90.9+
6.7n
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
100.8
96.2
37.7
6.4
150.2
154.8
66.8
66.8
99.6+
0.6n
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
See end of section for notes...
7-5
6.4
6.4
6.4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Mnemonic
51
REFF
9
52
MTR
53
HSCS
10
54
HSCR
10
55
HSZ
10
16/32
Bit
ON
FX0N
OFF
ON
OFF
16
Function Not Available
16
Execution Time in µsec
FX(< Ver 3.07)
FX(> Ver 3.07), FX2C
2nd
ON OFF P ON
OFF FNC P
ON
56.0+
4.9n
33.3
87.3
39.3
75.6
6.6
82.8
7.8
175.0
39.3
1
61
SER
16
240.3
-
4 65.3+
1.7n
6.4
53
26
-
39.1
23.6
12.2
-
87.8
6.4
12.2
-
88.6
6.4
115
39.3
142
12.2
-
100.6
6.4
164.4 163.0
102
101
-
80.2
80.2
189.4
10.0
212.4
223.4
21.4
31.4
154.5 173.6
101
115
136
136
-
85.0
86.6
73.3
75.8
16
42.5
7.8
44.2
18.6
139.8 171.0
86
101
-
70.4
73.3
122.6
125.6
87.5
90.5
114.3
6.4
Function Not Available
766.0 322.4 212.4
21.4
272.9
33.3
Function Not Available
32
141.4+
61.4n 33.3
Function Not
Available
16
11
32
63
INCD
16
64
TTMR
65
STMR
66
ALT
67
RAMP
68
ROTC
69
SORT
P
16
32
16
62
ABSD
OFF
Function Not Available
16
32
14
ON
8.8
32
32
FX2N(C)
35+
3.5n
32
56
SPD
57
PLSY
58
PWM
59
PLSR
60
IST
15
FX0, FX0S
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
153
8.8
-
147+
12.5n
168+
17.4n
91+
35n
110+
43n
29
-
29
-
129.2 22.9
+8.6n
4
147+ 22.9
9.0n
91.8+
6.4
20.2n
97.5+
6.4
21.5n
208.8
39.9
130
26
-
110.5
19.5
16
81.3
69.6
48
43
-
54.9
44.9
16
176.6 167.8
106
104
-
84.4
84.4
66
8.8
-
50.1
6.4
181.8 134.5
113
83
-
98.1
81.6
232.5 209.1
144
130
-
118.4 107.2
62+
32.3
m1
23
-
50.5
Function Not Available
16
61.0
16
248.6
16
16
9.8
62.8
10.0
82.6
Function Not Available
105.6
Function Not Available
33.3
4
See end of section for notes...
7-6
19.5
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Mnemonic
16/32
Bit
70
TKY
16
32
16
32
161 set
162 sets
71
HKY
72
DSW
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
Execution Time in µsec
FX0, FX0S
FX0N
FX(< Ver 3.07)
FX(> Ver 3.07), FX2C
2nd
ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF P ON
OFF FNC P
ON
245.7 33.3
153
23
229.1 39.9
145
23
318.8 39.9
189
29
338.0 45.5
205
29
Function Not Available
205.8
208.1
16
142.1
74
SEGL
161 set
162 sets
209.7
77
PR
78
FROM
12
79
TO
12
130
30
-
92.2
27.4
NA
30
-
NA
NA
33.3
87
8.8
-
65.0
6.4
-
105.9
26.5
-
NA
NA
127
33.3
4
8.8
-
134.4
22.1
16
130.9
104
8.8
-
49.5
6.4
16printing
16ready
207.1
-
114.8
68
-
88.0
120+
325n
140+
640n
106+
384n
140+
749n
-
-
97+
487n
4
99+
962n
94+
557n
4
96+
1099n
16
32
16
16
32
16
16
16
P
Function Not Available
33.3
127
112.6
58
112.1
120+
400n
120+
Function Not 800n
Available
120+
480n
120+
950n
Function Not 125.5
Available
170+
406n
45.0
200+
26
800n
151+
38
480n
45.0
200+
38
936n
Function Not
20.5
Available
137.1+
53.5n
33.3
Function Not Available
154.5+
49.3n
115+ 22.3
9.7n
Function Not 115+ 22.1
Function Not
Available
22.9
Available
115+ 24.4
11.7n
26
16
308.1
33.3
319.1
33.3
Function Not Available
16
16
32
30
169
16
87
22.2
22.2
27.4
6.4
285.0 163.0
16
80
RS
82
ASCI
83
HEX
84
CCD
85
VRRD
86
VRSC
97.2
98.7
92.2
65.0
148
32
OFF
246.9
81
PRUN
13
ON
39.3
73
SEGD
75
ARWS
76
ASC
FX2N(C)
88.5
14
14
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
132
20
-
117.6
18.0
91+
32n
104+
34n
94+
12n
95+2
3n
96+
8n
8.8
-
65.6+
17.0n
67.0+
17.7n
88.2+
10.8n
89.7+
20.0n
90.5+
4.8n
6.4
4
12.2
-
8.8
-
4
8.8
-
4
8.8
-
4
209
21
-
4 209.7
27.3
205
21
-
4 202.4
27.3
Function Not Available
See end of section for notes...
7-7
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Mnemonic
16/32
Bit
88
PID
16
89
16
32
90
MNET
91
ANRD
92
ANWR
93
RMST
94
RMWR
95
RMRD
96
RMMN
97
BLK
98
MCDE
ON
FX0N
OFF
ON
OFF
110
ECMP
111
EZCP
Execution Time in µsec
FX(< Ver 3.07)
FX(> Ver 3.07), FX2C
2nd
ON OFF P ON
OFF FNC P
ON
Function Not Available
407
16
643.9
25.5
16
1,137
33.3
16
1.387 470.9
16
948.8 950.0
16
32
16
32
109
-
FX2N(C)
ON
OFF
155.0
89.0
P
Function Not Available
2,214
4,235
1,684
3,168
33.3
39.9
33.3
39.9
16
1,589
33.3
16
672.4 669.3
16
740.3
Function Not Available
16
32
99
118
EBCD
119
EBIN
120
EADD
121
ESUB
122
EMUL
123
EDIV
FX0, FX0S
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
33.3
Function Not Available
691
692
-
1,612
3,127
1,254
2,414
8.8
12.2
8.8
12.2
-
1,195
8.8
-
4
4
Function Not
Available
4
Function Not Available
Function Not Available
32
104.4
6.4
32
124.5
6.4
32
106.9
6.4
32
81.3
6.4
117.4
6.4
32
117.4
6.4
32
96.4
6.4
32
100.4
6.4
Function Not Available
32
Function Not Available
See end of section for notes...
7-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Mnemonic
16/32
Bit
127
ESQR
32
FX0, FX0S
ON
OFF
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
FX0N
ON
OFF
Execution Time in µsec
FX(< Ver 3.07)
FX(> Ver 3.07), FX2C
2nd
ON OFF P ON
OFF FNC P
ON
OFF
P
152.1
6.4
16
32
32
199.5
6.4
262.5
6.4
425.3
6.4
36.1
41.2
6.4
6.4
Function Not Available
130
SIN
131
COS
132
TAN
ON
Function Not
Available
67.5
6.4
70.4
6.4
128
129
INT
FX2N(C)
32
Function Not Available
32
147
SWAP
16
32
160
TCMP
161
TZCP
162
TADD
163
TSUB
164
16
134.2
6.4
16
140.2
6.4
16
118.8
6.4
16
109.4
6.4
Function Not Available
16
165
Function Not
Available
16
Function Not Available
166
TRD
167
TWR
168
16
46.2
6.4
16
112.0
6.4
169
171
GBIN
16
16
32
16
32
232-238
AND
240-246
OR
16
32
16
32
16
32
16
170
GRY
224-230
LD
Function Not
Available
102.5
107.1
103.4
107.5
Function Not Available
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
1.52
1.84
1.52
1.84
1.52
1.84
See end of section for notes...
7-9
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
1:
• These instructions require NO preliminary contact devices such as LD, AND, OR etc.
2:
• Where “n” is referred to this identifies the quantity of registers to be manipulated.
“n” can be equal or less than 512.
3:
• Where “n” is referred to this identifies the quantity of bit devices to be manipulated.
“n” can be equal or less than selected operating mode, i.e. if 32 bit mode is selected then
“n” can have a value equal or less than 32.
4:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the quantity of bit devices to be manipulated.
When an FX PLC is used "n" can be equal or less than 1024.
However, when FX0 and FX0N controllers are used "n" can be equal or less than 512.
5:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the quantity devices to be manipulated. "n" can have
any value taken from the range 2 through 512.
6:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the range of devices to be reset. The device type
being reset is identified by the device letter in brackets in the '16/32 bit' column.
7:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the number of devices the mean is to be calculated
from. The value of "n" can be taken from the range 1 through 64.
8:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the range of devices to be refreshed. The value of "n"
is always specified in units of 8, i.e 8, 16, 24.....128. The maximum allowable range is
dependent on the number of available inputs/outputs, i.e. FX0 is limited to 16 as a
maximum batch that can be refreshed, where as FX can use 128.
9:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the time setting for the input filters operation.
"n" can be selected from the range 0 through to 60 msec.
10:
• There are limits to the total combined use of these instructions. For FX0 and FX0N there
should be no more than 4 simultaneously active instructions. However, FX can have 6
simultaneously active instructions.
11:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the number of output points. "n" may have a value
equal or less than 64.
12:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the number of words read or written FROM/TO the
special function blocks.
13:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the number of octal (8 bit) words read or written when
two FX PLC’s are involved in a parallel running function.
7-10
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
14:
• Where "n" is referred to this identifies the number of elements in a stack, for 16 bit operation
n has a maximum of 256. However, for 32 bit operation n has a maximum of 128.
15:
• Where "m1" is referred to this identifies the number of elements in the data table.
Values of m1 are taken from the range 1 to 32. For a the SORT instruction to completely
process the data table the SORT instruction will be processed m1 times.
7-11
FX Series Programmable Controllers
7.3
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
Hierarchical Relationships
Of Basic Program Instructions
FX0(S)
T h e fo l lo w in g t a b le i d e n t if ie s a n ' in c l u s iv e
relationship'. This means the secondary program
construction is included within the complete
operating boundaries of the primary program
construction, e.g.:
FX0N
FOR
EI
DI
Secondary
program construction
Secondary program construction
CJ - P
EI - DI
FOR NEXT
STL RET
EI - DI
FOR - NEXT
-(6607)
-5
STL - RET
- (6605)
- (6606)
- (6606)
MC - MCR
CJ - P
P - SRET
I - IRET
FEND - END
0 - FEND
0 - END
(no FEND)
-8
nest levels
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Primary
program construction
NEXT
Primary
Program
Construction MC-MCR
FX
nest levels
(within 1
STL step)
P - SRET I - IRET
FEND END
- (6608) - (6608) - (6608)
- (6701)
- (6607) - (6607) - (6607) - (6607)
- (6606)
- (6606)
- (6605) - (6605) - (6605)
- (6606)
- (6606)
- (6606)
- (6606)
- (6606) - (6709)
- (6606) - (6606)
- (6606) - (6606) : Instruction combination is acceptable - for restrictions see appropriate note
: Instruction combination is not allowed - bracketed number is the error code
: Instruction combination is not recommended for use even though there is no operational
error
The combination of instructions with an 'inclusive relationship' is allowable. However please be
aware of the following exceptions:
1) MC-MCR and STL-RET constructions cannot be used within FOR-NEXT loops, P-SRET or
I-IRET subroutines.
2) Program flow may not be discontinued by using any of the following methods while inside
MC-MCR, FOR-NEXT, P-SRET, I-IRET program constructions, i.e. using interrupts (I),
IRET, SRET, FEND or the END instruction is not allowed.
7-12
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
The following table identifies an 'overlap-ping
relationship'. This means the secondary program
construction starts within the complete operating
boundaries of the primary program construction but
finishes outside of the primary construction, e.g.:
FOR
EI
Primary
program construction
Secondary
program construction
NEXT
DI
Primary
Program
Construction MC-MCR
MC - MCR
CJ - P
EI - DI
FOR - NEXT
STL - RET
P - SRET
I - IRET
FEND - END
0 - FEND
0 - END
(no FEND)
Secondary program construction
CJ - P
EI - DI
- (6607)
- (6605)
- (6608)
- (6606)
- (6608) - (6601)
- (6608) - (6608) - (6601)
FOR NEXT
- (6607)
¬
- (6607)
- (6607)
- (6607)
- (6607)
- (6607)
- (6607)
STL RET
- (6605)
- (6601)
- (6605)
- (6606)
- (6605)
- (6605)
- (6605)
P - SRET I - IRET
- (6606)
- (6607)
- (6606)
- (6606)
- (6606)
- (6709)
- (6709)
- (6709)
- (6606)
- (6607)
- (6606)
- (6606)
- (6606)
- (6709)
- (6606)
- (6606)
FEND END
- (6608)
- (6607)
- (6605)
- (6709)
- (6606)
Enters a state as if the DI instruction was missing. An error is not generated.
The first occurrence of either an FEND or the END instruction takes priority. This would
then end the program scan prematurely.
The sequence will not process as expected, e.g.:
Desired
FOR
FOR
NEXT
NEXT
Actual
FOR
Operating FOR
boundries
NEXT
NEXT
7-13
FX Series Programmable Controllers
7.4
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
Batch Processing
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
This is the system used by all members of the FX family of PLC’s. The basic concept is that
there are three stages to any program scan. In other words, every time the program is
processed form start to end the following sequence of events occurs:
Input processing:
Input Processing
All of the current input statuses are read in to a
temporary memory area; sometimes called an
image memory. The PLC is now ready for the next
program processing.......
Program processing:
Program Processing
All of the updated inputs are checked as the
program is processed. If the new input statuses
change the status of driven outputs, then these are
noted in the image memory for the......
Output processing:
The new, current statuses of the outputs which
have just be processed are physically updated, i.e
Output Processing
relays are turned ON or OFF as required. The
program scan starts again............
The system is known as 'Batch processin g'
because all of the inputs, program operation and finally the outputs are processed as batches.
7.5
Summary of Device Memory Allocations
The memory allocations of the programmable are very complex, but from a users point of view
there are three main areas:
a) The Program Memory:
This memory area holds all of the data regarding: parameters, sequence program, constant
values K and H, pointer information for P and I devices, nest level information, file register
contents/allocations and also the program comment area.
- This memory area is latched either by battery backup or by use of EEPROM program
management (dependent on the PLC being used). Any data stored in this area is kept
even when the PLC is powered down. The duration and reliability of the data storage is
dependent upon the condition of the battery or EEPROM being used to perform the
backup process.
7-14
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
b) Data Memory
This memory area contains, as the title suggests, all of the data values associated with:
data registers (normal and special), Index registers, current timer values, retentive timer
values (if available) and current counter values.
- All of the devices which are designated as being latched (including retentive timers) are
backed up in a similar method to the one mentioned under point a).
- Index registers and special data registers (D8000 to D8255) operate in the specified
manner under the following circumstances:
Circumstance
Reaction
PLC's power is turned OFF
All data is cleared
PLC's power is turned ON
Certain devices are reset to their defaults see chapter 6
PLC is switched from STOP to RUN
PLC is switched from RUN to STOP
Certain devices are reset to their defaults see chapter 6
- All other devices such as current values of non latched data registers, timers and
counters behave in the following manner:
Circumstance
Reaction
PLC's power is turned OFF
All data is cleared
PLC's power is turned ON
PLC is switched from STOP to RUN
No change
PLC is switched from RUN to STOP
Cleared (unless special M coil M8033 is active)
c) Bit Memory
This memory area contains the contact status of all inputs, outputs, auxiliary relays, state coils,
timers and counters.
- All of the devices which are designated as being latched (including retentive timers) are
backed up in a similar method to the one mentioned under point a).
- Special auxiliary relays (M8000 to M8255) act in a similar way to the special data
registers mentioned under point b).
- All other devices are subject to the same changes as the current values of data registers,
timers and counter (see the last point and table under section b).
Summary
Memory type
Power
OFF
OFF
All devices backed by battery
Special M and D devices (8000 to
8255) and index registers V and Z
All other devices
ON
PLC
STOP
RUN
RUN
STOP
Not changed
Cleared
Default
Cleared
Not changed
Not changed
Cleared
Not changed when M8033 is set
7-15
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Execution Times And Instructional Hierarchy 7
7.6
Limits Of Instruction Usage
7.6.1
Instructions Which Can Only Be Used Once In The Main Program Area
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The following instructions can only be used once in the main program area. For PLC
applicability please check either the detailed explanations of the instructions or the instruction
execution tables list earlier.
• Instructions which can only be used once are:
FNC 52 MTR
FNC 57 PLSY
FNC 58 PWM
FNC 59 PLSR
FNC 60 IST
FNC 61 SORT
FNC 62 ABSD
FNC 63 INCD
FNC 68 ROTC
FNC 70 TKY
FNC 71 HKY
FNC 72 DSW
FNC 74 SEGL
FNC 75 ARWS
• Only one of either FNC 57 PLSY or FNC 59 PLSR can be programmed at once.
Both instructions can not be present in the same active program.
7.6.2
Instructions Which Are Not Suitable
For Use With 110V AC Input Units
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
When using 110V AC input units certain operations, functions and instructions are not
recommended for use due to long energize/de-energize (ON/OFF) times of the 110V input
devices.
• Program operations not recommended for use are:
- Interrupt routines
- High speed counters
• Instructions not recommended for use are:
FNC 51 REFF
FNC 52 MTR
FNC 56 SPD
FNC 68 ROTC
FNC 70 TKY
FNC 71 HKY
FNC 72 DSW
FNC 75 ARWS
Note: although selected FX0S units have 110V AC inputs, the instructions mentioned
above are not present in the CPU of the unit and hence cannot be used anyway
7-16
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
PLC Device Tables 8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
PLC Device Tables 8
Chapter Contents
8. PC Device Tables..................................................................................8-1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
Performance Specification Of The FX0 And FX0S ............................................. 8-1
Performance Specification Of The FX0N ............................................................ 8-2
Performance Specification Of The FX (CPU versions 2.0 to 3.06) ..................... 8-4
Performance Specification Of The FX (CPU versions from 3.07)
And FX2C (all versions) ....................................................................................... 8-6
8.5 Performance Specification Of The FX2N ............................................................ 8-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
PLC Device Tables 8
8.
PLC Device Tables
8.1
Performance Specification Of The FX0 And FX0S
Item
FX0(S)
Specification
Operation control method
I/O control method
Operation processing time
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Remarks
Cyclic operation by stored program
Batch processing method (when
END instruction is executed)
I/O refresh instruction is available
Basic instructions: 1.6 to 3.6 µs
Applied instructions: several 10’s to 100 µs
Programming language
Relay symbolic language + step
ladder
Step ladder can be used to produce an SFC style program
Program capacity
800 steps
Provided by built in EEPROM
memory
Number of instructions
Basic sequence instructions: 20
Step ladder instructions: 2
Applied instructions: 35
A Maximum 50 applied instructions
are available including all variations
I/O configuration
Max total I/O set by Main Processing Unit
Auxiliary
relay
(M coils)
General
512 points
M0 to M511
Latched
16 points (subset)
M496 to M511
Special
56 points
From the range M8000 to M8255
State relays
(S coils)
General
64 points
S0 to S63
Initial
10 points (subset)
S0 to S9
100 msec
Range: 0 to 3,276.7 sec
56 points
T0 to T55
10 msec
Range: 0 to 327.67 sec
24 points
T32 to T55 when special M coil
M8028 is driven ON
General
Range: 1 to 32,767 counts
16 points
C0 to C13
Type: 16 bit up counter
Latched
2 points(subset)
C14 to C15
Type: 16 bit up counter
Timers (T)
Counters (C)
C235 to C238
Range: -2,147,483,648 to
+2,147,483,647 counts
(note C235 is latched)
FX0: Select upto four 1 phase
4 points
counters
with
a
combined
counting
1 phase
C241(latched), C242 and C244
c/w start frequency of 5kHz or less.
(latched) 3 points
Alternatively
select
one
2
phase
or
stop input
A/B phase counter with a counting
C246, C247 and C249 (all latched)
2 phase frequency of 2kHz or less.
3 points
FX0S: When multiple 1-phase
counters are used the sum of the
frequencies must be equal or less
than 14kHz. Only 1, 2 phase high
speed counter may be used at any
one time. When 2 phase counters C251, C252 and C254 (all latched)
A/B phase
are in use the maximum counted
3 points
speeds must be equal or less than
14kHz, calculated as (2 ph counter
speed 5 number of counted edges)
+ 1 ph counter speeds.
1 phase
High speed
counters (C)
continued over the page....
8-1
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Item
Data
registers (D)
Pointers (P)
Specification
Remarks
General
32 points
D0 to D31
Type:16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
Latched
2 points (subset)
D30 to D31
Type:16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
Externally
adjusted
Range: 0 to 255
1 point
D8013
Data is entered indirectly through
the external setting potentiometer
Special
27 points (inclusive of D8013)
From the range D8000 to D8255
Type: 16 bit data storage register
Index
2 points
V and Z
Type: 16 bit data storage register
For use
with CALL
64 points
P0 to P63
For use
with
interrupts
4 points
I00 to I30
(rising trigger = 1,
falling trigger = 0)
8 points for use with MC and MCR
N0 to N7
Nest levels
Constants
8.2
PLC Device Tables 8
Decimal K
16 bit: -32,768 to +32,767
32 bit: -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
Hexadecimal H
16 bit: 0000 to FFFF
32 bit: 00000000 to FFFFFFFF
Performance Specification Of The FX0N
Item
Specification
Operation control method
I/O control method
Operation processing time
Remarks
Cyclic operation by stored program
Batch processing method (when
END instruction is executed)
I/O refresh instruction is available
Basic instructions: 1.6 to 3.6 µs
Applied instructions: several 10's to 100 µs
Programming language
Relay symbolic language + step
ladder
Step ladder can be used to produce an SFC style program
Program capacity
2000 steps
Provided by built in EEPROM
memory
Number of instructions
Basic sequence instructions: 20
Step ladder instructions: 2
Applied instructions: 42
A Maximum 59 applied instructions
are available including all variations
I/O configuration
Auxiliary
relay
(M coils)
Max hardware I/O configuration points 128, dependent on user selection
(Max. software addressable Inputs 128, Outputs 128)
General
512 points
M0 to M511
Latched
128 points (subset)
M384 to M511
Special
65 points
From the range M8000 to M8255
continued over the page....
8-2
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Item
State relays
(S coils)
Timers (T)
Specification
Remarks
Latched
128 points
S0 to S127
Initial
10 points (subset)
S0 to S9
100 msec
Range: 0 to 3,276.7 sec
63 points
T0 to T62
10 msec
Range: 0 to 327.67 sec
31 points
T32 to T62 when special M coil
M8028 is driven ON
1 msec
Range: 0 to 32.767 sec
1 point
T63
General
Range: 1 to 32,767 counts
32 points
C0 to C31
Type: 16 bit up counter
Latched
16 points (subset)
C16 to C31
Type: 16 bit up counter
1 phase
A/B phase
Range: -2,147,483,648 to
+2,147,483,647 counts
Select upto four 1 phase counters
with a combined counting frequency of 5kHz or less.
Alternatively select one 2 phase or
A/B phase counter with a counting
frequency of 2kHz or less.
Note all counters are latched
General
256 points
D0 to D255
Type: 16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
Latched
128 points (subset)
D128 to D255
Type: 16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
File
1500 points
D1000 to D2499 set by parameter
in 3 blocks of 500 program steps
Type: 16 bit data storage register
Externally
adjusted
Range: 0 to 255
2 points
Data is move from external setting
potentiometers to registers
D8030 and D8031 ( D8013 is
used when no RTC is fitted)
Special
42 points (inclusive of D8013,
D8030 and D8031)
From the range D8000 to D8255
Type: 16 bit data storage register
Index
2 points
V and Z
Type: 16 bit data storage register
For use
with CALL
64 points
P0 to P63
For use
with
interrupts
4 points
I00 to I30
(rising trigger = 1,
falling trigger = 0)
8 points for use with MC and MCR
N0 to N7
Counters (C)
High speed
counters (C)
1 phase
c/w start
stop input
2 phase
Data
registers (D)
Pointers (P)
Nest levels
Constants
PLC Device Tables 8
C235 to C238
4 points
C241, C242 and C244
3 points
C246, C247 and C249
3 points
C251, C252 and C254
3 points
Decimal K
16 bit: -32,768 to +32,767
32 bit: -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
Hexadecimal H
16 bit: 0000 to FFFF
32 bit: 00000000 to FFFFFFFF
8-3
FX Series Programmable Controllers
8.3
PLC Device Tables 8
Performance Specification Of The FX (CPU versions 2.0 to 3.06)
Item
Specification
Operation control method
I/O control method
Operation processing time
Remarks
Cyclic operation by stored program
Batch processing method (when
END instruction is executed)
I/O refresh instruction is available
Basic instructions: 0.74 µs
Applied instructions: several 10's to 100 µs
Programming language
Relay symbolic language + step
ladder
Step ladder can be used to produce an SFC style program
Program capacity
2000 steps built in
Expandable to 8000 steps using
additional memory cassette
Number of instructions
Basic sequence instructions: 20
Step ladder instructions: 2
Applied instructions: 87
A Maximum 119 applied instructions are available including all
variations
I/O configuration
Auxiliary
relay
(M coils)
State relays
(S coils)
Timers (T)
Counters (C)
Max hardware I/O configuration points 256, dependent on user selection
(Max. software addressable Inputs 128, Outputs 128)
General
1024 points
M0 to M1023
Latched
524 points (subset)
M500 to M1023
Special
256 points
From the range M8000 to M8255
General
1000 points
S0 to S999
Latched
500 points (subset)
S500 to S999
Initial
10 points (subset)
S0 to S9
Annunciator
100 points
S900 to S999
100 msec
Range: 0 to 3,276.7 sec
200 points
T0 to T199
10 msec
Range: 0 to 327.67 sec
46 points
T200 to T245
1 msec
retentive
Range: 0 to 32.767 sec
4 points
T246 to T249
100 msec
retentive
Range: 0 to 3,276.7 sec
6 points
T250 to T255
General
16 bit
Range: 1 to 32,767 counts
200 points
C0 to C199
Type: 16 bit up counter
Latched
16 bit
100 points (subset)
C100 to C199
Type: 16 bit up counter
General
32 bit
Range: -2,147,483,648 to
2,147,483,647
35 points
C200 to C234
Type: 32 bit up/down counter
Latched
32 bit
15 points (subset)
C219 to C234
Type: 16 bit up/down counter
continued over the page....
8-4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Item
PLC Device Tables 8
Specification
Remarks
C235 to C240
6 points
1 phase
High speed
counters (C)
1 phase
c/w start
stop input
2 phase
Range: -2,147,483,648 to
+2,147,483,647 counts
General rule: Select counter combinations with a combined counting
frequency of 20kHz or less.
Note all counters are latched
C241 to C245
5 points
C246 to C250
5 points
C251 to C255
5 points
A/B phase
Data
registers (D)
Pointers (P)
General
512 points
D0 to D511
Type: 16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
Latched
312 points (subset)
D200 to D511
Type: 16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
File
2000 points
D1000 to D2999 set by parameter
in 4 blocks of 500 program steps
Type: 16 bit data storage register
Special
256 points
From the range D8000 to D8255
Type: 16 bit data storage register
Index
2 points
V and Z
Type: 16 bit data storage register
For use
with CALL
64 points
P0 to P63
For use
with
interrupts
6 input points and 3 timers
Nest levels
Constants
8 points for use with MC and MCR
=0,
I00 to I50 and I6
to I8
(rising trigger =1, falling trigger
=tim e in m sec)
N0 to N7
Decimal K
16 bit: -32,768 to +32,767
32 bit: -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
Hexadecimal H
16 bit: 0000 to FFFF
32 bit: 00000000 to FFFFFFFF
8-5
FX Series Programmable Controllers
8.4
PLC Device Tables 8
Performance Specification Of The FX (CPU versions from 3.07) And FX2C (all
versions)
Item
Specification
Operation control method
I/O control method
Operation processing time
Remarks
Cyclic operation by stored program
Batch processing method (when
END instruction is executed)
I/O refresh instruction is available
Basic instructions: 0.48 µs
Applied instructions: several 10's to 100 µs
Programming language
Relay symbolic language + step
ladder
Step ladder can be used to produce an SFC style program
Program capacity
2000 steps built in
Expandable to 8000 steps using
additional memory cassette
Number of instructions
Basic sequence instructions: 20
Step ladder instructions: 2
Applied instructions: 96
A Maximum 119 applied instructions are available including all
variations
I/O configuration
Auxiliary
relay
(M coils)
State relays
(S coils)
Timers (T)
Counters (C)
Max hardware I/O configuration points 255, dependent on user selection
(Max. software addressable Inputs 255, Outputs 255)
General
1536 points
M0 to M1535
Latched
1024 points (subset)
M500 to M1535
Special
256 points
From the range M8000 to M8255
General
1000 points
S0 to S999
Latched
500 points (subset)
S500 to S999
Initial
10 points (subset)
S0 to S9
Annunciator
100 points
S900 to S999
100 msec
Range: 0 to 3,276.7 sec
200 points
T0 to T199
10 msec
Range: 0 to 327.67 sec
46 points
T200 to T245
1 msec
retentive
Range: 0 to 32.767 sec
4 points
T246 to T249
100 msec
retentive
Range: 0 to 3,276.7 sec
6 points
T250 to T255
General
16 bit
Range: 1 to 32,767 counts
200 points
C0 to C199
Type: 16 bit up counter
Latched
16 bit
100 points (subset)
C100 to C199
Type: 16 bit up counter
General
32 bit
Range: -2,147,483,648 to
2,147,483,647
35 points
C200 to C234
Type: 32 bit up/down counter
Latched
32 bit
15 points (subset)
C219 to C234
Type: 16 bit up/down counter
continued over the page....
8-6
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Item
PLC Device Tables 8
Specification
Remarks
C235 to C240
6 points
1 phase
High speed
counters (C)
1 phase
c/w start
stop input
2 phase
Range: -2,147,483,648 to
+2,147,483,647 counts
General rule: Select counter combinations with a combined counting
frequency of 20kHz or less.
Note all counters are latched
C241 to C245
5 points
C246 to C250
5 points
C251 to C255
5 points
A/B phase
Data
registers (D)
Pointers (P)
General
1000 points
D0 to D999
Type: 16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
Latched
800 points (subset)
D200 to D999
Type: 16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
File
registers
2000 points
D1000 to D2999 set by parameter
in 4 blocks of 500 program steps
Type: 16 bit data storage register
RAM file
registers
2000 points
D6000 to D7999 active when special relay M8074 is active
Type: 16 bit data storage register
Special
256 points
From the range D8000 to D8255
Type: 16 bit data storage register
Index
2 points
V and Z
Type: 16 bit data storage register
For use
with CALL
128 points
P0 to P127
For use
with
interrupts
6 input points, 3timers and 6
counters
Nest levels
Numbers
8 points for use with MC and MCR
I00 to I50 and I6
to I8
(rising trigger =1, falling trigger
=tim e in m sec)
N0 to N7
Decimal K
16 bit: -32,768 to +32,767
32 bit: -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
Hexadecimal H
16 bit: 0000 to FFFF
32 bit: 00000000 to FFFFFFFF
Floating
Point
32 bit: 0, ±1.175 x 10-38, ±3.403 x 1038
(Not directly enterable)
8-7
=0,
FX Series Programmable Controllers
8.5
PLC Device Tables 8
Performance Specification Of The FX2N(C)
Item
Specification
Operation control method
I/O control method
Operation processing time
Remarks
Cyclic operation by stored program
Batch processing method (when
END instruction is executed)
I/O refresh instruction is available
Basic instructions: 0.08 µs
Applied instructions: several 10's to 100 µs
Programming language
Relay symbolic language + step
ladder
Step ladder can be used to produce an SFC style program
Program capacity
8000 steps built in
Expandable to 16000 steps using
additional memory cassette
Number of instructions
Basic sequence instructions: 20
Step ladder instructions: 2
Applied instructions: 125
A Maximum 125 applied instructions are available
I/O configuration
Auxiliary
relay
(M coils)
State relays
(S coils)
Timers (T)
Counters (C)
Max hardware I/O configuration points 255, dependent on user selection
(Max. software addressable Inputs 255, Outputs 255)
General
3072 points
M0 to M3071
Latched
2572 points (subset)
M500 to M3071
Special
256 points
From the range M8000 to M8255
General
1000 points
S0 to S999
Latched
500 points (subset)
S500 to S999
Initial
10 points (subset)
S0 to S9
Annunciator
100 points
S900 to S999
100 msec
Range: 0 to 3,276.7 sec
200 points
T0 to T199
10 msec
Range: 0 to 327.67 sec
46 points
T200 to T245
1 msec
retentive
Range: 0 to 32.767 sec
4 points
T246 to T249
100 msec
retentive
Range: 0 to 3,276.7 sec
6 points
T250 to T255
General
16 bit
Range: 1 to 32,767 counts
200 points
C0 to C199
Type: 16 bit up counter
Latched
16 bit
100 points (subset)
C100 to C199
Type: 16 bit up counter
General
32 bit
Range: -2,147,483,648 to
2,147,483,647
35 points
C200 to C234
Type: 32 bit up/down counter
Latched
32 bit
15 points (subset)
C219 to C234
Type: 16 bit up/down counter
Continued over the page....
8-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Item
PLC Device Tables 8
Specification
Remarks
C235 to C240
6 points
1 phase
High speed
counters (C)
1 phase
c/w start
stop input
2 phase
Range: -2,147,483,648 to
+2,147,483,647 counts
General rule: Select counter combinations with a combined counting
frequency of 20kHz or less.
Note all counters are latched
C241 to C245
5 points
C246 to C250
5 points
C251 to C255
5 points
A/B phase
Data
registers (D)
Pointers (P)
General
8000 points
D0 to D7999
Type: 16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
Latched
7800 points (subset)
D200 to D7999
Type: 16 bit data storage register
pair for 32 bit device
File
registers
7000 points
D1000 to D7999 set by parameter
in 14 blocks of 500 program steps
Type: 16 bit data storage register
Special
256 points
From the range D8000 to D8255
Type: 16 bit data storage register
Index
16 points
V0 to V7 and Z0 to Z7
Type: 16 bit data storage register
For use
with CALL
128 points
P0 to P127
For use
with
interrupts
Nest levels
Numbers
I00 to I50 and I6
to I8
6 input points, 3 timers, 6 counters (rising trigger =1, falling trigger =0,
=tim e in m sec)
8 points for use with MC and MCR
N0 to N7
Decimal K
16 bit: -32,768 to +32,767
32 bit: -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647
Hexadecimal H
16 bit: 0000 to FFFF
32 bit: 00000000 to FFFFFFFF
Floating
Point
32 bit: 0, ±1.175 x 10-38, ±3.403 x 1038
(Not directly enterable)
8-9
FX Series Programmable Controllers
PLC Device Tables 8
8-10
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
Assigning System Devices 9
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Assigning System Devices 9
Chapter Contents
9. Assigning System Devices ....................................................................9-1
9.1 Addressing Extension Modules ........................................................................... 9-1
9.2 Using The FX2-24EI With F Series Special Function Blocks............................... 9-2
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4
Using the FX2-24EI With A F-16NP/NT..................................................................... 9-3
Using the FX2-24EI With A F2-6A............................................................................. 9-4
Using the FX2-24EI With A F2-32RM ....................................................................... 9-4
Using the FX2-24EI With A F2-30GM ....................................................................... 9-5
9.3 Parallel Link Adapters.......................................................................................... 9-6
9.4 Real Time Clock Function ................................................................................... 9-7
9.4.1 Setting the real time clock ......................................................................................... 9-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
9.
Assigning System Devices
9.1
Addressing Extension Modules
Assigning System Devices 9
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Most of the FX family of PLC’s have the ability to connect additional discreet I/O and/or special
function modules. To benefit from these additional units the user must address each block
independently.
Addressing Additional Discrete I/O
This type of I/O is the standard
input and output modules. As each FX-48MR
X30-X37
X40-X57 X60-X67
X0-27
extension block or powered
extension unit is added to the
system th ey assu me the ne xt
available ad-dresses. Hence, the
FX-8EYT FX-8EYR FX-16EX
FX-8EX
units closest to the base unit will
have the lowest I/O numbers or
addresses. I/O numbers are
alway s cou nted in octal. T his
means from 0 to 7 and 10 to 17
etc. Within a users program the
additional addresses are used as
Y30-Y37 Y40-Y47
Y0-Y27
normal. Discreet I/O can be added
at the users discretion as long as
the rules of system configuration for each PLC type are obeyed. This information can be found
in the appropriate hardware manual.
For easy use and identification, each additional I/O unit should be labeled with the appropriate
I/O numbers using the provided number labels.
POWER
POWER
POWER
POWER
Caution when using an FX system with FX-8ER, FX-24MR units
• When an FX-8ER or an FX-24MR are used an additional 8 points (as 4 inputs, 4 outputs)
of I/O must be allowed for. This is because both units split blocks of 8 inputs and 8
outputs to obtain a physical 4 input/ 4 output configuration. Hence, an FX-8ER unit
actually occupies 8 input points and 8 output points even though there are only 4
physical inputs and 4 physical outputs.
Addressing Special Function Blocks
Special function blocks are allocated a logical ‘station/block number’ from 0 to 7. This is used
by the FROM/TO instructions to directly access each independent special function module.
The lower the ‘station/block number’ is, the closer to the base unit it can be found. Special
function blocks can be added at the users discretion but the rules of configuration for each type
of PLC must be obeyed at all times. The configuration notes can be found in the appropriate
hardware manual for each programmable controller.
9-1
FX Series Programmable Controllers
9.2
Assigning System Devices 9
Using The FX2-24EI With F
Series Special Function Blocks
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The FX2-24EI allows an FX base unit to be directly connected to an one of the following F
series special function blocks:
a) The F-16NT/NP, a Melsec Net Mini interface
b) The F2-6A, a combine analog 4 input and 2 output unit
c) The F2-32RM, a programmable CAM sequencer
d) The F2-30GM, a pulse train positioning unit
One 24EI unit can control one F series special function unit.
• The ‘24EI’ units are added to an FX system in the same manner as an additional discreet
I/O module. Each 24EI occupies 16 input points and 8 output points, the diagram below
illustrates this point. Experienced users may notice that the example shown in the
diagram below would require too much power from the CPU unit (FX-48MR in this case)
based on the I/O count.
Inputs X0-27
FX-48MR
FX 2 -24EI
POWER
FX 2 -24EI
POWER
FX 2 -24EI
POWER
FX-8EX
POWER
X30-47 X40-57 X50-57 X110Y30-37 Y40-47 Y50-57 Y117
Outputs Y0-27
This is not the case. The FX2-24EI is really a communications module. It does not
directly drive any discreet I/O. For the sake of power calculations it can be assumed that
it only occupies 8 standard I/O points. This means that the configuration shown in the
diagram actually occupies 32 points (three FX2-24EI’s and one FX-8EX) of I/O for the
sake of power consumption calculations BUT actually occupies 80 points of addressable
I/O.
Connection Of Earth Points When Using F Series Special Function Blocks
• When using the F series special function blocks the special function blocks earth
terminal should be connected to the [SG] terminal of the FX CPU unit. However, when
using the F-16NP/NT unit the [SG] terminal of the F-16NP/NT should on NO account be
connected to the [SG] terminal of the FX. The function of these terminals are completely
different and are hence NOT compatible.
9-2
FX Series Programmable Controllers
9.2.1
Assigning System Devices 9
Using the FX2-24EI With A F-16NP/NT
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The F-16NP/NT’s operational I/O numbers (addresses) are based upon the position of the
associated FX2-24EI within the users FX system. The diagram below shows how moving the
position of the FX2-24EI used alters the addresses used by the F-16NP/NT, see EX. 1A to 1C.
For installation, wiring and operational details of the F-16NP/NT please see the units dedicated
manual. That manual will show examples of the F-16NP/NT being used and in each case the I/
O numbers used to address it are those fixed by the F series PLC’s. These I/O addresses will
be replaced by those described in the previous paragraph, i.e. the FX devices assigned to the
FX2-24EI being used.
Worked example:
The following tabular example identifies the correspondence between FX and F2 systems.
FX System Setup
F2 System Setup
Remark
X54
X414
Input data correct
X55
X415
Input data incorrect
X56
X416
Output data correct
X57
X417
Output data incorrect
X60 to X67
X420 to X427
Input to PLC
Y40 to Y47
Y440 to Y447
Output from PLC
The FX system used is similar to that shown in the diagram EX. 1C. The F2 system uses the
second expansion port, i.e. the X400 port of the F series PLC.
Applicable FX Applied Instructions:
(Not applicable to FX2C Main Processing Units or FX units with CPU’s greater than
version 3.06)
• FNC 90, MNET - used to read and write the Net Mini information
Example configurations of FX2-24EI’s and F series special function blocks
PLC
FX -48MR-ES
FX2-24EI X30
Y30
FX2-24EI X50
Y40
FX2-24EI X70
Y50
Example Configurations
EX. 1A
EX. 1B
EX. 1C EX. 2A
F-16NP/NT
X34 - X47
Y30 - Y37
F2-6A
K000-001
K010-013
F2-32RM
Y0-37
BANK 0,1
F2-6A
K000-001
K010-013
F2-32RM
Y0-37
BANK 0,1
F-16NP/NT
X54 - X67
Y40 - Y47
F2-32RM
Y0-37
BANK 0,1
F-16NP/NT
X74 - X107
Y50 - Y57
F2-6A
K000-001
K010-013
F2-30GM
X0 - X6
X¤14 -¤27
Y0 - Y6
Y¤40 -¤47
EX. 2B
F2-30GM
X0 - X6
X¤14 -¤27
Y0 - Y6
Y¤40 -¤47
EX. 2C
F2-30GM
X0 - X6
X¤14 - 27
Y0 - Y6
Y¤40 - 47
9-3
FX Series Programmable Controllers
9.2.2
Using the FX2-24EI With A F2-6A
Assigning System Devices 9
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The F2-6A’s operational address is based upon the position of the associated FX2-24EI within
the users FX system. However, the I/O channel numbers are not affected by this operational
address. The I/O channel will always remain as K000 to K001 and K010 to K013. The diagram
on the previous page shows how moving the position of the FX 2 -24EI used alters the
operational address but NOT the channel number used by the F2-6A, see EX. 1A to 1C.
For details on using the F2-6A see the units users manual. Please remember when reading the
manual, that it has been written for use on an F2 system and hence all of the I/O addresses
stated are for such an F2 setup.
F2-6A Channel identification:
• Analog output channels are - K000 and K001 (2 points)
• Analog input channels are - K010, K011, K012 and K013 (4 points)
Applicable FX Applied Instructions:
(Not applicable to FX2C Main Processing Units or FX units with CPU’s greater than version
3.06)
• FNC 91, ANRD - used to read the analog data in to the FX
• FNC 92, ANWR - used to write the data from the FX to the F2-6A for output
9.2.3
Using the FX2-24EI With A F2-32RM
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The F2-32RM’s operational address is based upon the position of the associated FX 2-24EI
within the users FX system. However, the “32RM’s” I/O numbers are will always remain the
same, i.e not be affected by the FX’s operational address. The 32RM’s I/O numbers would
remain as Y0 to Y37, and Bank 0, 1. The diagram on the previous page shows how moving the
position of the FX2-24EI used, alters the operational address but NOT the I/O numbers used
by the F2-32RM, see EX. 1A to 1C.
For details on using the F2-32RM see the units users manual. Please remember when reading
the manual, that it has been written for use on an F2 system and hence all of the I/O addresses
stated are for such an F2 setup.
Applicable FX Applied Instructions:
(applicable to all FX and FX2C Main Processing Units)
• FNC 93, RMST - used to output a start code from the FX to the F2-32RM
• FNC 94, RMWR - used to disable outputs on the F2-32RM
• FNC 95, RMRD - used to read the ON/OFF status of the F2-32RM
• FNC 96, RMMN - used to monitor speed and current position of the F2-32RM
9-4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
9.2.4
Assigning System Devices 9
Using the FX2-24EI With A F2-30GM
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The F2-30GM’s operational address is based upon the position of the associated FX 2-24EI
within the users FX system. However, the I/O numbers are not directly affected by this
operational address. The I/O numbers can be selected by the user. The diagram on the page
9-3 shows how moving the position of the FX2-24EI used alters the operational address but
NOT the I/O numbers used by the F2-30GM, see EX. 2A to 2C. Where the symbol § is used in
the diagram, this can be replaced by the numbers ‘0’, ‘4’ or ‘5’. It is recommended that for
simplification the user favors ‘0’.
For details on using the F2-30GM see the units users manual. Please remember when reading
the manual, that it has been written for use on an F2 system and hence all of the I/O addresses
stated are for such an F2 setup.
Worked example:
The following tabular example identifies the correspondence between FX and F 2 -30GM
systems.
F2-30GM System Setup
Comments
FX System Setup
X 14 to X 27
Y40 to Y47
Turn On −
X54 to X67
Are Turned On BY −
Y40 to Y47
X0 to X6
No correspondence
N/A
Y0 to Y6
No correspondence
N/A
The FX system used is similar to that shown in the diagram EX. 2B from page 9-3.
Applicable FX Applied Instructions:
(Not applicable to FX2C Main Processing Units or FX units with CPU’s greater than version
3.06)
• FNC 97, BLK - used to designate a block number within the F2-30GM
• FNC 98, MCDE - used to read an M code number from the F2-30GM
9-5
FX Series Programmable Controllers
9.3
Assigning System Devices 9
Parallel Link Adapters
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The FX parallel link adapters provide a means of direct communication between two FX PLC’s.
There are two models of parallel link adapter providing two different communication mediums:
a) Fiber-optic link - FX2-40AP
Transmission distance: 50m (164 ft)
Fiber-optic: F-OFC-M10 - length 10m (32.8 ft)
F-OFC-M30 - length 30m (98.4 ft)
F-OFC-M50 - length 50m (164 ft)
Note all of the above fiber-optic cables come with connector CA9104AP fitted.
b) Wire link (twisted pair) - FX2-40AW
Transmission distance: 10m (32.8 ft)
Connect like terminals together, i.e [SA] on unit 1 to [SA] on unit 2.
Repeat for [SB] and [SG]. Finally also connect the [SG] terminal of each unit to the [SG]
terminal of the local FX PLC.
Special System Devices:
• M8070 - When this is ON the FX PLC is designated ‘Master’.
M8071 - When this is ON the FX PLC is designated ‘Slave’.
M8072 - When this is ON there is communication between stations.
M8073 - When this is ON there is a ‘Master/Slave’ designation error.
M8063 - When this is on there is a link error - see error tables for further details
Applicable FX Applied Instructions:
• FNC 81, PRUN - Identifies which input devices are used in the data exchange.
Transmission Devices:
Master Slave, Slave Master
Bit devices -100 points
Bit devices - 100 points
(M800 to 899)
(M900 to 999)
Word devices - 10 points
Word devices - 10 points
(D490 to 499)
(D500 to 509)
Communication Time:
• 70 msec + (master and slave station cycle times)
General System Layout:
RUN
T/R
TXD
RXD
FX2 -40AP
POWER
RUN
T/R
TXD
RXD
MELSEC FX-48MR
POWER
RUN
BATT.V
PROG-E
CPU-E
FX2-40AP
POWER
MITSUBISHI
T
R
MELSEC FX-48MR
POWER
RUN
BATT.V
PROG-E
CPU-E
MITSUBISHI
T
R
9-6
FX Series Programmable Controllers
9.4
Assigning System Devices 9
Real Time Clock Function
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
When one of the real time clock (RTC) memory cassettes is used with either and FX or an
FX0N, the real time clock function of that PLC is then automatically enabled.
The time data of the RTC cassette is battery backed. This means when the PLC is turned OFF
the time data and settings are not lost or corrupted. The duration or storage life of the time data
is dependent upon the condition of the battery. The operation of the RTC clock circuits
consumes negligible currents compared with the RAM memory (applicable to FX only).
The real time clock cassettes have a worst case accuracy of ± 45 seconds per month at an
ambient temperature of 25°C. The calendar function of the RTC cassettes caters for leap
years during the period 1980 through 2079.
FX PLC’s Pre Version 2.0
• These PLC’s do not support the RTC function.
Available RTC Cassettes:
RTC Cassette
Remark
FX-RTC
Real time clock function only
FX-RAM-8C
Real time clock function + 8K RAM
(Note: the FX0N cannot use this cassette,
because RAM program storage is not guaranteed)
FX-EEPROM-4C
Real time clock function + 4K EEPROM
(Note the FX0N can only use 2K of the EEPROM)
Function Registers And Control Flags:
• Please see page 6-3 for a list of the available clock devices.
• Please see section 5.14 (page 5-138) for RTC supporting functions with FX2N.
General Use Of Memory Cassettes
• FX and FX2C Main Processing units can use any of the available memory cassette types.
FX0N units can only use EEPROM or EPROM type Memory Cassettes and then only a
maximum of 2k steps can be accessed.
• It is necessary to install a FX0N-40BL battery to maintain the RTC time with FX0N
controllers.
• The FX2N has a real time clock built in to the MPU. Although it is possible to use the RTC
cassettes for memory, it is not necessary to use them to obtain the RTC function.
9-7
FX Series Programmable Controllers
9.4.1
Assigning System Devices 9
Setting the real time clock
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The RTC can be set using the special data registers and control flags as follows:
Device
Number
Function
D8013
Seconds
Device
Number
Comments
M8015
Time
setting
Set ON to stop the clock.
When the clock is stopped the
time values can be reset.
The clock restarts when the flag
is reset to OFF.
M8016
Register
Hold
The clock data in the data registers is held. The clock still runs.
Use this to pause the data to
read the current time.
00 to 99 (1980 to
2079)
M8017
Minute
Rounding
When on rounds the time up or
down to the nearest minute.
0 to 6 (Sunday to Saturday
M8018
Clock
Available
Automatically set to indicate the
RTC is available.
M8019
Setting
Error
ON when the values for the RTC
are out of range.
Range
0 to 59
D8014
Minutes
0 to 59
D8015
Hours
0 to 23
D8016
Date
1 to 31 (correct for
current Month)
D8017
Month
D8018
Year
D8019
Day of
Week
1 to 12
These devices are used as shown in the program on
the right.
Note: The FX 2N (C ) has special instructions that
simplify the setting and use of the RTC.
See section 5.14 for more details.
The clock stops when X0 is ON.
The new values are set when X0 turns OFF.
X00
M8015
PLF M0
M0
MOV K30 D8013
MOV K20 D8014
MOV K10 D8015
MOV K25 D8016
MOV K4 D8017
MOV K96 D8018
MOV K4 D8019
X1
M8017
X1 is used to reset the clock
to the nearest minute.
9-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
Points of Technique 10
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points of Technique 10
Chapter Contents
10.Points Of Technique...........................................................................10-1
10.1 Advanced Programming Points ......................................................................... 10-1
10.2 Users of DC Powered FX Units ......................................................................... 10-1
10.3 Using The Forced RUN/STOP Flags................................................................. 10-2
10.3.1 A RUN/STOP push button configuration ................................................................. 10-2
10.3.2 Remote RUN/STOP control .................................................................................... 10-3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
Constant Scan Mode ......................................................................................... 10-4
Alternating ON/OFF States................................................................................ 10-4
Using Battery Backed Devices For Maximum Advantage ................................. 10-5
Indexing Through Multiple Display Data Values ................................................ 10-5
Reading And Manipulating Thumbwheel Data .................................................. 10-6
Measuring a High Speed Pulse Input ................................................................ 10-6
10.9.1 A 1 msec timer pulse measurement ........................................................................ 10-6
10.9.2 A 0.1 msec timer pulse measurement ..................................................................... 10-7
10.10Using The Execution Complete Flag, M8029 ................................................... 10-7
10.11Creating a User Defined MTR Instruction ......................................................... 10-8
10.12An Example System Application Using STL And IST Program Control ............ 10-8
10.13Using The PWM Instruction For Motor Control ............................................... 10-15
10.14Communication Format................................................................................... 10-18
10.14.1Specification of the communication parameters: .................................................. 10-18
10.14.2Header and Terminator Characters ...................................................................... 10-19
10.14.3Timing diagrams for communications: .................................................................. 10-20
10.14.48 bit or 16 bit communications. ............................................................................. 10-23
10.15PID programming techniques ......................................................................... 10-24
10.15.1Keeping MV within a set range ............................................................................. 10-24
10.15.2Manual / Automatic change over .......................................................................... 10-24
10.15.3Using the PID alarm signals ................................................................................. 10-25
10.15.4Other tips for PID programming............................................................................ 10-25
10.16Additional PID functions .................................................................................. 10-26
10.16.1Output Value range control................................................................................... 10-26
10.17Pre-tuning operation ....................................................................................... 10-27
10.17.1Variable control..................................................................................................... 10-27
10.18Example Autotuning program ......................................................................... 10-28
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.
Points Of Technique
10.1
Advanced Programming Points
Points Of Technique 10
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The FX family of programmable controllers has a very easy to learn, easy to use instruction set
which enables simple programs to perform complex functions. This chapter will point out one
or two useful techniques while also providing the user with valuable reference programs.
If some of these techniques are applied to user programs the user must ensure that they will
perform the task or operation that they require. Mitsubishi Electric can take no responsibility for
user programs containing any of the examples within this manual.
Each program will include a brief explanation of the system. Please note that the method of
'how to program' and 'what parameters are available' for each instruction will not be discussed.
For this information please see the relevant, previous chapters.
10.2
Users of DC Powered FX Units
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
When using DC powered FX programmable controllers, it is necessary to add the following
instructions to the beginning of the installed program:
Step 0 M8000
MOV
K -4 D8008
Explanation:
With AC powered FX programmable controllers, the power break detection period can be
adjusted by writing the desired detection period to the special data register D8008.
However, in the case of DC powered units this detection period must be set to 5 msec.
This is achieved by moving the value of -4 into D8008. Failure to do this could result in inputs
being missed during the DC power 'drop'.
10-1
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
10.3
Using The Forced RUN/STOP Flags
10.3.1
A RUN/STOP push button configuration
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The FX programmable controller has a single RUN terminal. When power is applied to this
terminal the PLC changes into a RUN state, i.e. the program contained is executed.
Consequently when there is no power 'on' the RUN terminal the PLC is in a STOP state.
This feature can be utilized to provide the FX PLC with an external RUN/STOP - push button
control. The following PLC wiring and program addition are required.
Forced RUN mode
STOP
M8000
M8035
Forced RUN
command
RUN
M8036
X1
M8037
Forced STOP
command
24V
0V
S/S RUN X0
X1
FX base unit configured as source
input (example only)
Explanation:
Pressing the RUN push button sets the PLC into the RUN state. This means M8000 is ON.
Following the program, M8000 activates both M8035 and M8036. These two special auxiliary
devices set the PLC in to forced RUN mode. Releasing the RUN push button would normally
return the PLC to the STOP state, but because the two auxiliary coils, M8035 and 36 are ON,
the PLC remains in RUN. To stop the, PLC pressing the STOP push button drives an input ON
and consequently M8037 turns ON. This then automatically forces OFF both M8035 and 36
and resets itself. Hence, the PLC is in its STOP status and awaits the cycle to begin again.
Input priority:
• The STOP input is only processed after the programs END statement has been reached this is because the physical input used, i.e. an X device is normally updated and processed
at that time. Therefor, the RUN input is given priority when both RUN and STOP inputs are
given simultaneously.
• To give priority to the STOP input and provide a 'safer' system, some form of mechanical/
circuitry interlock should be constructed between both RUN and STOP inputs. A very
simple example is shown in the wiring diagram above.
• For push-button control to operate correctly, the user must set the RUN/STOP switch on
FX2C and FX2N(C) units to the STOP position.
• FX2N(C) units do not have a RUN terminal. One of the inputs X0 to X17 (X0 to X7 for FX2N16M) on the MPU should be configured as a RUN terminal in the parameter settings.
10-2
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.3.2
Remote RUN/STOP control
Points Of Technique 10
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The FX family of programmable controllers can be controlled, i.e. switched into RUN or STOP
modes and have devices monitored by use of intelligent external control devices.
These includes such items as computers, the Mitsubishi FX data access units and Graphic
Operator Terminals.
The following example utilizes a graphic FX-DU unit:
Explanation:
The programmable controller needs no special wiring
or additional programming for this example.
The only condition required is that the PLC would not
normally be in a RUN state, i.e., there is no connection
to the RUN terminal and the RUN/STOP switch on
PLC’s that have one is set in the STOP position.
The DU should be programmed with 'SWITCH'
devices driving the three special M codes M8035,36
and 37. By activating the 'SWITCH' devices for M8035
and M8036 the PLC can be switched into a RUN state,
while driving the 'SWITCH' device M8037 will put the
PLC into a STOP state.
SWITCH for...
1. Remote Mode
M8035
2. Remote Start
M8036
3. Remote Stop
M8037
POWER
SWITCH
INPUT:
0
OUTPUT: PLC M8035
MODE: ALTERNATE
Example 'SWITCH' device setting opposite.
Use an 'Alternate' switch for M8035 and M8036 and use a 'Momentary' switch for M8037.
(see DU operation manual for SWITCH operation and programming)
Note: While M8035 and M8036 are ON the MPU can not be changed to STOP mode using the
RUN terminal or RUN/STOP switch. Either set M8037 ON, or reset M8035 and M8036, to
return to the normal operating state.
Range of Mitsubishi graphic FX-DU units:
FX-25DU-E - a 4 line text/graphic unit.
FX-30DU-E - a 4 line text/graphics display unit with membrane style keypad.
FX-40DU-TK-E - a 7 line, touch key, text/graphics display unit with numeric keypad.
FX-50DU-TK(S)-E - a 15 line, touch key, color text/graphics display unit.
F940GOT-SWD/LWD-E - a 15 line, touch key, color text/graphics advanced display unit.
FX2N(C) Remote STOP
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
With FX2N(C) units, even if the RUN terminal or RUN/STOP switch is in the RUN position, it is
still possible to do a remote STOP by forcing M8037 ON.
Return to RUN by resetting M8037.
10-3
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.4
Points Of Technique 10
Constant Scan Mode
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Some times the timing of operations can be a problem, especially if some co-ordination is
being attempted with a second control system. In cases like this it is very useful to fix the
PLC’s scan time. Under normal conditions the PLC’s scan time will vary from one scan to the
next. This is simply because the natural PLC scan time is dependent on the number of and
type of the active instructions. As these are continually changing between program scans the
actual scan time is also a varying. Hence, by using the additional program function identified
below, the PLC’s scan time can be fixed so that it will be the same duration on every program
scan. The actual scan duration is set by writing a scan time in excess of the current longest
scan duration to special data register D8039 (in the example the value K150 is used). If the
PLC scans the program quicker than the set scan time, a 'pause' will occur until the set scan
duration is reached.
This program example should be placed at the beginning of a users program.
M8000
M8039
MOV K150 D8039
10.5
Newly set
constant scan
time = 150 msec
Alternating ON/OFF States
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
It is often useful to have a single input control or toggle a situation. A basic, yet typical example
is the switching ON/OFF of a Light. This can be easily achieved by using standard ladder
program to load an input and switch an output. However, this system requires an input which is
latchable. If basic ladder steps are used to latch the program then it soon becomes complex
and prone to mis-programming by the user. Using the ALT instruction to toggle the ON/OFF
(SET/RESET, START/STOP, SLOW/FAST) state is much simpler, quicker and more efficient.
Explanation:
X0
X0
ALT Y 1
ALT M 0
M0
X0
Y1
Y0
M0
Y1
Program
example 1
Program example 2
Pressing the momentary push button X1 once will switch the lamp ON. Pressing the push
button for a second time will cause the lamp to turn OFF. And if the push button is again
pressed for a third time, the lamp is turned ON again and so the toggled status continues.
The second program shown identifies a possible motor interlock/control, possibly a start/stop
situation.
10-4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.6
Points Of Technique 10
Using Battery Backed Devices
For Maximum Advantage
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Battery backed devices retain their status during a PLC power down. These devices can be
used for maximum advantage by allowing the PLC to continue from its last operation status
just before the power failure.
For example: A table traverse system is operating, moving alternatively between two limit
switches. If a PLC power failure occurs during the traversing the machine will stop.
Ideally, once the PLC regains its power the system should continue from where it left off, i.e. if
the movement direction was to the left before the power down, it should continue to the left
after the restoration of the power.
Explanation:
Right
traverse
Left
traverse
X0
X1
M600
Limit switch X0
Limit switch X1
M600
X1
Motor driven
indirectly by
M600 and M601
X0
M601
M601
Reciprocating
table
The status of the latched devices (in this example FX M coils M600 and M601) is retained
during the power down. Once the power is restored the battery backed M coils latch
themselves in again, i.e. the load M600 is used to drive M600.
10.7
Indexing Through Multiple
Display Data Values
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Many users unwarily fall in to the trap of only using a single seven segment display to display
only a single data value. This very simple combination of applied instructions shows how a
user can 'page' through multiple data values displaying each in turn.
Explanation:
FX version of program
FX0/FX0N version of
Operation
The contents of 10
program
counters are displayed in
X10
X10
PLS M10
Z
MOVP K0
C0
Z=0
a sequential, 'paged'
C1
Z=1
M1
X11
C2
Z=2
PLS M11
operation.
C3
Z=3
X11
M10
C4
Z=4
BCDP
C
0
Z
K4
Y0
MOV K0
Z
The paging action occurs
C5
Z=5
M1
C6
Z=6
INC P Z
every time the input X11 is
C7
Z=7
M11
C8
Z=8
BCD C 0 Z K4 Y0
received.
CMPP K9 Z
M0
C9
Z=9
What actually hap-pens is
Z
INC
K4 Y0
that the index register Z is
CMP K9
Z
M0
continually incremented
until it equals 9. When this happens the comparison instruction drives M1 ON which in turn
resets the current value of Z to 0 (zero). Hence, a loop effect is created with Z varying between
fixed values of 0 and 9 (10 values). The Z value is used to select the next counter to be
displayed on the seven segment display.
This is because the Z index modifier is used to offset the counter being read by the BCD output
instruction.
10-5
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.8
Points Of Technique 10
Reading And Manipulating Thumbwheel Data
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Data can be easily read into a programmable controller through the use of the BIN instruction.
When data is read from multiple sources the data is often stored at different locations. It may
be required that certain data values are combined or mixed to produce a new value.
Alternatively, a certain data digit may need to be parsed from a larger data word. This kind of
data handling and manipulation can be carried out by using the SMOV instruction. The
example below shows how two data values (a single digit and a double digit number) are
combined to make a final data value.
Digit
1
0
10 10
Digit
0
10
M8000
SMOV D1
BIN
K2X20
D2
BIN
K1X0
D1
K1
K1
D2
K3
7
5
D1=7
X0 to X3
6
D2 = 65
X20 to X27 FX prpgrammable
controller
D1- D2
SMOV
D2=765
Explanation:
The two BIN instructions each read in one of the data values. The first value, the single digit
stored in D1, is combined with the second data value D2 (currently containing 2 digits). This is
performed by the SMOV instruction. The result is that the contents of D1 is written to the third
digit of the contents of D2. The result is then stored back into register D2.
10.9
Measuring a High Speed Pulse Input
10.9.1
A 1 msec timer pulse measurement
Some times due to system requirements or even
as a result of maintenance activities it is
necessary to 'find out' how long certain input
pulses are lasting for. The following program
utilizes two interrupt routines to capture a pulse
width and measure it with a 1 msec timer. The
timer used in the ample is one of the FX timers.
However, T63 on the FX0N would be used for a
similar situation on that PLC.
FX0(S)
FX0N
X 10
S (X0, X1)
Pulse to be
measured
FEND
I001
M8000
RST T246
EI instruction
MUST be
included in main
program
X10
RST
RST
M0
D0
T246
Note: X10 acts as an enable/disable flag.
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
General wiring-pluse
to be measured is
connected to both X0
and X1
X0 X1
Explanation:
The 1 msec timer T246 is driven when interrupt
I001 is activated. When the input to X1 is
removed the current value of the timer T246 is
moved to data register D0 by interrupt program
I100. The operation complete flag M0 is then set
ON.
FX
K32767
IRET
I100
X10
MOV T246 D 0
SET
M0
M0
M8000
T246
K1
RST T246
1 msec timerFX0N use T63
Measured time
stored inD0
Pulse has been
measured
IRET
END
10-6
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.9.2
Points Of Technique 10
A 0.1 msec timer pulse measurement
This is a very accurate measuring process for pulse
inputs. The use of a standard timer is not accurate
enough in this case as the highest resolution is
1msec. Therefor, this example shows how the
special high accuracy devices M8099 and D8099
are used to capture the 0.1 msec resolution pulse
data.
FX0(S)
FX0N
X 10
Pulse to be
measured
S (X0, X1)
I001
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
General wiring-pluse
to be measured is
connected to both X0
and X1
X0 X1
EI instruction
MUST be
included in main
program
X10
M8099
Explanation:
The incoming pulse is captured between two
i n t e r r u p t r o u t i n e s . T h e s e r o u t in e s o p e r a t e
independently of each other, one on the rising edge
of the pulse input and one on the falling edge of the
same input. During the pulse input the contents of
special register D8099 are continually moved into
data register D0. Once the pulse has completed the
contents of D0 can be viewed at leisure.
FX
FEND
X10
RST D8099
RST
Special device
D8099
M0
IRET
I100
X10
MOV D8099 D 0
SET
Measured time
stored inD0
M0
IRET
Pulse has been
measured
END
Please note for this high speed/accuracy mode to
be active for D8099, the corresponding special
auxiliary bit device M8099 must be driven ON in the
main program.
10.10
Using The Execution Complete Flag, M8029
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
Some of the applied instructions take more than one program scan to complete their operation.
This makes identification of the current operating state difficult. As an aid to the programmer,
certainappliedinstructionsidentify theircompletionbysettinganoperationcompleteflag, M8029.
Because this flag can be used by several different instructions at the same time, a method
similar to the following should be used to trap the M8029 status at each of the instructions
using it:
Explanation:
The M8029 'trapping’ sequence takes advantage of
the batch refresh of the FX family of PLC’s. As the
program scan passes each instruction using M8029
the status of M8029 changes to reflect the current
status of the instruction. Hence, by immediately
resetting (or setting) the drive flag for the instruction
the current operational status of the instruction is
trapped. So when the batch refresh takes place
only the completed instructions are reset. The
example above uses a pulse to set the drive flags
so that it is easy to monitor and see when each
in s t ru c t io n f i n i s h e s ( i f t h e in s t ru c t io n s a r e
continuously driven it will be difficult to see when
they finish!).
M8002
MOV
K0
MOV K 32766
D0
D2
X0
PLS M100
M100
SET
Y5
PLSY K10 K100
Y0
RST
Y5
Y5
M8029
Trapped
instruction
X1
PLS M101
M101
SET
Y6
Y6
RAMP D0 D2 D3 K8000
M8029
RST
Trapped
instruction
Y6
10-7
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.11
Creating a User Defined MTR Instruction
For users who want to have the benefits of the MTR
instruction for FX users who want to specify more
than one MTR area, this user defined MTR function
will be very useful.
Explanation:
The main control of this program rests in the timer
interrupt I620. This interrupt triggers every 20msec
regardless of what the main program is doing. On
each interruption one bank of the user defined
matrix is read. The program simply consists of
re adin g the inputs triggered by each of th e
multiplexed outputs.
The read data is then stored in sequential sets of
auxiliary registers.
Each M OV instruction re ads a ne w bank of
multiplexed inputs.
The equivalent MTR instruction is shown
immediately before the 'user defined' MTR.
See the MTR instruction on page 5-54 for more
details.
10.12
Points Of Technique 10
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
M8000
MTR X30 Y30 M100 K4
Equivalent
MTR instruction
EI
The interrupt
routine is scanned
every 20 msec
FEND
I620 M8000
REF
X30
K8
Y30
MOV K2X30 K2M100
On each scan of
this routine a
differentinput
block is read
Y31
MOV K2X30 K2M110
Y32
MOV K2X30 K2M120
Y33
MOV K2X30 K2M130
Y33
PLS M499
Y32
PLS
This program
area controls
which input block
will be read
Y31
Y31
PLS
Y32
PLS
Y33
PLS
Y30
Y30
Y30Y31Y32Y33
M499
X30-37 is
refreshed at the
start of the
routine while
Y30-37 are
refreshed here
M8000
An Example System
Application Using STL And IST Program Control
REF
Y30
K8
IRET
END
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The following illustration shows a simple 'pick and
place' system utilizing a small robotic arm. The zero
point has been de-fined as the uppermost and left
most position accessible by the robot arm.
A normal sequence of events
A product is carried from point 'A' to point 'B' by the
robot arm. To achieve this operation the following
sequence of events takes place:
Initial position: the robot arm is at its zero point.
B
A
1) The Robots grip is lowered to it lowest limit
- output Y0: ON, input X1: ON, output Y0: OFF.
2) The grip clamped around the product at point A
- output Y1: ON.
10-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
3) The grip, now holding the product, is raised to its upper limit
- output Y2: ON, input X2: ON, output Y2: OFF.
4) The robot arm traverses to its right most position
- output Y3: ON, input X3: ON, output Y3: OFF.
5) The grip and product are lowered to the bottom limit
- output Y0: ON, input X1: ON, output Y0: OFF.
6) The grip is unclamped and the product is released at point B
- output Y1: OFF.
7) The grip is retrieved back to its upper limit
- output Y0: ON, input X2: ON, output Y0: OFF.
8) The arm traverses back to its zero point by moving to the left most limit
- output Y4: ON, input X4: ON, output Y4: OFF.
The cycle can then start again.
System parameters
X4
Left most arm position
Operation 8
Y4
0
Operation 4
Zero point
X2
Y0
Operation 1
Y2
Upper
grip limit
Operation 3
Y3
Left most
arm position
Y0
Operation 5
X1
Lower
grip limit
X2
X3
Y2
Operation 7
X1
Y1
Operation 2
Y1
Operation 6
1) Double solenoid valves are used to control the
up (Y2)/down (Y0) and right (Y3)/left (Y4)
motion.
2) A single solenoid valve is used for the clamp
(Y1)/unclamp operation.
3) The system uses an FX-40DU-TK to interface
with the operator.
The FX-40DU-TK is a touch screen data access
unit.
Robot Arm
Control Center
Press to continue P
POWER
CLEAR SET/-
SHIFT ENTER
10-9
FX Series Programmable Controllers
This example uses the IST instruction (FNC 60) to
control the operation mode of the robot arm. The
program shown opposite identifies how the IST
instruction is written into the main program.
Points Of Technique 10
When all conditions
are met robot grip is
at zero point M8044 = ON
X4 X2 Y1
M8044
M8000
IST M30 S20 S27
When the IST instruction is used there are 5
selectable modes which access three separate
programs. This example has the following
programs associated with its modes. Each mode is
selected through the FX-40DU-TK. The screen
shown opposite is the initial mode menu. Each of
the menu options causes a screen jump to the
selected mode. Menu options 1 and 3 also set ON
auxiliary devices M30 and M31 respectively.
The active bits then trigger a screen change to the
selected mode. Please note 'Automatic' has three
further modes which are selected from a following
screen/display.
IST control - setup
Mode Selection 1. Manual
2. Automatic
3. Z Return
A
B
Touch screen keys
An example DU screen design
Manual Mode:
In this mode ALL operations of the robot arm are
con tro lled by the op erator. An ope ration or
movement is selected by pressing the
corresponding option on the DUs screen (see
below). These options then trigger DU SWITCH
objects which drive associated auxiliary relays
within the programmable controller. The SWITCH
objects should be set to momentary so that they
only operate when the key is pressed.
M22
S0
SET Y1 Clamp is active
M17
RST Y1 Clamp is not
active
M15 Y0
Y2
Move grip up
Y0
Move grip down
Y4
Move grip left
Y3
Move grip right
M20 Y2
M16 X2 Y3
M21 X2 Y4
The sta tus of the cla mp in g a ction cou ld b e
identified by two INDICATOR (SCR) functions on
the DU unit. They could be monitoring the ON and
OFF status of the clamp output Y1. Hence, when
the clamp was ON a single black box opposite the
ON button could appear. When the clamp is OFF
the box would appear in front of the OFF button. At
any one time only one box would be active.
Key assignment for DU screen opposite:
Up = M15 Down = M20
Left = M16 Right = M21
Up
Down
Left
Right
Manual Mode
Menu
A
OFF
Clamp
ON
Clamp ON = M22
Clamp OFF = M17
Menu = reset M30
B
Once manual operation is completed the operator can return to the main mode selection
screen by touching the 'Menu' key. This causes the manual mode bit flag, M30, to be reset.
Once M30 is reset the DU screen then changes back to the desired mode selection screen.
10-10
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
Zero Return Mode
This mode fulfills an initialization function by
S1
returning the robot arm to a known position.
Y1*
Once 'Z Return' has been selected from the M35
mode selection screen the bit device M35 is
S10
ON. At this point the DU screen changes to the
'zero return' screen.
The actual zero return operation will then start X2
S11
when the 'Return' push button is pressed
(activating M25) and the robots grip is not
active, i.e. Y1 is OFF (on the STL flow diagram X4
S12
opposite Y1 OFF is shown as Y1*).
The DU unit could be used to report back the
status of the current returning operation. The
example screen shown opposite uses 3 variable
messages to indicate this status. The messages
could be text strings stored in the PLC which
are read and displayed by the DUs ASCII
option.
Clamp is not activeand the return
operation has been started
Ensure 'dowm' and 'clamp'
RST Y1 options remain reset
RST Y0
Y2
Move grip up
RST Y3 Ensure 'right' option is reset
Y4
Move grip left
SETM8043 Set zero return
RST S12 complete flag (M8043)
Cannot return
Additional user
messages
At Zero point
Return Status: Now returning
Zero point
Menu
Zero Return Mode
A
B
Once the zero point has been returned to, the operator would also return to the mode selection
screen. This is achieved by pressing the 'Menu' touch key. This then resets the zero return bit
device M31 which allows the DU screen change to take place.
Key assignment for DU screen above:
Return = M25
Menu = reset M31
Automatic Mode
Under this option there are three further mode selections. The available modes are:
Step Mode:
- The automatic program is stepped through - operation by operation, on command by the
user pressing the 'Start' button.
Cycle Mode:
- The automatic program is processed for one complete operational cycle. Each cycle is
initiated by pressing the 'Start' button. If the 'Stop' button is pressed, the program is
stopped immediately. To resume the cycle, the 'Start' button is pressed again.
Automatic Mode:
- A fully automatic, continuously cycling mode. The modes operation can be stopped by
pressing the 'stop' button. However, this will only take effect after completion of the
current cycle.
10-11
FX Series Programmable Controllers
In this example these three modes are
selected by an external rotary switch. The
rotary switch is not connected to the PLC but
to the I/O bus on the rear of the DU unit.
The use of the rotary switch means that the
selected modes are mutually exclusive in
their operation. For an operator friendly
environment the currently selected mode is
displayed on the DU screen (again this could
be by use of the DUs ASCII function).
The start/ stop controls are touch keys on the
DU screen. When a mode is selected the
input received at the DU unit momentarily
activates one of the following auxiliary relays:
Rotary switch:
position 1 'Step' - Step operation: DU input I0,
controls bit device M32 position 2 'Cycle' Single cycle operation:
DU input I1, controls bit device M33 position 3
'Auto' - Automatic operation: DU input I2,
controls bit device M34
Key assignment for DU screen above:
Start = M36
Stop = M37
Points Of Technique 10
Automatic Mode
Stepped Operation
The 'Cycle' mode will process the program
from STL step S2, all the way through until
STL step S2 is encountered again. Once
more the IST instruction ensures that only
one cycle is com pleted for each initial
activation of the 'Start' input.
Finally as suggested by the name, 'Auto'
mode will continuously cycle through the
program until the 'Stop' button is pressed.
The actual halting of the program cycling will
occur when the currently active cycle is
completed.
Menu
Start
Current
Operation
messages
A
CYCLE
STEP
B
Stop
Rotary switch input to
DU through I/O bus
(used to select mode).
AUTO
S2
M8041
M8044
S 20
Y0
Move grip down
X1
S 21
T0
The program run in all three mode choices is
shown opposite. As noted earlier, the 'Step'
mode will require an operator to press the
'Start' key to start each new STL block. This
could be viewed as an additional transfer
condition between each state. However, the
user is not required to program this as the IST
instruction controls this operation
automatically.
Automatic Operation
Single Cycle Operation
Clamp is active
SET Y1
K10
T0
S 22
Y2
Move grip up
S 23
Y3
Move grip right
S 24
Y0
Move grip down
X2
X3
X1
S 25
T1
RST Y1
Clamp is not
K10 active
T1
S 26
Y2
Move grip up
S 27
Y4
Move grip left
X2
X4
10-12
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
Points of interest:
a) Users of the IST instruction will be aware that only one of the operation modes should be
active at one time. In this example program the isolation of 'Manual' and 'Zero return'
modes by the use of separate DU control screens, and the use of a rotary switch to
isolate the three automatic modes achieves this objective. Alternatively all of the
operation modes could be selected by a rotary switch.
b) For users who would like to test this example using simulator switches (i.e., without using
a data access unit) the appropriate program changes are noted next to the full program
listing later in this section. Alternatively, the original program could be used with all of the
input conditions being given by forcing ON the contacts with a programming device e.g.
a hand held programmer, Medoc etc.
c) Special flags used in this program are:
• M8040: State transfer inhibit
- Manual mode: Always ON.
Zero return and Cycle modes: Once the 'Stop' input is given the current state is
retained until the 'Start' input is received.
Step mode: This flag is OFF when the 'Start' input is ON. At all other times M8040 is
ON, this enables the single STL step operation to be achieved.
Auto mode: M8040 is ON initially when the PLC is switched into RUN. It is reset
when the 'Start' input is given.
• M8041: State transfer start
- Manual and Zero return modes: This flag is not used.
Step and Cycle modes: This flag is only active while the 'Start' input is received.
Auto mode: The flag is set ON after the 'Start' input is received. It is reset after the
'Stop' input is received.
• M8042: Start pulse
- This is momentarily active after the 'Start' input is received.
• M8043: Zero return complete
- This is a user activated device which should be controlled within the users program.
• M8044: At Zero position/ condition
- This is a user activated device which should be controlled within the users program.
10-13
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
Full program listing:
0
LD
X
4
35
STL
S
1
72
1
AND
X
2
2
ANI
Y
1
36
LD
37
RST
3
OUT
M
8044
39
5
LD
M
8000
40
6
IST
60
M
30
S
S
STL
S
21
M
35
M
8043
73
SET
Y
1
74
OUT
T
0
ANI
Y
1
K
10
SET
S
10
77
LD
T
0
42
STL
S
10
43
RST
Y
1
78
SET
S
22
80
STL
S
22
20
44
RST
Y
0
81
OUT
Y
2
27
45
OUT
Y
2
82
LD
X
2
13
STL
S
0
46
LD
X
2
83
SET
S
23
14
LD
M
8044
47
SET
S
11
85
STL
S
23
15
OUT
M
8043
49
STL
S
11
86
OUT
Y
3
17
LD
M
22
50
RST
Y
3
87
LD
X
3
18
SET
Y
1
51
OUT
Y
4
88
SET
S
24
19
LD
M
17
52
LD
X
4
90
STL
S
24
20
RST
Y
1
53
SET
S
12
91
OUT
Y
0
21
LD
M
15
55
STL
S
12
92
LD
X
1
22
ANI
Y
0
56
SET
M
8043
93
SET
S
25
23
OUT
Y
2
58
RST
S
12
95
STL
S
25
24
LD
M
20
96
RST
Y
1
25
ANI
Y
2
97
OUT
T
1
26
OUT
Y
0
27
LD
M
16
28
AND
X
2
29
ANI
Y
3
30
OUT
Y
4
67
31
LD
M
21
68
32
AND
X
2
69
33
ANI
Y
4
70
OUT
Y
3
34
(RET)*
60
STL
S
2
61
LD
M
8041
K
10
62
RST
M
8043
100
LD
T
1
64
AND
M
8044
101
SET
S
26
65
SET
S
20
103
STL
S
26
STL
S
20
104
OUT
Y
2
OUT
Y
0
105
LD
X
2
LD
X
1
106
SET
S
27
SET
S
21
108
STL
S
27
109
OUT
Y
4
110
111
LD
OUT
X
S
4
2
113
RET
114
END
(RET)*
↑
*: Instructions in ( ) are not
necessary
This instruction returns the
program flow to STL step S2.
necessary
→
Program options:
6
17
LD
X
12
27
LD
X
6
X
60
20
19
LD
X
7
31
LD
X
11
S
20
21
LD
X
5
36
LD
X
25
LD
X
10
IST
S
27
24
10-14
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.13
Points Of Technique 10
Using The PWM Instruction For Motor Control
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The PWM instruction may be used directly with an inverter to drive a motor. If this configuration
is used the following ripple circuit will be required between the PLC’s PWM output and the
inverters input terminals.
Programmable
controller
R1
R
5
24V 0V
12V
R10
R
4
5V
R
9
R
6
R2
R3
Motor
E
e
+
C1
R7
Inverter
R
8
+V0 Y0
Circuit configuration for a PLC with source outputs
Key to component values:
R1 - 510 Ω (1/2 W)
R2 - 3.3kΩ (1/2 W)
R3 to R8 - 1kΩ (1/4 W)
R9 - 22 Ω (1/4 W)
R10 - variable dependent on configuration. In this example 1kΩ (1 W)
C1 - 470 µF
Note: the values of R10 and C1 are dependent on the system configuration.
t
T0
PWM D10 K50 Y000
X10
t
Y000
T0
e
e
m
Establishing system parameters and values
It is assumed that the input impedance of the inverter is of a high order. Having established
this, the values of C1 and R10 are calculated to give τ a time result (in msec) approximately 10
times bigger than the value used for T0 in the PWM instruction:
τ = R10 (kΩ) ÅL C1 (µF)
During this calculation the value of R10 must be vastly greater than the value of R9. In the
example, R9 is equal to 22Ω, where as R10 is equal to 1kΩ. This proportion is approximately
1:50 in favor of R10.
10-15
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
The maximum output voltage (to the inverter) including ripple voltage, can be found by using
the following equation:
em ≈ E
t
T0
Where:
em = Maximum output voltage
E= pulse (square wave) output voltage (see circuit on the previous page)
t = PWM pulse duration (see previous page for reference)
T0 = PWM cycle time for pulse (see previous page for reference)
The average output voltage (to the inverter) including ripple voltage, can be found by using the
following equation:
T0
T0 - t
∆e
≤ τ
e ≈ τ
Where:
∆e = the voltage value of the ripple
e = ripple output voltage
T0 = PWM cycle time for pulse
t = PWM pulse duration
τ = ripple circuit delay
See previous page for references.
Operation
Once the system configuration has been selected and the ripple circuit has been built to suit,
the motor speed may be varied by adjusting the value of 't' in the PWM instruction.
The larger the value of 't' the faster the motor speed will rotate. However, this should be
balanced with the knowledge that the faster the output signal changes the greater the ripple
voltage will be. On the other hand a slowly changing output signal will have a more controlled,
yet smaller ripple effect. The speed of the signal change is determined by the size of C1. A
large capacitive value for C1 would give a smaller ripple effect as charge is stored and
released over a longer time period.
Programmable
controller
R1
R
5
COM 24+
12V
R10
5V
R
4
R
6
Y0
Motor
E
e
+
C1
R7
COM1
R
9
Inverter
R
8
Circuit configuration for a PLC with sink outputs.
The component values are the same as stated previously
The following characteristics were noticed when the identified circuit was tested
The PWM instruction had T 0 set to K50. The value for t was varied and also the load
impedance was varied to provide the following characteristics graph (see over page).
10-16
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
L1
L2
L3
L4
12.0
10.0
8.0
e (volts)
6.0
4.0
Tested load impedance
(e.g. inverter impedance)
L1 - 100 k
L2 - 10 k
L3 - 4.7 k
L4 - 2.2 k
2.0
2.5 5
1.0
10
20
30
40
50
t
The duration of the T0, time base also affects the ripple voltage. This can be clearly seen in the
next set of test data:
PWM parameter setting
Measured ripple
voltage
t
T0
100
200
50
100
25
50
10
20
154mV
5
10
82mV
t / T0
1.27V
668mV
0.5
350mV
The behavior of the Sink switched circuit detailed above will be similar to that of the Source
switched circuit detailed earlier.
10-17
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.14
Points Of Technique 10
Communication Format
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
10.14.1 Specification of the communication parameters:
Items such as baud rates, stop bits and parities must be identically set between the two
communicating devices. The communication parameters are selected by a bit pattern which is
stored in data register D8120.
D8120
Description
b0
Data length
b1
b2
Parity (b2, b1)
b3
Stop bits
b4
b5
b6
b7
Baud rate - bps
Bit (bn)status
0 (OFF)
1 (ON)
7 bits
8 bits
(00) : No parity
(01) : Odd parity
(11) : Even parity
1 bit
(b7, b6, b5, b4)
(0011): 300 bps
(0100): 600 bps
(0101): 1200 bps
(0110): 2400 bps
2bits
(b7, b6, b5, b4)
(0111): 4800 bps
(1000): 9600 bps
(1001): 19200 bps
b8
Header character
None
D8124, Default : STX (02H)
b9
Terminator character
None
D8125, Default : ETX (03H)
b10
b11
b12
No Protocol
(b12, b11, b10)
( 0, 0, 0) : RS Instruction is not being used (RS232C interface)
( 0, 0, 1) : Terminal mode -RS232C interface
( 0, 1, 0) : Interlink mode - RS232C interface (FX2N V2.00 or above)
Communication Control ( 0, 1, 1) : Normal mode 1- RS232C, RS485(422) interfaces (RS485
(see timing diagrams FX2N(C) only)
page 10-20 onwards) ( 1, 0, 1) : Normal Mode 2 - RS232C interface (FX only)
Computer Link
(b12, b11, b10)
( 0, 0, 0 ) : RS485(422) interface
( 0, 1, 0 ) : RS232C interface
b13
b14
b15
FX-485
Network
Sum
Check
No Check
Added automatically
Protocol
No protocol
Dedicated Protocol
Protocol
Format 1
Format 4
General note regarding the use of Data register D8120:
This data register is a general set-up register for all ADP type communications. Bits 13 to 15 in
the 232ADP units should not be used. When using the FX-485 network with 485ADP units bits
13 to 15 should be used instead of bits 8 to 12.
10-18
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
10.14.2 Header and Terminator Characters
The header and terminator characters can be changed by the user to suit their requirements.
The default setting for the header stored in D8124 is 'STX' (or 02H)and the terminator default
setting stored in D8125 is 'ETX' (or 03H).
The header and terminator characters are automatically added to the 'send' message at the
time of transmission. During a receive cycle, data will be ignored until the header is received.
Data will be continually read until either the termination character is received or the receive
buffer is filled. If the buffer is filled before the termination character is received then the
message is considered incomplete.
If no termination character is used, then reading will continue until the receive data buffer is
full. Only at this point will a message have been accepted and complete. There is no further
buffering of any communications, hence if more data is sent than the available destination
buffer size then the excess will be lost once the buffer is full.
It is therefore very important to specify the receive buffer length the same size as the longest
message to be received.
Events to complete a transmission:
The RS instruction should be set up and active.
The data to be transmitted should be moved into the
transmission data buffer. If a variable is being used to
identify the message length in the RS instruction this
should be set to the new message length. The send flag
M8122 should then be SET ON. This will automatically
reset once the message has been sent. Please see the
example program right.
M8000
RS
D50
D49 D200 K 10
X3
BMOV D100 D50
K6
MOV
D49
K6
SET M8122
Events encountered when receiving a message:
The RS instruction should be set up and active.
M8000
Once data is being received and an attempt is made to
RS D50 D49 D200 K 10
send out data, the special M flag M8121 is set ON to M8123
BMOV D200 D70 K 10
indicate the transmission will be delayed. Once the
'incoming' message is completely received the message
RST M8123
received flag M8123 is set ON. At the same time if M8121
was ON it is automatically reset allowing further
messages (delayed or otherwise) to be transmitted.
It is advisable to move the received data out of the received data buffer as soon as possible.
Once this is complete M8123 should be reset by the user. This is then ready to send a
message or to await receipt of a new message.
10-19
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
10.14.3 Timing diagrams for communications:
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
1) No Handshaking D8120 (b12, b11, b10) = (0, 0, 0)
FX2N below version 2.0
RS
instruction OFF ON
Send data
SD (TXD)
Data 1
Send request
M8122
Send wait
flag M8121
Data 4
OF
F
ON
OFF
* This period should
be 100 µ s or more
Receive data
RD (RXD)
Data 2
Receive
completion
M8123
OFF
The receive wait
status is started
ON
Data 3
ON
ON
Reset using a program.
When it is not turned off, the
next data cannot be received.
*When using FX0N, FX, FX2C this should be 2 x scan time or more
2) Terminal mode D8120 (b12, b11, b10) = (0, 0, 1)
a) Send Only
RS
OFF ON
instruction
Send data
SD (TXD)
Data 1
Send request OFF
M8122
ER(DTR) OFF
DR(DSR)
OFF
Data 1
Data 2
ON
ON
ON
b) receive only
RS
OFF
instruction
ON
Receive data
RD (RXD)
Data 1
OFF
ER(DTR)
Receive
completion
M8123
OFF
ON
Data 2
ON
ON
ON
Reset using a program.
When it is not turned off, the next data cannot be received.
10-20
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
3) Normal Mode 1 D8120 (b12, b11, b10) = (0, 1, 1)
FX2N below V2.00.
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
RS
instruction OFF ON
Send data SD
(TXD)
Data 1
Send request OFF
M8122
ON
Data 3
Send wait
flag M8121
OFF
OFF
ER(DTR)
ON
ON
Receive data
RD (RXD)
Data 2
Receive
completion
M8123
OFF
DR(DS
R)
OFF
ON
Reset using a program.
When it is not turned off, the
next data cannot be received.
ON
This period should be 100 µs or more
* When using FX0N, FX, FX2C this period should be 2x scan time or more.
4) Normal Mode 2 D8120 (b12, b11, b10) = (1, 0, 1)
FX0(S)
FX2N below V2.00
RS
instruction
Send data
SD (TXD)
FX0N
OFF ON
Data 3
Data 1
Send request OFF
M8122
Send wait
flag M8121
ON
ER(DTR)
OFF
DR(DSR)
OFF
Check
OFF
ON
Check OFF
ON
*2
Receive data
RD (RXD)
Receive
completion
M8123
ON
*1
*1
*5
*3
Data 2
OFF
ON
*4
10-21
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
FX0(S)
FX2N (V2.00 or above) Communications
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
In the FX2N V2.00 or above and FX2NC, full duplex communication is performed.
1) No Hardware Handshaking D8120 (B12, b11, b10) = (0,0,0)
RS
OFF ON
instruction
Send data
SD (TXD)
Send request OFF
M8122
Receive data
RD (RXD)
Receive
completion
M8123
Data 5
Data 3
Data 1
ON
Data 4
Data 2
OFF
ON
ON
The receive wait
status is started
Reset it using a program.
When it is not turned off, the
next data cannot be received.
2) Terminal Mode
The control line and transmission sequence are identical to those in the FX, on page
3) Normal Mode 1 D8120 (b12, b11, b10) = (0, 1, 1)
RS
OFF ON
instruction
Send data
SD (TXD)
Send request OFF
M8122
ON
ER(DTR)
ON
OFF
Receive data
RD (RXD)
Data 2
Receive
completion
M8123
DR(DSR)
Data 4
Data 1
OFF
OFF
Data 3
ON
ON
ON
Reset using a program.
When it is not turned off, the
next data cannot be received.
10-22
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
FX0(S)
4) Interlink Mode D8120 (b12, b11, b10) = (0, 1, 0)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
RS
OFF ON
instruction
Send data
SD (TXD)
Data 2
Send request
M8122
ON
DR(DSR)
OFF
Receive data
RD (RXD)
Data 1
Time-out
evaluation
flag M8129
*1 ON
Data 4
Data 4
OFF
*1
Data 3
*1
Up to 30 characfers
can be received *2
Data
Time-out
evaluation time
D8129 × 10ms
3
*3
Reset using a program.
When it is not trurned off,the
next data cannot be received.
Receive
completion
M8123
OFF
ON
ER(DTR)
ON
ON
ON
OFF
Reset using a program.
When it is not turned off, the next data cannot be received.
10.14.4 8 bit or 16 bit communications.
This is toggled using the Auxiliary relay M8161. When this relay is OFF 16 bit communications
takes place. This actually means that both bytes of a 16 bit data device are used in both the
transmission and the receipt of messages. If the M8161 device is activated then 8 bit mode is
selected. In this mode only the lower 8 bits (or byte) is used to perform the transmissionreceiving actions. The toggling of the M8161 device should only occur when the RS instruction
is not active, i.e. it is OFF.
When a buffer area is specified in the RS instruction it is important to check whether 8 or 16bit
mode has been selected, i.e. a buffer area specified as D50 K3 would produce the followin g
results.......
16 bit mode - M8161 = OFF
8 bit mode - M8161 = ON
Data register
High byte
Low byte
Data register
D50
X
F
D50
F
0
D51
X
D52
0
D51
High byte
Low byte
General note regarding hardware:
Information regarding pin outs of the respective ADP special function blocks can be found
along with wiring details in the appropriate hardware manuals.
10-23
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.15
Points Of Technique 10
PID Programming Techniques
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
10.15.1 Keeping MV within a set range
In the reserved registers of the PID data block S3+18 and S3+19 form a double word device
that contains the previous MV x K100. The following program uses this to keep MV under
control when it exceeds the operating limits.
Example Program to keep MV in the range K100 to K5000
PID
SV
D18
PV
D19
Data
Block
D20
MV
D46
ZCP
K100
K5000
MV
D46
M20
Check MV against range
K100
MV
D46
MV < 100: Fix MV to lower limit
DMOV
K10000
MV n-1 x
K100
D38
MOV
K5000
X10
M20
M22
Below
Lower Limit
Above
Upper Limit
MOV
DMOV
K500000
MV
D46
MV n-1 x
K100
D38
Reset PID data to lower limit
MV > 5000: Fix MV to upper limit
Reset PID data to upper limit
If data registers are used to hold the limit values, it is possible to use a MUL instruction instead
of the DMOV. E.g. When D50 is upper limit use: MUL D50 K100 D38 because the result of
MUL is already a double word DMUL is not needed.
Resetting (S3+19, S3+18) in this way prevents runaway, which occurs if only MV is changed.
10.15.2 Manual/Automatic change over
In order to switch from automatic (PID) control to manual control and back to automatic it is
necessary for the PID process to perform 'Manual Tracking'. Although the FX PID instruction
does not have a manual tracking feature there are two methods that can be used to make the
switch from manual back to automatic as trouble free as possible.
To understand the reason for the two methods the following should be noted. The PID
instruction sets its initial output value based on the initial value of the output register.
When the PID instruction is switched on it can only do P as it has only 1 data reading. On the
first reading the current value of the output register is used as ∆MV. Thereafter the previous
output value is used (stored in S3+18, S3+19).
After the next reading PI can be calculated and from the third reading full PID is performed.
Please see section 5.98, PID (FNC 88), for the complete equations.
Method 1
It is recommended that if manual to auto switching is desired that the PID instruction is
switched off during manual operation and the operator controls the value of the MV register
(the Output Value). When returning to auto mode, the PID instruction is switched on again and
uses the last MV input by the operator during the first PID calculation. After 3 readings full PID
will be operating and the process should be under control quickly. (Assuming that manual
control did not cause a move too far from the Set Point.)
10-24
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Points Of Technique 10
Method 2
During manual operations the PID instruction is kept running but the calculated MV is ignored;
instead the operator controls MV. In order to prevent the PID instruction from running out of
control the MV value set by the operator should be fed in to the MVn-1 registers of the PID data
block in the same way as for MV range control earlier (i.e. Set S3+18, S3+19 to MV x 100).
When switching back to PID control the internal values of the PID instruction are already set
and full PID operation starts immediately.
10.15.3 Using the PID alarm signals
Included as part of the data block there are four alarm values. These set the maximum positive
and negative change that should occur to MV and PV. The PID alarm signals are used to warn
of the system going out of control.
When the system is starting from cold it is usually not good to include the Derivative numbers
of the in the calculation; the changes to PV are large and the Derivative introduces too much
correction. Also, if the system starts to move rapidly away from the SV then sometimes the use
of D can over correct and cause chasing.
By having an 'alarm' flag for the change in PV and MV it is possible to monitor the state of the
system and adjust the PID parameters to appropriate settings.
When the system is close to the SP the changes in PV (and MV) should be minimal.
In this situation using full PID is very useful in keeping the system close to the SP. (Full PID is
appropriate).
However, if the conditions change (e.g. opening a refrigerator door, adding ingredients to a
mixture, cold start, etc.) the system reacts. In some cases (especially cold start) the reaction is
too much for the D to be useful (PI or sometimes just P only is better). In these cases the alarm
flags can be used to change to PI control until the system returns to a more stable condition,
when full PID can then be used.
Basically, rather than use actual values of the PV to determine the change over point from PI to
PID (or PID to PI), use the size of the change in PV (or MV). This means changes to the Set
Point do not require different ranges for the PI - PID change over point (at least, in theory).
10.15.4 Other tips for PID programming
• It is recommended that an input value for PV is read before the PID is activated. Otherwise,
the PID will see a big change from 0 to the first value and calculate as if a big error is
occurring.
• The PID instruction is not interrupt processed. It is scan dependent and as such the
sampling can not occur faster the FX scan time. It is recommended that TS is set to a
multiple of the program scan time.
• To keep timing errors to a minimum it is recommended that constant scan is used.
• To improve sampling rates it is possible to put the PID instruction inside a timer interrupt
routine.
• It is better to have the PID only perform P until the input value (PV) reaches the working
range.
• When setting up it is a good idea to monitor the input and output of the PID instruction and
check that they are about the expected values.
• If the PID system is not operating properly check the error flags for PID errors (D8067).
10-25
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.16
Points Of Technique 10
Additional PID functions
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
The following parameter table gives the additional parameters available with FX2N(C) MPUs.
These are:
-
S3+1 bit 4: Pre-tuning operation flag.
S3+1 bit 5: Output Value range limit flag.
S3+22: Output Value upper limit.
S3+23: Output Value lower limit.
Parameter
S3 + P
Parameter
name/function
b1
Forward operation(0),
Reverse operation (1)
Process Value (S2) change alarm OFF(0)/ON(1)
b2
Output Value (MV) change alarm OFF(0)/ON(1)
b3
Reserved
b0
S3+1
Action-reaction
direction and
alarm control
b4
Activate pre-tuning (auto resets on completion)
b5
Output Value (MV) range limit OFF(0)/ON(1)
b6-15
S3+22
S3+23
Setting
range
Description
Not
applicable
Reserved
This is an alarm for the quantity of positive change
which can occur in one PID scan. If the Output
Value (MV) exceeds this value, bit S3+24, b2 is
set
Output Value,
maximum
positive
change alarm
Active
when
S3+1, b2
is set ON.
Output Value,
Upper limit
restriction
Active
This is an upper limit for the Output Value (MV).
when
During operation the PID instruction restricts the
S3+1, b5
output so that it does not exceed this limit.
is set ON.
Output Value,
maximum
negative
change alarm
Active
when
S3+1, b2
is set ON.
This is an alarm for the quantity of negative
change which can occur in one PID scan. If the
Output Value (MV) falls below this value, bit
S3+24, b3 is set.
0 to 32767
Output Value,
Lower limit
restriction
Active
when
S3+1, b5
is set ON.
This is a lower limit for the Output
Value (MV).
During operation, the PID instruction restricts the
output so that it does not fall below this limit.
-32768 to
32767
0 to 32767
-32768 to
32767
For the full list of other parameters refer to page 5-102.
Note: S3+1 b2 and b5 should not be active at the same time. Only one value each is entered
into the data registers S3+22 and S3+23.
10.16.1 Output Value range control (S3+1 b5)
Bit 5 of parameter S3+1, when ON, activates S3+22 and S3+23 to be upper and lower limits for
the output value (MV).
This feature restricts the output value to the specified limits; in effect, this automatically
performs the same operation as that described in section 10.15.1.
10-26
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.17
Pre-tuning operation
Points Of Technique 10
FX0(S)
FX0N
FX
FX(2C) FX2N(C)
10.17.1 Variable Constants
The Pre-tuning operation can be used to automatically set values for the following variables:
- The direction of the process; Forward or Reverse (S3+1, bit 0)
- The proportional gain constant; KP (S3+3)
- The integral time constant; TI (S3+4)
- The derivative time constant; TD (S3+6)
Setting bit 4 of S3+1 starts the pre-tuning process. Before starting, set all values that are not
set by the pre-tuning operation: the sample time, Ts (S3+0); the input filter α (S 3+2); the
Derivative gain, KD (S3+5); the Set Point, SV (S1); and any alarm or limit values, (S3+20-23).
The Pre-tuning operation measures how fast the system will correct itself when in error.
Because the P, I, and D equations all react with differing speed, the initial error must be large
so that effective calculations can be made for each type of equation. The difference in values
between SP and PVnf must be a minimum of 150 for the Pre-tuning to operate effectively. If this
is not the case, then please change SV to a suitable value for the purpose of pre-tuning.
The system keeps the output value (MV) at the initial value, monitoring the process value until
it reaches one third of the way to the Set Point. At this point the pre-tuning flag (bit 4) is reset
and normal PID operation resumes. SV can be returned to the normal setting without turning
the PID command Off.
During the course of normal operation, the Pre-tuning will NOT automatically set new values if
the SV is changed. The PID command must be turned Off, and the Pre-Tuning function
restarted if it is necessary to use the Pre-tune function to calculate new values.
• Caution: The Pre-tuning can be used as many times as necessary. Because the flag resets,
the set bit can be turned On again and new values will be calculated. If the system is
running an oven heater and the SV is reduced from 250 to 200 C, the temperature must
drop below 200 or the “Forward/Reverse” flag will be set in the wrong direction. In addition,
the system error value must be large for the pre-tune variable calculations to work correctly.
• Note: Set the sampling time to greater than 1 second (1000 ms) during the pre-tuning
operation. It is recommended that the sampling time is generally set to a value much
greater than the program scan time.
• Note: The system should be in a stable condition before starting the pre-tuning operation.
An unstable system can cause the Pre-tuning operation to produce invalid results. (e.g.
opening a refrigerator door, adding ingredients to a mixture, cold start, etc.)
• Note: Even though Pre-tuning can set the above mentioned variables, additional logic may
be needed in the program to "scale" all operating values to those capable of being
processed by the special function devices being used.
10-27
FX Series Programmable Controllers
10.18
Points Of Technique 10
Example Autotuning Program
The following programming code is an example of how to set up the Pre-Tuning function.
•
D500: SV = 500
X010
FNC 12
MOV P
K500
D500
D502: MV = 1800, initial value
FNC 12
MOV P
K1800
D502
D510: TS, S3+0 = 3000
FNC 12
MOV P
K3000
D510
D511: S3+1, Bits 0-3 and 5-15 Off, Bits 4 and
5 On. Bit 4 = Pre-Tune Function
Bit 5 = MV Range Limit
FNC 12
MOV P
H0030
D511
D512: Input Filter, S3+2 = 70%
FNC 12
MOV P
K 70
D512
D515: KD , S3+5 = 1800, initial
value
FNC 12
MOV P
K0
D515
D532: MV Max, S3+22 = 2000
FNC 12
MOV P
K2000
D532
D533: MV Min, S3+23 = 0
FNC 12
MOV P
K0
D533
Pulse M1 to turn On PID command
Send setting to Special Function Block
Read data from Special Function Block
Reset Output data when PID command is Off
PLS
M0
SET
M1
M0
M8002
M8000
FNC 79
TO
K0
K0
H3303
K1
FNC 78
FROM
K0
K 10
D501
K1
X010
RST
D502
D510
D502
M1
PID Instruction Command Line
Turn Off PID Instruction
M1
FNC 88
PID
D500
D501
X011
RST
10-28
M1
FX Series Programmable Logic Controllers
1
Introduction
2
Basic Program Instructions
3
STL Programming
4
Devices in Detail
5
Applied Instructions
6
Diagnostic Devices
7
Instruction Execution Times
8
PLC Device Tables
9
Assigning System Devices
10
Points of Technique
11
Index
Index 11
FX Series Programmable Logic Controllers
Index 11
Chapter contents
11.Index...................................................................................................11-1
11.1 Index .................................................................................................................. 11-1
11.2 ASCII Character Codes ..................................................................................... 11-9
11.3 Applied Instruction List .................................................................................... 11-10
FX Series Programmable Controllers
11.
Index
11.1
Index
Index 11
A
Absolute drum sequence, ABSD instruction................................................................ 5-70
Addition of data values, ADD instruction ..................................................................... 5-25
Addressing special function blocks ................................................................................ 9-1
Advanced programming points
Examples and tips ................................................................................................ 10-1
Alternated state, ALT instruction .................................................................................. 5-73
Alternating states using ALT, example ......................................................................... 10-4
ANB ............................................................................................................................. 2-12
And block instruction ................................................................................................... 2-12
And, And inverse instructions ........................................................................................ 2-6
AND, ANI ....................................................................................................................... 2-6
Annunciator reset, ANR instruction .............................................................................. 5-47
Annunciator set, ANS instruction ................................................................................. 5-47
Applied instr' which can only be used once ................................................................. 7-16
Applied instruction list ................................................................................................ 11-10
Applied instructions ....................................................................................................... 5-1
Arrow switch, ARWS instruction .................................................................................. 5-87
ASCII character codes ................................................................................................. 11-9
ASCII code (Alpha to ASCII code), ASCI instr' ............................................................ 5-88
ASCII to HEX conversion using HEX (FNC 83) ........................................................... 5-99
Assigning special function block numbers ..................................................................... 9-1
Assigning system devices .............................................................................................. 9-1
Auxiliary relays,
Battery backed/ latched .......................................................................................... 4-4
Device details and example ................................................................................... 4-3
General information on diagnostic devices ............................................................ 4-5
General use ........................................................................................................... 4-3
B
Basic devices
Outline of basic PLC devices ................................................................................. 2-1
X, Y, T, C, M, S ...................................................................................................... 2-1
Basic devices and instructions....................................................................................... 2-1
BCD data words - reading ........................................................................................... 4-44
BCD output (Binary Coded Decimal), BCD instr' ........................................................ 5-22
BIN input (Binary), BIN instruction ............................................................................... 5-22
Binary data - reading .................................................................................................. 4-42
Bit devices .................................................................................................................. 4-40
Bit on recognition, BON instruction .............................................................................. 5-45
Bit pattern rotation left, ROL instruction ....................................................................... 5-35
Bit pattern rotation right, ROR instruction .................................................................... 5-35
Bit rotation and carry left, RCL instruction ................................................................... 5-36
Bit rotation and carry right, RCR instruction ............................................................... 5-36
Bit shift left, SFTL instruction ...................................................................................... 5-37
Bit shift right, SFTR instruction ................................................................................... 5-37
Block data move, BMOV instruction ............................................................................ 5-20
11-1
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Index 11
C
C data devices
See Counters
Comparison of data to a range, ZCP instr' ................................................................... 5-17
Comparison of single data values, CMP instr' ............................................................. 5-17
Compliment of a data value, CML instr' ...................................................................... 5-19
Conditional Jump instruction (CJ) .................................................................................. 5-5
Constant scan mode - how to program, example ........................................................ 10-4
Constants,
Numeric decimal (K) data value entry ................................................................... 4-14
Numeric Hexadecimal (H) data value entry.......................................................... 4-14
Counters,
16 bit resolution counters .................................................................................... 4-20
32 bit resolution bi directional counters ............................................................... 4-21
Basic counters ..................................................................................................... 2-18
Device details and examples ............................................................................... 4-19
Ring counters ...................................................................................................... 4-21
D
D data devices
See Data registers
Data registers,
Battery backed/ latched registers ......................................................................... 4-35
Device details and examples................................................................................ 4-33
Externally/manually adjustable data registers ..................................................... 4-37
File registers of FX and FX0N PLC’s ................................................................... 4-36
General description of diagnostic registers .......................................................... 4-35
General operation of data registers ..................................................................... 4-34
Decode data value, DECO instruction ........................................................................ 5-43
Decrement data, DEC instruction ................................................................................ 5-29
Device terms
Bits, words, BCD and hexadecimal ...................................................................... 4-40
Floating Point And Scientific Notation ................................................................. 4-46
Diagnostic devices
Clock devices (M8010-19 and D8010-19).............................................................. 6-3
Error detection devices (M8060-69, D8060-69) ..................................................... 6-8
High speed counter flags (M8235-55, D8235-55) ................................................ 6-14
Interrupt controls (M8050-59 and D8050-59) ......................................................... 6-7
Link control (M8070-99 and D8070-99).................................................................. 6-9
See Also Miscellaneous (M8100-19, D8100-19)
Operation flags (M8020-29 and D8020-29) ........................................................... 6-4
PLC operation mode (M8030-39 and D8030-39) ................................................... 6-5
PLC status (M8000-9 and D8000-9) ..................................................................... 6-2
STL/Annunciator flags (M8040-49 and D8040-49)................................................. 6-6
Up/down counter control (M8200-34, D8200-34) ................................................ 6-14
Digital switch input, DSW instruction ........................................................................... 5-83
Division of data values, DIV instruction ...................................................................... 5-28
Double coil designation ................................................................................................. 2-5
11-2
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Index 11
E
Encode data, ENCO instruction .................................................................................. 5-44
END ............................................................................................................................. 2-23
End instruction ............................................................................................................ 2-23
Error codes
Circuit (D8066) ........................................................................................... 6-17, 6-18
Communication (D8062 - D8063) ......................................................................... 6-15
Hardware (D8061) ............................................................................................... 6-15
Operation (D8067) ............................................................................................... 6-19
Parameter (D8064)............................................................................................... 6-16
Syntax (D8065) .................................................................................................... 6-16
Example of interrupt use .............................................................................................. 10-6
Example system application ....................................................................................... 10-8
Example use of a timer interrupt.................................................................................. 10-8
Exchanging data bytes, XCH instruction ...................................................................... 5-21
Exchanging data formats
BCD data to binary data, BIN instr' ...................................................................... 5-22
Binary data to BCD data, BCD instr' .................................................................... 5-22
Floating point to scientific format, (FNC 18) ........................................................ 5-22
Scientific format to floating point, (FNC 19) ......................................................... 5-22
Exchanging data values, XCH instruction ................................................................... 5-21
Execution complete flag, using M8029 ........................................................................ 10-7
External setting pots - FX0, FX0S and FX0N ................................................................. 4-37
F
F-16NP/NT - FX2-24EI control instructions
Melsec net mini control, MNET instruction ......................................................... 5-111
F2-30GM - FX2-24EI control instructions
Block write, BLOCK instruction ......................................................................... 5-115
Write assigned machine code, MCDE instr'. ....................................................... 5-116
F2-32RM - FX2-24EI control instructions
RM monitor, RMMN instruction ......................................................................... 5-114
RM read status, RMRD instruction ..................................................................... 5-114
RM start, RMST instruction ............................................................................... 5-112
RM write, RMWR instruction .............................................................................. 5-113
F2-6AE - FX2-24EI control instructions
Analog data read, ANRD instruction .................................................................. 5-111
Analog data write, ANWR instruction ................................................................ 5-112
FIFO data read, SFRD instruction .............................................................................. 5-40
FIFO data write, SFWR instruction ............................................................................. 5-39
Fill move, FMOV instruction ........................................................................................ 5-21
Float instruction, FLT .................................................................................................. 5-49
Floating point - a numbering format ............................................................................ 4-48
Floating point application - summary .......................................................................... 4-49
FOR-NEXT loops, FOR, Next instructions .................................................................. 5-13
Forced program end, FEND instruction ...................................................................... 5-11
FX performance specification
CPU versions 2.0 through 3.06 ............................................................................. 8-4
CPU versions from 3.07 onwards .......................................................................... 8-6
11-3
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Index 11
FX-8AV - externally adjustable data values ................................................................ 4-37
FX-8AV control instructions
Volume read, VRRD instruction ......................................................................... 5-101
Volume scale, VRSC instruction......................................................................... 5-101
FX0 an FX0S performance specification ...................................................................... 8-1
FX0N performance specification ................................................................................... 8-2
FX2-40AP/AW parallel run (PRUN) instruction ........................................................... 5-96
FX2C performance specification ................................................................................... 8-6
FX2N(C) performance specification .............................................................................. 8-8
G
Grouped bit devices..................................................................................................... 4-41
H
H value
See Constants
Hex to ASCII conversion using ASCI (FNC 82)............................................................ 5-98
Hexadecimal data words - reading ............................................................................. 4-43
Hexadecimal keypad, HKY instruction ........................................................................ 5-82
Hierarchy of program flow instructions ....................................................................... 7-12
High speed counter reset, HSCR instruction .............................................................. 5-56
High speed counter set, HSCS instruction ................................................................. 5-55
High speed counter zone compare, HSZ instr' ........................................................... 5-57
High speed counters,
1 phase counter - reset and start inputs .............................................................. 4-30
1 phase counters - user start and reset ................................................................ 4-29
2 phase bi-directional counters ........................................................................... 4-31
A/B phase counters ............................................................................................. 4-32
Available counters for FX PLC’s .......................................................................... 4-25
Available counters for FX0, FX0S and FX0N PLC’s.............................................. 4-24
Available counters for FX2N(C) PLC’s ................................................................ 4-28
Basic operation .................................................................................................... 4-23
Counter speeds for FX PLC’s .............................................................................. 4-26
Glossary and examples........................................................................................ 4-22
How to use the manual .................................................................................................. 1-2
HSZ Instruction
Combined HSZ and PLSY operation (3) ............................................................. 5-59
Standard Operation (1) ........................................................................................ 5-57
Using HSZ with a data table (operation 2) .......................................................... 5-57
I
I interrupt program pointer
See Interrupts
Incremental drum sequence, INCD instruction ............................................................ 5-71
Incrementing data, INC instruction ............................................................................. 5-29
Index registers,
Device details and examples ............................................................................... 4-38
General use .......................................................................................................... 4-38
Misuse of modifiers ............................................................................................. 4-39
Modifying a constant ........................................................................................... 4-39
11-4
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Index 11
Using multiple index registers ............................................................................. 4-39
Indexing through display values, example ................................................................... 10-5
Initial state control, IST instruction .............................................................................. 5-67
Input, device details and example ................................................................................ 4-1
Instruction execution times
Applied instructions ............................................................................................... 7-3
Basic instructions ................................................................................................... 7-1
Interrupts,
Device details and pointer examples ................................................................... 4-11
Disabling individual interrupts .............................................................................. 4-13
Input triggered interrupt routines ......................................................................... 4-12
Interrupt instructions: IRET, EI, DI ......................................................................... 5-9
Timer triggered interrupt routines ........................................................................ 4-12
K
K value
See Constants
L
LD, LDI ........................................................................................................................... 2-3
Load, load inverse instructions ..................................................................................... 2-3
M
M bit device
See Auxiliary relay
Manipulating thumbwheel data (SMOV), example ...................................................... 10-6
Master control and master control reset ..................................................................... 2-15
Matrix input sequence, MTR instruction ..................................................................... 5-54
MC, MCR ..................................................................................................................... 2-15
Mean of a data set, MEAN instruction ........................................................................ 5-46
Measuring high speed input pulses
Method using a 1msec timer + interrupts ............................................................ 10-6
Method using M8099, D8099 and interrupts ........................................................ 10-7
Motor control with the PWM instruction ..................................................................... 10-15
Move data, MOV instruction ....................................................................................... 5-18
MPS, MRD, MPP ......................................................................................................... 2-13
Multiple output circuits ................................................................................................ 2-13
Multiplication of data, MUL instruction ........................................................................ 5-27
N
Negation of a data value, NEG instruction .................................................................. 5-31
No operation instruction .............................................................................................. 2-22
NOP ............................................................................................................................ 2-22
O
Or block instruction ..................................................................................................... 2-11
Or, Or inverse instructions ............................................................................................ 2-7
OR, ORI ......................................................................................................................... 2-7
ORB ............................................................................................................................ 2-11
11-5
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Index 11
OUT ..............................................................................................................................
Timer and counter variations ..................................................................................
Out instruction ...............................................................................................................
Output, device details and example ..............................................................................
2-4
2-4
2-4
4-2
P
P program pointer
See Pointer P
Parallel link adapter, FX-40AP/AW ............................................................................... 9-6
PLC operation - batch processing .............................................................................. 7-14
PID control
Applied instruction 88 - PID................................................................................ 5-102
Configuring the PID loop ................................................................................... 5-105
Example program .............................................................................................. 10-28
PID Setup parameters ....................................................................................... 5-104
Program techniques ........................................................................................... 10-24
PLS, PLF .................................................................................................................... 2-20
PLSY initialize for FX ver2.2 or earlier ........................................................................ 5-61
Pointer P,
Device details and example use ................................................................................ . 4-10
Positive/negative logic ................................................................................................ 5-86
Power failure precautions for FX DC units .................................................................. 10-1
Print to display, PR instruction .................................................................................... 5-89
Program
How to read ladder logic ............................................................................................... 2-2
Program scan ............................................................................................................. 2-23
Programming formats: list, ladder, STL/SFC ................................................................ 2-1
What do you need to program a PLC? ......................................................................... 1-3
What is a program? ...................................................................................................... 2-1
Program example featuring IST and STL control ....................................................... 10-8
Programmable controller
What is a programmable controller ................................................................................ 1-3
Programming tools ......................................................................................................... 1-3
FX-PCS/AT-EE SW operating precautions ................................................................... 3-15
Pulse
Leading and trailing edge instructions ......................................................................... 2-20
Pulse Ramp (PLSR instruction) ................................................................................... 5-63
Pulse train output, PLSY instruction ............................................................................ 5-61
Pulse width modulation, PWM instruction ................................................................... 5-62
R
Ramped values, RAMP instruction ............................................................................. 5-73
Reading from special blocks, FROM instruction ......................................................... 5-90
Real time clock memory cassettes ............................................................................... 9-7
Refresh and filter adjust, REFF instruction ................................................................. 5-53
Refresh I/O status, REF instruction. ............................................................................ 5-53
Ripple circuit for use with an inverter ......................................................................... 10-15
Rotary table control, ROTC instruction ....................................................................... 5-75
RS communications function (FNC80) ....................................................................... 5-95
11-6
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Index 11
S
S bit device
See State relays
Scientific Notation - a numerical format ...................................................................... 4-47
Search, data search utility - SER instruction .............................................................. 5-69
Set and reset instructions ........................................................................................... 2-17
See Also Zone reset, ZRST FNC 40
SET, RST .................................................................................................................... 2-17
Seven segment decoder, SEGD instruction ................................................................ 5-84
Seven segment multiplexed displays .......................................................................... 5-85
Seven segment with latch control, SEGL instr' ........................................................... 5-85
Shift move, SMOV instruction ..................................................................................... 5-18
Moving BCD data ............................................................................................... . 5-19
Moving decimal data ........................................................................................... 5-18
Sort instruction, FNC 69 ............................................................................................. 5-77
Special timer, STMR instruction .................................................................................. 5-72
Speed detect, SPD instruction .................................................................................... 5-60
Square root, SQR instruction ...................................................................................... 5-48
State relays,
Battery backed/ latched ......................................................................................... 4-7
Device details and example ................................................................................... 4-6
General use............................................................................................................ 4-6
Use as annunciator flags ....................................................................................... 4-9
Use as STL step numbers ..................................................................................... 4-8
Step ladder programming ............................................................................................. 3-1
Example, simple STL flow .................................................................................... 3-16
Example, STL selective branch ............................................................................ 3-18
First state merge .................................................................................................. 3-11
General STL branching rules ............................................................................... 3-14
How to start and end an STL program ................................................................... 3-3
Multiple state merge ............................................................................................. 3-13
Operational restrictions of some instructions ........................................................ 3-10
Selective branch .................................................................................................. 3-11
Some rules for the writing of STL programs ........................................................... 3-7
What is STL, SFC and IEC 1131 part 3? ................................................................ 3-1
STL
See Step ladder programming
Subroutine call, CALL instruction .................................................................................. 5-7
Subroutine return, SRET instruction .............................................................................. 5-8
Subtraction of data values, SUB instruction ............................................................... 5-26
Sum active data bits, SUM instruction ........................................................................ 5-45
Sum checking using CCD (FNC 84) ......................................................................... 5-100
T
T data devices
See Timers
Teaching timer, TTMR instruction ................................................................................. 5-72
Ten key keypad, TKY instruction ................................................................................ 5-81
Thumbwheels-multiplexed
See Digital switch input
Timers and counters (out and reset of) ........................................................................ 2-18
11-7
FX Series Programmable Controllers
Index 11
Timers,
Basic timers .......................................................................................................... 2-18
Device details and examples................................................................................ 4-15
General accuracy ................................................................................................. 4-18
General timer operation........................................................................................ 4-16
Retentive timers .................................................................................................. 4-17
Selectable range timers........................................................................................ 4-16
Timers used in interrupt and CALL subroutines .................................................. 4-18
Two's compliment - an explanation ............................................................................. 4-45
U
Unsuitable instr' for 110V AC input units ...................................................................... 7-16
User defined MTR instruction ...................................................................................... 10-8
Using battery backed/latched devices, example .......................................................... 10-5
Using forced RUN mode (M8035/36/37), examples
Push button configuration ............................................................................................ 10-2
Remote control with an FX graphic DU unit ................................................................. 10-3
Using FX2-24EI with F series special blocks ................................................................. 9-2
Using the F-16NP/NT net mini extension block ............................................................. 9-3
Using the F2-30GM pulse output unit ........................................................................... 9-5
Using the F2-32RM CAM positioning unit...................................................................... 9-4
Using the F2-6A analog extension block ....................................................................... 9-4
V
V data device
See Index registers
W
Watchdog timer refresh, WDT instruction ................................................................... 5-12
Word AND instruction .................................................................................................. 5-30
Word data - interpretation ........................................................................................... 4-42
Word devices .............................................................................................................. 4-42
Word exclusive OR instruction..................................................................................... 5-31
Word OR instruction ..................................................................................................... 5-30
Word shift left, WSFL instruction ................................................................................. 5-38
Word shift right, WSFR instruction................................................................................ 5-38
Writing to special blocks, TO instruction ...................................................................... 5-91
X
X bit device
See Inputs
Y
Y bit device
See Outputs
Z
Z data device
See Index registers
Zone device reset, ZRST instruction ........................................................................... 5-43
11-8
FX Series Programmable Controllers
11.2
Index 11
ASCII Character Codes
Table 11.1:
ASCII code table
(HEX)
Lower
bit
Higher bit
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
(SP)
0
@
P
@
p
1
!
1
A
Q
a
q
2
“
2
B
R
b
r
3
#
3
C
S
c
s
4
$
4
D
T
d
t
5
%
5
E
U
e
u
6
&
6
F
V
f
v
‘
7
G
W
g
w
(
8
H
X
h
x
9
)
9
I
Y
i
y
A
*
:
J
z
j
z
B
+
;
K
[
k
{
C
,
<
L
l
|
D
-
=
M
]
m
}
E
.
>
N
(SP)
n
~
o
CR
7
8
F
1
Not
accessible
/
?
O
_
Note:
(SP) = Space,
CR
= Carriage Return
11-9
FX Series Programmable Controllers
11.3
Index 11
Applied Instruction List
FX2N(C)
FX
(CPU ver 3.07 or greater)
FX
FX
(CPU ver 3.07 or greater)
FX
(CPU ver 2.0 to 3.06)
and FX2C
FX
Fnc
Page
FX0N
FX0,FX0S
ABSD
62
5-70
ADD
20
5-25
ALT
66
5-73
ANDq
232-238
5-148
ANR
47
5-47
ANRD
91
Fnc
Page
Memonic
GBIN
171
5-143
GRY
170
5-143
HEX
83
Memonic
B
Fnc
Page
SEGD
73
5-84
SEGL
74
5-85
5-99
SER
61
5-69
HKY
71
5-82
SFRD
39
5-40
HSCR
54
5-56
SFTL
35
5-37
5-111
HSCS
53
5-55
SFTR
34
5-37
H
ANS
46
5-47
HSZ
55
5-57
SFWR
38
5-39
ANWR
92
5-112
INC
24
5-29
SIN
130
5-127
ARWS
75
5-87
INCD
63
5-71
SMOV
13
5-18
S
ASC
76
5-88
INT
129
5-124
SORT
69
5-77
ASCI
82
5-98
IRET
03
5-9
SPD
56
5-60
BCD
18
5-22
IST
60
5-67
SQR
48
5-48
I
BIN
19
5-22
LDq
224-230
5-147
SRET
02
5-8
BLK
97
5-115
MCDE
98
5-116
STMR
65
5-72
BMOV
15
5-20
MEAN
45
5-46
SUB
21
5-26
L
BON
44
5-45
MNET
90
5-111
SUM
43
5-45
CALL
01
5-7
MOV
12
5-18
SWAP
147
5-131
CCD
84
5-100
MTR
52
5-54
TADD
162
5-137
M
CJ
00
5-5
MUL
22
5-27
TAN
132
5-128
CML
14
5-19
NEG
29
5-31
TCMP
160
5-135
CMP
10
5-17
NEXT
09
5-13
TKY
70
5-81
COS
131
5-128
ORq
240-246
5-149
DEC
25
5-29
PID
88
5-102
DECO
41
5-43
PLSR
59
C
N
D
DI
05
O
5-9
TO
79
5-91
TRD
166
5-139
5-63
TSUB
163
5-138
TTMR
64
5-72
PLSY
57
5-61
T
P
E
F
and FX2C
(CPU ver 2.0 to 3.06)
FX0N
FX0,FX0S
G
A
(CPU ver 3.07 or greater)
FX
(CPU ver 2.0 to 3.06)
FX0N
FX0,FX0S
Memonic
FX2N(C)
FX2N(C)
and FX2C
DIV
23
5-28
PR
77
5-89
TWR
167
5-140
DSW
72
5-83
PRUN
81
5-96
TZCP
161
5-136
EADD
120
5-121
VRRD
85
5-101
PWM
58
5-62
V
EBCD
118
5-120
RAMP
67
5-73
VRSC
86
5-101
EBIN
119
5-120
RCL
33
5-36
WAND
26
5-30
ECMP
110
5-119
RCR
32
5-36
WDT
07
5-12
EDIV
123
5-123
REF
50
5-53
WOR
27
5-30
EI
04
5-9
REFF
51
5-53
WSFL
37
5-38
EMUL
122
5-122
RMMN
96
5-114
WSFR
36
5-38
WXOR
28
5-31
XCH
17
5-21
ZCP
11
5-17
ZRST
40
5-43
ENCO
42
5-44
RMRD
95
5-114
ESQR
127
5-123
RMST
93
5-112
ESUB
121
5-122
RMWR
94
5-113
R
EZCP
111
5-119
ROL
31
5-35
FEND
06
5-11
ROR
30
5-35
FLT
49
5-49
ROTC
68
5-75
FMOV
16
5-21
RS
80
5-95
FOR
08
5-13
FROM
78
5-90
W
X
Z
11-10
PROGRAMMING MANUAL
TH E FX SER IES O F PR O G R AM M ABLE C O N TR O LLER
(FX 0, FX 0S, FX 0N, FX, FX 2C, FX 2N, FX 2NC)
HEAD OFFICE: MITSUBISHI DENKI BLDG MARUNOUCHI TOKYO 100-8310
HIMEJI WORKS: 840, CHIYODA CHO, HIMEJI, JAPAN
JY992D48301J
(MEE 9911)
TELEX: J24532 CABLE MELCO TOKYO
Effective Nov. 1999
Specification are subject
to change without notice.
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