Nikon D3200 User manual

Nikon D3200 User manual
No reproduction in any form of this manual, in whole or in part (except for brief quotation
in critical articles or reviews), may be made without written authorization from NIKON
CORPORATION.
DIGITAL CAMERA
User's Manual
Nikon User Support
Visit the site below to register your camera and keep up-to-date with the latest product
information. You will find answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs) and can contact us for
technical assistance.
http://www.europe-nikon.com/support
AMA15855
Printed in Europe
SB3K01(11)
6MB22911-01
Nikon Manual Viewer 2
Use the Nikon Manual Viewer 2 app to view
manuals anytime, anywhere on your smartphone or
tablet.
En
Product Documentation
The documentation for this product consists of a User’s Manual (this booklet) and a
Reference Manual (pdf ). To get the most from your camera, please be sure to read all
instructions thoroughly and keep them where they will be read by all who use the
product.
For information on basic
camera operations, see the
User’s Manual (this
booklet).
For complete product
information, see the
Reference Manual
(available on the
supplied reference CD).
The Reference Manual can be viewed using Adobe Reader or Adobe Acrobat Reader
5.0 or later, available for free download from the Adobe website.
1 Start the computer and insert the reference CD.
2 Double-click the CD (Nikon D3200) icon in Computer or My Computer (Windows)
or on the desktop (Macintosh).
3 Double-click the INDEX.pdf icon to display a language selection screen and click a
language to display the Reference Manual.
Camera Settings
The explanations in this manual assume that default settings are used.
Digitutor
“Digitutor”, a series of “watch and learn” manuals in movie form, is available from the following
website: http://www.nikondigitutor.com/index_eng.html
Nikon Manual Viewer 2
Install the Nikon Manual Viewer 2 app on your smartphone or tablet to view Nikon
digital camera manuals, anytime, anywhere. Nikon Manual Viewer 2 can be
downloaded free of charge from the App Store and Google Play. Download of the app
and any product manuals requires an Internet connection, for which fees may be
levied by your phone or Internet service provider.
A For Your Safety
Before using the camera for the first time, read the safety instructions in “For Your Safety”
(0 iv-vii).
Package Contents
Confirm that the package contains the following items:
BS-1 accessory shoe cover
DK-20 rubber eyecup
BF-1B body cap
D3200 camera
EN-EL14 rechargeable
Li-ion battery (with terminal
cover)
MH-24 battery charger (plug
adapter supplied in countries or
regions where required; shape
depends on country of sale)
AN-DC3 strap
UC-E17 USB cable
EG-CP14 audio/video cable
DK-5 eyepiece cap (0 28)
ViewNX 2 CD-ROM
User’s Manual (this booklet)
Reference CD (contains the Reference Manual)
Purchasers of the lens kit option should confirm that the package also includes a lens.
Memory cards are sold separately. Cameras purchased in Japan display menus and
messages in English and Japanese only; other languages are not supported. We
apologize for any inconvenience this may cause.
❚❚ Symbols and Conventions
To make it easier to find the information you need, the following symbols and
conventions are used:
D
This icon marks cautions; information that should be read before use to
prevent damage to the camera.
A
This icon marks notes; information that should be read before using the
camera.
0
This icon marks references to other pages in this manual.
Menu items, options, and messages displayed in the camera monitor are shown in bold.
i
Table of Contents
Package Contents........................................................................................................................i
For Your Safety .......................................................................................................................... iv
Notices........................................................................................................................................... v
Introduction
1
Getting to Know the Camera................................................................................................. 1
The Camera Body ......................................................................................................................1
The Mode Dial.............................................................................................................................3
The Viewfinder............................................................................................................................4
The Information Display..........................................................................................................5
First Steps ..................................................................................................................................... 6
Basic Photography
12
Battery Level and Card Capacity ........................................................................................12
“Point-and-Shoot” Photography (i and j Modes)...................................................13
Creative Photography (Scene Modes) .............................................................................17
Playback and Deletion
19
Viewing Photographs ........................................................................................................... 19
Display pictures....................................................................................................................... 19
Deleting Pictures .................................................................................................................... 20
Guide Mode
21
Guide Mode Menus ............................................................................................................... 22
Using the Guide ...................................................................................................................... 24
More on Photography
25
Release Mode............................................................................................................................25
Self-Timer and Remote Control Modes .......................................................................... 27
Focus ............................................................................................................................................29
Focus Mode .............................................................................................................................. 29
AF-Area Mode.......................................................................................................................... 31
Image Quality and Size..........................................................................................................32
Image Quality........................................................................................................................... 32
Image Size ................................................................................................................................. 33
Using the Built-in Flash..........................................................................................................34
Flash Mode................................................................................................................................ 35
ISO Sensitivity ...........................................................................................................................37
ii
P, S, A, and M Modes
38
Mode P (Programmed Auto) ..............................................................................................38
Mode S (Shutter-Priority Auto) ..........................................................................................39
Mode A (Aperture-Priority Auto).......................................................................................39
Mode M (Manual)....................................................................................................................40
Live View
41
Framing Photographs in the Monitor ..............................................................................41
Focusing in Live View ............................................................................................................42
Recording and Viewing Movies
49
Recording Movies ....................................................................................................................49
Movie Settings .........................................................................................................................51
Viewing Movies ........................................................................................................................53
Menu Guide
54
Menu Guide ...............................................................................................................................55
Using Camera Menus.............................................................................................................56
ViewNX 2
58
Installing ViewNX 2 .................................................................................................................58
Using ViewNX 2 ........................................................................................................................60
Copy Pictures to the Computer .........................................................................................60
View Pictures ............................................................................................................................61
Technical Notes
62
Compatible Lenses..................................................................................................................62
Other Accessories ....................................................................................................................63
Approved Memory Cards.....................................................................................................64
Caring for the Camera............................................................................................................65
Storage........................................................................................................................................65
Cleaning .....................................................................................................................................65
Caring for the Camera and Battery: Cautions................................................................66
Caring for the Camera ...........................................................................................................66
Caring for the Battery ............................................................................................................67
Error Messages..........................................................................................................................69
Specifications ............................................................................................................................72
Warranty Terms - Nikon Europe Service Warranty ......................................................80
iii
For Your Safety
To prevent damage to your Nikon product or injury to yourself or to others, read the following safety
precautions in their entirety before using this equipment. Keep these safety instructions where all those
who use the product will read them.
The consequences that could result from failure to observe the precautions listed in this section are
indicated by the following symbol:
icon marks warnings. To prevent possible injury, read all warnings before using this Nikon
A This
product.
❚❚ WARNINGS
A Keep the sun out of the frame
Keep the sun well out of the frame when shooting
backlit subjects. Sunlight focused into the camera
when the sun is in or close to the frame could cause a
fire.
A Do not look at the sun through the viewfinder
Viewing the sun or other strong light source through
the viewfinder could cause permanent visual
impairment.
A Using the viewfinder diopter adjustment control
When operating the viewfinder diopter adjustment
control with your eye to the viewfinder, care should be
taken not to put your finger in your eye accidentally.
A Turn off immediately in the event of malfunction
Should you notice smoke or an unusual smell coming
from the equipment or AC adapter (available
separately), unplug the AC adapter and remove the
battery immediately, taking care to avoid burns.
Continued operation could result in injury. After
removing the battery, take the equipment to a Nikonauthorized service center for inspection.
A Do not use in the presence of flammable gas
Do not use electronic equipment in the presence of
flammable gas, as this could result in explosion or fire.
A Keep out of reach of children
Failure to observe this precaution could result in injury.
In addition, note that small parts constitute a chocking
hazard. Should a child swallow any part of this
equipment, consult a physician immediately.
A Do not disassemble
Touching the product’s internal parts could result in
injury. In the event of malfunction, the product should
be repaired only by a qualified technician. Should the
product break open as the result of a fall or other
accident, remove the battery and/or AC adapter and
then take the product to a Nikon-authorized service
center for inspection.
A Do not place the strap around the neck of an infant or child
Placing the camera strap around the neck of an infant
or child could result in strangulation.
A Do not remain in contact with the camera, battery, or charger for
extended periods while the devices are on or in use
Parts of the device become hot. Leaving the device in
direct contact with the skin for extended periods may
result in low-temperature burns.
iv
A Do not aim a flash at the operator of a motor vehicle
Failure to observe this precaution could result in
accidents.
A Observe caution when using the flash
• Using the camera with the flash in close contact with
the skin or other objects could cause burns.
• Using the flash close to the subject’s eyes could cause
temporary visual impairment. Particular care should
be observed when photographing infants, when the
flash should be no less than one meter (39 in.) from
the subject.
A Avoid contact with liquid crystal
Should the monitor break, care should be taken to
avoid injury due to broken glass and to prevent the
liquid crystal from the monitor touching the skin or
entering the eyes or mouth.
A Observe proper precautions when handling batteries
Batteries may leak or explode if improperly handled.
Observe the following precautions when handling
batteries for use in this product:
• Use only batteries approved for use in this
equipment.
• Do not short or disassemble the battery.
• Be sure the product is off before replacing the battery.
If you are using an AC adapter, be sure it is unplugged.
• Do not attempt to insert the battery upside down or
backwards.
• Do not expose the battery to flame or to excessive
heat.
• Do not immerse in or expose to water.
• Replace the terminal cover when transporting the
battery. Do not transport or store the battery with
metal objects such as necklaces or hairpins.
• Batteries are prone to leakage when fully discharged.
To avoid damage to the product, be sure to remove
the battery when no charge remains.
• When the battery is not in use, attach the terminal
cover and store in a cool, dry place.
• The battery may be hot immediately after use or
when the product has been used on battery power
for an extended period. Before removing the battery
turn the camera off and allow the battery to cool.
• Discontinue use immediately should you notice any
changes in the battery, such as discoloration or
deformation.
A Observe proper precautions when handling the charger
• Keep dry. Failure to observe this precaution could
result in fire or electric shock.
• Do not short the charger terminals. Failure to observe
this precaution could result in overheating and
damage to the charger.
• Dust on or near the metal parts of the plug should be
removed with a dry cloth. Continued use could result
in fire.
• Do not go near the charger during thunderstorms.
Failure to observe this precaution could result in
electric shock.
• Do not handle the plug or charger with wet hands.
Failure to observe this precaution could result in
electric shock.
• Do not use with travel converters or adapters designed
to convert from one voltage to another or with DC-toAC inverters. Failure to observe this precaution could
damage the product or cause overheating or fire.
A Use appropriate cables
When connecting cables to the input and output jacks,
use only the cables provided or sold by Nikon for the
purpose to maintain compliance with product
regulations.
A CD-ROMs
CD-ROMs containing software or manuals should not be
played back on audio CD equipment. Playing CD-ROMs
on an audio CD player could cause hearing loss or
damage the equipment.
Notices
• No part of the manuals included with this product may be • Nikon will not be held liable for any damages resulting
reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval
from the use of this product.
system, or translated into any language in any form, by
• While every effort has been made to ensure that the
any means, without Nikon’s prior written permission.
information in these manuals is accurate and complete,
• Nikon reserves the right to change the specifications of
we would appreciate it were you to bring any errors or
the hardware and software described in these manuals at
omissions to the attention of the Nikon representative in
any time and without prior notice.
your area (address provided separately).
Notices for Customers in the U.S.A.
The Battery Charger
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS—SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS
DANGER—TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, CAREFULLY
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS
For connection to a supply not in the U.S.A., use an attachment plug adapter of the proper configuration for the power
outlet if needed. This power unit is intended to be correctly oriented in a vertical or floor mount position.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Radio Frequency Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with
the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of
the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference in a
D3200
residential installation. This equipment generates, uses,
and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed CAUTIONS
Modifications
and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause
The FCC requires the user be notified that any changes or
harmful interference to radio communications. However,
modifications made to this device that are not expressly
there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
approved by Nikon Corporation may void the user’s
particular installation. If this equipment does cause
harmful interference to radio or television reception, which authority to operate the equipment.
can be determined by turning the equipment off and on,
Interface Cables
the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by
Use the interface cables sold or provided by Nikon for your
one or more of the following measures:
equipment. Using other interface cables may exceed the
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
limits of Class B Part 15 of the FCC rules.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and
Notice for Customers in the State of California
receiver.
WARNING: Handling the cord on this product may expose you
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit
to lead, a chemical known to the State of California to cause
different from that to which the receiver is connected.
birth defects or other reproductive harm. Wash hands after
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television
handling.
technician for help.
Nikon Inc., 1300 Walt Whitman Road, Melville, New York
11747-3064, U.S.A.
Tel.: 631-547-4200
v
Notice for Customers in Canada
CAN ICES-3 B / NMB-3 B
Notices for Customers in Europe
CAUTION
RISK OF EXPLOSION IF BATTERY IS REPLACED BY AN INCORRECT TYPE. DISPOSE OF USED BATTERIES ACCORDING TO
THE INSTRUCTIONS.
This symbol indicates that electrical and
electronic equipment is to be collected
separately.
The following apply only to users in European
countries:
• This product is designated for separate
collection at an appropriate collection point. Do not
dispose of as household waste.
• Separate collection and recycling helps conserve natural
resources and prevent negative consequences for
human health and the environment that might result
from incorrect disposal.
• For more information, contact the retailer or the local
authorities in charge of waste management.
This symbol on the battery indicates that the
battery is to be collected separately.
The following apply only to users in European
countries:
• All batteries, whether marked with this
symbol or not, are designated for separate
collection at an appropriate collection point. Do not
dispose of as household waste.
• For more information, contact the retailer or the local
authorities in charge of waste management.
Notice Concerning Prohibition of Copying or Reproduction
Note that simply being in possession of material that has been digitally copied or reproduced by means of a scanner,
digital camera, or other device may be punishable by law.
• Items prohibited by law from being copied or reproduced
• Comply with copyright notices
Do not copy or reproduce paper money, coins, securities,
The copying or reproduction of copyrighted creative
government bonds, or local government bonds, even if
works such as books, music, paintings, woodcuts, prints,
such copies or reproductions are stamped “Sample.”
maps, drawings, movies, and photographs is governed
The copying or reproduction of paper money, coins, or
by national and international copyright laws. Do not use
securities which are circulated in a foreign country is
this product for the purpose of making illegal copies or to
prohibited.
infringe copyright laws.
Unless the prior permission of the government has been
obtained, the copying or reproduction of unused
postage stamps or post cards issued by the government
is prohibited.
The copying or reproduction of stamps issued by the
government and of certified documents stipulated by
law is prohibited.
• Cautions on certain copies and reproductions
The government has issued cautions on copies or
reproductions of securities issued by private companies
(shares, bills, checks, gift certificates, etc.), commuter
passes, or coupon tickets, except when a minimum of
necessary copies are to be provided for business use by a
company. Also, do not copy or reproduce passports
issued by the government, licenses issued by public
agencies and private groups, ID cards, and tickets, such as
passes and meal coupons.
Disposing of Data Storage Devices
Please note that deleting images or formatting memory cards or other data storage devices does not completely erase the
original image data. Deleted files can sometimes be recovered from discarded storage devices using commercially
available software, potentially resulting in the malicious use of personal image data. Ensuring the privacy of such data is
the user’s responsibility.
Before discarding a data storage device or transferring ownership to another person, erase all data using commercial
deletion software, or format the device and then completely refill it with images containing no private information (for
example, pictures of empty sky). Be sure to also replace any pictures selected for preset manual. Care should be taken to
avoid injury when physically destroying data storage devices.
vi
AVC Patent Portfolio License
THIS PRODUCT IS LICENSED UNDER THE AVC PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSE FOR THE PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL USE OF A CONSUMER TO
(i) ENCODE VIDEO IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE AVC STANDARD (“AVC VIDEO”) AND/OR (ii) DECODE AVC VIDEO THAT WAS ENCODED BY A
CONSUMER ENGAGED IN A PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY AND/OR WAS OBTAINED FROM A VIDEO PROVIDER LICENSED TO PROVIDE
AVC VIDEO. NO LICENSE IS GRANTED OR SHALL BE IMPLIED FOR ANY OTHER USE. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE OBTAINED FROM MPEG
LA, L.L.C. SEE http://www.mpegla.com
Use Only Nikon Brand Electronic Accessories
Nikon cameras are designed to the highest standards and include complex electronic circuitry. Only Nikon brand
electronic accessories (including chargers, batteries, AC adapters, and flash accessories) certified by Nikon specifically for
use with this Nikon digital camera are engineered and proven to operate within the operational and safety requirements
of this electronic circuitry.
The use of non-Nikon electronic accessories could damage the camera and may void your Nikon
warranty. The use of third-party rechargeable Li-ion batteries not bearing the Nikon holographic seal
shown at right could interfere with normal operation of the camera or result in the batteries overheating,
igniting, rupturing, or leaking.
For more information about Nikon brand accessories, contact a local authorized Nikon dealer.
D
Use Only Nikon Brand Accessories
Only Nikon brand accessories certified by Nikon specifically for use with your Nikon digital
camera are engineered and proven to operate within its operational and safety
requirements. THE USE OF NON-NIKON ACCESSORIES COULD DAMAGE YOUR CAMERA AND MAY VOID YOUR
NIKON WARRANTY.
D
Servicing the Camera and Accessories
The camera is a precision device and requires regular servicing. Nikon recommends that the
camera be inspected by the original retailer or a Nikon-authorized service representative
once every one to two years, and that it be serviced once every three to five years (note that
fees apply to these services). Frequent inspection and servicing are particularly
recommended if the camera is used professionally. Any accessories regularly used with the
camera, such as lenses or optional flash units, should be included when the camera is
inspected or serviced.
A
Before Taking Important Pictures
Before taking pictures on important occasions (such as at weddings or before taking the
camera on a trip), take a test shot to ensure that the camera is functioning normally. Nikon
will not be held liable for damages or lost profits that may result from product malfunction.
A
Life-Long Learning
As part of Nikon’s “Life-Long Learning” commitment to ongoing product support and
education, continually-updated information is available on-line at the following sites:
• For users in the U.S.A.: http://www.nikonusa.com/
• For users in Europe and Africa: http://www.europe-nikon.com/support/
• For users in Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East: http://www.nikon-asia.com/
Visit these sites to keep up-to-date with the latest product information, tips, answers to
frequently-asked questions (FAQs), and general advice on digital imaging and photography.
Additional information may be available from the Nikon representative in your area. See the
following URL for contact information: http://imaging.nikon.com/
vii
X
Introduction
X
Getting to Know the Camera
Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with camera controls and displays. You
may find it helpful to bookmark this section and refer to it as you read through the
rest of the manual.
The Camera Body
10
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
24
25
13
14
15
16
17
26
27
18
19
20
11
22
28
29
21
23
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
1
Mode dial ...................................3
Eyelet for camera strap...........6
R (information) button...... 46
E/N button
Exposure compensation
Adjusting aperture ........... 40
Flash compensation
Shutter-release button ...15, 16
Power switch.............................2
Movie-record button............ 49
AF-assist illuminator
Self-timer lamp...................... 27
Red-eye reduction lamp ..... 36
Infrared receiver (front) ....... 27
Body cap
CPU contacts
12 Built-in flash............................34
13 M/ Y button
Flash mode..........................34
Flash compensation
14 Speaker ....................................51
15 Focal plane mark (E)
16 Eyelet for camera strap .......... 6
17 Microphone ............................53
18 Connector cover
19 Fn button
Using the Fn button
20 Mounting mark ........................ 7
21 Lens release button ..............11
22 Mirror
23 Lens mount
24 Accessory shoe cover
25 Accessory shoe (for optional
flash units)
26 Connector for external
microphone...................51, 64
27 USB and A/V connector
Connecting to a
computer ......................... 60
28 HDMI mini-pin connector
29 Accessory terminal ............... 64
The Camera Body (Continued)
1
11
13
14
15
16
17
12
2
3
4
X
18
19
20
5
6
7
8
9
23
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Viewfinder eyepiece................9
Rubber eyecup
Infrared receiver (rear)..........27
Monitor
Viewing settings ..................5
Live view ..............................41
Viewing photographs.......19
K button
Playback...............................19
G button
Menu.....................................54
X button
Playback zoom in
W/Q button
Thumbnails/playback zoom
out......................................20
Help.......................................54
P (information edit) button
..................................................5
10 Tripod socket
11 Diopter adjustment
control .................................... 9
12 A/L button
Using the A (L) button
Protecting photographs
from deletion
13 Command dial
14 a button
Live view.............................. 41
Movie ................................... 49
15 Multi selector ......................... 56
16 Memory card slot cover ......... 7
17 J (OK) button ....................... 56
18 I/E/# button
Release mode..................... 25
Self-timer/
Remote control............... 27
21
22
24
19 Memory card access lamp
.........................................15, 26
20 Power connector cover for
optional power connector
21 Battery-chamber cover latch
..................................................6
22 Battery-chamber cover ..........6
23 O button
Deleting pictures ...............20
24 Battery latch..........................6, 9
A
The Power Switch
Rotate the power switch as shown to turn
the camera on.
Rotate the power switch as shown to turn
the camera off.
A
The Microphone and Speaker
Do not place the microphone or speaker in close proximity to magnetic devices. Failure to
observe this precaution could affect the data recorded on the magnetic devices.
2
The Mode Dial
The camera offers a choice of the following shooting modes and g mode:
X
g Mode (0 21)
Take and view pictures and adjust settings with the
help of an on-screen guide.
P, S, A, and M Modes (0 38)
Select these modes for full
control over camera settings.
• P—Programmed auto
• S—Shutter-priority auto
• A—Aperture-priority auto
• M—Manual
Auto Modes
Select these modes for simple, point-and-shoot
photography.
• i Auto (0 13)
• j Auto (flash off) (0 13)
Scene Modes
The camera automatically optimizes settings to suit the scene selected with the mode dial.
Match your selection to the scene being photographed.
• k Portrait (0 17)
• m Sports (0 18)
• l Landscape (0 17)
• n Close up (0 18)
• p Child (0 17)
• o Night portrait (0 18)
A
Scene Auto Selector (Live View)
Selecting live view in i or j mode enables automatic scene selection (“scene auto
selector”; 0 46) when autofocus is used.
3
The Viewfinder
X
1
2 3
4
5
10
6
11
7
12
8 9
14
15
13
1 Focus points
2 Focus indicator .......................14
3 Autoexposure (AE) lock
indicator
4 Shutter speed .................. 39, 40
5 Aperture (f-number) ...... 39, 40
6 Battery indicator ....................12
7 Number of exposures
remaining ............................ 12
Number of shots remaining
before memory buffer
fills ......................................... 26
White balance recording
indicator
Exposure compensation value
Flash compensation value
ISO sensitivity......................... 37
8 “K” (appears when memory
remains for over 1000
exposures) ........................... 12
9 Flash-ready indicator ............16
10 Flexible program indicator
11 Exposure indicator.................40
Exposure compensation
display
Electronic rangefinder
12 Flash compensation
indicator
13 Exposure compensation
indicator
14 Auto ISO sensitivity indicator
15 Warning indicator
D
The Viewfinder
The response time and brightness of the viewfinder display may vary with temperature.
4
The Information Display
X
Camera settings can be viewed and adjusted in the information
display. Press the P button once to view settings, and again to
make changes to settings. Highlight items using the multi
selector and press J to view options for the highlighted item.
P button
1
7 8
9
10 11 12 13 14
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
15
2
3
4
5
6
16
17
1 Shooting mode
i auto/
j auto (flash off).............. 13
Scene modes...................... 17
Guide mode ....................... 21
P, S, A, and M modes.......... 38
2 Aperture (f-number) ......39, 40
3 Shutter speed ..................39, 40
4 Shutter-speed display
5 Aperture display
6 Auto-area AF indicator ........ 31
3D-tracking indicator........... 31
Focus point
7 Eye-Fi connection indicator
8 Manual flash indicator
Flash compensation indicator
for optional flash units
9 Print date indicator
5
18 19
20
Auto ISO sensitivity indicator
Active D-Lighting
Picture Control
“Beep” indicator
Battery indicator....................12
GPS connection indicator
Help icon
Exposure indicator ................40
Exposure compensation
indicator
18 Number of exposures
remaining ............................12
White balance recording
indicator
19 “K” (appears when memory
remains for over 1000
exposures)............................12
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
21
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
22
Flash mode ............................. 35
Flash compensation
Exposure compensation
Image quality......................... 32
Image size ............................... 33
White balance
ISO sensitivity......................... 37
Release mode......................... 25
Focus mode ......................29, 42
AF-area mode ..................31, 43
Metering
First Steps
Always turn the camera off before inserting or removing batteries or memory cards.
1
Attach the strap.
Attach the strap securely to the two eyelets on the camera body as shown
below.
2
X
Charge the battery.
If a plug adapter is supplied, raise the wall plug and connect the plug adapter
as shown below at left, making sure the plug is fully inserted. Insert the battery
and plug the charger in. An exhausted battery will fully charge in about an hour
and thirty minutes.
Battery Charging
charging complete
3
Insert the battery.
Insert the battery in the orientation shown (e), using the battery to keep the
orange battery latch pressed to one side. The latch locks the battery in place
when the battery is fully inserted (r).
6
4
Insert a memory card (available separately).
Check to be sure the card is in the correct orientation and then slide the card
until it clicks into place.
4GB
X
5
Attach a lens.
Be careful to prevent dust from entering the camera when the lens or body cap
is removed.
Keeping marks aligned, position lens
on camera, then rotate until lens
clicks into place.
Autofocus is available with AF-S lenses. When using
autofocus with a lens equipped with an A-M mode switch,
slide the switch to A (if the lens has an M/A-M switch, select
M/A for autofocus with manual override). For information
on other lenses that can be used with the D3200, see page 62.
If the lens has a vibration reduction (VR) switch, select ON
to reduce the effects of vibration.
6
Turn the camera on.
A language-selection dialog will be displayed.
7
7
Choose a language and set the camera clock.
Use the multi selector and J button to select a language and set the camera
clock.
Move cursor up
J button: select highlighted item
X
Select highlighted item or display
sub-menu
Move cursor down
q
w
Select language
r
e
Select time zone
t
Select daylight saving
time option
Set time and date
Select date format
Note: The language and
date/time can be changed
at any time using the
Language and Time
zone and date options in
the setup menu (0 55).
A
Lenses with Retractable Lens Barrel Buttons
Before using the camera, unlock and extend the
zoom ring. Keeping the retractable lens barrel
button pressed (q), rotate the zoom ring as
shown (w).
Retractable lens barrel
button
Pictures can not be taken when the lens is
retracted; if an error message is displayed as a
result of the camera having been turned on
with the lens retracted, rotate the zoom ring
until the message is no longer displayed.
8
8
Focus the viewfinder.
After removing the lens cap, rotate the diopter
adjustment control until the viewfinder display
and focus point are in sharp focus. When
operating the control with your eye to the
viewfinder, be careful not to put your fingers or
fingernails in your eye.
X
Focus point
D
During Charging
Do not move the charger or touch the battery during charging. Failure to observe this
precaution could in very rare instances result in the charger showing that charging is
complete when the battery is only partially charged. Remove and reinsert the battery to
begin charging again.
D
Charging the Battery
Read and follow the warnings and cautions on pages iv–v and 66–68 of this manual. Charge the
battery indoors at ambient temperatures of 5–35 °C (41–95 °F). Do not use the battery at
ambient temperatures below 0 °C/32 °F or above 40 °C/104 °F; failure to observe this
precaution could damage the battery or impair its performance. Capacity may be reduced
and charging times may increase at battery temperatures from 0 °C/32 °F to 15 °C/59 °F and
from 45 °C/113 °F to 60 °C/140 °F. The battery will not charge if its temperature is below 0 °C
(32 °F) or above 60 °C (140 °F). If the CHARGE lamp flashes quickly (about eight times a second)
during charging, confirm that the temperature is in the correct range and then unplug the
charger and remove and reinsert the battery. If the problem persists, cease use immediately
and take battery and charger to your retailer or a Nikon-authorized service representative.
Do not attempt to charge a fully-charged battery. Failure to observe this precaution will
result in reduced battery performance.
Use the charger with compatible batteries only. Unplug when not in use.
A
Removing the Battery
Turn the camera off and open the battery-chamber cover. Press the
battery latch in the direction shown by the arrow to release the
battery and then remove the battery by hand.
9
D
Formatting Memory Cards
If this is the first time the memory card will be used in the camera or if
the card has been formatted in another device, select Format
memory card in the setup menu and follow the on-screen instructions
to format the card (0 55). Note that this permanently deletes any data
the card may contain. Be sure to copy any photographs and other data
you wish to keep to a computer before proceeding.
X
D
Memory Cards
• Memory cards may be hot after use. Observe due caution when removing memory cards
from the camera.
• Turn the power off before inserting or removing memory cards. Do not remove memory
cards from the camera, turn the camera off, or remove or disconnect the power source
during formatting or while data are being recorded, deleted, or copied to a computer.
Failure to observe these precautions could result in loss of data or in damage to the
camera or card.
• Do not touch the card terminals with your fingers or metal objects.
• Do not bend, drop, or subject to strong physical shocks.
• Do not apply force to the card casing. Failure to observe this precaution could damage
the card.
• Do not expose to water, heat, high levels of humidity, or direct sunlight.
• Do not format memory cards in a computer.
A
4GB
Removing Memory Cards
After confirming that the memory card access lamp is off, turn the
camera off, open the memory card slot cover, and press the card in to
eject it (q). The card can then be removed by hand (w).
The Write Protect Switch
SD memory cards are equipped with a write protect switch to
prevent accidental loss of data. When this switch is in the
“lock” position, the memory card can not be formatted and
photos can not be deleted or recorded (a beep will sound if
you attempt to release the shutter). To unlock the memory
card, slide the switch to the “write” position.
4GB
A
Write-protect switch
A
CPU Lenses with Aperture Rings
In the case of CPU lenses equipped with an aperture ring (0 62), lock aperture at the
minimum setting (highest f-number).
10
A
Detaching the Lens
Be sure the camera is off when removing or exchanging lenses. To
remove the lens, press and hold the lens release button (q) while
turning the lens clockwise (w). After removing the lens, replace the
lens caps and camera body cap.
X
A
Retracting Lenses with Retractable Lens Barrel Buttons
To retract the lens when the camera is not in use, hold the retractable
lens barrel button (q) and rotate the zoom ring to the “L” (lock)
position as shown (w). Retract the lens before removing it from the
camera, and be careful not to press the retractable lens barrel button
when attaching or removing the lens.
A
The Camera Clock
The camera clock is less accurate than most watches and household clocks. Check the clock
regularly against more accurate time pieces and reset as necessary.
A
Adjusting Viewfinder Focus
If you are unable to focus the viewfinder as described above, select single-servo autofocus
(AF-S; 0 29), single-point AF (c; 0 31), and the center focus point, and then frame a highcontrast subject in the center focus point and press the shutter-release button halfway to
focus the camera. With the camera in focus, use the diopter adjustment control to bring the
subject into clear focus in the viewfinder. If necessary, viewfinder focus can be further
adjusted using optional corrective lenses.
A
The Setup Menu
Language and date/time settings can be changed at any time using the Language and Time
zone and date options in the setup menu.
11
sBasic Photography
Battery Level and Card Capacity
Before shooting, check the battery level and number of exposures remaining.
s
1
Turn the camera on.
2
Check the battery level.
Check the battery level in the information
display (if the battery is low, a warning will also
be displayed in the viewfinder). If the monitor is
off, press the P button to view the information
display; if the monitor does not turn on, the
battery is exhausted and must be recharged.
Information display
L
K
H
H
(flashes)
3
Viewfinder
Description
—
Battery fully charged.
—
Battery partially discharged.
Low battery. Ready fully-charged spare battery or
d
prepare to charge battery.
Battery exhausted; shutter release disabled. Charge or
d
(flashes) exchange battery.
Check the number of exposures remaining.
The information display and viewfinder show the
number of photographs that can be taken at
current settings (values over 1,000 are rounded
down to the nearest hundred; e.g., values
between 1,200 and 1,299 are shown as 1.2 K). If a
warning is displayed stating that there is not
enough memory for additional photographs,
insert another memory card (0 7) or delete
some photos (0 20).
12
“Point-and-Shoot” Photography
(i and j Modes)
This section describes how to take photographs in i and j modes,
automatic “point-and-shoot” modes in which the majority of settings
are controlled by the camera in response to shooting conditions.
s
1
Turn the camera on.
Remove the lens cap and turn the camera on. The information display will
appear in the monitor.
2
Select i or j Mode.
Mode dial
To shoot where use of a flash is prohibited,
photograph infants, or capture natural lighting
under low light, select auto (flash off ) mode by
rotating the mode dial to j. Otherwise, rotate
the dial to i (auto).
3
Ready the camera.
When framing photographs in the
viewfinder, hold the handgrip in your
right hand and cradle the camera
body or lens with your left. Keep your
elbows propped lightly against your
torso for support and place one foot
half a pace ahead of the other to keep your upper body
stable. When framing photographs in portrait (tall)
orientation, hold the camera as shown at right.
In j mode, shutter speeds slow when lighting is poor;
use of a tripod is recommended.
4
Frame the photograph.
Frame a photograph in the viewfinder with the
main subject in at least one of the 11 focus
points.
Focus point
13
5
Press the shutter-release button halfway.
Press the shutter-release button halfway to focus.
The camera will select the focus points
automatically. If the subject is poorly lit, the flash
may pop up and the AF-assist illuminator may light.
6
Check the indicators in the viewfinder.
s
When the focus operation is complete, the
selected focus points will be briefly highlighted,
a beep will sound (a beep may not sound if the
subject is moving), and the in-focus indicator (I)
will appear in the viewfinder.
In-focus indicator
Description
I
Subject in focus.
Camera unable to focus using
I (flashes)
autofocus. See page 30.
In-focus
indicator
Buffer
capacity
While the shutter-release button is pressed halfway, the number of exposures that
can be stored in the memory buffer (“t”; 0 26) will be displayed in the viewfinder.
A
Using a Zoom Lens
Use the zoom ring to zoom in on the subject so that it fills a
larger area of the frame, or zoom out to increase the area
visible in the final photograph (select longer focal lengths on
the lens focal length scale to zoom in, shorter focal lengths to
zoom out).
Zoom in
Zoom ring
Zoom out
If the lens is equipped with a retractable lens barrel button
(0 8), press and hold the button while rotating the zoom
ring until the lens is released and the message shown at right
is no longer displayed, and then adjust zoom using the zoom
ring.
14
7
Shoot.
Smoothly press the shutter-release button the
rest of the way down to release the shutter and
record the photograph. The memory card access
lamp will light and the photograph will be
displayed in the monitor for a few seconds (the
photo will automatically clear from the display
when the shutter-release button is pressed
halfway). Do not eject the memory card or remove
or disconnect the power source until the lamp has
gone out and recording is complete.
s
A
Memory card access
lamp
Image Sensor Cleaning
The camera vibrates the low-pass filter covering the image sensor to remove dust when the
camera is turned on or off.
15
A
The Shutter-Release Button
The camera has a two-stage shutter-release button. The camera focuses when the shutterrelease button is pressed halfway. To take the photograph, press the shutter-release button
the rest of the way down.
Focus: press halfway
Shoot: press all the way down
s
A
The Standby Timer
The viewfinder and information display will turn off if no operations are performed for about
8 seconds, reducing the drain on the battery. Press the shutter-release button halfway to
reactivate the display. The length of time before the standby timer expires automatically can
be selected using the Auto off timers option in the setup menu (0 55).
Exposure meters on
Exposure meters off
Exposure meters on
A
The Built-in Flash
If additional lighting is required for correct exposure in i mode, the
built-in flash will pop up automatically when the shutter-release
button is pressed halfway. If the flash is raised, photographs can only
be taken when the flash-ready indicator (M) is displayed. If the flashready indicator is not displayed, the flash is charging; remove your
finger briefly from the shutter-release button and try again.
To save battery power when the flash is not in use, return it to its
closed position by pressing it gently downward till the latch clicks
into place.
16
Creative Photography (Scene Modes)
The camera offers a choice of “scene” modes. Choosing a scene
mode automatically optimizes settings to suit the selected scene,
making creative photography as simple as selecting a mode, framing
a picture, and shooting as described on pages 13–16.
The following scenes can be selected with the mode
dial:
Mode dial
s
k Portrait
Use for portraits with soft, natural-looking
skin tones. If the subject is far from the
background or a telephoto lens is used,
background details will be softened to lend
the composition a sense of depth.
l Landscape
Use for vivid landscape shots in daylight.
The built-in flash and AF-assist illuminator
turn off; use of a tripod is recommended to
prevent blur when lighting is poor.
p Child
Use for snapshots of children. Clothing and
background details are vividly rendered,
while skin tones remain soft and natural.
17
m Sports
Fast shutter speeds freeze motion for
dynamic sports shots in which the main
subject stands out clearly. The built-in flash
and AF-assist illuminator turn off.
s
n Close up
Use for close-up shots of flowers, insects,
and other small objects (a macro lens can
be used to focus at very close ranges). Use
of a tripod is recommended to prevent blur.
o Night Portrait
Use for a natural balance between the main
subject and the background in portraits
taken under low light. Use of a tripod is
recommended to prevent blur.
18
I
Playback and Deletion
Photographs are automatically displayed for a few seconds after shooting. If no
photograph is displayed in the monitor, the most recent picture can be viewed by
pressing the K button.
Viewing Photographs
I
1
Press the K button.
A photograph will be displayed in the
monitor.
K button
2
View additional pictures.
Additional pictures can be displayed by
pressing 4 or 2 or rotating the command
dial.
Display pictures
To display images in “contact sheets” of four, nine, or 72 images (thumbnail playback),
press the W (Q) button. To view images taken on a selected date (calendar
playback), press the W (Q) button when 72 images are displayed.
W (Q)
W (Q)
X
Full-frame
playback
19
X
Thumbnail playback
Calendar
playback
❚❚ Thumbnail Playback
Use the multi selector or command dial to
highlight images and press J to display the
highlighted image full frame. Press X to reduce
the number of images displayed.
W (Q) button
❚❚ Calendar Playback
Press the W (Q) button to toggle between the
date list and the list of thumbnails for the selected
date. Use the multi selector to highlight dates in
the date list or to highlight pictures in the
thumbnail list. Press X when the cursor is in the
date list to return to 72-frame playback.
Thumbnail list
I
Date list
Deleting Pictures
To delete the photograph currently displayed in
full-frame playback or highlighted in thumbnail
playback or the thumbnail list, press the O button.
A confirmation dialog will be displayed; press the
O button again to delete the image and return to
playback (to exit without deleting the picture,
press K). Once deleted, photographs can not be
recovered.
Full-frame playback
Thumbnail playback
O button
Calendar playback
(thumbnail list)
20
!
Guide Mode
Guide mode gives access to a variety of frequently-used and useful
functions. The top level of the guide is displayed when the mode dial
is rotated to g.
Battery indicator (0 12)
!
Number of exposures remaining (0 12)
Shooting mode: A guide mode indicator appears on the
shooting mode icon.
Choose from the following items:
Shoot
Take pictures.
21
View/delete
Set up
View and/or delete pictures. Change camera settings.
Guide Mode Menus
To access these menus, highlight Shoot, View/delete, or Set up and press J.
❚❚ Shoot
Easy operation
4 Auto
5 No flash
9 Distant subjects
! Close-ups
8 Sleeping faces
9 Moving subjects
7 Landscapes
6 Portraits
" Night portrait
Advanced operation
Soften backgrounds
#
Bring more into focus
Adjust aperture.
Freeze motion (people)
$ Freeze motion (vehicles) Select a shutter speed.
!
Show water flowing
Capture reds in sunsets *
Take bright photos *
% Take dark (low key)
photos *
Reduce blur
Adjust white balance to vividly
capture the colors in sunsets.
Adjust exposure compensation to
take bright (high key) or dark (low key)
photos.
Adjust auto ISO sensitivity control for
poorly lit subjects or telephoto lenses.
* Affects other Advanced operation items. To restore default settings, turn the camera off
and then on again.
“Start Shooting”
Highlight an option and press J.
• Use the viewfinder
• Use live view
• Shoot movies
“More Settings”
If More settings is displayed, you can highlight this option and
press 2 to access the following settings (the settings available
vary with the shooting option selected):
• Flash settings > Flash mode • ISO sensitivity settings >
Auto ISO sensitivity control
• Flash settings > Flash
• Set Picture Control
compensation
• Exposure compensation
• Release mode
• White balance
• ISO sensitivity settings >
ISO sensitivity
22
❚❚ View/Delete
View single photos
View a slide show
View multiple photos
Delete photos
Choose a date
❚❚ Set Up
!
Image quality
Image size
Auto off timers
Print date
Display and sound settings
Monitor brightness
Info background color
Auto info display
Beep
Movie settings
Frame size/frame rate
Movie quality
Microphone
Flicker reduction
Output settings
HDMI
Video mode
Playback folder
Playback display options
DPOF print order
Clock and language
Time zone and date
Language
Format memory card
Eye-Fi upload *
Slot empty release lock
* Only available when compatible Eye-Fi memory card is inserted.
Changes to Image quality, Image size, Auto off timers, Print date, Playback
folder, Playback display options, all Display and sound settings options, and all
Movie settings options except Flicker reduction apply in guide mode only and are
not reflected in other shooting modes.
A
Guide Mode
Guide mode is reset to Easy operation > Auto when the mode dial is rotated to another
setting or the camera is turned off.
23
Using the Guide
The following operations can be performed while the guide is displayed:
To
Use
Return to top
level of guide
Turn monitor
on
Description
Press G to turn the monitor on or return to the top level of
the guide.
G button
Highlight a
menu
Press 4 or 2 to highlight a menu.
Press 1 or 3 to highlight options in the menus.
Highlight
options
!
Press 1, 3, 4, or 2 to highlight
options in displays like that shown
at right.
Select
highlighted
menu or option
Press J to select the highlighted menu or option.
Press 4 to return to the previous display.
Return to
previous
display
To cancel and return to the previous
display from displays like that
shown at right, highlight & and
press J.
View help
W (Q) button
If a d icon is displayed at the
bottom left corner of the monitor,
help can be displayed by pressing
the W (Q) button. A description of
the currently selected option will be d (help) icon
displayed while the button is
pressed. Press 1 or 3 to scroll
through the display.
24
z
More on Photography
Release Mode
Choose from the following release modes:
Mode
Description
8
I
Single frame: Camera takes one photograph each time shutter-release button is pressed.
E
"
z
#
J
1
Continuous: While shutter-release button is held down, camera records up to 4 frames
per second.
Self-timer: Use self-timer for self-portraits or to reduce blurring caused by camera shake
(0 27).
Delayed remote: Shutter is released 2 s after shutter-release button on optional ML-L3
(0 64) remote control is pressed (0 27).
Quick-response remote: Shutter is released when shutter-release button on optional ML-L3
(0 64) remote control is pressed (0 27).
Quiet shutter release: As for single frame, except that mirror does not click back into place
while shutter-release button is fully pressed, allowing user to control timing of click
made by mirror, which is also quieter than in single frame mode. Also, beep does not
sound when camera focuses, keeping noise to a minimum in quiet surroundings.
Press I (E/#).
A list of release mode options will be
displayed.
I (E/#) button
2
Choose a release mode.
Highlight a release mode and press J to return
to the information display. Photographs can be
taken immediately.
25
A
The Memory Buffer
The camera is equipped with a memory buffer for temporary storage, allowing shooting to
continue while photographs are being saved to the memory card. Up to 100 photographs
can be taken in succession; note, however, that frame rate will drop when the buffer is full.
While photographs are being recorded to the memory card, the memory card access lamp
will light (0 2). Depending on the number of the images in the buffer, recording may take
from a few seconds to a few minutes. Do not remove the memory card or remove or disconnect
the power source until the access lamp has gone out (0 2). If the camera is switched off while
data remain in the buffer, the power will not turn off until all images in the buffer have been
recorded. If the battery is exhausted while images remain in the buffer, the shutter release
will be disabled and the images transferred to the memory card.
A
Continuous Release Mode
Continuous release mode (I) can not be used with the built-in flash; rotate the mode dial to
j (0 13) or turn the flash off (0 34–36).
A
Buffer Size
The approximate number of images that can be stored in the
memory buffer at current settings is shown in the viewfinder
exposure-count display while the shutter-release button is pressed. The illustration shows
the display when space remains in the buffer for about 19 pictures.
z
A
The Information Display
The release mode can also be selected using the Release mode
option in the information display (0 5).
26
Self-Timer and Remote Control Modes
The self-timer and optional ML-L3 remote control (0 73) allow the photographer to
be at a distance from the camera when a photo is taken.
1
Mount the camera on a tripod.
Mount the camera on a tripod or place the camera on a stable, level surface.
2
Select a release mode.
Select E (self-timer), " (delayed remote),
or # (quick-response remote) mode (0 25;
note that if no operations are performed for
about a minute after a remote control mode
is selected, the camera will automatically
I (E/#) button
return to single frame, continuous, or quiet
shutter-release mode).
z
3
Frame the photograph.
Remote control mode: Check focus by pressing the shutter-release button halfway.
No photograph will be taken even if the button is pressed all the way down.
4
Take the photograph.
Self-timer mode: Press the shutter-release button
halfway to focus, and then press the button the
rest of the way down. The self-timer lamp will
start to flash and a beep will begin to sound. Two
seconds before the photo is taken, the lamp will
stop flashing and the beeping will become more rapid. The shutter will be
released ten seconds after the timer starts.
Remote control mode: From a distance of 5 m (16 ft) or less,
aim the transmitter on the ML-L3 at either of the infrared
receivers on the camera (0 1, 2) and press the ML-L3
shutter-release button. In delayed remote mode, the selftimer lamp will light for about two seconds before the
shutter is released. In quick-response remote mode, the selftimer lamp will flash after the shutter has been released.
Note that the timer may not start or a photograph may not be taken if the camera is
unable to focus or in other situations in which the shutter can not be released.
Turning the camera off cancels self-timer and remote control release modes and
restores single frame, continuous, or quiet shutter-release mode.
27
D
Before Using the Remote Control
Before using the remote control for the first time, remove the clear plastic battery-insulator
sheet.
A
Cover the Viewfinder
When taking photos without your eye to the
viewfinder, remove the DK-20 rubber eyecup
(q) and insert the supplied DK-5 eyepiece cap
as shown (w). This prevents light entering via
the viewfinder interfering with exposure. Hold
the camera firmly when removing the rubber
eyecup.
DK-20 rubber eyecup
q
DK-5 eyepiece cap
w
D
Using the Built-in Flash
Before taking a photograph with the flash in P, S, A, or M modes, press the M (Y) button to
raise the flash and wait for the M indicator to be displayed in the viewfinder (0 4). Shooting
will be interrupted if the flash is raised while a remote control mode is in effect or after the
self-timer has started. If the flash is required, the camera will only respond to the ML-L3
shutter-release button once the flash has charged. In auto or scene modes in which the flash
pops up automatically, the flash will begin charging when a remote control mode is
selected; once the flash is charged, it will automatically pop up and fire when required.
z
In flash modes that support red-eye reduction, the red-eye reduction lamp will light for
about one second before the shutter is released in quick-response remote mode. In delayed
remote mode, the self-timer lamp will light for two seconds, followed by the red-eye
reduction lamp which lights for one second before the shutter is released.
A
See Also
For information on choosing the duration of the self-timer and the number of shots taken,
see the Self-timer option in the setup menu (0 55). For information on choosing how long
the camera will wait for a signal from the remote, see the Remote on duration option in the
setup menu (0 55). For information on controlling the beeps that sound when the selftimer and remote control are used, see the Beep option in the setup menu (0 55).
28
Focus
This section describes the focus options available when photographs are framed in
the viewfinder. Focus can be adjusted automatically or manually (see “Focus Mode,”
below), and the focus point for automatic or manual focus can be selected using the
multi selector.
Focus Mode
Choose from the following focus modes. Note that AF-S and AF-C are available only in
modes P, S, A, and M.
Option
MF
Description
Camera automatically selects single-servo autofocus if subject is
Auto-servo
stationary, continuous-servo autofocus if subject is moving. Shutter can
AF
only be released if camera is able to focus.
Single-servo For stationary subjects. Focus locks when shutter-release button is
AF
pressed halfway. Shutter can only be released if camera is able to focus.
For moving subjects. Camera focuses continuously while shutterContinuousrelease button is pressed halfway. Shutter can only be released if
servo AF
camera is able to focus.
Manual focus Focus using the lens focus ring.
1
Place the cursor in the information display.
AF-A
AF-S
z
AF-C
If shooting information is not displayed in
the monitor, press the P button. Press the
P button again to place the cursor in the
information display.
P button
2
Display focus-mode options.
Highlight the current focus mode in the
information display and press J.
3
Choose a focus mode.
Highlight a focus mode and press J. To return to
shooting mode, press the shutter-release button
halfway.
29
Information display
A
Predictive Focus Tracking
In AF-C mode or when continuous-servo autofocus is selected in AF-A mode, the camera will
initiate predictive focus tracking if the subject moves toward the camera while the shutterrelease button is pressed halfway. This allows the camera to track focus while attempting to
predict where the subject will be when the shutter is released.
D
Continuous-servo Autofocus
In AF-C mode or when continuous-servo autofocus is selected in AF-A mode, the camera gives
higher priority to focus response (has a wider focus range) than in AF-S mode, and the shutter
may be released before the in-focus indicator is displayed.
A
Getting Good Results with Autofocus
Autofocus does not perform well under the conditions listed below. The shutter release may
be disabled if the camera is unable to focus under these conditions, or the in-focus indicator
(I) may be displayed and the camera may sound a beep, allowing the shutter to be released
even when the subject is not in focus. In these cases, focus manually or use focus lock to
focus on another subject at the same distance and then recompose the photograph.
There is little or no contrast
between the subject and the
background.
The focus point contains
areas of sharply contrasting
brightness.
Example: Subject is the same
color as the background.
The focus point contains
objects at different distances
from the camera.
Example: Subject is half in
the shade.
Example: Subject is inside a
cage.
The subject is dominated by
regular geometric patterns.
Example: Blinds or a row of
windows in a skyscraper.
z
Background objects appear
larger than the subject.
Example: A building is in the
frame behind the subject.
The subject contains many
fine details.
Example: A field of flowers or
other subjects that are
small or lack variation in
brightness.
30
AF-Area Mode
Choose how the focus point for autofocus is selected. Note that d (Dynamic-area
AF) and f (3D-tracking (11 points)) are not available when AF-S is selected for
focus mode.
Option
z
Description
User selects focus point using multi selector; camera focuses on
c Single-point AF
subject in selected focus point only. Use with stationary subjects.
In AF-A and AF-C focus modes (0 29), user selects focus point using multi
selector, but camera will focus based on information from
d Dynamic-area AF
surrounding focus points if subject briefly leaves selected point. Use
with erratically moving subjects.
In AF-A and AF-C focus modes (0 29), user selects focus point using multi
selector. If subject moves after camera has focused, camera uses 3Dtracking to select new focus point and keep focus locked on original
3D-tracking
f
(11 points)
subject while shutter-release button is pressed halfway. If subject
leaves viewfinder, remove your finger from shutter-release button
and recompose photograph with subject in selected focus point.
e Auto-area AF
Camera automatically detects subject and selects focus point.
1
Place the cursor in the information display.
If shooting information is not displayed in
the monitor, press the P button. Press the
P button again to place the cursor in the
information display.
P button
2
Display AF-area mode options.
Highlight the current AF-area mode in the
information display and press J.
3
Choose an AF-area mode.
Highlight one of the following options and press
J. To return to shooting mode, press the shutterrelease button halfway.
31
Information display
Image Quality and Size
Together, image quality and size determine how much space each photograph
occupies on the memory card. Larger, higher quality images can be printed at larger
sizes but also require more memory, meaning that fewer such images can be stored
on the memory card.
Image Quality
Choose a file format and compression ratio (image quality).
Option File type
Description
NEF (RAW) + NEF/ Two images are recorded: one NEF (RAW) image and one fine-quality JPEG
JPEG fine
JPEG image.
Raw 12-bit data from the image sensor are saved directly to the memory
NEF (RAW)
NEF card. Settings such as white balance and contrast can be adjusted after
shooting.
JPEG fine
Record JPEG images at a compression ratio of roughly 1 : 4 (fine quality).
JPEG normal JPEG Record JPEG images at a compression ratio of roughly 1 : 8 (normal quality).
JPEG basic
Record JPEG images at a compression ratio of roughly 1 : 16 (basic quality).
1
z
Place the cursor in the information display.
If shooting information is not displayed in
the monitor, press the P button. Press the
P button again to place the cursor in the
information display.
P button
2
Information display
Display image quality options.
Highlight the current image quality in the
information display and press J.
3
Choose a file type.
Highlight an option and press J. To return to
shooting mode, press the shutter-release button
halfway.
32
Image Size
Image size is measured in pixels. Choose from the following options:
Size (pixels)
Print size (cm/in.) *
# Large
6,016 × 4,000
50.9 × 33.9/20.1 × 13.3
$ Medium
4,512 × 3,000
38.2 × 25.4/15 × 10
% Small
3,008 × 2,000
25.5 × 16.9/10 × 6.7
* Approximate size when printed at 300 dpi. Print size in inches equals image size in pixels
divided by printer resolution in dots per inch (dpi; 1 inch=approximately 2.54 cm).
Image size
1
Place the cursor in the information display.
If shooting information is not displayed in
the monitor, press the P button. Press the
P button again to place the cursor in the
information display.
P button
z
2
Information display
Display image size options.
Highlight the current image size in the
information display and press J.
3
Choose an image size.
Highlight an option and press J. To return to
shooting mode, press the shutter-release button
halfway.
A
File Names
Photographs are stored as image files with names of the form “DSC_nnnn.xxx,” where nnnn
is a four-digit number between 0001 and 9999 assigned automatically in ascending order by
the camera, and xxx is one of the following three letter extensions: “NEF” for NEF images,
“JPG” for JPEG images, or “MOV” for movies. The NEF and JPEG files recorded at a setting of
NEF (RAW) + JPEG fine have the same file names but different extensions.
33
Using the Built-in Flash
The camera supports a variety of flash modes for photographing poorly lit or backlit
subjects.
❚❚ Using the Built-in Flash: i, k, p, n, and o Modes
1
Choose a flash mode (0 35).
2
Take pictures.
The flash will pop up as required when the
shutter-release button is pressed halfway, and
fire when a photograph is taken. If the flash does
not pop up automatically, DO NOT attempt to raise it
by hand. Failure to observe this precaution could
damage the flash.
❚❚ Using the Built-in Flash: P, S, A, and M Modes
1
z
Raise the flash.
Press the M (Y) button to raise the flash.
2
Choose a flash mode (0 35).
3
Take pictures.
The flash will fire whenever a picture is taken.
M (Y) button
A
Lowering the Built-in Flash
To save power when the flash is not in use, press it gently
downward until the latch clicks into place.
34
Flash Mode
The flash modes available vary with shooting mode:
No
NYo
j
i, k, p, n
Auto
Auto+red-eye reduction
Flash off
NYr
Nr
j
o
Auto slow sync+red-eye
Auto slow sync
Flash off
P, A
S, M
N
Fill flash
N
Fill flash
NY
Red-eye reduction
NY
Red-eye reduction
NYp Slow sync+red-eye
Nq
Rear-curtain sync
Np
Slow sync
Nq *
Rear-curtain+slow sync
* p appears in information display when setting is complete.
z
1
Place the cursor in the information display.
If shooting information is not displayed in
the monitor, press the P button. Press the
P button again to place the cursor in the
information display.
P button
2
Display flash mode options.
Highlight the current flash mode in the
information display and press J.
3
Choose a flash mode.
Highlight a mode and press J. To return to
shooting mode, press the shutter-release button
halfway.
35
Information display
A
Flash Modes
The flash modes listed on the previous page may combine one or more of the following
settings, as shown by the flash mode icon:
• AUTO (auto flash): When lighting is poor or subject is back lit, flash pops up automatically
when shutter-release button is pressed halfway and fires as required.
• Y (red-eye reduction): Use for portraits. Red-eye reduction lamp lights before flash fires,
reducing “red-eye.”
• j (off): Flash does not fire even when lighting is poor or subject is back-lit.
• SLOW (slow sync): Shutter speed slows automatically to capture background lighting at night
or under low light. Use to include background lighting in portraits.
• REAR (rear-curtain sync): Flash fires just before shutter closes, creating a stream of light behind
moving light sources (below at right). If this icon is not displayed, flash will fire as the
shutter opens (front-curtain sync; the effect this produces with moving light sources is
shown below at left).
z
Front-curtain sync
Rear-curtain sync
A
Choosing a Flash Mode
The flash mode can also be
selected by pressing the M (Y)
button and rotating the
command dial (in P, S, A, and M
modes, raise the flash before
using the M (Y) button to
choose the flash mode).
+
M (Y) button
Command dial
Information display
A
The Built-in Flash
For information on the lenses that can be used with the built-in flash, see the Reference
Manual. Remove lens hoods to prevent shadows. The flash has a minimum range of 0.6 m
(2 ft) and can not be used in the macro range of zoom lenses with a macro function.
The shutter release may be briefly disabled to protect the flash after it has been used for
several consecutive shots. The flash can be used again after a short pause.
A
Shutter Speeds Available with the Built-in Flash
Shutter speed is restricted to the following ranges when the built-in flash is used:
Mode
Shutter speed
Mode
Shutter speed
1/200–1/60 s
1/200–30 s
i, p, n, P, A
S
1
1
1
/200– /30 s
M
/200–30 s, Bulb
k
1/200–1 s
o
Shutter speeds as slow as 30 s are available in slow sync, rear-curtain + slow sync, and slow
sync + red-eye reduction modes.
36
ISO Sensitivity
“ISO sensitivity” is the digital equivalent of film speed. The higher the ISO sensitivity,
the less light needed to make an exposure, allowing higher shutter speeds or smaller
apertures, but the more likely the image is to be affected by noise (randomly-spaced
bright pixels, fog, or lines; noise is particularly likely at a setting of Hi 1, which is
equivalent to ISO 12800). Choosing Auto allows the camera to set ISO sensitivity
automatically in response to lighting conditions.
Mode
i, j
P, S, A, M
Other shooting modes
1
ISO sensitivity
Auto
100–6400 in steps of 1 EV; Hi 1
Auto; 100–6400 in steps of 1 EV; Hi 1
Place the cursor in the information display.
If shooting information is not displayed in
the monitor, press the P button. Press the
P button again to place the cursor in the
information display.
z
P button
2
Display ISO sensitivity options.
Highlight the current ISO sensitivity in the
information display and press J.
3
Choose an ISO sensitivity.
Highlight an option and press J. To return to
shooting mode, press the shutter-release button
halfway.
37
Information display
tP, S, A, and M Modes
P, S, A, and M modes offer different degrees of control over shutter
speed and aperture. See the Reference Manual for more information
on each mode.
Mode P (Programmed Auto)
In this mode, the camera automatically adjusts shutter speed and
aperture for optimal exposure in most situations. This mode is
recommended for snapshots and other situations in which you want
to leave the camera in charge of shutter speed and aperture.
User can rotate command dial to choose from different combinations
Command dial
of shutter speed and aperture that will produce optimal exposure.
t
A
Shutter Speed and Aperture
The same exposure can be achieved with different combinations of shutter speed and
aperture. Fast shutter speeds and large apertures freeze moving objects and soften
background details, while slow shutter speeds and small apertures blur moving objects and
bring out background details.
Shutter speed
Fast shutter speed
(1/1,600 s)
Slow shutter speed
(1 s)
Aperture
Large aperture (f/5.6) Small aperture (f/22)
(Remember, the higher the f-number, the
smaller the aperture.)
38
Mode S (Shutter-Priority Auto)
In shutter-priority auto, you choose the shutter speed while the camera
automatically selects the aperture that will produce the optimal exposure. Use slow
shutter speeds to suggest motion by blurring moving subjects, fast shutter speeds to
“freeze” motion.
To choose a shutter speed, rotate the command
dial.
Command dial
Mode A (Aperture-Priority Auto)
t
x
y
U
Q
n
39
In aperture-priority auto, you choose the aperture while the camera automatically
selects the shutter speed that will produce the optimal exposure. Large apertures
(low f-numbers) reduce depth of field, blurring objects behind and in front of the
main subject. Small apertures (high f-numbers) increase depth of field, bringing out
details in the background and foreground. Short field depths are generally used in
portraits to blur background details, long field depths in landscape photographs to
bring the foreground and background into focus.
To choose an aperture, rotate the command dial
(the maximum and minimum values for aperture
vary with the lens used).
Command dial
Mode M (Manual)
In manual exposure mode, you control both shutter speed and aperture. Shutter
speeds of “Bulb” and “Time” are available for long time-exposures of fireworks or the
night sky.
Shutter speed is set by rotating the command dial, E (N) button
aperture by pressing E (N) and rotating the
command dial (the maximum and minimum
values for aperture vary with the lens used).
Command dial
t
A
The Exposure Indicator
If a CPU lens is attached and a shutter speed other than “Bulb” or “Time” is selected, the
exposure indicator in the viewfinder and information display shows whether the
photograph would be under- or over-exposed at current settings (the illustrations below
show the display in the viewfinder). The displays will flash if the limits of the exposure
metering system are exceeded.
Optimal exposure
Underexposed by 1/3 EV
Overexposed by over 2 EV
40
x
Live View
Framing Photographs in the Monitor
Follow the steps below to take photographs in live view.
1
Press the a button.
The mirror will be raised and the view through
the lens will be displayed in the camera monitor.
The subject will no longer be visible in the
viewfinder.
a button
2
Position the focus point.
Position the focus point over your subject as
described on page 44.
Focus point
x
3
Focus.
Press the shutter-release button halfway. The
focus point will flash green while the camera
focuses. If the camera is able to focus, the focus
point will be displayed in green; if the camera is unable to focus, the focus point
will flash red (note that pictures can be taken even when the focus point flashes
red; check focus in the monitor before shooting). Except in i and j modes,
exposure can be locked by pressing the A (L) button.
4
Take the picture.
Press the shutter-release button the rest of the
way down. The monitor turns off and the
memory card access lamp lights during
recording. Do not remove the battery or memory
card or unplug the optional AC adapter until
Memory card access lamp
recording is complete. When shooting is
complete, the photograph will be displayed in the monitor for a few seconds or
until the shutter-release button is pressed halfway. The camera will then return
to live view mode. To exit, press the a button.
41
Focusing in Live View
Follow the steps below to choose focus and AF-area modes and position the focus
point.
❚❚ Choosing a Focus Mode
The following focus modes are available in live view:
Option
Description
For stationary subjects. Focus locks when shutter-release button is
AF-S Single-servo AF
pressed halfway.
For moving subjects. Camera focuses continuously until shutterAF-F Full-time-servo AF release button is pressed. Focus locks when shutter-release
button is pressed halfway.
MF Manual focus
Focus manually.
1
Place the cursor in the information
display.
Press the P button to place the cursor in the
information display.
P button
2
Display focus options.
Highlight the current focus mode in the
information display and press J.
3
x
Choose a focus option.
Highlight an option and press J. To return to live
view, press P.
42
❚❚ Choosing an AF-Area Mode
In modes other than i and j, the following AF-area modes can be selected in live
view:
Mode
Description
The camera automatically detects and focuses on portrait subjects.
8 Face-priority AF
Use for portraits.
Use for hand-held shots of landscapes and other non-portrait
9 Wide-area AF
subjects. Use the multi selector to select the focus point.
Use for pin-point focus on a selected spot in the frame. A tripod is
! Normal-area AF
recommended.
" Subject-tracking AF Track a selected subject as it moves through the frame.
1
Place the cursor in the information
display.
Press the P button to place the cursor in the
information display.
P button
2
Display AF-area modes.
Highlight the current AF-area mode in the
information display and press J.
x
3
Choose an AF-area mode.
Highlight an option and press J. To return to live
view, press P.
43
❚❚ Choosing the Focus Point
The method for selecting the focus point for autofocus varies
with the option selected for AF-area mode (0 43).
8 (face-priority AF): A double yellow border will be
displayed when the camera detects a portrait subject
(if multiple faces, up to a maximum of 35, are detected,
the camera will focus on the closest subject; to choose
a different subject, use the multi selector). If the camera
can no longer detect the subject (because, for
example, the subject has turned to face away from the
camera), the border will no longer be displayed.
Focus point
9/! (wide- and normal-area AF): Use the multi selector to
move the focus point to any point in the frame, or press
J to position the focus point in the center of the
frame.
Focus point
" (subject-tracking AF): Position the focus point over
your subject and press J. The focus point will track
the selected subject as it moves through the frame. To
end tracking, press J.
x
Focus point
D
Subject Tracking
The camera may be unable to track subjects if they move quickly, leave the frame or are
obscured by other objects, change visibly in size, color, or brightness, or are too small, too
large, too bright, too dark, or similar in color or brightness to the background.
44
❚❚ The Live View Display
y u
q
w
e
r
i
o
!0
t
!1
!2
Item
q Shooting mode
The mode currently selected with the mode dial.
w “No movie” icon
Indicates that movies can not be recorded.
The amount of time remaining before live view ends
automatically. Displayed if shooting will end in 30 s or less.
e Time remaining
Microphone
r sensitivity
x
t Sound level
y Focus mode
u AF-area mode
Time remaining
i (movie mode)
o Movie frame size
Manual movie
!0 settings indicator
!1 Focus point
Exposure
!2 indicator
45
Description
Microphone sensitivity for movie recording.
0
13, 17,
38
49
47, 52
51
Sound level for audio recording. Displayed in red if level is too
high; adjust microphone sensitivity accordingly. Left (L) and
right (R) channel indicators appear when optional ME-1 or other
stereo microphone is used.
The current focus mode.
The current AF-area mode.
42
43
The recording time remaining in movie mode.
49
The frame size of movies recorded in movie mode.
Displayed when On is selected for Manual movie settings in
mode M.
The current focus point. The display varies with the option
selected for AF-area mode (0 43).
Indicates whether the photograph would be under- or overexposed at current settings (mode M only).
51
51
51
44
40
A
Live View/Movie Recording Display Options
Press the R button to cycle through display options as shown below.
Circled areas indicate edges of movie frame crop
Show photo
indicators
Show movie
indicators (0 49)*
Hide indicators*
Framing grid*
* A crop showing the area recorded is displayed during movie recording when frame sizes
other than 640 × 424 are selected for Movie settings > Frame size/frame rate (0 51)
in the shooting menu (the area outside the movie frame crop is grayed out when movie
indicators are displayed).
A
Automatic Scene Selection (Scene Auto Selector)
If live view is selected in i or j mode, the camera will automatically analyze the subject and
select the appropriate shooting mode when autofocus is enabled. The selected mode is
shown in the monitor (0 45).
t Portrait
u Landscape
v Close up
w Night portrait
r Auto
s Auto (flash off)
A Exposure
Human portrait subjects
Landscapes and cityscapes
Subjects close to the camera
Portrait subjects framed against a dark background
Subjects suited to i or j mode or that do not fall into the categories
listed above
x
Depending on the scene, exposure may differ from that which would be obtained when live
view is not used. Metering in live view is adjusted to suit the live view display, producing
photographs with exposure close to what is seen in the monitor. In P, S and A modes,
exposure can be adjusted by ±5 EV in increments of 1/3 EV. Note that the effects of values
over +3 EV or under –3 EV can not be previewed in the monitor.
46
D
Shooting in Live View Mode
To prevent light entering via the viewfinder from interfering with exposure, remove the
rubber eyecup and cover the viewfinder with the supplied DK-5 eyepiece cap before
shooting (0 28).
Although they will not appear in the final picture, distortion may be visible in the monitor if
the camera is panned horizontally or an object moves at high speed through frame. Bright
light sources may leave after-images in the monitor when the camera is panned. Bright spots
may also appear. Flicker and banding visible in the monitor under fluorescent, mercury
vapor, or sodium lamps can be reduced using Flicker reduction (0 55), although they may
still be visible in the final photograph at some shutter speeds. When shooting in live view
mode, avoid pointing the camera at the sun or other strong light sources. Failure to observe
this precaution could result in damage to the camera’s internal circuitry.
Live view ends automatically if the lens is removed, the mode dial is rotated to g, or the
mode dial is rotated from g to another setting.
Live view may end automatically to prevent damage to the camera’s internal circuits; exit live
view when the camera is not in use. Note that the temperature of the camera’s internal
circuits may rise and noise (bright spots, randomly-spaced bright pixels, or fog) may be
displayed in the following instances (the camera may also become noticeably warm, but this
does not indicate a malfunction):
• The ambient temperature is high
• The camera has been used for extended periods in live view or to record movies
• The camera has been used in continuous release mode for extended periods
x
If live view does not start when you press the a button, wait for the internal circuits to cool
and then try again.
D
The Count Down Display
A count down will be displayed 30 s before live view ends automatically (0 45; the timer
turns red 5 s before the auto off timer expires or if live view is about to end to protect the
internal circuits). Depending on shooting conditions, the timer may appear immediately
when live view is selected. Note that although the count down does not appear in the
information display or during playback, live view will still end automatically when the timer
expires.
47
D
Using Autofocus in Live View
Autofocus is slower in live view and the monitor may brighten or darken while the camera
focuses. The camera may be unable to focus in the following situations:
• The subject contains lines parallel to the long edge of the frame
• The subject lacks contrast
• The subject in the focus point contains areas of sharply contrasting brightness, or the
subject is lit by spot lighting or by a neon sign or other light source that changes in
brightness
• Flicker or banding appears under fluorescent, mercury-vapor, sodium-vapor, or similar
lighting
• A cross (star) filter or other special filter is used
• The subject appears smaller than the focus point
• The subject is dominated by regular geometric patterns (e.g., blinds or a row of windows
in a skyscraper)
• The subject is moving
Note that the focus point may sometimes be displayed in green when the camera is unable
to focus.
x
48
y
Recording and Viewing Movies
Recording Movies
Movies can be recorded in live view mode.
1
Press the a button.
The mirror is raised and the view through the lens is
displayed in the monitor instead of the viewfinder.
D The 0 Icon
A 0 icon (0 45) indicates that movies can not be recorded.
A
a button
Before Recording
Set aperture before recording in mode A or M.
2
Focus.
Frame the opening shot and focus as described in Steps 2
and 3 of “Framing Photographs in the Monitor” (0 41; see
also “Focusing in Live View” on pages 0 42–44). Note that
the number of subjects that can be detected in facepriority AF drops during movie recording.
y
3
Start recording.
Press the movie-record button to start recording. A
recording indicator and the time available are displayed in
the monitor. Except in i and j modes, exposure can be
locked by pressing the A (L) button or (in modes P, S, and
A) altered by up to ±3 EV in steps of 1/3 EV using exposure Movie record button
compensation (note that depending on the brightness of Recording indicator
the subject, changes to exposure may have no visible
effect).
Time remaining
49
4
End recording.
Press the movie-record button again to end recording. Recording will end
automatically when the maximum length is reached, the memory card is full,
another mode is selected, or the lens is removed.
A
Taking Photographs During Movie Recording
To end movie recording, take a photograph, and exit to live view, press the shutter-release
button all the way down and hold it in this position until the shutter is released.
A
Maximum Length
Each movie file can be up to 4 GB in size and 20 minutes long; note that depending on
memory card write speed, shooting may end before this length is reached (0 64).
D
Recording Movies
Flicker, banding, or distortion may be visible in the monitor and in the final movie under
fluorescent, mercury vapor, or sodium lamps or if the camera is panned horizontally or an
object moves at high speed through frame (flicker and banding can be reduced using
Flicker reduction; 0 55). Bright light sources may leave after-images when the camera is
panned. Jagged edges, color fringing, moiré, and bright spots may also appear. Bright bands
may appear in some areas of the frame if the subject is briefly illuminated by a strobe or
other bright, momentary light source. When recording movies, avoid pointing the camera at
the sun or other strong light sources. Failure to observe this precaution could result in
damage to the camera’s internal circuitry.
The camera can record both video and sound; do not cover the microphone on the front of
the camera during recording. Note that the built-in microphone may record lens noise
during autofocus and vibration reduction.
Flash lighting can not be used during movie recording.
y
Live view may end automatically to prevent damage to the camera’s internal circuits; exit live
view when the camera is not in use. Note that the temperature of the camera’s internal
circuits may rise and noise (bright spots, randomly-spaced bright pixels, or fog) may be
displayed in the following instances (the camera may also become noticeably warm, but this
does not indicate a malfunction):
• The ambient temperature is high
• The camera has been used for extended periods in live view or to record movies
• The camera has been used in continuous release mode for extended periods
If live view does not start when you press the a button, wait for the internal circuits to cool
and then try again.
Matrix metering is used regardless of the metering method selected. Shutter speed and ISO
sensitivity are adjusted automatically unless On is selected for Manual movie settings
(0 51) and the camera is in mode M.
A
See Also
For information on the indicators displayed in live view, see page 45. For information on
choosing focus and AF-area modes, see page 42 and 43. See page 48 for information on
focusing in live view.
50
Movie Settings
Use the Movie settings option in the shooting menu to adjust the following settings.
• Frame size/frame rate, Movie quality: Choose from the following options. The
frame rate depends on the option currently selected for Video mode in the setup
menu (0 55):
Frame size/frame rate
Frame size (pixels)
r
s
k
l
o
n
p
1920 × 1080
1280 × 720
640 × 424
Frame rate 1
30p 2
25p 3
24p
60p 2
50p 3
30p 2
25p 3
Movie quality
Maximum bit rate (Mbps)
(★ high quality/Normal)
Maximum length
24/12
20 min.
5/3
1 Listed value. Actual frame rates for 60p, 50p, 30p, 25p, and 24p are 59.94, 50, 29.97, 25, and
23.976 fps respectively.
2 Available when NTSC is selected for Video mode.
3 Available when PAL is selected for Video mode.
y
51
• Microphone: Turn the built-in or optional ME-1 stereo microphones on or off or
adjust microphone sensitivity. Choose Auto sensitivity to adjust sensitivity
automatically, Microphone off to turn sound recording off; to select microphone
sensitivity manually, select Manual sensitivity and choose a sensitivity.
• Manual movie settings: Choose On to allow manual
adjustments to shutter speed and ISO sensitivity when the
camera is in mode M. Shutter speed can be set to values as
fast as 1/4,000 s; the slowest speed available varies with the
frame rate: 1/30 s for frame rates of 24p, 25p, and 30p, 1/50 s for
50p, and 1/60 s for 60p. ISO sensitivity can be set to values
between ISO 200 and Hi 1 (0 37). If shutter speed and ISO sensitivity are not in
these ranges when live view starts, they will automatically be set to supported
values, and remain at these values when live view ends. Note that ISO sensitivity is
fixed at the value selected; the camera does not adjust ISO sensitivity
automatically when On is selected for ISO sensitivity settings > Auto ISO
sensitivity control in the shooting menu (0 55).
1
Select Movie settings.
Press the G button to display the menus.
Highlight Movie settings in the shooting
menu and press 2.
G button
2
Choose movie options.
Highlight the desired item and press 2, then
highlight an option and press J.
y
D
Using an External Microphone
The optional ME-1 stereo microphone (0 64) can be used to record sound in stereo or to
reduce noise caused by lens vibration being recorded during autofocus.
D
The Count-Down Display
A count down will be displayed 30 s before live view ends automatically (0 45). Depending
on shooting conditions, the timer may appear immediately when movie recording begins.
Note that regardless of the amount of recording time available, live view will still end
automatically when the timer expires. Wait for the internal circuits to cool before resuming
movie recording.
52
Viewing Movies
Movies are indicated by a 1 icon in full-frame playback (0 19). Press J to start
playback.
1 icon
Length
Current position/total length
Volume
Movie progress bar
Guide
The following operations can be performed:
To
Use
Description
Pause
Pause playback.
Resume playback when movie is paused or during rewind/
advance.
Play
Advance/
rewind
Speed increases with each press, from 2× to 4× to 8× to 16×;
keep pressed to skip to beginning or end of movie (first frame
is indicated by h in top right corner of monitor, last frame by
i). If playback is paused, movie rewinds or advances one
frame at a time; hold for continuous rewind or advance.
Skip 10 s
Rotate the command dial to skip ahead or back 10 s.
y
Adjust volume
Edit movie
Return to fullframe playback
Exit to shooting
mode
A
X/W (Q)
A (L)
Press X to increase volume, W (Q) to decrease.
To edit movie, press A (L) while movie is paused.
/K Press 1 or K to exit to full-frame playback.
Press shutter-release button halfway. Monitor will turn off;
photographs can be taken immediately.
The 2 Icon
2 is displayed in full-frame and movie playback if the movie was
recorded without sound.
53
UMenu Guide
Most shooting, playback, and setup options can
be accessed from the camera menus. To view the
menus, press the G button.
G button
Tabs
Choose from the following menus:
• D: Playback
• C: Shooting
• B: Setup
•
•
N: Retouch
m: Recent settings
Slider shows position in current menu.
Current settings are shown by icons.
Menu options
Options in current menu.
d
U
If a d icon is displayed at the bottom left corner of the
monitor, help can be displayed by pressing the W (Q)
button. A description of the currently selected option or
menu will be displayed while the button is pressed. Press
1 or 3 to scroll through the display.
W (Q) button
A
Guide Mode
To display the on-screen guide, rotate the mode dial to g (0 21).
54
Menu Guide
❚❚ D Playback Menu: Managing Images
Delete
Playback folder
Playback display options
Image review
Rotate tall
Slide show
DPOF print order
❚❚ C Shooting Menu: Shooting Options
Reset shooting menu
Set Picture Control
Image quality
Image size
White balance
ISO sensitivity settings
Active D-Lighting
Auto distortion control
Color space
Noise reduction
AF-area mode
Built-in AF-assist illuminator
Metering
Movie settings
Flash cntrl for built-in flash
❚❚ B Setup Menu: Camera Setup
Reset setup options
Format memory card
Monitor brightness
Info display format
Auto info display
Clean image sensor
Lock mirror up for cleaning
Video mode
HDMI
Flicker reduction
Time zone and date
Language
Image comment
Auto image rotation
Image Dust Off ref photo
Auto off timers
Self-timer
Remote on duration
Beep
Rangefinder
File number sequence
Buttons
Slot empty release lock
Print date
Storage folder
GPS
Eye-Fi upload *
Firmware version
* Only available when compatible Eye-Fi memory card is inserted.
U ❚❚ N Retouch Menu: Creating Retouched Copies
D-Lighting
Red-eye correction
Trim
Monochrome
Filter effects
Color balance
Image overlay
NEF (RAW) processing
Resize
Quick retouch
Straighten
Distortion control
Fisheye
Color outline
Color sketch
Perspective control
Miniature effect
Selective color
Edit movie
❚❚ m Recent Settings
The recent settings menu lists the twenty most recently used settings.
A
For More Information
Information on individual menu options is available using the camera’s on-board help
(0 54).
55
Using Camera Menus
The multi selector and J button are used to navigate the camera menus.
Move cursor up
J button: select highlighted item
Cancel and return to
previous menu
Select highlighted item or
display sub-menu
Move cursor down
Follow the steps below to navigate the menus.
1
Display the menus.
Press the G button to display the menus.
G button
2
Highlight the icon for the current menu.
Press 4 to highlight the icon for the current
menu.
3
Select a menu.
Press 1 or 3 to select the desired menu.
U
56
4
Position the cursor in the selected menu.
Press 2 to position the cursor in the selected
menu.
5
Highlight a menu item.
Press 1 or 3 to highlight a menu item.
6
Display options.
Press 2 to display options for the selected menu
item.
7
Highlight an option.
Press 1 or 3 to highlight an option.
8
U
Select the highlighted item.
Press J to select the highlighted item. To exit
without making a selection, press the G
button.
Note the following:
• Menu items that are displayed in gray are not currently available.
• While pressing 2 generally has the same effect as pressing J, there are some
cases in which selection can only be made by pressing J.
• To exit the menus and return to shooting mode, press the shutter-release button
halfway (0 16).
57
Q
ViewNX 2
Installing ViewNX 2
Install the supplied software to display and
edit photographs and movies that have
been copied to your computer. Before
installing ViewNX 2, confirm that your
computer meets the system requirements
on page 59.
1
ViewNX 2TM
Your Imaging Toolbox
Start the computer and insert the installer CD.
Windows
Mac OS
Double-click
icon on desktop
Double-click
Welcome icon
2
Select a language.
q Select region (if required)
If the desired language is not available,
click Region Selection to choose a
different region and then choose the
desired language (region selection is
not available in the European release).
3
w Select
language
e Click
Next
Q
Start the installer.
Click Install and follow the on-screen instructions.
A
Installation Guide
For help installing ViewNX 2, click Installation Guide in
Step 3.
Click Install
58
4
Exit the installer.
Windows
Mac OS
Click Yes
Click OK
The following software is installed:
• ViewNX 2
5
A
• Apple QuickTime (Windows only)
Remove the installer CD from the CD-ROM drive.
System Requirements
Windows
CPU
Q
OS
RAM
Mac OS
• Photos/JPEG movies: PowerPC G4 (1 GHz or better),
• Photos/JPEG movies: Intel Celeron, Pentium 4, G5, Intel Core series, or Xeon series
• H.264 movies (playback): PowerPC G5 Dual or
or Core series, 1.6 GHz or better
Core Duo, 2 GHz or better; Intel Core i5 or
• H.264 movies (playback): 3.0 GHz or better
better recommended when viewing movies
Pentium D; Intel Core i5 or better
with a frame size of 1280×720 or more at a
recommended when viewing movies with
frame rate of 30 fps or above or movies with
a frame size of 1280×720 or more at a
frame rate of 30 fps or above or movies with a frame size of 1920×1080 or more
• H.264 movies (editing): 2.6 GHz or better
a frame size of 1920×1080 or more
Core 2 Duo
• H.264 movies (editing): 2.6 GHz or better
• GPU that supports QuickTime H.264
Core 2 Duo
hardware acceleration recommended
Pre-installed versions of Windows 7 Home
Basic/Home Premium/Professional/
Enterprise/Ultimate (Service Pack 1), Windows
Vista Home Basic/Home Premium/Business/
Enterprise/Ultimate (Service Pack 2), or Windows
XP Home Edition/Professional (Service Pack 3). Mac OS X version 10.5.8, or 10.6.8, 10.7.2
All installed programs may run as 32-bit
applications in 64-bit editions of Windows 7
and Windows Vista. This application is not
compatible with computers running 64-bit
Windows XP.
• Windows 7/Windows Vista: 1 GB or more (2 GB or
more recommended)
512 MB or more (2 GB or more recommended)
• Windows XP: 512 MB or more (2 GB or more
recommended)
Hard-disk
A minimum of 500 MB available on the startup disk (1 GB or more recommended)
space
Resolution: 1024×768 pixels (XGA) or more
Resolution: 1024×768 pixels (XGA) or more
Monitor (1280×1024 pixels (SXGA) or more recommended)
(1280×1024 pixels (SXGA) or more recommended)
Color: 24-bit color (True Color) or more
Color: 24-bit color (millions of colors) or more
59
Using ViewNX 2
Copy Pictures to the Computer
1
Choose how pictures will be copied to the computer.
Choose one of the following methods:
• Direct USB connection: Turn the camera off and ensure that the memory card is
inserted in the camera. Connect the camera to the computer using the
supplied UC-E17 USB cable and then turn the camera on.
• SD card slot: If your computer is equipped with an SD card slot, the card can be
inserted directly in the slot.
• SD card reader: Connect a card reader (available separately from third-party
suppliers) to the computer and insert the memory card.
2
Start Nikon Transfer 2.
If a message is displayed prompting you to choose a program, select
Nikon Transfer 2.
A
Windows 7
If the following dialog is displayed, select Nikon Transfer 2 as described below.
1 Under Import pictures and videos, click
Change program. A program selection dialog
will be displayed; select Import File using
Nikon Transfer 2 and click OK.
Q
2 Double-click Import File.
3
Click Start Transfer.
At default settings, all the pictures on the
memory card will be copied to the computer.
Start Transfer
60
4
Terminate the connection.
If the camera is connected to the computer, turn the camera off and disconnect
the USB cable. If you are using a card reader or card slot, choose the appropriate
option in the computer operating system to eject the removable disk
corresponding to the memory card and then remove the card from the card
reader or card slot.
View Pictures
Pictures are displayed in ViewNX 2 when transfer is
complete.
A
Starting ViewNX 2 Manually
• Windows: Double-click the ViewNX 2 shortcut on
the desktop.
• Mac OS: Click the ViewNX 2 icon in the Dock.
❚❚ Retouching Photographs
To crop pictures and perform such tasks as adjusting sharpness
and tone levels, click the Edit button in the ViewNX 2 toolbar.
❚❚ Editing Movies
To perform such tasks as trimming unwanted footage from
movies shot with the camera, click the Movie Editor button in
the ViewNX 2 toolbar.
❚❚ Printing Pictures
Q
Click the Print button in the ViewNX 2 toolbar. A dialog will be
displayed, allowing you to print pictures on a printer connected
to the computer.
A
For More Information
Consult online help for more information on using
ViewNX 2.
61
n
Technical Notes
Compatible Lenses
This camera supports autofocus with AF-S and AF-I CPU lenses only. AF-S lenses have
names beginning with AF-S, AF-I lenses names beginning with AF-I. Autofocus is not
supported with other autofocus (AF) lenses. The following table lists the features
available with compatible lenses in viewfinder photography:
Camera setting
Focus
Mode
Metering
L
MF (with electronic
M
rangefinder)
Lens/accessory
AF
MF M Other modes 3D Color N
✔
✔
✔ ✔
✔
✔ — ✔2
AF-S, AF-I NIKKOR 1
1
Other type G or D AF NIKKOR
—
✔
✔ ✔
✔
✔ — ✔2
PC-E NIKKOR series
—
✔3
✔ ✔3
✔3
✔ 3 — ✔ 2, 3
PC Micro 85mm f/2.8D 4
—
✔3
✔ ✔
—
✔ — ✔ 2, 3
6
6
5
AF-S/AF-I teleconverter
✔
✔
✔ ✔
✔
✔ — ✔2
Other AF NIKKOR (except lenses for F3AF)
—
✔7
✔ ✔
✔
— ✔ ✔2
AI-P NIKKOR
—
✔8
✔ ✔
✔
— ✔ ✔2
1 Use AF-S or AF-I lenses to get the most from your 5 AF-S or AF-I lens required.
camera. Vibration Reduction (VR) supported
6 With maximum effective aperture of f/5.6 or faster.
with VR lenses.
7 When AF 80–200mm f/2.8, AF 35–70mm f/2.8,
2 Spot metering meters selected focus point.
AF 28–85mm f/3.5–4.5 (New), or AF 28–85mm
3 Can not be used with shifting or tilting.
f/3.5–4.5 lenses are zoomed all the way in at the
4 The camera’s exposure metering and flash
minimum focus distance, the in-focus indicator
control systems may not function as expected
may be displayed when the image on the matte
when the lens is shifted and/or tilted or an
screen in the viewfinder is not in focus. Focus
aperture other than the maximum aperture is
manually until image in viewfinder is in focus.
used.
8 With maximum aperture of f/5.6 or faster.
A
Identifying CPU and Type G and D Lenses
CPU lenses can be identified by the presence of CPU contacts, type G and D lenses by a letter
on the lens barrel. Type G lenses are not equipped with a lens aperture ring.
CPU contacts
CPU lens
IX NIKKOR Lenses
IX NIKKOR lenses can not be used.
Aperture ring
Type G lens
n
Type D lens
D
A
Lens f-number
The f-number given in lens names is the maximum aperture of the lens.
62
Other Accessories
At the time of writing, the following accessories were available for the D3200.
Power
sources
Filters
Viewfinder
eyepiece
accessories
n
Software
63
• Rechargeable Li-ion Battery EN-EL14 (0 6): Additional EN-EL14 batteries are
available from local retailers and Nikon-authorized service representatives.
EN-EL14a batteries can also be used.
• Battery Charger MH-24 (0 6): Recharge EN-EL14a and EN-EL14 batteries.
• Power Connector EP-5A, AC Adapter EH-5b: These accessories can be used to power
the camera for extended periods (EH-5a and EH-5 AC adapters can also be
used). A power connector EP-5A is required to connect the camera to the
EH-5b, EH-5a or EH-5.
• Filters intended for special-effects photography may interfere with autofocus
or the electronic rangefinder.
• The D3200 can not be used with linear polarizing filters. Use C-PL or C-PL II
circular polarizing filters instead.
• NC filters are recommended for protecting the lens.
• To prevent ghosting, use of a filter is not recommended when the subject is
framed against a bright light, or when a bright light source is in the frame.
• Center-weighted metering is recommended with filters with exposure factors
(filter factors) over 1 × (Y44, Y48, Y52, O56, R60, X0, X1, C-PL, ND2S, ND4, ND4S,
ND8, ND8S, ND400, A2, A12, B2, B8, B12). See the filter manual for details.
• DK-20C Eyepiece Correction Lenses: Lenses are available with diopters of –5, –4, –3,
–2, 0, +0.5, +1, +2, and +3 m–1 when the camera diopter adjustment control is
in the neutral position (–1 m–1). Use eyepiece correction lenses only if the
desired focus can not be achieved with the built in diopter adjustment control
(–1.7 to +0.5 m–1). Test eyepiece correction lenses before purchase to ensure
that the desired focus can be achieved. The rubber eyecup can not be used
with eyepiece correction lenses.
• Magnifier DG-2: The DG-2 magnifies the scene displayed in the center of the
viewfinder for greater precision during focusing. Eyepiece adapter required
(available separately).
• Eyepiece Adapter DK-22: The DK-22 is used when attaching the DG-2 magnifier.
• Right-Angle Viewing Attachment DR-6: The DR-6 attaches at a right angle to the
viewfinder eyepiece, allowing the image in the viewfinder to be viewed at
right angles to the lens (for example, from directly above when the camera is
horizontal).
Capture NX 2: A complete photo editing package offering such features as white
balance adjustment and color control points.
Note: Use the latest versions of Nikon software. Most Nikon software offers an
auto update feature when the computer is connected to the Internet. See the
websites listed on page vii for the latest information on supported operating
systems.
Body cap
Body Cap BF-1B/Body Cap BF-1A: The body cap keeps the mirror, viewfinder screen,
and low-pass filter free of dust when a lens is not in place.
ML-L3 wireless remote control (0 27): The ML-L3 uses a 3 V CR2025 battery.
Remote
controls
Pressing the battery-chamber latch to the right (q), insert a fingernail into the
gap and open the battery chamber (w). Ensure that the battery is inserted in the
correct orientation (r).
Microphones Stereo Microphone ME-1 (0 52)
The D3200 is equipped with an accessory terminal for
MC-DC2 remote cords and GP-1 GPS units, which connect with
Accessory
the 4 mark on the connector aligned with the 2 next
terminal
to the accessory terminal (close the connector cover
accessories
when the terminal is not in use).
USB and A/V • UC-E17 and UC-E6 USB cables (0 60)
connector
• Wireless Mobile Adapter WU-1a: Supports two-way communication between the
accessories
camera and smart devices running the Wireless Mobile Adapter Utility.
Approved Memory Cards
The following SD memory cards have been tested and approved for use in the D3200.
Cards with class 6 or faster write speeds are recommended for movie recording.
Recording may end unexpectedly when cards with slower write speeds are used.
SD memory cards
SanDisk
Toshiba
Panasonic
Lexar Media
Platinum II
Professional
Full-HD Video
SDHC memory cards 2
4 GB, 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB
SDXC memory cards 3
64 GB
4 GB, 6 GB, 8 GB, 12 GB, 16 GB, 24 GB, 32 GB 48 GB, 64 GB
2 GB 1
4 GB, 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB
—
4 GB, 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB, 64 GB, 128 GB
4 GB, 8 GB, 16 GB
—
1 Check that any card readers or other devices with which the card will be used support 2 GB cards.
2 Check that any card readers or other devices with which the card will be used are SDHC-compliant. The
camera supports UHS-1.
3 Check that any card readers or other devices with which the card will be used are
SDXC-compliant. The camera supports UHS-1.
n
Other cards have not been tested. For more details on the above cards, please
contact the manufacturer.
64
Caring for the Camera
Storage
When the camera will not be used for an extended period, remove the battery and
store it in a cool, dry area with the terminal cover in place. To prevent mold or
mildew, store the camera in a dry, well-ventilated area. Do not store your camera
with naphtha or camphor moth balls or in locations that:
• are poorly ventilated or subject to humidities of over 60%
• are next to equipment that produces strong electromagnetic fields, such as
televisions or radios
• are exposed to temperatures above 50 °C (122 °F) or below –10 °C (14 °F)
Cleaning
Use a blower to remove dust and lint, then wipe gently with a soft, dry cloth. After
using the camera at the beach or seaside, wipe off sand or salt with a cloth lightly
dampened in distilled water and dry thoroughly. Important: Dust or other foreign
matter inside the camera may cause damage not covered under warranty.
These glass elements are easily damaged. Remove dust and lint with a blower. If
Lens,
using an aerosol blower, keep the can vertical to prevent the discharge of liquid. To
mirror, and
remove fingerprints and other stains, apply a small amount of lens cleaner to a soft
viewfinder
cloth and clean with care.
Remove dust and lint with a blower. When removing fingerprints and other stains,
Monitor
wipe the surface lightly with a soft cloth or chamois leather. Do not apply pressure,
as this could result in damage or malfunction.
Camera
body
Do not use alcohol, thinner, or other volatile chemicals.
n
D
Servicing the Camera and Accessories
The camera is a precision device and requires regular servicing. Nikon recommends that the
camera be inspected by the original retailer or Nikon-authorized service representative once
every one to two years, and that it be serviced once every three to five years (note that fees
apply to these services). Frequent inspection and servicing are particularly recommended if
the camera is used professionally. Any accessories regularly used with the camera, such as
lenses or optional flash units, should be included when the camera is inspected or serviced.
65
Caring for the Camera and Battery:
Cautions
Caring for the Camera
Do not drop: The product may malfunction if subjected to strong shocks or vibration.
Keep dry: This product is not waterproof, and may malfunction if immersed in water or exposed
to high levels of humidity. Rusting of the internal mechanism can cause irreparable damage.
Avoid sudden changes in temperature: Sudden changes in temperature, such as those that occur
when entering or leaving a heated building on a cold day, can cause condensation inside the
device. To prevent condensation, place the device in a carrying case or plastic bag before
exposing it to sudden changes in temperature.
Keep away from strong magnetic fields: Do not use or store this device in the vicinity of equipment
that generates strong electromagnetic radiation or magnetic fields. Strong static charges or
the magnetic fields produced by equipment such as radio transmitters could interfere with the
monitor, damage data stored on the memory card, or affect the product’s internal circuitry.
Do not leave the lens pointed at the sun: Do not leave the lens pointed at the sun or other strong light
source for an extended period. Intense light may cause the image sensor to deteriorate or
produce a white blur effect in photographs.
Turn the product off before removing or disconnecting the power source: Do not unplug the product or
remove the battery while the product is on or while images are being recorded or deleted.
Forcibly cutting power in these circumstances could result in loss of data or in damage to
product memory or internal circuitry. To prevent an accidental interruption of power, avoid
carrying the product from one location to another while the AC adapter is connected.
Cleaning: When cleaning the camera body, use a blower to gently remove dust and lint, then
wipe gently with a soft, dry cloth. After using the camera at the beach or seaside, wipe off any
sand or salt using a cloth lightly dampened in pure water and then dry the camera thoroughly.
The lens and mirror are easily damaged. Dust and lint should be gently removed with a blower.
When using an aerosol blower, keep the can vertical to prevent discharge of liquid. To remove
fingerprints and other stains from the lens, apply a small amount of lens cleaner to a soft cloth
and wipe the lens carefully.
See the Reference Manual for information on cleaning the low-pass filter.
Do not touch the shutter curtain: The shutter curtain is extremely thin and easily damaged. Under
no circumstances should you exert pressure on the curtain, poke it with cleaning tools, or
subject it to powerful air currents from a blower. These actions could scratch, deform, or tear
the curtain.
n
66
Storage: To prevent mold or mildew, store the camera in a dry, well-ventilated area. If you are
using an AC adapter, unplug the adapter to prevent fire. If the product will not be used for an
extended period, remove the battery to prevent leakage and store the camera in a plastic bag
containing a desiccant. Do not, however, store the camera case in a plastic bag, as this may
cause the material to deteriorate. Note that desiccant gradually loses its capacity to absorb
moisture and should be replaced at regular intervals.
To prevent mold or mildew, take the camera out of storage at least once a month. Turn the
camera on and release the shutter a few times before putting it away.
Store the battery in a cool, dry place. Replace the terminal cover before putting the battery
away.
Notes on the monitor: The monitor is constructed with extremely high precision; at least 99.99% of
pixels are effective, with no more than 0.01% being missing or defective. Hence while these
displays may contain pixels that are always lit (white, red, blue, or green) or always off (black),
this is not a malfunction and has no effect on images recorded with the device.
Images in the monitor may be difficult to see in a bright light.
Do not apply pressure to the monitor, as this could cause damage or malfunction. Dust or lint
on the monitor can be removed with a blower. Stains can be removed by wiping lightly with a
soft cloth or chamois leather. Should the monitor break, care should be taken to avoid injury
from broken glass and to prevent liquid crystal from the monitor touching the skin or entering
the eyes and mouth.
Moiré: Moiré is an interference pattern created by the interaction of an image containing a
regular, repeating grid, such as the pattern of weave in cloth or windows in a building, with the
camera image sensor grid. If you notice moiré in your photographs, try changing the distance
to the subject, zooming in and out, or changing the angle between the subject and the
camera.
Caring for the Battery
n
67
Batteries may leak or explode if improperly handled. Observe the following precautions when
handling batteries:
• Use only batteries approved for use in this equipment.
• Do not expose the battery to flame or excessive heat.
• Keep the battery terminals clean.
• Turn the product off before replacing the battery.
• Remove the battery from the camera or charger when not in use and replace the terminal
cover. These devices draw minute amounts of charge even when off and could draw the
battery down to the point that it will no longer function. If the battery will not be used for
some time, insert it in the camera and run it flat before removing it and storing it in a location
with an ambient temperature of 15 to 25 °C (59 to 77 °F; avoid hot or extremely cold
locations). Repeat this process at least once every six months.
• Turning the camera on and off repeatedly when the battery is fully discharged will shorten
battery life. Batteries that have been fully discharged must be charged before use.
• The internal temperature of the battery may rise while the battery is in use. Attempting to
charge the battery while the internal temperature is elevated will impair battery
performance, and the battery may not charge or charge only partially. Wait for the battery
to cool before charging.
• Continuing to charge the battery after it is fully charged can impair battery performance.
• A marked drop in the time a fully charged battery retains its charge when used at room
temperature indicates that it requires replacement. Purchase a new EN-EL14 battery.
• Charge the battery before use. When taking photographs on important occasions, ready a
spare EN-EL14 battery and keep it fully charged. Depending on your location, it may be
difficult to purchase replacement batteries on short notice. Note that on cold days, the
capacity of batteries tends to decrease. Be sure the battery is fully charged before taking
photographs outside in cold weather. Keep a spare battery in a warm place and exchange
the two as necessary. Once warmed, a cold battery may recover some of its charge.
• Used batteries are a valuable resource; recycle in accord with local regulations.
n
68
Error Messages
This section lists the indicators and error messages that appear in the viewfinder and
monitor.
A
Warning Icons
A flashing d in the monitor or s in the viewfinder indicates that a warning or error message
can be displayed in the monitor by pressing the W (Q) button.
Indicator
Monitor
Lock lens aperture ring
at minimum aperture
(largest f/-number).
69
Solution
B
Set lens aperture ring to minimum aperture (highest
(flashes) f-number).
F/s • Attach non-IX NIKKOR lens.
(flashes) • If non-CPU lens is attached, select mode M.
Before taking photos, rotate
A lens with a retractable lens barrel button is attached
F
the zoom ring to extend the
with the lens barrel retracted. Press the retractable lens
(flashes)
lens.
barrel button and rotate the zoom ring to extend the lens.
Shutter release disabled.
d/s
Turn camera off and recharge or replace battery.
Recharge battery.
(flashes)
This battery cannot be used.
d
Use Nikon-approved battery.
Choose battery designated
(flashes)
for use in this camera.
Initialization error. Turn
d/k Turn camera off, remove and replace battery, and then
camera off and then on
(flashes) turn camera on again.
again.
Battery level is low.
End cleaning and turn camera off and recharge or replace
Complete operation and turn
—
battery.
camera off immediately.
Clock not set
—
Set camera clock.
S/s Turn camera off and confirm that card is correctly
No SD card inserted
(flashes) inserted.
Memory card is locked.
Memory card is locked (write protected). Slide card write(
Slide lock to “write” position. (flashes) protect switch to “write” position.
• Use approved card.
• Format card. If problem persists, card may be
damaged. Contact Nikon-authorized service
representative.
This memory card cannot be
• Error creating new folder. Delete files or insert new
(/k
memory card.
used. Card may be damaged.
(flashes)
• Insert new memory card.
Insert another card.
• Eye-Fi card is still emitting wireless signal after Disable
has been selected for Eye-Fi upload. To terminate
wireless transmission, turn the camera off and remove
the card.
Lens not attached
n
Viewfinder
Indicator
Monitor
Not available if Eye-Fi card is
locked.
This card is not formatted.
Format card?
Viewfinder
(/k
(flashes)
T
(flashes)
j/A/s
(flashes)
Card is full
—
●
(flashes)
Subject is too bright
s
(flashes)
Subject is too dark
No Bulb in S mode
—
—
Flash error
Solution
Eye-Fi card is locked (write protected). Slide card writeprotect switch to “write” position.
Format card or turn camera off and insert new memory
card.
• Reduce quality or size.
• Delete photographs.
• Insert new memory card.
Camera can not focus using autofocus. Change
composition or focus manually.
• Use a lower ISO sensitivity.
• Use commercial ND filter.
• In mode:
S Increase shutter speed
A Choose a smaller aperture (higher f-number)
• Use a higher ISO sensitivity.
• Use flash.
• In mode:
S Lower shutter speed
A Choose a larger aperture (lower f-number)
A
Change shutter speed or select manual exposure mode.
(flashes)
N
Flash has fired at full power. Check photo in monitor; if
(flashes) underexposed, adjust settings and try again.
• Use the flash.
• Change distance to subject, aperture, flash range, or
ISO sensitivity.
• Lens focal length is less than 18 mm: use a longer focal
N/s
length.
(flashes)
• Optional SB-400 flash unit attached: flash is in bounce
position or focus distance is very short. Continue
shooting; if necessary, increase focus distance to
prevent shadows from appearing in photograph.
s
Error occurred updating firmware for optional flash unit.
(flashes) Contact Nikon-authorized service representative.
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Indicator
Monitor
Error. Press shutter release
button again.
Start-up error. Contact a
Nikon-authorized service
representative.
Metering error
Unable to start live view.
Please wait for camera to
cool.
Viewfinder
O
(flashes)
—
Solution
Release shutter. If error persists or appears frequently,
consult Nikon-authorized service representative.
Consult Nikon-authorized service representative.
Wait for the internal circuits to cool before resuming live
view or movie recording.
Folder selected for playback contains no images. Insert
another memory card or select a different folder.
Cannot display this file.
—
File can not be played back on camera.
—
Cannot select this file.
Images created with other devices can not be retouched.
Memory card does not contain NEF (RAW) images for use
No image for retouching.
—
with NEF (RAW) processing.
Check printer.
—
Check printer. To resume, select Continue (if available). *
Paper is not selected size. Insert paper of correct size and
Check paper.
—
select Continue. *
Paper jam.
—
Clear jam and select Continue. *
Out of paper.
—
Insert paper of selected size and select Continue. *
Check ink supply.
—
Check ink. To resume, select Continue. *
Out of ink.
—
Replace ink and select Continue. *
* See printer manual for more information.
Folder contains no images.
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71
—
Specifications
❚❚ Nikon D3200 Digital Camera
Type
Type
Lens mount
Single-lens reflex digital camera
Nikon F mount (with AF contacts)
Approx. 1.5 × lens focal length (35 mm format equivalent); Nikon DX
Effective angle of view
format
Effective pixels
Effective pixels
24.2 million
Image sensor
Image sensor
23.2 × 15.4 mm CMOS sensor
Total pixels
24.7 million
Dust-reduction System Image sensor cleaning, Image Dust Off reference data (optional
Capture NX 2 software required)
Storage
Image size (pixels)
• 6,016 × 4,000 (Large)
• 4,512 × 3,000 (Medium)
• 3,008 × 2,000 (Small)
File format
• NEF (RAW): 12 bit, compressed
• JPEG: JPEG-Baseline compliant with fine (approx. 1 : 4), normal (approx.
1 : 8), or basic (approx. 1 : 16) compression
• NEF (RAW)+JPEG: Single photograph recorded in both NEF (RAW) and
JPEG formats
Picture Control System Standard, Neutral, Vivid, Monochrome, Portrait, Landscape; selected
Picture Control can be modified
Media
SD (Secure Digital) and UHS-I compliant SDHC and SDXC memory cards
File system
DCF (Design Rule for Camera File System) 2.0, DPOF (Digital Print Order
Format), Exif (Exchangeable Image File Format for Digital Still Cameras)
2.3, PictBridge
Viewfinder
Viewfinder
Eye-level pentamirror single-lens reflex viewfinder
Frame coverage
Approx. 95% horizontal and 95% vertical
Magnification
Approx. 0.8 × (50 mm f/1.4 lens at infinity, –1.0 m–1)
Eyepoint
18 mm (–1.0 m–1; from center surface of viewfinder eyepiece lens)
Diopter adjustment
–1.7–+0.5 m–1
Focusing screen
Type B BriteView Clear Matte Mark VII screen
Reflex mirror
Quick return
Lens aperture
Instant return, electronically controlled
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Lens
Compatible lenses
Autofocus is available with AF-S and AF-I lenses. Autofocus is not
available with other type G and D lenses, AF lenses (IX NIKKOR and lenses
for the F3AF are not supported), and AI-P lenses. Non-CPU lenses can be
used in mode M, but the camera exposure meter will not function.
The electronic rangefinder can be used with lenses that have a
maximum aperture of f/5.6 or faster.
Shutter
Type
Speed
Flash sync speed
Release
Release mode
Frame advance rate
Self-timer
Exposure
Metering
Metering method
Range (ISO 100, f/1.4
lens, 20 °C/68 °F)
Exposure meter
coupling
Mode
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Electronically-controlled vertical-travel focal-plane shutter
1/4000 – 30 s in steps of 1/3 EV; Bulb; Time (requires optional ML-L3 remote
control)
X= 1/200 s; synchronizes with shutter at 1/200 s or slower
8 (single frame), I (continuous), E (self-timer), " (delayed remote),
# (quick-response remote), J (quiet shutter release)
Up to 4 fps (manual focus, mode M or S, shutter speed 1/250 s or faster, and
other settings at default values)
2 s, 5 s, 10 s, 20 s; 1–9 exposures
TTL exposure metering using 420-pixel RGB sensor
• Matrix metering: 3D color matrix metering II (type G and D lenses); color
matrix metering II (other CPU lenses)
• Center-weighted metering: Weight of 75% given to 8-mm circle in center
of frame
• Spot metering: Meters 3.5-mm circle (about 2.5% of frame) centered on
selected focus point
• Matrix or center-weighted metering: 0–20 EV
• Spot metering: 2–20 EV
CPU
Auto modes (i auto; j auto (flash off )); scene modes (k portrait;
l landscape; p child; m sports; n close up; o night portrait);
programmed auto with flexible program (P); shutter-priority auto (S);
aperture-priority auto (A); manual (M)
Exposure compensation –5 – +5 EV in increments of 1/3 EV
Exposure lock
Luminosity locked at detected value with A (L) button
ISO sensitivity
ISO 100 – 6400 in steps of 1 EV; can also be set to approx. 1 EV above
(Recommended
ISO 6400 (ISO 12800 equivalent); auto ISO sensitivity control available
Exposure Index)
Active D-Lighting
On, off
Focus
Autofocus
Detection range
Lens servo
Focus point
AF-area mode
Focus lock
Nikon Multi-CAM 1000 autofocus sensor module with TTL phase
detection, 11 focus points (including one cross-type sensor), and AFassist illuminator (range approx. 0.5–3 m/1 ft 8 in.–9 ft 10 in.)
–1 – +19 EV (ISO 100, 20 °C/68 °F)
• Autofocus (AF): Single-servo AF (AF-S); continuous-servo AF (AF-C); auto
AF-S/AF-C selection (AF-A); predictive focus tracking activated
automatically according to subject status
• Manual focus (MF): Electronic rangefinder can be used
Can be selected from 11 focus points
Single-point AF, dynamic-area AF, auto-area AF, 3D-tracking (11 points)
Focus can be locked by pressing shutter-release button halfway (singleservo AF) or by pressing A (L) button
Flash
Built-in flash
i, k, p, n, o: Auto flash with auto pop-up
P, S, A, M: Manual pop-up with button release
Guide Number
Approx. 12/39, 13/43 with manual flash (m/ft, ISO 100, 20 °C/68 °F)
Flash control
TTL: i-TTL flash control using 420-pixel RGB sensor is available with
built-in flash and SB-910, SB-900, SB-800, SB-700, SB-600, or SB-400; i-TTL
balanced fill-flash for digital SLR is used with matrix and center-weighted
metering, standard i-TTL flash for digital SLR with spot metering
Flash mode
Auto, auto with red-eye reduction, auto slow sync, auto slow sync with
red-eye reduction, fill-flash, red-eye reduction, slow sync, slow sync with
red-eye reduction, rear-curtain with slow sync, rear-curtain sync, off
Flash compensation
–3 – +1 EV in increments of 1/3 EV
Flash-ready indicator Lights when built-in flash or optional flash unit is fully charged; flashes
after flash is fired at full output
Accessory shoe
ISO 518 hot-shoe with sync and data contacts and safety lock
Nikon Creative Lighting Advanced Wireless Lighting supported with SB-910, SB-900, SB-800, or
System (CLS)
SB-700 as a master flash, or SU-800 as commander; Flash Color
Information Communication supported with all CLS-compatible flash
units
Sync terminal
AS-15 sync terminal adapter (available separately)
White balance
White balance
Auto, incandescent, fluorescent (7 types), direct sunlight, flash, cloudy,
shade, preset manual, all except preset manual with fine-tuning.
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Live view
Lens servo
AF-area mode
Autofocus
Automatic scene
selection
Movie
Metering
Metering method
Frame size (pixels) and
frame rate
n
75
• Autofocus (AF): Single-servo AF (AF-S); full-time servo AF (AF-F)
• Manual focus (MF)
Face-priority AF, wide-area AF, normal-area AF, subject-tracking AF
Contrast-detect AF anywhere in frame (camera selects focus point
automatically when face-priority AF or subject-tracking AF is selected)
Available in i and j modes
TTL exposure metering using main image sensor
Matrix
• 1,920 × 1,080, 30 p (progressive)/25p/24p, ★ high/normal
• 1,280 × 720, 60p/50p, ★ high/normal
• 640 × 424, 30p/25p, ★ high/normal
Frame rates of 30p (actual frame rate 29.97 fps) and 60p (actual frame
rate 59.94 fps) are available when NTSC is selected for video mode. 25p
and 50p are available when PAL is selected for video mode. Actual frame
rate when 24p is selected is 23.976 fps.
File format
MOV
Video compression
H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding
Audio recording format Linear PCM
Audio recording device Built-in monaural or external stereo microphone; sensitivity adjustable
ISO sensitivity
ISO 200–6400; can also be set to approx. 1 EV above ISO 6400 (ISO 12800
equivalent)
Monitor
Monitor
7.5-cm (3-in.), approx. 921k-dot (VGA) TFT LCD with 160 ° viewing angle,
approx. 100% frame coverage, and brightness adjustment
Playback
Playback
Full-frame and thumbnail (4, 9, or 72 images or calendar) playback with
playback zoom, movie playback, photo and/or movie slide shows,
histogram display, highlights, auto image rotation, and image comment
(up to 36 characters)
Interface
USB
Hi-Speed USB
Video output
NTSC, PAL
HDMI output
Type C mini-pin HDMI connector
Accessory terminal
Remote cord: MC-DC2 (available separately)
GPS unit: GP-1 (available separately)
Audio input
Stereo mini-pin jack (3.5mm diameter)
Supported languages
Supported languages
Power source
Battery
AC adapter
Arabic, Chinese (Simplified and Traditional), Czech, Danish, Dutch,
English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian,
Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal and
Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian
One rechargeable Li-ion EN-EL14 battery
EH-5b AC adapter; requires EP-5A power connector (available
separately)
Tripod socket
1/4 in. (ISO 1222)
Tripod socket
Dimensions/weight
Dimensions (W × H × D) Approx. 125 × 96 × 76.5 mm (5.0 × 3.8 × 3.1 in.)
Weight
Approx. 505 g (1 lb 1.8 oz) with battery and memory card but without
body cap; approx. 455 g/1 lb (camera body only)
Operating environment
Temperature
0–40 °C (+32–104 °F)
Humidity
Less than 85% (no condensation)
• Unless otherwise stated, all figures are for a camera with a fully-charged battery operating at an ambient
temperature of 20 °C (68 °F).
• Nikon reserves the right to change the specifications of the hardware and software described in this
manual at any time and without prior notice. Nikon will not be held liable for damages that may result
from any mistakes that this manual may contain.
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76
❚❚ MH-24 battery charger
AC 100–240 V, 50/60 Hz, 0.2 A maximum
DC 8.4 V/0.9 A
Nikon rechargeable Li-ion battery EN-EL14
Approx. 1 hour and 30 minutes at an ambient temperature of 25 °C/77 °F
when no charge remains
Operating temperature 0–40 °C (+32–104 °F)
Dimensions (W × H × D) Approx. 70 × 26 × 97 mm (2.8 × 1.0 × 3.8 in.), excluding plug adapter
Weight
Approx. 96 g (3.4 oz), excluding plug adapter
Rated input
Rated output
Supported batteries
Charging time
❚❚ EN-EL14 rechargeable Li-ion battery
Type
Rated capacity
Operating temperature
Dimensions (W × H × D)
Weight
Rechargeable lithium-ion battery
7.4 V/1030 mAh
0–40 °C (+32–104 °F)
Approx. 38 × 53 × 14 mm (1.5 × 2.1 × 0.6 in.)
Approx. 48 g (1.7 oz), excluding terminal cover
❚❚ AF-S DX NIKKOR 18–55mm f/3.5–5.6G VR II lens
Type G AF-S DX lens with built-in CPU and F mount
18–55 mm
f/3.5–5.6
11 elements in 8 groups (including 1 aspherical lens element)
76 °–28 ° 50 ´
Graduated in millimeters (18, 24, 35, 45, 55)
Output to camera
Manual zoom using independent zoom ring
Autofocus controlled by Silent Wave Motor and separate focus ring for
manual focus
Vibration reduction
Lens shift using voice coil motors (VCMs)
Minimum focus distance • AF: 0.28 m (0.92 ft) from focal plane at all zoom positions
• MF: 0.25 m (0.82 ft) from focal plane at all zoom positions
Diaphragm blades
7 (rounded diaphragm opening)
Diaphragm
Fully automatic
Aperture range
• 18 mm focal length: f/3.5–22
• 55 mm focal length: f/5.6–36
The minimum aperture displayed may vary depending on the size of the
exposure increment selected with the camera.
Metering
Full aperture
Filter-attachment size 52 mm (P=0.75 mm)
Dimensions
Approx. 66 mm diameter × 59.5 mm (distance from camera lens-mount flange when
lens is retracted)
Weight
Approx. 195 g (6.9 oz)
Type
Focal length
Maximum aperture
Lens construction
Angle of view
Focal length scale
Distance information
Zoom
Focusing
n
Nikon reserves the right to change the specifications of the hardware and software described in this
manual at any time and without prior notice. Nikon will not be held liable for damages that may result from
any mistakes that this manual may contain.
77
A
AF-S DX NIKKOR 18–55mm f/3.5–5.6G VR II lens
The lens generally used in this manual for illustrative purposes is an AF-S DX NIKKOR
18–55mm f/3.5–5.6G VR II.
Focal length mark
Mounting mark (0 7)
Focal length scale
Retractable lens barrel button (0 8)
CPU contacts
Rear lens cap
A-M mode switch
Lens cap
Focus ring
Vibration reduction ON/OFF switch
Zoom ring
The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18–55mm f/3.5–5.6G VR II features a retractable lens barrel.
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A
Battery Life
The number of shots that can be taken with fully-charged batteries varies with the condition
of the battery, temperature, and how the camera is used. Sample figures for EN-EL14
(1030 mAh) batteries are given below.
• Single-frame release mode (CIPA standard 1): Approximately 540 shots
• Continuous release mode (Nikon standard 2): Approximately 1800 shots
1 Measured at 23 °C/73.4 °F (±2 °C/3.6 °F) with an AF-S DX NIKKOR 18–55mm
f/3.5–5.6G VR II lens under the following test conditions: lens cycled from infinity to
minimum range and one photograph taken at default settings once every 30 s; after
photograph is taken, monitor is turned on for 4 s; tester waits for standby timer to
expire after monitor is turned off; flash fired at full power once every other shot. Live
view not used.
2 Measured at 20 °C/68 °F with an AF-S DX NIKKOR 18–55mm f/3.5–5.6G VR II lens under
the following test conditions: vibration reduction off, continuous release mode, focus
mode set to AF-C, image quality set to JPEG basic, image size set to M (medium), white
balance set to v, ISO sensitivity set to ISO 100, shutter speed 1/250 s, focus cycled from
infinity to minimum range three times after shutter-release button has been pressed
halfway for 3 s; six shots are then taken in succession and monitor turned on for 4 s and
then turned off; cycle repeated once standby timer has expired.
The following can reduce battery life:
• Using the monitor
• Keeping the shutter-release button pressed halfway
• Repeated autofocus operations
• Taking NEF (RAW) photographs
• Slow shutter speeds
• Using a GP-1 GPS unit
• Using a WU-1a wireless mobile adapter
• Using VR (vibration reduction) mode with VR lenses
To ensure that you get the most from rechargeable Nikon EN-EL14 batteries:
• Keep the battery contacts clean. Soiled contacts can reduce battery performance.
• Use batteries immediately after charging. Batteries will lose their charge if left unused.
A
n
Trademark Information
IOS is a trademark or registered trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc., in the United States and/or
other countries and is used under license. Macintosh, Mac OS, and QuickTime are registered
trademarks of Apple Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft, Windows,
and Windows Vista are either registered trademarks, or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation
in the United States and/or other countries. PictBridge logo is a trademark. The SD, SDHC,
and SDXC logos are trademarks of the SD-3C, LLC. HDMI, the HDMI logo and High-Definition
Multimedia Interface are trademarks or registered trademarks of HDMI Licensing LLC.
All other trade names mentioned in this manual or the other documentation provided with
your Nikon product are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
79
Warranty Terms - Nikon Europe Service
Warranty
Dear Nikon Customer,
We thank you for your purchasing this Nikon product. Should your Nikon product
require warranty service, please contact the dealer from whom it was purchased or a
member of our authorized service network within the sales territory of Nikon Europe
BV (Europe/Africa and Russia).
In order to avoid any unnecessary inconvenience, we advise you to read the user
manuals carefully before contacting the dealer or our authorized service network.
Your Nikon equipment is guaranteed against any manufacturing defects for one full
year from the date of original purchase. If during this period of guarantee the product
proves defective due to improper material or workmanship, our authorized service
network within the sales territory of Nikon Europe BV will, without charge for labor
and parts, repair the product in the terms and conditions set as below. Nikon reserves
the right (at its sole discretion) to replace or repair the product.
1. This warranty is only provided upon presentation of the completed warranty card
and original invoice or purchase receipt indicating the date of purchase, product
type and dealer’s name, together with the product. Nikon reserves the right to
refuse free-of-charge warranty service if the above documents cannot be
presented or if the information contained in it is incomplete or illegible.
2. This warranty will not cover:
• necessary maintenance and repair or replacement of parts due to normal
wear and tear.
• modifications to upgrade the product from its normal purpose as described
in user manuals, without the prior written consent of Nikon.
• transport costs and all risks of transport relating directly or indirectly to the
warranty of the products.
• any damage resulting from modifications or adjustments which may be
made to the product, without the prior written consent of Nikon, in order to
comply with local or national technical standards in force in any other
country than the ones for which the product was originally designed and/or
manufactured.
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80
3. The warranty will not be applicable in the case of:
• damage caused by misuse including but not limited to failure to use the
product for its normal purpose or according to the user instructions on the
proper use and maintenance, and to installation or use of the product
inconsistent with the safety standards in force in the country where it is used.
• damage caused by accidents including but not limited to lightning, water,
fire, misuse or neglect.
• defacing, illegibility or removal of the model or serial number on the product.
• damage resulting from repairs or adjustments which have been conducted
by unauthorized service organizations or persons.
• defects in any system into which the product is incorporated or with which it
is used.
4. This service warranty does not affect the consumer’s statutory rights under
applicable national laws in force, nor the consumer’s right against the dealer
arising from their sales/purchase contract.
Notice: An overview of all authorized Nikon Service Stations can be found online by
following this Link (URL = http://www.europe-nikon.com/service/ ).
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No reproduction in any form of this manual, in whole or in part (except for brief quotation
in critical articles or reviews), may be made without written authorization from NIKON
CORPORATION.
DIGITAL CAMERA
User's Manual
Nikon User Support
Visit the site below to register your camera and keep up-to-date with the latest product
information. You will find answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs) and can contact us for
technical assistance.
http://www.europe-nikon.com/support
AMA15855
Printed in Europe
SB3K01(11)
6MB22911-01
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Use the Nikon Manual Viewer 2 app to view
manuals anytime, anywhere on your smartphone or
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