hp 49g+ graphing calculator user’s manual Preface You have in your hands a compact symbolic and numerical computer that will facilitate calculation and mathematical analysis of problems in a variety of disciplines, from elementary mathematics to advanced engineering and science subjects. The present Guide contains examples that illustrate the use of the basic calculator functions and operations. The chapters in this user’s manual are organized by subject in order of difficulty: from the setting of calculator modes, to real and complex number calculations, operations with lists, vectors, and matrices, graphics, calculus applications, vector analysis, differential equations, probability and statistics. For symbolic operations the calculator includes a powerful Computer Algebraic System (CAS), which lets you select different modes of operation, e.g., complex numbers vs. real numbers, or exact (symbolic) vs. approximate (numerical) mode. The display can be adjusted to provide textbook-type expressions, which can be useful when working with matrices, vectors, fractions, summations, derivatives, and integrals. The high-speed graphics of the calculator are very convenient for producing complex figures in very little time. Thanks to the infrared port and the USB cable available with your calculator, you can connect your calculator with other calculators or computers. The high-speed connection through infrared or USB allows the fast and efficient exchange of programs and data with other calculators or computers. The calculator provides flash memory card ports to facilitate storage and exchange of data with other users. We hope your calculator will become a faithful companion for your school and professional applications. Table of Contents Chapter 1 – Getting Started, 1-1 Basic Operations, 1-1 Batteries, 1-1 Turning the calculator on and off, 1-2 Adjusting the display contrast, 1-2 Contents of the calculator’s display, 1-2 Menus, 1-3 The TOOL menu, 1-3 Setting time and date, 1-4 Introducing the calculator’s keyboard, 1-4 Selecting calculator modes, 1-6 Operating mode, 1-7 Number Format and decimal dot or comma, 1-10 Standard format, 1-11 Fixed format with decimals, 1-11 Scientific format, 1-12 Engineering format, 1-13 Decimal comma vs. decimal point, 1-14 Angle Measure, 1-14 Coordinate System, 1-15 Selecting CAS settings, 1-16 Explanation of CAS settings, 1-17 Selecting Display modes,1-17 Selecting the display font, 1-18 Selecting properties of the line editor, 1-19 Selecting properties of the Stack, 1-20 Selecting properties of the equation writer (EQW), 1-21 References, 1-21 Chapter 2 – Introducing the calculator, 2-1 Calculator objects, 2-1 Editing expressions in the stack, 2-1 Creating arithmetic expressions, 2-1 Page TOC-1 Creating algebraic expressions, 2-4 Using the Equation Writer (EQW) to create expressions, 2-5 Creating arithmetic expressions, 2-5 Creating algebraic expressions, 2-8 Organizing data in the calculator, 2-9 The HOME directory, 2-9 Subdirectories, 2-9 Variables, 2-10 Typing variable names, 2-10 Creating variables, 2-11 Algebraic mode, 2-11 RPN mode, 2-13 Checking variables contents, 2-14 Algebraic mode, 2-14 RPN mode, 2-14 Using the right-shift key followed by soft menu key labels, 2-15 Listing the contents of all variables in the screen, 2-15 Deleting variables, 2-16 Using function PURGE in the stack in Algebraic mode, 2-16 Using function PURGE in the stack in RPN mode, 2-16 UNDO and CMD functions, 2-17 CHOOSE boxes vs. Soft MENU, 2-17 References, 2-20 Chapter 3 – Calculations with real numbers, 3-1 Examples of real number calculations, 3-1 Using power of 10 in entering data, 3-4 Real number functions in the MTH menu, 3-6 Using calculator menus, 3-6 Hyperbolic functions and their inverses, 3-6 Operations with units, 3-8 The UNITS menu, 3-8 Available units, 3-10 Attaching units to numbers, 3-11 Unit prefixes, 3-11 Operations with units, 3-12 Page TOC-2 Unit conversions, 3-14 Physical constants in the calculator, 3-14 Defining and using functions, 3-16 Reference, 3-18 Chapter 4 – Calculations with complex numbers, 4-1 Definitions, 4-1 Setting the calculator to COMPLEX mode, 4-1 Entering complex numbers, 4-2 Polar representation of a complex number, 4-2 Simple operations with complex numbers, 4-3 The CMPLX menus, 4-4 CMPLX menu through the MTH menu, 4-4 CMPLX menu in the keyboard, 4-5 Functions applied to complex numbers, 4-6 Function DROITE: equation of a straight line, 4-6 Reference, 4-7 Chapter 5 – Algebraic and arithmetic operations, 5-1 Entering algebraic objects, 5-1 Simple operations with algebraic objects, 5-2 Functions in the ALG menu, 5-4 Operations with transcendental functions, 5-6 Expansion and factoring using log-exp functions, 5-6 Expansion and factoring using trigonometric functions, 5-6 Functions in the ARITHMETIC menu, 5-7 Polynomials, 5-8 The HORNER function, 5-8 The variable VX, 5-9 The PCOEF function, 5-9 The PROOT function, 5-9 The QUOTIENT and REMAINDER functions, 5-9 The PEVAL function, 5-10 Fractions, 5-10 The SIMP2 function, 5-10 The PROPFRAC function, 5-11 Page TOC-3 The PARTFRAC function, 5-11 The FCOEF function, 5-11 The FROOTS function, 5-12 Step-by-step operations with polynomials and fractions, 5-12 Reference, 5-13 Chapter 6 – Solution to equations, 6-1 Symbolic solution of algebraic equations, 6-1 Function ISOL, 6-1 Function SOLVE, 6-2 Function SOLVEVX, 6-4 Function ZEROS, 6-4 Numerical solver menu, 6-5 Polynomial Equations, 6-6 Finding the solution to a polynomial equation, 6-6 Generating polynomial coefficients given the polynomial’s roots, 6-7 Generating an algebraic expression for the polynomial, 6-8 Financial calculations, 6-9 Solving equations with one unknown through NUM.SLV, 6-9 Function STEQ, 6-9 Solution to simultaneous equations with MSLV, 6-10 Reference, 6-12 Chapter 7 – Operations with lists, 7-1 Creating and storing lists, 7-1 Operations with lists of numbers, 7-1 Changing sign, 7-1 Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, 7-2 Functions applied to lists, 7-3 Lists of complex numbers, 7-4 Lists of algebraic objects, 7-4 The MTH/LIST menu, 7-4 The SEQ function, 7-6 The MAP function, 7-6 Reference, 7-6 Page TOC-4 Chapter 8 – Vectors, 8-1 Entering vectors, 8-1 Typing vectors in the stack, 8-1 Storing vectors into variables in the stack, 8-2 Using the matrix writer (MTRW) to enter vectors, 8-2 Simple operations with vectors, 8-5 Changing sign, 8-5 Addition, subtraction, 8-5 Multiplication by a scalar, and division by a scalar, 8-6 Absolute value function, 8-6 The MTH/VECTOR menu, 8-7 Magnitude, 8-7 Dot product, 8-7 Cross product, 8-8 Reference, 8-8 Chapter 9 – Matrices and linear algebra, 9-1 Entering matrices in the stack, 9-1 Using the matrix editor, 9-1 Typing the matrix directly into the stack, 9-2 Operations with matrices, 9-3 Addition and subtraction, 9-3 Multiplication, 9-4 Multiplication by a scalar, 9-4 Matrix-vector multiplication, 9-4 Matrix multiplication, 9-5 Term-by-term multiplication, 9-5 The identity matrix, 9-6 The inverse matrix, 9-6 Characterizing a matrix (The matrix NORM menu), 9-7 Function DET, 9-7 Function TRACE, 9-7 Solution of linear systems, 9-7 Using the numerical solver for linear systems, 9-8 Page TOC-5 Solution with the inverse matrix, 9-10 Solution by “division” of matrices, 9-10 References, 9-10 Chapter 10 – Graphics, 10-1 Graphs options in the calculator, 10-1 Plotting an expression of the form y = f(x), 10-2 Generating a table of values for a function, 10-3 Fast 3D plots, 10-5 Reference, 10-8 Chapter 11 – Calculus Applications, 11-1 The CALC (Calculus) menu, 11-1 Limits and derivatives, 11-1 Function lim, 11-1 Functions DERIV and DERVX, 11-2 Anti-derivatives and integrals, 11-3 Functions INT, INTVX, RISCH, SIGMA and SIGMAVX, 11-3 Definite integrals, 11-4 Infinite series, 11-4 Functions TAYLR, TAYLR0, and SERIES, 11-5 Reference, 11-6 Chapter 12 – Multi-variate Calculus Applications, 12-1 Partial derivatives, 12-1 Multiple integrals, 12-2 Reference, 12-2 Chapter 13 – Vector Analysis Applications, 13-1 The del operator, 13-1 Gradient, 13-1 Divergence, 13-2 Curl, 13-2 Reference, 13-2 Page TOC-6 Chapter 14 – Differential Equations, 14-1 The CALC/DIFF menu, 14-1 Solution to linear and non-linear equations, 14-1 Function LDEC, 14-2 Function DESOLVE, 14-3 The variable ODETYPE, 14-4 Laplace Transforms, 14-5 Laplace transforms and inverses in the calculator, 14-5 Fourier series, 14-6 Function FOURIER, 14-6 Fourier series for a quadratic function, 14-6 Reference, 14-8 Chapter 15 – Probability Distributions, 15-1 The MTH/PROBABILITY.. sub-menu – part 1, 15-1 Factorials, combinations, and permutations, 15-1 Random numbers, 15-2 The MTH/PROB menu – part 2, 15-3 The Normal distribution, 15-3 The Student-t distribution, 15-3 The Chi-square distribution, 15-4 The F distribution, 15-4 Reference, 15-4 Chapter 16 – Statistical Applications, 16-1 Entering data, 16-1 Calculating single-variable statistics, 16-1 Obtaining frequency distributions, 16-3 Fitting data to a function y = f(x), 16-4 Obtaining additional summary statistics, 16-6 Confidence intervals, 16-7 Hypothesis testing, 16-9 Reference, 16-11 Page TOC-7 Chapter 17 – Numbers in Different Bases, 17-1 The BASE menu, 17-1 Writing non-decimal numbers, 17-1 Reference, 17-2 Chapter 18 – Using SD cards, 18-1 Storing objects in the SD card, 18-1 Recalling an object from the SD card, 18-2 Purging an object from the SD card, 18-2 Limited Warranty – W-1 Service, W-2 Regulatory information, W-4 Page TOC-8 Chapter 1 Getting started This chapter is aimed at providing basic information in the operation of your calculator. The exercises are aimed at familiarizing yourself with the basic operations and settings before actually performing a calculation. Basic Operations The following exercises are aimed at getting you acquainted with the hardware of your calculator. Batteries The calculator uses 3 AAA batteries as main power and a CR2032 lithium battery for memory backup. Before using the calculator, please install the batteries according to the following procedure. To install the main batteries a. Slide up the battery compartment cover as illustrated. b. Insert 3 new AAA batteries into the main compartment. Make sure each battery is inserted in the indicated direction. To install the backup battery a. Press down the holder. Push the plate to the shown direction and lift it. Page 1-1 b. Insert a new CR2032 lithium battery. Make sure its positive (+) side is facing up. c. Replace the plate and push it to the original place. After installing the batteries, press [ON] to turn the power on. Warning: When the low battery icon is displayed, you need to replace the batteries as soon as possible. However, avoid removing the backup battery and main batteries at the same time to avoid data lost. Turning the calculator on and off The $ key is located at the lower left corner of the keyboard. Press it once to turn your calculator on. To turn the calculator off, press the red right-shift key @ (first key in the second row from the bottom of the keyboard), followed by the $ key. Notice that the $ key has a red OFF label printed in the upper right corner as a reminder of the OFF command. Adjusting the display contrast You can adjust the display contrast by holding the $ key while pressing the + or - keys. The $(hold) + key combination produces a darker display The $(hold) - key combination produces a lighter display Contents of the calculator’s display Turn your calculator on once more. At the top of the display you will have two lines of information that describe the settings of the calculator. The first line shows the characters: RAD XYZ HEX R= 'X' Page 1-2 For details on the meaning of these specifications see Chapter 2 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. The second line shows the characters { HOME } indicating that the HOME directory is the current file directory in the calculator’s memory. At the bottom of the display you will find a number of labels, namely, @EDIT @VIEW @@ RCL @@ @@[email protected] ! PURGE !CLEAR associated with the six soft menu keys, F1 through F6: ABCDEF The six labels displayed in the lower part of the screen will change depending on which menu is displayed. But A will always be associated with the first displayed label, B with the second displayed label, and so on. Menus The six labels associated with the keys A through F form part of a menu of functions. Since the calculator has only six soft menu keys, it only display 6 labels at any point in time. However, a menu can have more than six entries. Each group of 6 entries is called a Menu page. To move to the next menu page (if available), press the L (NeXT menu) key. This key is the third key from the left in the third row of keys in the keyboard. The TOOL menu The soft menu keys for the menu currently displayed, known as the TOOL menu, are associated with operations related to manipulation of variables (see section on variables in this Chapter): @EDIT A EDIT the contents of a variable (see Chapter 2 in this Guide Page 1-3 @VIEW @@ RCL @@ @@[email protected] ! PURGE CLEAR B C D E F and Chapter 2 and Appendix L in the User’s Guide for more information on editing) VIEW the contents of a variable ReCaLl the contents of a variable STOre the contents of a variable PURGE a variable CLEAR the display or stack These six functions form the first page of the TOOL menu. This menu has actually eight entries arranged in two pages. The second page is available by pressing the L (NeXT menu) key. This key is the third key from the left in the third row of keys in the keyboard. In this case, only the first two soft menu keys have commands associated with them. These commands are: @CASCM A @HELP B CASCMD: CAS CoMmanD, used to launch a command from the CAS by selecting from a list HELP facility describing the commands available in the calculator Pressing the L key will show the original TOOL menu. Another way to recover the TOOL menu is to press the I key (third key from the left in the second row of keys from the top of the keyboard). Setting time and date See Chapter 1 in the calculator’s User’s Guide to learn how to set time and date. Introducing the calculator’s keyboard The figure below shows a diagram of the calculator’s keyboard with the numbering of its rows and columns. Each key has three, four, or five functions. The main key function correspond to the most prominent label in the key. Also, the green left-shift key, key (8,1), the red right-shift key, key (9,1), and Page 1-4 the blue ALPHA key, key (7,1), can be combined with some of the other keys to activate the alternative functions shown in the keyboard. For example, the P key, key(4,4), has the following six functions associated with it: P „´ …N Main function, to activate the SYMBolic menu Left-shift function, to activate the MTH (Math) menu Right-shift function, to activate the CATalog function Page 1-5 ~p ~„p ~…p ALPHA function, to enter the upper-case letter P ALPHA-Left-Shift function, to enter the lower-case letter p ALPHA-Right-Shift function, to enter the symbol π Of the six functions associated with a key only the first four are shown in the keyboard itself. The figure in next page shows these four labels for the P key. Notice that the color and the position of the labels in the key, namely, SYMB, MTH, CAT and P, indicate which is the main function (SYMB), and which of the other three functions is associated with the left-shift „(MTH), right-shift … (CAT ), and ~ (P) keys. For detailed information on the calculator keyboard operation referee to Appendix B in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Selecting calculator modes This section assumes that you are now at least partially familiar with the use of choose and dialog boxes (if you are not, please refer to appendix A in the User’s Guide). Press the H button (second key from the left on the second row of keys from the top) to show the following CALCULATOR MODES input form: Page 1-6 Press the [email protected]@OK#@ F soft menu key to return to normal display. Examples of selecting different calculator modes are shown next. Operating Mode The calculator offers two operating modes: the Algebraic mode, and the Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) mode. The default mode is the Algebraic mode (as indicated in the figure above), however, users of earlier HP calculators may be more familiar with the RPN mode. To select an operating mode, first open the CALCULATOR MODES input form by pressing the H button. The Operating Mode field will be highlighted. Select the Algebraic or RPN operating mode by either using the \ key (second from left in the fifth row from the keyboard bottom), or pressing the @CHOOSE soft menu key ( B). If using the latter approach, use up and down arrow keys, — ˜, to select the mode, and press the [email protected]@OK#@ soft menu key to complete the operation. To illustrate the difference between these two operating modes we will calculate the following expression in both modes: 3.0 ⋅ 5.0 − 3.0 ⋅ 3.0 2.5 +e 23.0 1 3 To enter this expression in the calculator we will first use the equation writer, ‚O. Please identify the following keys in the keyboard, besides the numeric keypad keys: [email protected]#*+-/R Q¸Ü‚Oš™˜—` The equation writer is a display mode in which you can build mathematical expressions using explicit mathematical notation including fractions, derivatives, integrals, roots, etc. To use the equation writer for writing the expression shown above, use the following keystrokes: ‚OR3.*!Ü5.- Page 1-7 1./3.*3. ——————— /23.Q3™™™+!¸2.5` After pressing `the calculator displays the expression: √ (3.*(5.-1/(3.*3.))/(23.^3+EXP(2.5)) Pressing `again will provide the following value (accept Approx. mode on, if asked, by pressing [email protected]@OK#@): You could also type the expression directly into the display without using the equation writer, as follows: R!Ü3.*!Ü5.1/3.*3.™ /23.Q3+!¸2.5` to obtain the same result. Change the operating mode to RPN by first pressing the H button. Select the RPN operating mode by either using the \key, or pressing the @CHOOSE soft menu key. Press the [email protected]@OK#@ F soft menu key to complete the operation. The display, for the RPN mode looks as follows: Notice that the display shows several levels of output labeled, from bottom to top, as 1, 2, 3, etc. This is referred to as the stack of the calculator. The Page 1-8 different levels are referred to as the stack levels, i.e., stack level 1, stack level 2, etc. Basically, what RPN means is that, instead of writing an operation such as 3 + 2, in the calculator by using 3+2` we write first the operands, in the proper order, and then the operator, i.e., 3`2`+ As you enter the operands, they occupy different stack levels. Entering 3`puts the number 3 in stack level 1. Next, entering 2`pushes the 3 upwards to occupy stack level 2. Finally, by pressing +, we are telling the calculator to apply the operator, or program, + to the objects occupying levels 1 and 2. The result, 5, is then placed in level 1. Let's try some other simple operations before trying the more complicated expression used earlier for the algebraic operating mode: 123`32/ 4`2Q 27`[email protected]» 123/32 42 3 √27 Notice the position of the y and the x in the last two operations. The base in the exponential operation is y (stack level 2) while the exponent is x (stack level 1) before the key Q is pressed. Similarly, in the cubic root operation, y (stack level 2) is the quantity under the root sign, and x (stack level 1) is the root. Try the following exercise involving 3 factors: (5 + 3) × 2 5`3`+ 2X Calculates (5 +3) first. Completes the calculation. Let's try now the expression proposed earlier: Page 1-9 3 ⋅ 5 − 23 3` 5` 3` 3* Y * 23` 3Q / 2.5 !¸ + R 3⋅3 2.5 +e 1 3 Enter 3 in level 1 Enter 5 in level 1, 3 moves to level 2 Enter 3 in level 1, 5 moves to level 2, 3 to level 3 Place 3 and multiply, 9 appears in level 1 1/(3×3), last value in lev. 1; 5 in level 2; 3 in level 3 5 - 1/(3×3) , occupies level 1 now; 3 in level 2 3× (5 - 1/(3×3)), occupies level 1 now. Enter 23 in level 1, 14.66666 moves to level 2. Enter 3, calculate 233 into level 1. 14.666 in lev. 2. (3× (5-1/(3×3)))/233 into level 1 Enter 2.5 level 1 e2.5, goes into level 1, level 2 shows previous value. (3× (5 - 1/(3×3)))/233 + e2.5 = 12.18369, into lev. 1. √((3× (5 - 1/(3×3)))/233 + e2.5) = 3.4905156, into 1. To select between the ALG vs. RPN operating mode, you can also set/clear system flag 95 through the following keystroke sequence: H @)FLAGS —„—„—„ — @@[email protected] Number Format and decimal dot or comma Changing the number format allows you to customize the way real numbers are displayed by the calculator. You will find this feature extremely useful in operations with powers of tens or to limit the number of decimals in a result. To select a number format, first open the CALCULATOR MODES input form by pressing the H button. Then, use the down arrow key, ˜, to select the option Number format. The default value is Std, or Standard format. In the standard format, the calculator will show floating-point numbers with the maximum precision allowed by the calculator (12 significant digits). To learn Page 1-10 more about reals, see Chapter 2 in this Guide. To illustrate this and other number formats try the following exercises: • Standard format: This mode is the most used mode as it shows numbers in the most familiar notation. Press the [email protected]@OK#@ soft menu key, with the Number format set to Std, to return to the calculator display. Enter the number 123.4567890123456 (with16 significant figures). Press the ` key. The number is rounded to the maximum 12 significant figures, and is displayed as follows: • Fixed format with decimals: Press the H button. Next, use the down arrow key, ˜, to select the option Number format. Press the @CHOOSE soft menu key ( B), and select the option Fixed with the arrow down key ˜. Press the right arrow key, ™, to highlight the zero in front of the option Fix. Press the @CHOOSE soft menu key and, using the up and down arrow keys, —˜, select, say, 3 decimals. Page 1-11 Press the [email protected]@OK#@ soft menu key to complete the selection: Press the [email protected]@OK#@ soft menu key return to the calculator display. number now is shown as: The Notice how the number is rounded, not truncated. Thus, the number 123.4567890123456, for this setting, is displayed as 123.457, and not as 123.456 because the digit after 6 is > 5): • Scientific format To set this format, start by pressing the H button. Next, use the down arrow key, ˜, to select the option Number format. Press the @CHOOSE soft menu key ( B), and select the option Scientific with the arrow down key ˜. Keep the number 3 in front of the Sci. (This number can be changed in the same fashion that we changed the Fixed number of decimals in the example above). Press the [email protected]@OK#@ soft menu key return to the calculator display. number now is shown as: The Page 1-12 This result, 1.23E2, is the calculator’s version of powers-of-ten notation, i.e., 1.235 × 102. In this, so-called, scientific notation, the number 3 in front of the Sci number format (shown earlier) represents the number of significant figures after the decimal point. Scientific notation always includes one integer figure as shown above. For this case, therefore, the number of significant figures is four. • Engineering format The engineering format is very similar to the scientific format, except that the powers of ten are multiples of three. To set this format, start by pressing the H button. Next, use the down arrow key, ˜, to select the option Number format. Press the @CHOOSE soft menu key ( B), and select the option Engineering with the arrow down key ˜. Keep the number 3 in front of the Eng. (This number can be changed in the same fashion that we changed the Fixed number of decimals in an earlier example). Press the [email protected]@OK#@ soft menu key return to the calculator display. number now is shown as: The Because this number has three figures in the integer part, it is shown with four significative figures and a zero power of ten, while using the Engineering format. For example, the number 0.00256, will be shown as: Page 1-13 • Decimal comma vs. decimal point Decimal points in floating-point numbers can be replaced by commas, if the user is more familiar with such notation. To replace decimal points for commas, change the FM option in the CALCULATOR MODES input form to commas, as follows (Notice that we have changed the Number Format to Std): • Press the H button. Next, use the down arrow key, ˜, once, and the right arrow key, ™, twice, to highlight the option __FM,. To select commas, press the @CHECK soft menu key (i.e., the B key). The input form will look as follows: • Press the [email protected]@OK#@ soft menu key return to the calculator display. number 123.456789012, entered earlier, now is shown as: The Angle Measure Trigonometric functions, for example, require arguments representing plane angles. The calculator provides three different Angle Measure modes for working with angles, namely: • • Degrees: There are 360 degrees (360o) in a complete circumference. Radians: There are 2π radians (2π r) in a complete circumference. Page 1-14 • Grades: There are 400 grades (400 g) in a complete circumference. The angle measure affects the trig functions like SIN, COS, TAN and associated functions. To change the angle measure mode, use the following procedure: • Press the H button. Next, use the down arrow key, ˜, twice. Select the Angle Measure mode by either using the \key (second from left in the fifth row from the keyboard bottom), or pressing the @CHOOSE soft menu key ( B). If using the latter approach, use up and down arrow keys,— ˜, to select the preferred mode, and press the [email protected]@OK#@ F soft menu key to complete the operation. For example, in the following screen, the Radians mode is selected: Coordinate System The coordinate system selection affects the way vectors and complex numbers are displayed and entered. To learn more about complex numbers and vectors, see Chapters 4 and 8, respectively, in this Guide. There are three coordinate systems available in the calculator: Rectangular (RECT), Cylindrical (CYLIN), and Spherical (SPHERE). To change coordinate system: • Press the H button. Next, use the down arrow key, ˜, three times. Select the Coord System mode by either using the \ key (second from left in the fifth row from the keyboard bottom), or pressing the @CHOOSE soft menu key ( B). If using the latter approach, use up and down arrow keys,— ˜, to select the preferred mode, and press the [email protected]@OK#@ F soft menu key to complete the operation. For example, in the following screen, the Polar coordinate mode is selected: Page 1-15 Selecting CAS settings CAS stands for Computer Algebraic System. This is the mathematical core of the calculator where the symbolic mathematical operations and functions are programmed. The CAS offers a number of settings can be adjusted according to the type of operation of interest. To see the optional CAS settings use the following: • Press the H button to activate the CALCULATOR MODES input form. • To change CAS settings press the @@ [email protected]@ soft menu key. The default values of the CAS setting are shown below: • To navigate through the many options in the CAS MODES input form, use the arrow keys: š™˜—. • To select or deselect any of the settings shown above, select the underline before the option of interest, and toggle the @@[email protected]@ soft menu key until the right setting is achieved. When an option is selected, a check mark will be shown in the underline (e.g., the Rigorous and Simp Non-Rational Page 1-16 options above). Unselected options will show no check mark in the underline preceding the option of interest (e.g., the _Numeric, _Approx, _Complex, _Verbose, _Step/Step, _Incr Pow options above). • After having selected and unselected all the options that you want in the CAS MODES input form, press the @@@[email protected]@@ soft menu key. This will take you back to the CALCULATOR MODES input form. To return to normal calculator display at this point, press the @@@[email protected]@@ soft menu key once more. Explanation of CAS settings • • • • • • • • • • Indep var: The independent variable for CAS applications. Typically, VX = ‘X’. Modulo: For operations in modular arithmetic this variable holds the modulus or modulo of the arithmetic ring (see Chapter 5 in the calculator’s User’s Guide). Numeric: If set, the calculator produces a numeric, or floating-point result, in calculations. Approx: If set, Approximate mode used numerical results in calculations. If unchecked, the CAS is in Exact mode, which produces symbolic results in algebraic calculations. Complex: If set, complex number operations are active. If unchecked the CAS is in Real mode, i.e., real number calculations are the default. See Chapter 4 for operations with complex numbers. Verbose: If set, provides detailed information in certain CAS operations. Step/Step: If set, provides step-by-step results for certain CAS operations. Useful to see intermediate steps in summations, derivatives, integrals, polynomial operations (e.g., synthetic division), and matrix operations. Incr Pow: Increasing Power, means that, if set, polynomial terms are shown in increasing order of the powers of the independent variable. Rigorous: If set, calculator does not simplify the absolute value function |X| to X. Simp Non-Rational: If set, the calculator will try to simplify non-rational expressions as much as possible. Selecting Display modes Page 1-17 The calculator display can be customized to your preference by selecting different display modes. To see the optional display settings use the following: • First, press the H button to activate the CALCULATOR MODES input form. Within the CALCULATOR MODES input form, press the @@[email protected] soft menu key (D) to display the DISPLAY MODES input form. • To navigate through the many options in the DISPLAY MODES input form, use the arrow keys: š™˜—. • To select or deselect any of the settings shown above, that require a check mark, select the underline before the option of interest, and toggle the @@[email protected]@ soft menu key until the right setting is achieved. When an option is selected, a check mark will be shown in the underline (e.g., the Textbook option in the Stack: line above). Unselected options will show no check mark in the underline preceding the option of interest (e.g., the _Small, _Full page, and _Indent options in the Edit: line above). • To select the Font for the display, highlight the field in front of the Font: option in the DISPLAY MODES input form, and use the @CHOOSE soft menu key (B). • After having selected and unselected all the options that you want in the DISPLAY MODES input form, press the @@@[email protected]@@ soft menu key. This will take you back to the CALCULATOR MODES input form. To return to normal calculator display at this point, press the @@@[email protected]@@ soft menu key once more. Selecting the display font First, press the H button to activate the CALCULATOR MODES input form. Within the CALCULATOR MODES input form, press the @@[email protected] soft menu key Page 1-18 (D) to display the DISPLAY MODES input form. The Font: field is highlighted, and the option Ft8_0:system 8 is selected. This is the default value of the display font. Pressing the @CHOOSE soft menu key (B), will provide a list of available system fonts, as shown below: The options available are three standard System Fonts (sizes 8, 7, and 6) and a Browse.. option. The latter will let you browse the calculator memory for additional fonts that you may have created (see Chapter 23) or downloaded into the calculator. Practice changing the display fonts to sizes 7 and 6. Press the OK soft menu key to effect the selection. When done with a font selection, press the @@@[email protected]@@ soft menu key to go back to the CALCULATOR MODES input form. To return to normal calculator display at this point, press the @@@[email protected]@@ soft menu key once more and see how the stack display change to accommodate the different font. Selecting properties of the line editor First, press the H button to activate the CALCULATOR MODES input form. Within the CALCULATOR MODES input form, press the @@[email protected] soft menu key (D) to display the DISPLAY MODES input form. Press the down arrow key, ˜, once, to get to the Edit line. This line shows three properties that can be modified. When these properties are selected (checked) the following effects are activated: _Small _Full page _Indent Changes font size to small Allows to place the cursor after the end of the line Auto indent cursor when entering a carriage return Instructions on the use of the line editor are presented in Chapter 2 in this guide. Page 1-19 Selecting properties of the Stack First, press the H button to activate the CALCULATOR MODES input form. Within the CALCULATOR MODES input form, press the @@[email protected] soft menu key (D) to display the DISPLAY MODES input form. Press the down arrow key, ˜, once, to get to the Edit line. This line shows three properties that can be modified. When these properties are selected (checked) the following effects are activated: _Small Changes font size to small. This maximizes the amount of information displayed on the screen. Note, this selection overrides the font selection for the stack display. _Textbook Displays mathematical expressions in graphical mathematical notation To illustrate these settings, either in algebraic or RPN mode, use the equation writer to type the following definite integral: ‚O…Á0™„è™„¸\x™x` In Algebraic mode, the following screen shows the result of these keystrokes with neither _Small nor _Textbook are selected: With the _Small option selected only, the display looks as shown below: With the _Textbook option selected (default value), regardless of whether the _Small option is selected or not, the display shows the following result: Page 1-20 Selecting properties of the equation writer (EQW) First, press the H button to activate the CALCULATOR MODES input form. Within the CALCULATOR MODES input form, press the @@[email protected] soft menu key (D) to display the DISPLAY MODES input form. Press the down arrow key, ˜, three times, to get to the EQW (Equation Writer) line. This line shows two properties that can be modified. When these properties are selected (checked) the following effects are activated: _Small _Small Stack Disp Changes font size to small while using the equation editor Shows small font in the stack after using the equation editor Detailed instructions on the use of the equation editor (EQW) are presented elsewhere in this manual. For the example of the integral ∫ ∞ 0 e − X dX , presented above, selecting the _Small Stack Disp in the EQW line of the DISPLAY MODES input form produces the following display: References Additional references on the subjects covered in this Chapter can be found in Chapter 1 and Appendix C of the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 1-21 Chapter 2 Introducing the calculator In this chapter we present a number of basic operations of the calculator including the use of the Equation Writer and the manipulation of data objects in the calculator. Study the examples in this chapter to get a good grasp of the capabilities of the calculator for future applications. Calculator objects Some of the most commonly used objects are: reals (real numbers, written with a decimal point, e.g., -0.0023, 3.56), integers (integer numbers, written without a decimal point, e.g., 1232, -123212123), complex numbers (written as an ordered pair, e.g., (3,-2)), lists, etc. Calculator objects are described in Chapters 2 and 24 in the calculator’s user guide. Editing expressions in the stack In this section we present examples of expression editing directly into the calculator display or stack. Creating arithmetic expressions For this example, we select the Algebraic operating mode and select a Fix format with 3 decimals for the display. We are going to enter the arithmetic expression: 1.0 7.5 5.0 ⋅ 3.0 − 2.0 3 1.0 + To enter this expression use the following keystrokes: 5.*„Ü1.+1./7.5™/ „ÜR3.-2.Q3 The resulting expression is: 5*(1+1/7.5)/( ƒ3-2^3). Press ` to get the expression in the display as follows: Page 2-1 Notice that, if your CAS is set to EXACT (see Appendix C in User’s Guide) and you enter your expression using integer numbers for integer values, the result is a symbolic quantity, e.g., 5*„Ü1+1/7.5™/ „ÜR3-2Q3 Before producing a result, you will be asked to change to Approximate mode. Accept the change to get the following result (shown in Fix decimal mode with three decimal places – see Chapter 1): In this case, when the expression is entered directly into the stack, as soon as you press `, the calculator will attempt to calculate a value for the expression. If the expression is entered between quotes, however, the calculator will reproduce the expression as entered. For example: ³5*„Ü1+1/7.5™/ „ÜR3-2Q3` The result will be shown as follows: Page 2-2 To evaluate the expression we can use the EVAL function, as follows: µ„î If the CAS is set to Exact, you will be asked to approve changing the CAS setting to Approx. Once this is done, you will get the same result as before. An alternative way to evaluate the expression entered earlier between quotes is by using the option …ï. We will now enter the expression used above when the calculator is set to the RPN operating mode. We also set the CAS to Exact and the display to Textbook. The keystrokes to enter the expression between quotes are the same used earlier, i.e., …³5*„Ü1+1/7.5™/ „ÜR3-2Q3` Resulting in the output µ Press ` once more to keep two copies of the expression available in the stack for evaluation. We first evaluate the expression using the function EVAL, and next using the function NUM: . Page 2-3 ™…ï This expression is semi-symbolic in the sense that there are floating-point components to the result, as well as a √3. Next, we switch stack locations and evaluate using function NUM: . This latter result is purely numerical, so that the two results in the stack, although representing the same expression, seem different. To verify that they are not, we subtract the two values and evaluate this difference using function EVAL: . The result is zero (0.). -µ For additional information on editing arithmetic expressions in the display or stack, see Chapter 2 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Creating algebraic expressions Algebraic expressions include not only numbers, but also variable names. As an example, we will enter the following algebraic expression: x R +2L R+ y b 2L 1 + We set the calculator operating mode to Algebraic, the CAS to Exact, and the display to Textbook. To enter this algebraic expression we use the following keystrokes: 2*~l*R„Ü1+~„x/~r™/„ Ü ~r+~„y™+2*~l/~„b Press ` to get the following result: Page 2-4 Entering this expression when the calculator is set in the RPN mode is exactly the same as this Algebraic mode exercise. For additional information on editing algebraic expressions in the calculator’s display or stack see Chapter 2 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Using the Equation Writer (EQW) to create expressions The equation writer is an extremely powerful tool that not only let you enter or see an equation, but also allows you to modify and work/apply functions on all or part of the equation. The Equation Writer is launched by pressing the keystroke combination ‚O (the third key in the fourth row from the top in the keyboard). The resulting screen is the following. Press L to see the second menu page: The six soft menu keys for the Equation Writer activate functions EDIT, CURS, BIG, EVAL, FACTOR, SIMPLIFY, CMDS, and HELP. Detailed information on these functions is provided in Chapter 3 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. Creating arithmetic expressions Entering arithmetic expressions in the Equation Writer is very similar to entering an arithmetic expression in the stack enclosed in quotes. The main difference is that in the Equation Writer the expressions produced are written in “textbook” style instead of a line-entry style. For example, try the following keystrokes in the Equation Writer screen: 5/5+2 The result is the expression Page 2-5 The cursor is shown as a left-facing key. The cursor indicates the current edition location. For example, for the cursor in the location indicated above, type now: *„Ü5+1/3 The edited expression looks as follows: Suppose that you want to replace the quantity between parentheses in the denominator (i.e., 5+1/3) with (5+π2/2). First, we use the delete key (ƒ) delete the current 1/3 expression, and then we replace that fraction with π2/2, as follows: ƒƒƒ„ìQ2 When hit this point the screen looks as follows: In order to insert the denominator 2 in the expression, we need to highlight the entire π2 expression. We do this by pressing the right arrow key (™) once. At that point, we enter the following keystrokes: /2 Page 2-6 The expression now looks as follows: Suppose that now you want to add the fraction 1/3 to this entire expression, i.e., you want to enter the expression: 5 5 + 2 ⋅ (5 + π + 2 2 ) 1 3 First, we need to highlight the entire first term by using either the right arrow (™) or the upper arrow (—) keys, repeatedly, until the entire expression is highlighted, i.e., seven times, producing: NOTE: Alternatively, from the original position of the cursor (to the right of the 2 in the denominator of π2/2), we can use the keystroke combination ‚— , interpreted as (‚ ‘ ). Once the expression is highlighted as shown above, type +1/3 to add the fraction 1/3. Resulting in: Page 2-7 Creating algebraic expressions An algebraic expression is very similar to an arithmetic expression, except that English and Greek letters may be included. The process of creating an algebraic expression, therefore, follows the same idea as that of creating an arithmetic expression, except that use of the alphabetic keyboard is included. To illustrate the use of the Equation Writer to enter an algebraic equation we will use the following example. Suppose that we want to enter the expression: 2 3 λ + e − µ ⋅ LN x + 2 µ ⋅ ∆y θ 1/ 3 Use the following keystrokes: 2 / R3 ™™ * ~‚n + „¸\ ~‚m ™™ * ‚¹ ~„x + 2 * ~‚m * ~‚c ~„y ——— / ~‚t Q1/3 This results in the output: In this example we used several lower-case English letters, e.g., x ( ), several Greek letters, e.g., λ ( ), and even a combination of Greek and English letters, namely, ∆y (~‚c ~„y). Keep in mind that to enter a lower-case English letter, you need to use the combination: ~„ followed by the letter you want to enter. ~„x ~‚n Page 2-8 Also, you can always copy special characters by using the CHARS menu (…±) if you don’t want to memorize the keystroke combination that produces it. A listing of commonly used ~‚keystroke combinations was listed in an earlier section. For additional information on editing, evaluating, factoring, and simplifying algebraic expressions see Chapter 2 of the calculator’s User’s Manual. Organizing data in the calculator You can organize data in your calculator by storing variables in a directory tree. The basis of the calculator’s directory tree is the HOME directory described next. The HOME directory To get to the HOME directory, press the UPDIR function („§) -- repeat as needed -- until the {HOME} spec is shown in the second line of the display header. Alternatively, use (hold) . For this example, the HOME directory contains nothing but the CASDIR. Pressing will show the variables in the soft menu keys: „ § J Subdirectories To store your data in a well organized directory tree you may want to create subdirectories under the HOME directory, and more subdirectories within subdirectories, in a hierarchy of directories similar to folders in modern computers. The subdirectories will be given names that may reflect the contents of each subdirectory, or any arbitrary name that you can think off. For details on manipulation of directories see Chapter 2 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 2-9 Variables Variables are similar to files on a computer hard drive. One variable can store one object (numerical values, algebraic expressions, lists, vectors, matrices, programs, etc). Variables are referred to by their names, which can be any combination of alphabetic and numerical characters, starting with a letter (either English or Greek). Some non-alphabetic characters, such as the arrow (→) can be used in a variable name, if combined with an alphabetical character. Thus, ‘→A’ is a valid variable name, but ‘→’ is not. Valid examples of variable names are: ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘α’, ‘β’, ‘A1’, ‘AB12’, ‘ A12’,’Vel’,’Z0’,’z1’, etc. A variable can not have the same name as a function of the calculator. The reserved calculator variable names are the following: ALRMDAT, CST, EQ, EXPR, IERR, IOPAR, MAXR, MINR, PICT, PPAR, PRTPAR, VPAR, ZPAR, der_, e, i, n1,n2, …, s1, s2, …, ΣDAT, ΣPAR, π, ∞ Variables can be organized into sub-directories (see Chapter 2 in the calculator’s User’s Guide). Typing variable names To name variables, you will have to type strings of letters at once, which may or may not be combined with numbers. To type strings of characters you can lock the alphabetic keyboard as follows: ~~ locks the alphabetic keyboard in upper case. When locked in this fashion, pressing the „ before a letter key produces a lower case letter, while pressing the ‚ key before a letter key produces a special character. If the alphabetic keyboard is already locked in upper case, to lock it in lower case, type, „~ ~~„~ locks the alphabetic keyboard in lower case. When locked in this fashion, pressing the before a letter key produces an upper case letter. To unlock lower case, press „ „~ Page 2-10 To unlock the upper-case locked keyboard, press ~ Try the following exercises: ³~~math1~` ³~~m„a„t„h~` ³~~m„~at„h~` The calculator display will show the following (left-hand side is Algebraic mode, right-hand side is RPN mode): Creating variables K The simplest way to create a variable is by using the . The following examples are used to store the variables listed in the following table (Press if needed to see variables menu): J • Name Contents Type α A12 Q R z1 p1 -0.25 3×105 ‘r/(m+r)' [3,2,1] 3+5i << → r 'π*r^2' >> real real algebraic vector complex program Algebraic mode 0.25\ To store the value of –0.25 into variable α: . AT this point, the screen will look as follows: K ~‚a Page 2-11 ` Press to create the variable. The variable is now shown in the soft menu key labels: The following are the keystrokes required to enter the remaining variables: 3V5K~a12` Q: ³~„r/„Ü ~„m+~„r™™ K~q` R: „Ô3‚í2‚í1™ K~r` z1: 3+5*„¥ K~„z1` (Accept A12: change to Complex mode if asked). p1: ‚å‚é~„r³„ì* ~„rQ2™™™ K~„p1`.. The screen, at this point, will look as follows: You will see six of the seven variables listed at the bottom of the screen: p1, z1, R, Q, A12, α. Page 2-12 • RPN mode (Use I\@@[email protected]@ to change to RPN mode). Use the following keystrokes to store the value of –0.25 into variable α: . At this point, the screen will look as follows: 0.25\` ~‚a` This expression means that the value –0.25 is ready to be stored into α. Press to create the variable. The variable is now shown in the soft menu key labels: K To enter the value 3×105 into A12, we can use a shorter version of the procedure: 3V5³~a12` K Here is a way to enter the contents of Q: ³~„r/„Ü ~„m+~„r™™ ³~q` K Q: To enter the value of R, we can use an even shorter version of the procedure: R: „Ô3#2#1™ ³K Notice that to separate the elements of a vector in RPN mode we can use the space key ( ), rather than the comma ( ) used above in Algebraic mode. # z1: ‚í ³3+5*„¥ ³~„z1 K Page 2-13 ‚å‚é~„r³„ì* ~„rQ2™™™ ³ ~„p1™` K. p1: The screen, at this point, will look as follows: You will see six of the seven variables listed at the bottom of the screen: p1, z1, R, Q, A12, α. Checking variables contents The simplest way to check a variable content is by pressing the soft menu key label for the variable. For example, for the variables listed above, press the following keys to see the contents of the variables: Algebraic mode J Type these keystrokes: screen looks as follows: @@[email protected]@ ` @@@[email protected]@ ` @@@[email protected]@@ `. At this point, the RPN mode In RPN mode, you only need to press the corresponding soft menu key label to get the contents of a numerical or algebraic variable. For the case under consideration, we can try peeking into the variables z1, R, Q, A12, α, and A, created above, as follows: @@[email protected]@ @@@[email protected]@ @@@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ @@ª@@ J At this point, the screen looks like this: Page 2-14 ‚ J‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Using the right-shift key followed by soft menu key labels This approach for viewing the contents of a variable works the same in both Algebraic and RPN modes. Try the following examples in either mode: @@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ @@@[email protected]@ @@@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ This produces the following screen (Algebraic mode in the left, RPN in the right) Notice that this time the contents of program p1 are listed in the screen. To see the remaining variables in this directory, use: ‚@@@ª@@ L ‚ @@@[email protected]@ ‚˜ Listing the contents of all variables in the screen Use the keystroke combination to list the contents of all variables in the screen. For example: Press $ to return to normal calculator display. Page 2-15 Deleting variables I The simplest way of deleting variables is by using function PURGE. This function can be accessed directly by using the TOOLS menu ( ), or by using the FILES menu . „¡ @@[email protected]@ Using function PURGE in the stack in Algebraic mode Our variable list contains variables p1, z1, Q, R, and α. We will use command PURGE to delete variable p1. Press I J `. The screen will now show variable p1 removed: @[email protected] @@[email protected]@ You can use the PURGE command to erase more than one variable by placing their names in a list in the argument of PURGE. For example, if now we wanted to purge variables R and Q, simultaneously, we can try the following exercise. Press : I @[email protected] „ä³ J @@@[email protected]@ ™ ‚í ³ J @@@[email protected]@ At this point, the screen will show the following command ready to be executed: To finish deleting the variables, press remaining variables: `. The screen will now show the Using function PURGE in the stack in RPN mode ³ Assuming that our variable list contains the variables p1, z1, Q, R, and α. We will use command PURGE to delete variable p1. Press @@[email protected]@ ` I . The screen will now show variable p1 removed: @[email protected] Page 2-16 To delete two variables simultaneously, say variables R and Q, first create a list (in RPN mode, the elements of the list need not be separated by commas as in Algebraic mode): J „ä³ Then, press I @[email protected] @@@[email protected]@ ™ ³ @@@[email protected]@ ` use to purge the variables. Additional information on variable manipulation is available in Chapter 2 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. UNDO and CMD functions Functions UNDO and CMD are useful for recovering recent commands, or to revert an operation if a mistake was made. These functions are associated with the HIST key: UNDO results from the keystroke sequence , while CMD results from the keystroke sequence . „® ‚¯ CHOOSE boxes vs. Soft MENU In some of the exercises presented in this chapter we have seen menu lists of commands displayed in the screen. This menu lists are referred to as CHOOSE boxes. Herein we indicate the way to change from CHOSE boxes to Soft MENUs, and vice versa, through an exercise. Although not applied to a specific example, the present exercise shows the two options for menus in the calculator (CHOOSE boxes and soft MENUs). In this exercise, we use the ORDER command to reorder variables in a directory, we use: „°˜ Show PROG menu list and select MEMORY Page 2-17 @@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ ˜˜˜˜ —— Show the MEMORY menu list and select DIRECTORY Show the DIRECTORY menu list and select ORDER activate the ORDER command There is an alternative way to access these menus as soft MENU keys, by setting system flag 117. (For information on Flags see Chapters 2 and 24 in the calculator’s User’s Guide). To set this flag try the following: H ——————— @FLAGS! The screen shows flag 117 not set (CHOOSE boxes), as shown here: Page 2-18 Press the @CHECK! soft menu key to set flag 117 to soft MENU. The screen will reflect that change: Press twice to return to normal calculator display. „° Now, we’ll try to find the ORDER command using similar keystrokes to those used above, i.e., we start with . Notice that instead of a menu list, we get soft menu labels with the different options in the PROG menu, i.e., Press Press B E to select the MEMORY soft menu ()@@[email protected]@). The display now shows: to select the DIRECTORY soft menu ()@@[email protected]@) The ORDER command is not shown in this screen. To find it we use the key to find it: L Page 2-19 To activate the ORDER command we press the C (@ORDER) soft menu key. References For additional information on entering and manipulating expressions in the display or in the Equation Writer see Chapter 2 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. For CAS (Computer Algebraic System) settings, see Appendix C in the calculator’s User’s Guide. For information on Flags see, Chapter 24 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 2-20 Chapter 3 Calculations with real numbers This chapter demonstrates the use of the calculator for operations and functions related to real numbers. The user should be acquainted with the keyboard to identify certain functions available in the keyboard (e.g., SIN, COS, TAN, etc.). Also, it is assumed that the reader knows how to change the calculator’s operating system (Chapter 1), use menus and choose boxes (Chapter 1), and operate with variables (Chapter 2). Examples of real number calculations To perform real number calculations it is preferred to have the CAS set to Real (as opposed to Complex) mode. Exact mode is the default mode for most operations. Therefore, you may want to start your calculations in this mode. Some operations with real numbers are illustrated next: • Use the \ key for changing sign of a number. For example, in ALG mode, \2.5`. In RPN mode, e.g., 2.5\. • Use the Ykey to calculate the inverse of a number. For example, in ALG mode, Y2`. In RPN mode use 4`Y. • For addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, use the proper operation key, namely, + - * /. Examples in ALG mode: 3.7 + 5.2 ` 6.3 - 8.5 ` 4.2 * 2.5 ` 2.3 / 4.5 ` Examples in RPN mode: 3.7` 5.2 + Page 3-1 6.3` 4.2` 8.5 2.5 * 2.3` 4.5 / Alternatively, in RPN mode, you can separate the operands with a space (#) before pressing the operator key. Examples: 3.7#5.2 + 6.3#8.5 4.2#2.5 * 2.3#4.5 / • Parentheses („Ü) can be used to group operations, as well as to enclose arguments of functions. In ALG mode: „Ü5+3.2™/„Ü72.2` In RPN mode, you do not need the parenthesis, calculation is done directly on the stack: 5`3.2`+7`2.2`-/ In RPN mode, typing the expression between quotes will allow you to enter the expression like in algebraic mode: ³„Ü5+3.2/ „Ü72.2`µ For both, ALG and RPN modes, using the Equation Writer: ‚O5+3.2™/7-2.2 The expression can be evaluated within the Equation writer, by using ————@[email protected] • or, ‚—@[email protected] The absolute value function, ABS, is available through Example in ALG mode: „Ê. Page 3-2 „Ê \2.32` Example in RPN mode: 2.32\„Ê • The square function, SQ, is available through Example in ALG mode: „º. „º\2.3` Example in RPN mode: 2.3\„º The square root function, √, is available through the R key. When calculating in the stack in ALG mode, enter the function before the argument, e.g., R123.4` In RPN mode, enter the number first, then the function, e.g., 123.4R • The power function, ^, is available through the Q key. When calculating in the stack in ALG mode, enter the base (y) followed by the Q key, and then the exponent (x), e.g., 5.2Q1.25 In RPN mode, enter the number first, then the function, e.g., 5.2`1.25Q • The root function, XROOT(y,x), is available through the keystroke combination ‚». When calculating in the stack in ALG mode, Page 3-3 enter the function XROOT followed by the arguments (y,x), separated by commas, e.g., ‚»3‚í 27` In RPN mode, enter the argument y, first, then, x, and finally the function call, e.g., 27`3‚» • Logarithms of base 10 are calculated by the keystroke combination ‚Ã (function LOG) while its inverse function (ALOG, or antilogarithm) is calculated by using „Â. In ALG mode, the function is entered before the argument: ‚Ã2.45` „Â\2.3` In RPN mode, the argument is entered before the function 2.45 ‚Ã 2.3\ „Â Using powers of 10 in entering data Powers of ten, i.e., numbers of the form -4.5×10-2, etc., are entered by using the V key. For example, in ALG mode: \4.5V\2` Or, in RPN mode: 4.5\V2\` • Natural logarithms are calculated by using ‚¹ (function LN) while the exponential function (EXP) is calculated by using „¸. In ALG mode, the function is entered before the argument: ‚¹2.45` „¸\2.3` In RPN mode, the argument is entered before the function Page 3-4 2.45` ‚¹ 2.3\` „¸ • Three trigonometric functions are readily available in the keyboard: sine (S), cosine (T), and tangent (U). Arguments of these functions are angles in either degrees, radians, grades. The following examples use angles in degrees (DEG): In ALG mode: S30` T45` U135` In RPN mode: 30S 45T 135U • The inverse trigonometric functions available in the keyboard are the arcsine („¼), arccosine („¾), and arctangent („À). The answer from these functions will be given in the selected angular measure (DEG, RAD, GRD). Some examples are shown next: In ALG mode: „¼0.25` „¾0.85` „À1.35` In RPN mode: 0.25„¼ 0.85„¾ 1.35„À All the functions described above, namely, ABS, ABS, SQ, √, ^, XROOT, LOG, ALOG, LN, EXP, SIN, COS, TAN, ASIN, ACOS, ATAN, can be combined with the fundamental operations (+-*/) to form more complex expressions. The Equation Writer, whose operations is described in Chapter 2, is ideal for building such expressions, regardless of the calculator operation mode. Page 3-5 Real number functions in the MTH menu The MTH („´) menu include a number of mathematical functions mostly applicable to real numbers. With the default setting of CHOOSE boxes for system flag 117 (see Chapter 2), the MTH menu shows the following functions: The functions are grouped by the type of argument (1. vectors, 2. matrices, 3. lists, 7. probability, 9. complex) or by the type of function (4. hyperbolic, 5. real, 6. base, 8. fft). It also contains an entry for the mathematical constants available in the calculator, entry 10. In general, be aware of the number and order of the arguments required for each function, and keep in mind that, in ALG mode you should select first the function and then enter the argument, while in RPN mode, you should enter the argument in the stack first, and then select the function. Using calculator menus: 1. We will describe in detail the use of the 4. HYPERBOLIC.. menu in this section with the intention of describing the general operation of calculator menus. Pay close attention to the process for selecting different options. 2. To quickly select one of the numbered options in a menu list (or CHOOSE box), simply press the number for the option in the keyboard. For example, to select option 4. HYPERBOLIC.. in the MTH menu, simply press . 4 Hyperbolic functions and their inverses Selecting Option 4. HYPERBOLIC.. , in the MTH menu, and pressing produces the hyperbolic function menu: @@[email protected]@ , Page 3-6 For example, in ALG mode, the keystroke sequence to calculate, say, tanh(2.5), is the following: „´4 @@[email protected]@ 5 @@[email protected]@ 2.5` In the RPN mode, the keystrokes to perform this calculation are the following: 2.5`„´4 @@[email protected]@ 5 @@[email protected]@ The operations shown above assume that you are using the default setting for system flag 117 (CHOOSE boxes). If you have changed the setting of this flag (see Chapter 2) to SOFT menu, the MTH menu will show as follows (left-hand side in ALG mode, right –hand side in RPN mode): Pressing L shows the remaining options: Thus, to select, for example, the hyperbolic functions menu, with this menu format press )@@[email protected] , to produce: Page 3-7 Finally, in order to select, for example, the hyperbolic tangent (tanh) function, simply press @@[email protected] „« Note: To see additional options in these soft menus, press the the keystroke sequence. L key or For example, to calculate tanh(2.5), in the ALG mode, when using SOFT menus over CHOOSE boxes, follow this procedure: „´ 2.5` 2.5`„´ @@[email protected] @@[email protected] In RPN mode, the same value is calculated using: )@@[email protected] @@[email protected] As an exercise of applications of hyperbolic functions, verify the following values: sinh (2.5) = 6.05020.. sinh-1(2.0) = 1.4436… cosh (2.5) = 6.13228.. acosh-1(2.0) = 1.3169… tanh (2.5) = 0.98661.. tanh-1(0.2) = 0.2027… expm(2.0) = 6.38905…. lnp1(1.0) = 0.69314…. Operations with units Numbers in the calculator can have units associated with them. Thus, it is possible to calculate results involving a consistent system of units and produce a result with the appropriate combination of units. The UNITS menu 6 ‚Û The units menu is launched by the keystroke combination (associated with the key). With system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes, the result is the following menu: Page 3-8 Option 1. Tools.. contains functions used to operate on units (discussed later). Options 3. Length.. through 17.Viscosity.. contain menus with a number of units for each of the quantities described. For example, selecting option 8. Force.. shows the following units menu: The user will recognize most of these units (some, e.g., dyne, are not used very often nowadays) from his or her physics classes: N = newtons, dyn = dynes, gf = grams – force (to distinguish from gram-mass, or plainly gram, a unit of mass), kip = kilo-poundal (1000 pounds), lbf = pound-force (to distinguish from pound-mass), pdl = poundal. To attach a unit object to a number, the number must be followed by an underscore. Thus, a force of 5 N will be entered as 5_N. For extensive operations with units SOFT menus provide a more convenient way of attaching units. Change system flag 117 to SOFT menus (see Chapter 1), and use the keystroke combination to get the following menus. Press to move to the next menu page. L ‚Û Page 3-9 Pressing on the appropriate soft menu key will open the sub-menu of units for that particular selection. For example, for the @)SPEED sub-menu, the following units are available: Pressing the soft menu key @)UNITS will take you back to the UNITS menu. ‚˜ Recall that you can always list the full menu labels in the screen by using , e.g., for the @)ENRG set of units the following labels will be listed: L Note: Use the key or the through the menus. „« keystroke sequence to navigate Available units For a complete list of available units see Chapter 3 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 3-10 Attaching units to numbers ‚Ý To attach a unit object to a number, the number must be followed by an underscore ( , key(8,5)). Thus, a force of 5 N will be entered as 5_N. Here is the sequence of steps to enter this number in ALG mode, system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes: 5‚Ý ‚Û 8 @@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ ` Note: If you forget the underscore, the result is the expression 5*N, where N here represents a possible variable name and not Newtons. To enter this same quantity, with the calculator in RPN mode, use the following keystrokes: 5‚Û8 @@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ Notice that the underscore is entered automatically when the RPN mode is active. The keystroke sequences to enter units when the SOFT menu option is selected, in both ALG and RPN modes, are illustrated next. For example, in ALG mode, to enter the quantity 5_N use: 5‚Ý ‚ÛL @)@FORCE @ @@[email protected]@ ` The same quantity, entered in RPN mode uses the following keystrokes: 5‚ÛL @)@FORCE @ @@[email protected]@ Note: You can enter a quantity with units by typing the underline and units with the ~keyboard, e.g., 5‚Ý~n will produce the entry: 5_N Unit prefixes You can enter prefixes for units according to the following table of prefixes from the SI system. The prefix abbreviation is shown first, followed by its name, and by the exponent x in the factor 10x corresponding to each prefix: Page 3-11 ____________________________________________________ Prefix Name x Prefix Name x ____________________________________________________ Y yotta +24 d deci -1 Z zetta +21 c centi -2 E exa +18 m milli -3 P peta +15 µ micro -6 T tera +12 n nano -9 G giga +9 p pico -12 M mega +6 f femto -15 k,K kilo +3 a atto -18 h,H hecto +2 z zepto -21 D(*) deka +1 y yocto -24 _____________________________________________________ (*) In the SI system, this prefix is da rather than D. Use D for deka in the calculator, however. To enter these prefixes, simply type the prefix using the example, to enter 123 pm (picometer), use: ~ keyboard. For 123‚Ý~„p~„m Using UBASE to convert to the default unit (1 m) results in: Operations with units Here are some calculation examples using the ALG operating mode. Be warned that, when multiplying or dividing quantities with units, you must enclosed each quantity with its units between parentheses. Thus, to enter, for example, the product 12m × 1.5 yd, type it to read (12_m)*(1.5_yd) : ` Page 3-12 which shows as 65_(m⋅yd). To convert to units of the SI system, use function UBASE (find it using the command catalog, ): ‚N Note: Recall that the ANS(1) variable is available through the keystroke combination „î(associated with the ` key). To calculate a division, say, 3250 mi / 50 h, enter it as (3250_mi)/(50_h) ` which transformed to SI units, with function UBASE, produces: Addition and subtraction can be performed, in ALG mode, without using parentheses, e.g., 5 m + 3200 mm, can be entered simply as 5_m + 3200_mm `. More complicated expression require the use of parentheses, e.g., (12_mm)*(1_cm^2)/(2_s) `: Stack calculations in the RPN mode, do not require you to enclose the different terms in parentheses, e.g., 12_m ` 1.5_yd ` 3250_mi ` 50_h ` * / Page 3-13 These operations produce the following output: Unit conversions The UNITS menu contains a TOOLS sub-menu, which provides the following functions: CONVERT(x,y): UBASE(x): UVAL(x): UFACT(x,y): UNIT(x,y): convert unit object x to units of object y convert unit object x to SI units extract the value from unit object x factors a unit x from unit object x combines value of x with units of y Examples of function CONVERT are shown below. Examples of the other UNIT/TOOLS functions are available in Chapter 3 of the calculator’s User’s Manual. For example, to convert 33 watts to btu’s use either of the following entries: CONVERT(33_W,1_hp) CONVERT(33_W,11_hp) `` Physical constants in the calculator The calculator’s physical constants are contained in a constants library activated with the command CONLIB. To launch this command you could simply type it in the stack: , or, you can select the command CONLIB from the command catalog, as follows: First, launch the catalog by using: . Next, use the up and down arrow keys to select CONLIB. Finally, press the (@@[email protected]@) soft menu key. Press , if needed. Use the up and down arrow keys ( ) to navigate through the list of constants in your calculator. —˜ ` ~~conlib~` ‚N~c F —˜ Page 3-14 The soft menu keys corresponding to this CONSTANTS LIBRARY screen include the following functions: SI ENGL UNIT VALUE STK QUIT when selected, constants values are shown in SI units (*) when selected, constants values are shown in English units (*) when selected, constants are shown with units attached when selected, constants are shown without units copies value (with or without units) to the stack exit constants library (*) Activated only if the VALUE option is selected. This is the way the top of the CONSTANTS LIBRARY screen looks when the option VALUE is selected (units in the SI system): To see the values of the constants in the English (or Imperial) system, press the option: @ENGL If we de-select the UNITS option (press (English units selected in this case): @UNITS ) only the values are shown Page 3-15 To copy the value of Vm to the stack, select the variable name, and press !²STK, then, press @[email protected] For the calculator set to the ALG, the screen will look like this: The display shows what is called a tagged value, Vm:359.0394. In here, Vm, is the tag of this result. Any arithmetic operation with this number will ignore the tag. Try, for example: ‚¹2*„î ` which produces: The same operation in RPN mode will require the following keystrokes (after the value of Vm was extracted from the constants library): 2`*‚¹ Defining and using functions Users can define their own functions by using the DEFINE command available thought the keystroke sequence „à (associated with the 2 key). The function must be entered in the following format: Function_name(arguments) = expression_containing_arguments For example, we could define a simple function H(x) = ln(x+1) + exp(-x) Suppose that you have a need to evaluate this function for a number of discrete values and, therefore, you want to be able to press a single button Page 3-16 and get the result you want without having to type the expression in the righthand side for each separate value. In the following example, we assume you have set your calculator to ALG mode. Enter the following sequence of keystrokes: „à³~h„Ü~„x™‚Å ‚¹~„x+1™+„¸~„x` The screen will look like this: ‚ Press the J key, and you will notice that there is a new variable in your soft menu key (@@@[email protected]@). To see the contents of this variable press @@@[email protected]@. The screen will show now: Thus, the variable H contains a program defined by: << x ‘LN(x+1) + EXP(x)’ >> This is a simple program in the default programming language of the HP 48 G series, and also incorporated in the HP 49 G series. This programming language is called UserRPL (See Chapters 20 and 21 in the calculator’s User’s Guide). The program shown above is relatively simple and consists of two parts, contained between the program containers << >>: • • Input: Process: x x ‘LN(x+1) + EXP(x) ‘ This is to be interpreted as saying: enter a value that is temporarily assigned to the name x (referred to as a local variable), evaluate the expression Page 3-17 between quotes that contain that local variable, and show the evaluated expression. „Ü2` To activate the function in ALG mode, type the name of the function followed by the argument between parentheses, e.g., . Some examples are shown below: @@@[email protected]@@ 2` 1.2` 2/3` In the RPN mode, to activate the function enter the argument first, then press the soft menu key corresponding to the variable name . For example, you could try: . The other examples shown above can be entered by using: , . @@@[email protected]@@ @@@[email protected]@@ @@@[email protected]@@ @@@[email protected]@@ Reference Additional information on operations with real numbers with the calculator is contained in Chapter 3 of the User’s Manual. Page 3-18 Chapter 4 Calculations with complex numbers This chapter shows examples of calculations and application of functions to complex numbers. Definitions A complex number z is written as z = x + iy, (Cartesian representation) where x and y are real numbers, and i is the imaginary unit defined by i2 = -1. The number has a real part, x = Re(z), and an imaginary part, y = Im(z). The polar representation of a complex number is z = re iθ = r⋅cosθ + i r⋅sinθ, where r = |z| = x 2 + y 2 is the magnitude of the complex number z, and θ = Arg(z) = arctan(y/x) is the argument of the complex number z. The complex conjugate of a complex number z = x + iy = re iθ, isz = x – iy = re iθ . The negative of z, –z = -x-iy = - re iθ, can be thought of as the reflection of z about the origin. Setting the calculator to COMPLEX mode H 2˜˜™ To work with complex numbers select the CAS complex mode: )@@[email protected] @@[email protected] The COMPLEX mode will be selected if the CAS MODES screen shows the option _Complex checked off, i.e., Press @@[email protected]@ , twice, to return to the stack. Page 4-1 Entering complex numbers Complex numbers in the calculator can be entered in either of the two Cartesian representations, namely, x+iy, or (x,y). The results in the calculator will be shown in the ordered-pair format, i.e., (x,y). For example, with the calculator in ALG mode, the complex number (3.5,-1.2), is entered as: „Ü3.5‚í\1.2` A complex number can also be entered in the form x+iy. For example, in ALG mode, 3.5-1.2i is entered as: 3.5 -1.2*‚¥` In RPN mode, these numbers will be entered using the following keystrokes: „Ü3.5‚í1.\` (Notice that the change-sign keystroke is entered after the number 1.2 has been entered, in the opposite order as the ALG mode exercise), and ³3.5 -1.2*‚¥` (Notice the need to enter an apostrophe before typing the number 3.5-1.2i in RPN mode). To enter the unit imaginary number type : „¥(the I key). Polar representation of a complex number The polar representation of the complex number 3.5-1.2i, entered above, is obtained by changing the coordinate system to cylindrical or polar (using function CYLIN). You can find this function in the catalog (‚N). Press µ before or after using CYLIN. Changing to polar shows, and changing the angular measure to radians, produces the result: Page 4-2 The result shown above represents a magnitude, 3.7, and an angle 0.33029…. The angle symbol (∠) is shown in front of the angle measure. Return to Cartesian or rectangular coordinates by using function RECT (available in the catalog, ‚N). A complex number in polar representation is written as z = r⋅eiθ. You can enter this complex number into the calculator by using an ordered pair of the form (r, ∠θ). The angle symbol (∠) can be entered as ~‚6. For example, the complex number z = 5.2e1.5i, can be entered as follows (the figures show the RPN stack, before and after entering the number): Because the coordinate system is set to rectangular (or Cartesian), the calculator automatically converts the number entered to Cartesian coordinates, i.e., x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ, resulting, for this case, in (0.3678…, 5.18…). On the other hand, if the coordinate system is set to cylindrical coordinates (use CYLIN), entering a complex number (x,y), where x and y are real numbers, will produce a polar representation. For example, in cylindrical coordinates, enter the number (3.,2.). The figure below shows the RPN stack, before and after entering this number: Simple operations with complex numbers Complex numbers can be combined using the four fundamental operations (+-*/). The results follow the rules of algebra with the caveat that i2= -1. Operations with complex numbers are similar to those with real numbers. For example, with the calculator in ALG mode and the CAS set to Complex, try the following operations: Page 4-3 (3+5i) + (6-3i) = (9,2); (5-2i) - (3+4i) = (2,-6) (3-i)·(2-4i) = (2,-14); (5-2i)/(3+4i) = (0.28,-1.04) 1/(3+4i) = (0.12, -0.16) ; -(5-3i) = -5 + 3i The CMPLX menus ‚ß There are two CMPLX (CoMPLeX numbers) menus available in the calculator. One is available through the MTH menu (introduced in Chapter 3) and one directly into the keyboard ( ). The two CMPLX menus are presented next. CMPLX menu through the MTH menu Assuming that system flag 117 is set to CHOOSE boxes (see Chapter 2), the CMPLX sub-menu within the MTH menu is accessed by using: „´9 @@[email protected]@ . The functions available are the following: The first menu (options 1 through 6) shows the following functions: RE(z) : Real part of a complex number IM(z) : Imaginary part of a complex number C→R(z) : Separates a complex number into its real and imaginary parts R→C(x,y): Forms the complex number (x,y) out of real numbers x and y ABS(z) : Calculates the magnitude of a complex number. ARG(z): Calculates the argument of a complex number. SIGN(z) : Calculates a complex number of unit magnitude as z/|z|. NEG(z) : Changes the sign of z Page 4-4 CONJ(z): Produces the complex conjugate of z Examples of applications of these functions are shown next. Recall that, for ALG mode, the function must precede the argument, while in RPN mode, you enter the argument first, and then select the function. Also, recall that you can get these functions as soft menu labels by changing the setting of system flag 117 (See Chapter 3). CMPLX menu in the keyboard A second CMPLX menu is accessible by using the right-shift option associated with the 1 key, i.e., ‚ß. With system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes, the keyboard CMPLX menu shows up as the following screens: The resulting menu include some of the functions already introduced in the previous section, namely, ARG, ABS, CONJ, IM, NEG, RE, and SIGN. It also includes function i which serves the same purpose as the keystroke combination „¥. Page 4-5 Functions applied to complex numbers Many of the keyboard-based functions and MTH menu functions defined in Chapter 3 for real numbers (e.g., SQ, ,LN, ex, etc.), can be applied to complex numbers. The result is another complex number, as illustrated in the following examples. Note: When using trigonometric functions and their inverses with complex numbers the arguments are no longer angles. Therefore, the angular measure selected for the calculator has no bearing in the calculation of these functions with complex arguments. Function DROITE: equation of a straight line Function DROITE takes as argument two complex numbers, say, x1+iy1 and x2+iy2, and returns the equation of the straight line, say, y = a+bx, that contains the points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2). For example, the line between points A(5,-3) and B(6,2) can be found as follows (example in Algebraic mode): Page 4-6 ‚N Function DROITE is found in the command catalog ( ). Reference Additional information on complex number operations is presented in Chapter 4 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 4-7 Chapter 5 Algebraic and arithmetic operations An algebraic object, or simply, algebraic, is any number, variable name or algebraic expression that can be operated upon, manipulated, and combined according to the rules of algebra. Examples of algebraic objects are the following: • A number: 12.3, 15.2_m, ‘π’, ‘e’, ‘i’ • A variable name: ‘a’, ‘ux’, ‘width’, etc. • An expression: • An equation: ‘p*D^2/4’,’f*(L/D)*(V^2/(2*g))’, ‘p*V = n*R*T’, ‘Q=(Cu/n)*A(y)*R(y)^(2/3)*√So’ Entering algebraic objects Algebraic objects can be created by typing the object between single quotes directly into stack level 1 or by using the equation writer [EQW]. For example, to enter the algebraic object ‘π*D^2/4’ directly into stack level 1 use: ³„ì*~dQ2/4` An algebraic object can also be built in the Equation Writer and then sent to the stack, or operated upon in the Equation Writer itself. The operation of the Equation Writer was described in Chapter 2. As an exercise, build the following algebraic object in the Equation Writer: Page 5-1 After building the object, press to show it in the stack (ALG and RPN modes shown below): Simple operations with algebraic objects Algebraic objects can be added, subtracted, multiplied, divided (except by zero), raised to a power, used as arguments for a variety of standard functions (exponential, logarithmic, trigonometry, hyperbolic, etc.), as you would any real or complex number. To demonstrate basic operations with algebraic objects, let’s create a couple of objects, say ‘π*R^2’ and ‘g*t^2/4’, and store them in variables A1 and A2 (See Chapter 2 to learn how to create variables and store values in them). Here are the keystrokes for storing variables A1 in ALG mode: ³„ì*~rQ™ K ~a1 ` resulting in: The keystrokes corresponding to RPN mode are: ³„ì*~rQ`~a1 K After storing the variable A2 and pressing the key, the screen will show the variables as follows: Page 5-2 In ALG mode, the following keystrokes will show a number of operations with the algebraics contained in variables @@[email protected]@ and @@[email protected]@ (press J to recover variable menu): @@[email protected]@ + @@[email protected]@ ` @@[email protected]@ + @@[email protected]@ ` @@[email protected]@ 8 @@[email protected]@ ` @@[email protected]@ / @@[email protected]@ ` ‚¹@@[email protected]@ „¸v The same results are obtained in RPN mode if using the following keystrokes: @@[email protected]@ ` @@[email protected]@ `+ @@[email protected]@ `@@[email protected]@ ` - @@[email protected]@ `@@[email protected]@ `* @@[email protected]@ `@@[email protected]@ ` / @@[email protected]@ ` ‚¹ @@[email protected]@ `„¸ Page 5-3 Functions in the ALG menu The ALG (Algebraic) menu is available by using the keystroke sequence ‚× (associated with the ‚ key). With system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes, the ALG menu shows the following functions: IL Rather than listing the description of each function in this manual, the user is invited to look up the description using the calculator’s help facility: . To locate a particular function, type the first letter of the function. For example, for function COLLECT, we type , then use the up and down arrow keys, , to locate COLLECT within the help window. @)[email protected] ` ~c —˜ To complete the operation press COLLECT: @@[email protected]@ . Here is the help screen for function We notice that, at the bottom of the screen, the line See: EXPAND FACTOR suggests links to other help facility entries, the functions EXPAND and FACTOR. To move directly to those entries, press the soft menu key for EXPAND, and for FACTOR. Pressing , for example, shows the following information for EXPAND, while shows information for FACTOR: @SEE1! @SEE2! @SEE1! @SEE2! Page 5-4 Copy the examples provided onto your stack by pressing . For example, for the EXPAND entry shown above, press the soft menu key to get the following example copied to the stack (press to execute the command): ` @ECHO! @ECHO! Thus, we leave for the user to explore the applications of the functions in the ALG (or ALGB) menu. This is a list of the commands: For example, for function SUBST, we find the following CAS help facility entry: Note: Recall that, to use these, or any other functions in the RPN mode, you must enter the argument first, and then the function. For example, the example for TEXPAND, in RPN mode will be set up as: ³„¸+~x+~y` At this point, select function TEXPAND from menu ALG (or directly from the catalog ‚N), to complete the operation. Page 5-5 Operations with transcendental functions The calculator offers a number of functions that can be used to replace expressions containing logarithmic and exponential functions („Ð), as well as trigonometric functions (‚Ñ). Expansion and factoring using log-exp functions The „Ð produces the following menu: Information and examples on these commands are available in the help facility of the calculator. For example, the description of EXPLN is shown in the left-hand side, and the example from the help facility is shown to the right: ‚Ñ Expansion and factoring using trigonometric functions The TRIG menu, triggered by using , shows the following functions: Page 5-6 These functions allow to simplify expressions by replacing some category of trigonometric functions for another one. For example, the function ACOS2S allows to replace the function arccosine (acos(x)) with its expression in terms of arcsine (asin(x)). IL Description of these commands and examples of their applications are available in the calculator’s help facility ( @HELP). The user is invited to explore this facility to find information on the commands in the TRIG menu. Functions in the ARITHMETIC menu „Þ „Þ 1 The ARITHMETIC menu is triggered through the keystroke combination (associated with the key). With system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes, shows the following menu: Out of this menu list, options 5 through 9 (DIVIS, FACTORS, LGCD, PROPFRAC, SIMP2) correspond to common functions that apply to integer numbers or to polynomials. The remaining options (1. INTEGER, 2. POLYNOMIAL, 3. MODULO, and 4. PERMUTATION) are actually submenus of functions that apply to specific mathematical objects. When system flag 117 is set to SOFT menus, the ARITHMETIC menu ( ) produces: „Þ Following, we present the help facility entries for functions FACTORS and SIMP2 in the ARITHMETIC menu: Page 5-7 FACTORS: SIMP2: The functions associated with the ARITHMETIC submenus: INTEGER, POLYNOMIAL, MODULO, and PERMUTATION, are the following: Additional information on applications of the ARITHMETIC menu functions are presented in Chapter 5 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Polynomials Polynomials are algebraic expressions consisting of one or more terms containing decreasing powers of a given variable. For example, ‘X^3+2*X^2-3*X+2’ is a third-order polynomial in X, while ‘SIN(X)^2-2’ is a second-order polynomial in SIN(X). Functions COLLECT and EXPAND can be used on polynomials, as shown earlier. Other applications of polynomial functions are presented next: The HORNER function The function HORNER produces the Horner division, or synthetic division, of a polynomial P(X) by the factor (X-a), i.e., HORNER(P(X),a) = {Q(X), a, P(a)}, where P(X) = Q(X)(X-a)+P(a). For example, HORNER(‘X^3+2*X^2-3*X+1’,2) = {‘X^2+4*X+5, 2, 11} i.e., X3+2X2-3X+1 = (X2+4X+5)(X-2)+11. Also, HORNER(‘X^6-1’,-5)= {’X^5-5*X^4+25*X^3125*X^2+625*X-3125’,-5, 15624} i.e., X6-1 = (X5-5*X4+25X3-125X2+625X-3125)(X+5)+15624. Page 5-8 The variable VX A variable called VX exists in the calculator’s {HOME CASDIR} directory that takes, by default, the value of ‘X’. This is the name of the preferred independent variable for algebraic and calculus applications. Avoid using the variable VX in your programs or equations, so as to not get it confused with the CAS’ VX. For additional information on the CAS variable see Appendix C in the calculator’s User’s Manual. The PCOEF function Given an array containing the roots of a polynomial, the function PCOEF generates an array containing the coefficients of the corresponding polynomial. The coefficients correspond to decreasing order of the independent variable. For example: PCOEF([-2 –1 0 1 1 2]) = [1. –1. –5. 5. 4. –4. 0.], which represents the polynomial X6-X5-5X4+5X3+4X2-4X. The PROOT function Given and array containing the coefficients of a polynomial, in decreasing order, the function PROOT provides the roots of the polynomial. Example, from X2+5X-6 =0, PROOT([1 –5 6]) = [2. 3.]. The QUOTIENT and REMAINDER functions The functions QUOTIENT and REMAINDER provide, respectively, the quotient Q(X) and the remainder R(X), resulting from dividing two polynomials, P1(X) and P2(X). In other words,, they provide the values of Q(X) and R(X) from P1(X)/P2(X) = Q(X) + R(X)/P2(X). For example, QUOTIENT(‘X^3-2*X+2’, ‘X-1’) = ‘X^2+X-1’ REMAINDER(‘X^3-2*X+2’, ‘X-1’) = 1. Thus, we can write: (X3-2X+2)/(X-1) = X2+X-1 + 1/(X-1). Page 5-9 Note: you could get the latter result by using PARTFRAC: PARTFRAC(‘(X^3-2*X+2)/(X-1)’) = ‘X^2+X-1 + 1/(X-1)’. The PEVAL function The functions PEVAL (Polynomial EVALuation) can be used to evaluate a polynomial p(x) = an⋅xn+an-1⋅x n-1+ …+ a2⋅x2+a1⋅x+ a0, given an array of coefficients [an, an-1, … a2, a1, a0] and a value of x0. The result is the evaluation p(x0). Function PEVAL is not available in the ARITHMETIC menu, it must be accessed from the function catalog (‚N). Example: PEVAL([1,5,6,1],5) = 281. Additional applications of polynomial functions are presented in Chapter 5 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Fractions Fractions can be expanded and factored by using functions EXPAND and FACTOR, from the ALG menu (‚×). For example: EXPAND(‘(1+X)^3/((X-1)(X+3))’) = ‘(X^3+3*X^2+3*X+1)/(X^2+2*X-3)’ EXPAND(‘(X^2*(X+Y)/(2*X-X^2)^2’) = ‘(X+Y)/(X^2-4*X+4)’ FACTOR(‘(3*X^3-2*X^2)/(X^2-5*X+6)’) = ‘X^2*(3*X-2)/((X-2)*(X-3))’ FACTOR(‘(X^3-9*X)/(X^2-5*X+6)’ ) = ‘X*(X+3)/(X-2)’ The SIMP2 function Function SIMP2 takes as arguments two numbers or polynomials, representing the numerator and denominator of a rational fraction, and returns the simplified numerator and denominator. For example: SIMP2(‘X^3-1’,’X^2-4*X+3’) = { ‘X^2+X+1’,‘X-3’} Page 5-10 The PROPFRAC function The function PROPFRAC converts a rational fraction into a “proper” fraction, i.e., an integer part added to a fractional part, if such decomposition is possible. For example: PROPFRAC(‘5/4’) = ‘1+1/4’ PROPFRAC(‘(x^2+1)/x^2’) = ‘1+1/x^2’ The PARTFRAC function The function PARTFRAC decomposes a rational fraction into the partial fractions that produce the original fraction. For example: PARTFRAC(‘(2*X^6-14*X^5+29*X^4-37*X^3+41*X^2-16*X+5)/(X^57*X^4+11*X^3-7*X^2+10*X)’) = ‘2*X+(1/2/(X-2)+5/(X-5)+1/2/X+X/(X^2+1))’ The FCOEF function The function FCOEF is used to obtain a rational fraction, given the roots and poles of the fraction. Note: If a rational fraction is given as F(X) = N(X)/D(X), the roots of the fraction result from solving the equation N(X) = 0, while the poles result from solving the equation D(X) = 0. The input for the function is a vector listing the roots followed by their multiplicity (i.e., how many times a given root is repeated), and the poles followed by their multiplicity represented as a negative number. For example, if we want to create a fraction having roots 2 with multiplicity 1, 0 with multiplicity 3, and -5 with multiplicity 2, and poles 1 with multiplicity 2 and –3 with multiplicity 5, use: FCOEF([2 1 0 3 –5 2 1 -2 -3 -5]) = ‘(X—5)^2*X^3*(X-2)/9X—3)^5*(X-1)^2’ If you press µ you will get: ‘(X^6+8*X^5+5*X^4-50*X^3)/(X^7+13*X^6+61*X^5+105*X^4-45*X^3297*X62-81*X+243)’ Page 5-11 The FROOTS function The function FROOTS obtains the roots and poles of a fraction. As an example, applying function FROOTS to the result produced above, will result in: [1 –2 –3 –5 0 3 2 1 –5 2]. The result shows poles followed by their multiplicity as a negative number, and roots followed by their multiplicity as a positive number. In this case, the poles are (1, -3) with multiplicities (2,5) respectively, and the roots are (0, 2, -5) with multiplicities (3, 1, 2), respectively. Another example is: FROOT(‘(X^2-5*X+6)/(X^5-X^2)’) = [0,–2,1, –1,3,1,2, 1], i.e., poles = 0 (2), 1(1), and roots = 3(1), 2(1). If you have had Complex mode selected, then the results would be: [0 –2 1 –1 ‘-((1+i*√3)/2’ –1]. Step-by-step operations with polynomials and fractions By setting the CAS modes to Step/step the calculator will show simplifications of fractions or operations with polynomials in a step-by-step fashion. This is very useful to see the steps of a synthetic division. The example of dividing X 3 − 5 X 2 + 3X − 2 X −2 is shown in detail in Appendix C of the calculator’s User’s Guide. The following example shows a lengthier synthetic division: X 9 −1 X 2 −1 Page 5-12 Reference Additional information, definitions, and examples of algebraic and arithmetic operations are presented in Chapter 5 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 5-13 Chapter 6 Solution to equations ‚Ï 7 „Î Associated with the key there are two menus of equation-solving functions, the Symbolic SOLVer ( ), and the NUMerical SoLVer ( ). Following, we present some of the functions contained in these menus. Symbolic solution of algebraic equations „Î Here we describe some of the functions from the Symbolic Solver menu. Activate the menu by using the keystroke combination . With system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes, the following menu lists will be available: Functions ISOL and SOLVE can be used to solve for any unknown in a polynomial equation. Function SOLVEVX solves a polynomial equation where the unknown is the default CAS variable VX (typically set to ‘X’). Finally, function ZEROS provides the zeros, or roots, of a polynomial. Function ISOL Function ISOL(Equation, variable) will produce the solution(s) to Equation by isolating variable. For example, with the calculator set to ALG mode, to solve for t in the equation at3-bt = 0 we can use the following: Page 6-1 Using the RPN mode, the solution is accomplished by entering the equation in the stack, followed by the variable, before entering function ISOL. Right before the execution of ISOL, the RPN stack should look as in the figure to the left. After applying ISOL, the result is shown in the figure to the right: The first argument in ISOL can be an expression, as shown above, or an equation. For example, in ALG mode, try: \ Note: To type the equal sign (=) in an equation, use with the key). ‚Å (associated The same problem can be solved in RPN mode as illustrated below (figures show the RPN stack before and after the application of function ISOL): Function SOLVE Function SOLVE has the same syntax as function ISOL, except that SOLVE can also be used to solve a set of polynomial equations. The help-facility entry for function SOLVE, with the solution to equation X^4 – 1 = 3 , is shown next: Page 6-2 The following examples show the use of function SOLVE in ALG and RPN modes: The screen shot shown above displays two solutions. In the first one, β4-5β =125, SOLVE produces no solutions { }. In the second one, β4 - 5β = 6, SOLVE produces four solutions, shown in the last output line. The very last solution is not visible because the result occupies more characters than the width of the calculator’s screen. However, you can still see all the solutions by using the down arrow key ( ), which triggers the line editor (this operation can be used to access any output line that is wider than the calculator’s screen): ˜ The corresponding RPN screens for these two examples, before and after the application of function SOLVE, are shown next: Page 6-3 Function SOLVEVX The function SOLVEVX solves an equation for the default CAS variable contained in the reserved variable name VX. By default, this variable is set to ‘X’. Examples, using the ALG mode with VX = ‘X’, are shown below: In the first case SOLVEVX could not find a solution. In the second case, SOLVEVX found a single solution, X = 2. The following screens show the RPN stack for solving the two examples shown above (before and after application of SOLVEVX): Function ZEROS The function ZEROS finds the solutions of a polynomial equation, without showing their multiplicity. The function requires having as input the expression for the equation and the name of the variable to solve for. Examples in ALG mode are shown next: Page 6-4 To use function ZEROS in RPN mode, enter first the polynomial expression, then the variable to solve for, and then function ZEROS. The following screen shots show the RPN stack before and after the application of ZEROS to the two examples above: The Symbolic Solver functions presented above produce solutions to rational equations (mainly, polynomial equations). If the equation to be solved for has all numerical coefficients, a numerical solution is possible through the use of the Numerical Solver features of the calculator. Numerical solver menu The calculator provides a very powerful environment for the solution of single algebraic or transcendental equations. To access this environment we start the numerical solver (NUM.SLV) by using . This produces a dropdown menu that includes the following options: ‚Ï Page 6-5 Following, we present applications of items 3. Solve poly.., 5. Solve finance, and 1. Solve equation.., in that order. Appendix 1-A, in the calculator’s User’s Guide, contains instructions on how to use input forms with examples for the numerical solver applications. Item 6. MSLV (Multiple equation SoLVer) will be presented later in this Chapter. Notes: 1. Whenever you solve for a value in the NUM.SLV applications, the value solved for will be placed in the stack. This is useful if you need to keep that value available for other operations. 2. There will be one or more variables created whenever you activate some of the applications in the NUM.SLV menu. Polynomial Equations Using the Solve poly… option in the calculator’s SOLVE environment you can: (1) find the solutions to a polynomial equation; (2) obtain the coefficients of the polynomial having a number of given roots; and, (3) obtain an algebraic expression for the polynomial as a function of X. Finding the solutions to a polynomial equation A polynomial equation is an equation of the form: anxn + an-1xn-1 + …+ a1x + a0 = 0. For example, solve the equation: 3s4 + 2s3 - s + 1 = 0. We want to place the coefficients of the equation in a vector: [3,2,0,-1,1]. To solve for this polynomial equation using the calculator, try the following: ‚Ï˜˜ „Ô3‚í2‚í ‚í 1\‚í1 0 @@[email protected]@ Select Solve poly… Enter vector of coefficients @@[email protected]@ @[email protected] Solve equation The screen will show the solution as follows: Page 6-6 ` Press to return to stack. The stack will show the following results in ALG mode (the same result would be shown in RPN mode): All the solutions are complex numbers: (0.432,-0.389), (0.432,0.389), (0.766, 0.632), (-0.766, -0.632). Generating polynomial coefficients given the polynomial's roots Suppose you want to generate the polynomial whose roots are the numbers [1, 5, -2, 4]. To use the calculator for this purpose, follow these steps: ‚Ï˜˜ ˜„Ô1‚í5 ‚í2\‚í 4 ` Select Solve poly… Enter vector of roots @@[email protected]@ @[email protected] Press Press @@[email protected]@ Solve for coefficients to return to stack, the coefficients will be shown in the stack. ˜ to trigger the line editor to see all the coefficients. Page 6-7 Generating an algebraic expression for the polynomial You can use the calculator to generate an algebraic expression for a polynomial given the coefficients or the roots of the polynomial. The resulting expression will be given in terms of the default CAS variable X. To generate the algebraic expression using the coefficients, try the following example. Assume that the polynomial coefficients are [1,5,-2,4]. Use the following keystrokes: ‚Ï˜˜ „Ô1‚í5 ‚í2\‚í 4 —` Select Solve poly… Enter vector of coefficients @@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ Generate symbolic expression Return to stack. @[email protected] The expression thus generated is shown in the stack as: 'X^3+5*X^2-2*X+4'. To generate the algebraic expression using the roots, try the following example. Assume that the polynomial roots are [1,3,-2,1]. Use the following keystrokes: ‚Ï˜˜ ˜„Ô1‚í3 ‚í2\‚í 1 ˜` Select Solve poly… Enter vector of roots @@[email protected]@ @[email protected] @@[email protected]@ Generate symbolic expression Return to stack. The expression thus generated is shown in the stack as: '(X-1)*(X-3)*(X+2)*(X-1)'. To expand the products, you can use the EXPAND command. The resulting expression is: 'X^4+-3*X^3+ -3*X^2+11*X-6'. Page 6-8 Financial calculations The calculations in item 5. Solve finance.. in the Numerical Solver (NUM.SLV) are used for calculations of time value of money of interest in the discipline of engineering economics and other financial applications. This application can also be started by using the keystroke combination (associated with the key). Detailed explanations of these types of calculations are presented in Chapter 6 of the calculator’s User’s Manual. ‚Ò 9 Solving equations with one unknown through NUM.SLV The calculator's NUM.SLV menu provides item 1. Solve equation.. solve different types of equations in a single variable, including non-linear algebraic and transcendental equations. For example, let's solve the equation: exsin(πx/3) = 0. Simply enter the expression as an algebraic object and store it into variable EQ. The required keystrokes in ALG mode are the following: ³„¸~„x™-S„ì *~„x/3™‚Å 0™ K~e~q` Function STEQ Function STEQ will store its argument into variable EQ, e.g., in ALG mode: In RPN mode, enter the equation between apostrophes and activate command STEQ. Thus, function STEQ can be used as a shortcut to store an expression into variable EQ. Press J to see the newly created EQ variable: Page 6-9 Then, enter the SOLVE environment and select Solve equation…, by using: ‚Ï@@[email protected]@. The corresponding screen will be shown as: The equation we stored in variable EQ is already loaded in the Eq field in the SOLVE EQUATION input form. Also, a field labeled x is provided. To solve the equation all you need to do is highlight the field in front of X: by using , and press @[email protected] The solution shown is X: 4.5006E-2: ˜ This, however, is not the only possible solution for this equation. To obtain a negative solution, for example, enter a negative number in the X: field before solving the equation. Try @@@[email protected]@ @[email protected] The solution is now X: 3.045. 3\ ˜ ‚Ï Solution to simultaneous equations with MSLV Function MSLV is available in the function MSLV is shown next: menu. The help-facility entry for Page 6-10 Notice that function MSLV requires three arguments: 1. A vector containing the equations, i.e., ‘[SIN(X)+Y,X+SIN(Y)=1]’ 2. A vector containing the variables to solve for, i.e., ‘[X,Y]’ 3. A vector containing initial values for the solution, i.e., the initial values of both X and Y are zero for this example. ` In ALG mode, press @ECHO to copy the example to the stack, press to run the example. To see all the elements in the solution you need to activate the line editor by pressing the down arrow key ( ): ˜ In RPN mode, the solution for this example is produced by using: Activating function MSLV results in the following screen. You may have noticed that, while producing the solution, the screen shows intermediate information on the upper left corner. Since the solution provided Page 6-11 by MSLV is numerical, the information in the upper left corner shows the results of the iterative process used to obtain a solution. The final solution is X = 1.8238, Y = -0.9681. Reference Additional information on solving single and multiple equations is provided in Chapters 6 and 7 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 6-12 Chapter 7 Operations with lists Lists are a type of calculator’s object that can be useful for data processing. This chapter presents examples of operations with lists. To get started with the examples in this Chapter, we use the Approximate mode (See Chapter 1). Creating and storing lists To create a list in ALG mode, first enter the braces key „ä , then type or enter the elements of the list, separating them with commas (‚í). The following keystrokes will enter the list {1 2 3 4} and store it into variable L1. „ä 1 ‚í 2. ‚í 3. ‚í 4. ™K~l1` Entering the same list in RPN mode requires the following keystrokes: „ä 1. # 2. # 3. # 4. ` ³~l1`K Operations with lists of numbers To demonstrate operations with lists of numbers enter and store the following lists in the corresponding variables. L2 = {-3.,2.,1.,5.} L3 = {-6.,5.,3.,1.,0.,3.,-4.} L4 = {3.,-2.,1.,5.,3.,2.,1.} Changing sign The sign-change key (\) , when applied to a list of numbers, will change the sign of all elements in the list. For example: Note: Directories TRIANG and MES1 resulted from a previous exercise. Please ignore them while trying these examples in your calculator. Page 7-1 Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division Multiplication and division of a list by a single number is distributed across the list, for example: Subtraction of a single number from a list will subtract the same number from each element in the list, for example: Addition of a single number to a list produces a list augmented by the number, and not an addition of the single number to each element in the list. For example: Subtraction, multiplication, and division of lists of numbers of the same length produce a list of the same length with term-by-term operations. Examples: The division L4/L3 will produce an infinity entry because one of the elements in L3 is zero, and an error message is returned. Page 7-2 Note: If we had entered the elements in lists L4 and L3 as integers, the infinite symbol would be shown whenever a division by zero occurs. To produce the following result you need to re-enter the lists as integer (remove decimal points) using Exact mode: If the lists involved in the operation have different lengths, an error message (Invalid Dimensions) is produced. Try, for example, L1-L4. The plus sign (+), when applied to lists, acts a concatenation operator, putting together the two lists, rather than adding them term-by-term. For example: ‚N In order to produce term-by-term addition of two lists of the same length, we need to use operator ADD. This operator can be loaded by using the function catalog ( ). The screen below shows an application of ADD to add lists L1 and L2, term-by-term: Functions applied to lists Real number functions from the keyboard (ABS, ex, LN, 10x, LOG, SIN, x2, √, COS, TAN, ASIN, ACOS, ATAN, yx) as well as those from the MTH/HYPERBOLIC menu (SINH, COSH, TANH, ASINH, ACOSH, ATANH), and MTH/REAL menu (%, etc.), can be applied to lists, e.g., Page 7-3 ABS INVERSE (1/x) Lists of complex numbers You can create a complex number list, say, L5 = L1 ADD i⋅L2 (type the instruction as indicated here), as follows: Functions such as LN, EXP, SQ, etc., can also be applied to a list of complex numbers, e.g., Lists of algebraic objects The following are examples of lists of algebraic objects with the function SIN applied to them (select Exact mode for these examples -- See Chapter 1): The MTH/LIST menu The MTH menu provides a number of functions that exclusively to lists. With system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes, the MTH/LIST menu offers the following functions: Page 7-4 With system flag 117 set to SOFT menus, the MTH/LIST menu shows the following functions: The operation of the MTH/LIST menu is as follows: ∆LIST : Calculate increment among consecutive elements in list ΣLIST : Calculate summation of elements in the list ΠLIST : Calculate product of elements in the list SORT : Sorts elements in increasing order REVLIST : Reverses order of list ADD : Operator for term-by-term addition of two lists of the same length (examples of this operator were shown above) Examples of application of these functions in ALG mode are shown next: SORT and REVLIST can be combined to sort a list in decreasing order: Page 7-5 The SEQ function ‚N The SEQ function, available through the command catalog ( ), takes as arguments an expression in terms of an index, the name of the index, and starting, ending, and increment values for the index, and returns a list consisting of the evaluation of the expression for all possible values of the index. The general form of the function is SEQ(expression, index, start, end, increment) For example: The list produced corresponds to the values {12, 22, 32, 42}. The MAP function ‚N The MAP function, available through the command catalog ( ), takes as arguments a list of numbers and a function f(X), and produces a list consisting of the application of function f or the program to the list of numbers. For example, the following call to function MAP applies the function SIN(X) to the list {1,2,3}: Reference For additional references, examples, and applications of lists see Chapter 8 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 7-6 Chapter 8 Vectors This Chapter provides examples of entering and operating with vectors, both mathematical vectors of many elements, as well as physical vectors of 2 and 3 components. Entering vectors In the calculator, vectors are represented by a sequence of numbers enclosed between brackets, and typically entered as row vectors. The brackets are generated in the calculator by the keystroke combination „Ô , associated with the * key. The following are examples of vectors in the calculator: [3.5, 2.2, -1.3, 5.6, 2.3] A general row vector [1.5,-2.2] A 2-D vector [3,-1,2] A 3-D vector ['t','t^2','SIN(t)'] A vector of algebraics Typing vectors in the stack With the calculator in ALG mode, a vector is typed into the stack by opening a set of brackets („Ô) and typing the components or elements of the vector separated by commas (‚í). The screen shots below show the entering of a numerical vector followed by an algebraic vector. The figure to the left shows the algebraic vector before pressing `. The figure to the right shows the calculator’s screen after entering the algebraic vector: In RPN mode, you can enter a vector in the stack by opening a set of brackets and typing the vector components or elements separated by either commas Page 8-1 (‚í) or spaces (#). Notice that after pressing ` , in either mode, the calculator shows the vector elements separated by spaces. Storing vectors into variables in the stack Vectors can be stored into variables. The screen shots below show the vectors u2 = [1, 2], u3 = [-3, 2, -2], v2 = [3,-1], v3 = [1, -5, 2] Stored into variables @@@[email protected]@, @@@[email protected]@, @@@[email protected]@, and @@@[email protected]@, respectively. First, in ALG mode: Then, in RPN mode (before pressing K , repeatedly): Note: The apostrophes (‘) are not needed ordinarily in entering the names u2, v2, etc. in RPN mode. In this case, they are used to overwrite the existing variables created earlier in ALG mode. Thus, the apostrophes must be used if the existing variables are not purged previously. Using the matrix writer (MTRW) to enter vectors „² Vectors can also be entered by using the matrix writer (third key in the fourth row of keys from the top of the keyboard). This command generates a species of spreadsheet corresponding to rows and columns of a matrix (Details on using the matrix writer to enter matrices will be presented in a subsequent chapter). For a vector we are interested in filling only elements in the top row. By default, the cell in the top row and first column is selected. At the bottom of the spreadsheet you will find the following soft menu keys: @EDIT! @VEC ← WID @WID → @GO → @GO ↓ Page 8-2 The key is used to edit the contents of a selected cell in the matrix writer. @EDIT The key, when selected, will produce a vector, as opposed to a matrix of one row and many columns. @[email protected]@ The ← key is used to decrease the width of the columns in the spreadsheet. Press this key a couple of times to see the column width decrease in your matrix writer. WID The → key is used to increase the width of the columns in the spreadsheet. Press this key a couple of times to see the column width increase in your matrix writer. @WID ` The → key, when selected, automatically selects the next cell to the right of the current cell when you press . This option is selected by default. This option, if desired, needs to be selected before entering elements. @GO ` The @GO↓ key, when selected, automatically selects the next cell below the current cell when you press . This option, if desired, needs to be selected before entering elements. 3`5`2`` Moving to the right vs. moving down in the matrix writer Activate the matrix writer and enter with the @GO→ key selected (default). Next, enter the same sequence of numbers with the ↓ key selected to see the difference. In the first case you entered a vector of three elements. In the second case you entered a matrix of three rows and one column. @GO Activate the matrix writer again by using „², and press L to check out the second soft key menu at the bottom of the display. It will show the keys: @[email protected] @-ROW @[email protected] @[email protected] → @ [email protected]@ @[email protected] Page 8-3 The key will add a row full of zeros at the location of the selected cell of the spreadsheet. @[email protected] The key will delete the row corresponding to the selected cell of the spreadsheet. @-ROW The key will add a column full of zeros at the location of the selected cell of the spreadsheet. @[email protected] The key will delete the column corresponding to the selected cell of the spreadsheet. @[email protected] The → stack. @ [email protected]@ key will place the contents of the selected cell on the The key, when pressed, will request that the user indicate the number of the row and column where he or she wants to position the cursor. @[email protected] Pressing function L @@[email protected] once more produces the last menu, which contains only one (delete). The function will delete the contents of the selected cell and replace it with a zero. @@[email protected] To see these keys in action try the following exercise: (1) Activate the matrix writer by using → keys are selected. „². Make sure the @VEC and @GO (2) Enter the following: 1`2`3` L @[email protected] 2 @@[email protected]@ 1 @@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ 4`5`6` 7`8`9` Page 8-4 (3) Move the cursor up two positions by using The second row will disappear. (4) Press (5) Press (6) Press (7) Press @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] ——. Then press @-ROW . . A row of three zeroes appears in the second row. . The first column will disappear. . A column of two zeroes appears in the first column. @[email protected] 3 @@[email protected]@ 3 @@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@ to move to position (3,3). (8) Press → . This will place the contents of cell (3,3) on the stack, although you will not be able to see it yet. Press ` to return to normal display. The number 9, element (3,3), and the full matrix entered will be available in the stack. @ [email protected]@ Simple operations with vectors To illustrate operations with vectors we will use the vectors u2, u3, v2, and v3, stored in an earlier exercise. Also, store vector A=[-1,-2,-3,-4,-5] to be used in the following exercises. Changing sign To change the sign of a vector use the key \ , e.g., Addition, subtraction Addition and subtraction of vectors require that the two vector operands have the same length: Page 8-5 Attempting to add or subtract vectors of different length produces an error message: Multiplication by a scalar, and division by a scalar Multiplication by a scalar or division by a scalar is straightforward: Absolute value function The absolute value function (ABS), when applied to a vector, produces the magnitude of the vector. For example: ABS([1,-2,6]), ABS(A), ABS(u3), will show in the screen as follows: Page 8-6 „´ The MTH/VECTOR menu The MTH menu ( vector objects: ) contains a menu of functions that specifically to The VECTOR menu contains the following functions (system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes): Magnitude „Ê The magnitude of a vector, as discussed earlier, can be found with function ABS. This function is also available from the keyboard ( ). Examples of application of function ABS were shown above. Dot product Function DOT (option 2 in CHOOSE box above) is used to calculate the dot product of two vectors of the same length. Some examples of application of function DOT, using the vectors A, u2, u3, v2, and v3, stored earlier, are shown next in ALG mode. Attempts to calculate the dot product of two vectors of different length produce an error message: Page 8-7 Cross product Function CROSS (option 3 in the MTH/VECTOR menu) is used to calculate the cross product of two 2-D vectors, of two 3-D vectors, or of one 2-D and one 3D vector. For the purpose of calculating a cross product, a 2-D vector of the form [Ax, Ay], is treated as the 3-D vector [Ax, Ay,0]. Examples in ALG mode are shown next for two 2-D and two 3-D vectors. Notice that the cross product of two 2-D vectors will produce a vector in the z-direction only, i.e., a vector of the form [0, 0, Cz]: Examples of cross products of one 3-D vector with one 2-D vector, or vice versa, are presented next: Attempts to calculate a cross product of vectors of length other than 2 or 3, produce an error message: Reference Additional information on operations with vectors, including applications in the physical sciences, is presented in Chapter 9 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 8-8 Chapter 9 Matrices and linear algebra This chapter shows examples of creating matrices and operations with matrices, including linear algebra applications. Entering matrices in the stack In this section we present two different methods to enter matrices in the calculator stack: (1) using the Matrix Editor, and (2) typing the matrix directly into the stack. Using the matrix editor As with the case of vectors, discussed in Chapter 9, matrices can be entered into the stack by using the matrix editor. For example, to enter the matrix: − 2. 5 0. 3 2 4. 2 1.9 2. 0 2.8 , − 0.1 0.5 „² first, start the matrix writer by using . Make sure that the option → is selected. Then use the following keystrokes: @GO 2.5\` 4.2`2.8 2`˜ššš .3` 1.9` 2` .1\` .5` ` At this point, the Matrix Writer screen may look like this: Page 9-1 ` Press once more to place the matrix on the stack. The ALG mode stack is shown next, before and after pressing , once more: H If you have selected the textbook display option (using and checking off Textbook), the matrix will look like the one shown above. Otherwise, the display will show: @)DISP! The display in RPN mode will look very similar to these. Typing in the matrix directly into the stack The same result as above can be achieved by entering the following directly into the stack: „Ô „Ô 2.5\ ‚í 4.2 ‚í 2 ™ ‚í „Ô ‚í .3 ‚í 1.9 ‚í 2.8 ™ „Ô 2 ‚í .1\ ‚í .5 Thus, to enter a matrix directly into the stack open a set of brackets („Ô) and enclose each row of the matrix with an additional set of brackets („Ô). Commas (‚í .) should separate the elements of each row, as well as the brackets between rows. For future exercises, let’s save this matrix under the name A. In ALG mode use K~a. In RPN mode, use ³~a K. Page 9-2 Operations with matrices Matrices, like other mathematical objects, can be added and subtracted. They can be multiplied by a scalar, or among themselves. An important operation for linear algebra applications is the inverse of a matrix. Details of these operations are presented next. To illustrate the operations we will create a number of matrices that we will store in the following variables. Here are the matrices A22, B22, A23, B23, A33 and B33: In RPN mode, the steps to follow are: {2,2}` RANM 'A22'`K {2,3}` RANM 'A23'`K {3,2}` RANM 'A32'`K {3,3}` RANM 'A33'`K {2,2}` RANM 'B22'`K {2,3}` RANM 'B23'`K {3,2}` RANM 'B32'`K {3,3}` RANM 'B33'`K Addition and subtraction Four examples are shown below using the matrices stored above (ALG mode). Page 9-3 In RPN mode, try the following eight examples: A22 A23 A32 A33 B22`+ B23`+ ` B32`+ ` B33`+ ` ` A22 A23 A32 A33 B22`B23`` B32`` B33`` ` Multiplication There are different multiplication operations that involve matrices. These are described next. The examples are shown in algebraic mode. Multiplication by a scalar Some examples of multiplication of a matrix by a scalar are shown below. Matrix-vector multiplication Matrix-vector multiplication is possible only if the number of columns of the matrix is equal to the length of the vector. A couple of examples of matrixvector multiplication follow: Vector-matrix multiplication, on the other hand, is not defined. This multiplication can be performed, however, as a special case of matrix multiplication as defined next. Page 9-4 Matrix multiplication Matrix multiplication is defined by Cm×n = Am×p⋅Bp×n. Notice that matrix multiplication is only possible if the number of columns in the first operand is equal to the number of rows of the second operand. The general term in the product, cij, is defined as cij = ∑a p k =1 ik ⋅ bkj , for i = 1,2, K, m; j = 1,2,K, n. Matrix multiplication is not commutative, i.e., in general, A⋅B ≠ B⋅A. Furthermore, one of the multiplications may not even exist. The following screen shots show the results of multiplications of the matrices that we stored earlier: Term-by-term multiplication Term-by-term multiplication of two matrices of the same dimensions is possible through the use of function HADAMARD. The result is, of course, another matrix of the same dimensions. This function is available through Function catalog (‚N), or through the MATRICES/OPERATIONS sub-menu („Ø). Applications of function HADAMARD are presented next: Page 9-5 The identity matrix The identity matrix has the property that A⋅I = I⋅A = A. To verify this property we present the following examples using the matrices stored earlier on. Use function IDN (find it in the MTH/MATRIX/MAKE menu) to generate the identity matrix as shown here: The inverse matrix The inverse of a square matrix A is the matrix A-1 such that A⋅A-1 = A-1⋅A = I, where I is the identity matrix of the same dimensions as A. The inverse of a matrix is obtained in the calculator by using the inverse function, INV (i.e., the Y key). Examples of the inverse of some of the matrices stored earlier are presented next: To verify the properties of the inverse matrix, we present the following multiplications: Page 9-6 Characterizing a matrix (The matrix NORM menu) „´ The matrix NORM (NORMALIZE) menu is accessed through the keystroke sequence . This menu is described in detail in Chapter 10 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. Some of these functions are described next. Function DET Function DET calculates the determinant of a square matrix. For example, Function TRACE Function TRACE calculates the trace of square matrix, defined as the sum of the elements in its main diagonal, or n tr (A) = ∑ a ii . i =1 Examples: Solution of linear systems A system of n linear equations in m variables can be written as a11⋅x1 + a12⋅x2 + a13⋅x3 + …+ a21⋅x1 + a22⋅x2 + a23⋅x3 + …+ a31⋅x1 + a32⋅x2 + a33⋅x3 + …+ . . . … an-1,1⋅x1 + an-1,2⋅x2 + an-1,3⋅x3 + …+ an1⋅x1 + an2⋅x2 + a n3⋅x3 + …+ a1,m-1⋅x m-1 + a1,m⋅x m a2,m-1⋅x m-1 + a2,m⋅x m a3,m-1⋅x m-1 + a3,m⋅x m . . an-1,m-1⋅x m-1 + an-1,m⋅x m an,m-1⋅x m-1 + an,m⋅x m = b1, = b2, = b3, . = bn-1, = bn. Page 9-7 This system of linear equations can be written as a matrix equation, An×m⋅xm×1 = bn×1, if we define the following matrix and vectors: L a L a M M O M a L a a11 a A = 21 an1 a12 a22 1m 2m n2 nm x1 b1 x b 2 2 , x= , b= xm m×1 bn n×1 n×m M M Using the numerical solver for linear systems ‚Ï There are many ways to solve a system of linear equations with the calculator. One possibility is through the numerical solver . From the numerical solver screen, shown below (left), select the option 4. Solve lin sys.., and press @@@[email protected]@@. The following input form will be provide (right): To solve the linear system A⋅x = b, enter the matrix A, in the format [[ a11, a12, … ], … [….]] in the A: field. Also, enter the vector b in the B: field. When the X: field is highlighted, press @SOLVE. If a solution is available, the solution vector x will be shown in the X: field. The solution is also copied to stack level 1. Some examples follow. The system of linear equations 2x1 + 3x2 –5x3 = 13, x1 – 3x2 + 8x3 = -13, 2x1 – 2x2 + 4x3 = -6, can be written as the matrix equation A⋅x = b, if Page 9-8 2 3 − 5 x1 A = 1 − 3 8 , x = x 2 , and 2 − 2 4 x 3 13 b = − 13. − 6 This system has the same number of equations as of unknowns, and will be referred to as a square system. In general, there should be a unique solution to the system. The solution will be the point of intersection of the three planes in the coordinate system (x1, x2, x3) represented by the three equations. To enter matrix A you can activate the Matrix Writer while the A: field is selected. The following screen shows the Matrix Writer used for entering matrix A, as well as the input form for the numerical solver after entering matrix A (press in the Matrix Writer): ` ˜ Press to select the B: field. The vector b can be entered as a row vector with a single set of brackets, i.e., [13,-13,-6] . After entering matrix A and vector b, and with the X: field highlighted, we can press to attempt a solution to this system of equations: @@@[email protected]@@ @SOLVE! A solution was found as shown next. Page 9-9 Solution with the inverse matrix The solution to the system A⋅x = b, where A is a square matrix is x = A-1⋅ b. For the example used earlier, we can find the solution in the calculator as follows (First enter matrix A and vector b once more): Solution by “division” of matrices / While the operation of division is not defined for matrices, we can use the calculator’s key to “divide” vector b by matrix A to solve for x in the matrix equation A⋅x = b. The procedure for the case of “dividing” b by A is illustrated below for the example above. The procedure is shown in the following screen shots (type in matrices A and vector b once more): References Additional information on creating matrices, matrix operations, and matrix applications in linear algebra is presented in Chapters 10 and 11 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 9-10 Chapter 10 Graphics In this chapter we introduce some of the graphics capabilities of the calculator. We will present graphics of functions in Cartesian coordinates and polar coordinates, parametric plots, graphics of conics, bar plots, scatterplots, and fast 3D plots. Graphs options in the calculator To access the list of graphic formats available in the calculator, use the keystroke sequence „ô(D) Please notice that if you are using the RPN mode these two keys must be pressed simultaneously to activate any of the graph functions. After activating the 2D/3D function, the calculator will produce the PLOT SETUP window, which includes the TYPE field as illustrated below. Right in front of the TYPE field you will, most likely, see the option Function highlighted. This is the default type of graph for the calculator. To see the list of available graph types, press the soft menu key labeled @CHOOS. This will produce a drop down menu with the following options (use the up- and downarrow keys to see all the options): Page 10-1 Plotting an expression of the form y = f(x) As an example, let's plot the function, f ( x) = 1 2π exp( − x2 ) 2 „ô L • . Make First, enter the PLOT SETUP environment by pressing, sure that the option Function is selected as the TYPE, and that ‘X’ is selected as the independent variable (INDEP). Press @@@[email protected]@@ to return to normal calculator display. The PLOT SET UP window should look similar to this: • Enter the PLOT environment by pressing (press them simultaneously if in RPN mode). Press @ADD to get you into the equation writer. You will be prompted to fill the right-hand side of an equation Y1(x) = . Type the function to be plotted so that the Equation Writer shows the following: • Press to return to the PLOT SETUP window. The expression ‘Y1(X) = EXP(-X^2/2)/√(2*π)’ will be highlighted. Press @@@[email protected]@@ to return to normal calculator display. • Enter the PLOT WINDOW environment by entering (press them simultaneously if in RPN mode). Use a range of –4 to 4 for H- „ñ ` L „ò Page 10-2 VIEW, then press @AUTO to generate the V-VIEW automatically. PLOT WINDOW screen looks as follows: The • Plot the graph: @ERASE @DRAW (wait till the calculator finishes the graphs) • To see labels: • To recover the first graphics menu: • To trace the curve: @TRACE @@X,[email protected]@ . Then use the right- and left-arrow keys ( ) to move about the curve. The coordinates of the points you trace will be shown at the bottom of the screen. Check that for x = 1.05 , y = 0.0131. Also, check that for x = -1.48 , y = 0.034. Here is picture of the graph in tracing mode: • To recover the menu, and return to the PLOT WINDOW environment, press @CANCL, then @@[email protected]@. š™ @EDIT L LL @LABEL @MENU @)PICT L L „õ E „ö F Generating a table of values for a function The combinations ( ) and ( ), pressed simultaneously if in RPN mode, let’s the user produce a table of values of functions. For example, we will produce a table of the function Y(X) = X/(X+10), in the range -5 < X < 5 following these instructions: Page 10-3 • We will generate values of the function f(x), defined above, for values of x from –5 to 5, in increments of 0.5. First, we need to ensure that the graph type is set to FUNCTION in the PLOT SETUP screen ( , press them simultaneously, if in RPN mode). The field in front of the Type option will be highlighted. If this field is not already set to FUNCTION, press the soft key and select the FUNCTION option, then press . „ô ˜ @CHOOS @@@[email protected]@@ • Next, press to highlight the field in front of the option EQ, and type the function expression: ‘X/(X+10)’ • To accept the changes made to the PLOT SETUP screen press You will be returned to normal calculator display. • The next step is to access the Table Set-up screen by using the keystroke combination (i.e., soft key ) – simultaneously if in RPN mode. This will produce a screen where you can select the starting value (Start) and the increment (Step). Enter the following: (i.e., Zoom factor = 0.5). Toggle the soft menu key until a check mark appears in front of the option Small Font if you so desire. Then press . This will return you to normal calculator display. „õ E 0.5 0.5 @@@[email protected]@@ @ L @@@[email protected]@@ 5\ @@@[email protected]@@ . @@@[email protected]@@ @CHK @@@[email protected]@@ • „ö Some options available while the table is visible are • F To see the table, press (i.e., soft menu key ) – simultaneously if in RPN mode. This will produce a table of values of x = -5, -4.5, …, and the corresponding values of f(x), listed as Y1 by default. You can use the up and down arrow keys to move about in the table. You will notice that we did not have to indicate an ending value for the independent variable x. Thus, the table continues beyond the maximum value for x suggested early, namely x = 5. @ZOOM , @@[email protected] ,and @DEFN : The , when selected, shows the definition of the independent variable. @DEFN Page 10-4 • key simply changes the font in the table from small to big, and The vice versa. Try it. • The key, when pressed, produces a menu with the options: In, Out, Decimal, Integer, and Trig. Try the following exercises: @@[email protected] @ZOOM • With the option In highlighted, press . The table is expanded so that the x-increment is now 0.25 rather than 0.5. Simply, what the calculator does is to multiply the original increment, 0.5, by the zoom factor, 0.5, to produce the new increment of 0.25. Thus, the zoom in option is useful when you want more resolution for the values of x in your table. • To increase the resolution by an additional factor of 0.5 press select In once more, and press . The x-increment is now 0.0125. @@@[email protected]@@ @ZOOM , @@@[email protected]@@ — • To recover the previous x-increment, press to select the option Un-zoom. The x-increment is increased to 0.25. • To recover the original x-increment of 0.5 you can do an un-zoom again, or use the option zoom out by pressing . @ZOOM @ZOUT @@@[email protected]@@ @@@[email protected]@@ • The option Decimal in • The option Integer in • The option Trig in produces increments related to fractions of π, thus being useful when producing tables of trigonometric functions. • To return to normal calculator display press @ZOOM @ZOOM produces x-increments of 0.10. produces x-increments of 1. ` . Fast 3D plots Fast 3D plots are used to visualize three-dimensional surfaces represented by equations of the form z = f(x,y). For example, if you want to visualize z = f(x,y) = x2+y2, we can use the following: Page 10-5 „ô • Press , simultaneously if in RPN mode, to access to the PLOT SETUP window. • Change TYPE to Fast3D. ( • Press • Make sure that ‘X’ is selected as the Indep: and ‘Y’ as the Depnd: variables. • Press • Press , simultaneously if in RPN mode, to access the PLOT WINDOW screen. • Keep the default plot window ranges to read: ˜ @CHOOS! and type ‘X^2+Y^2’ L „ò @@@[email protected]@@ , find Fast3D, @@@[email protected]@@ @@[email protected]@ ). . to return to normal calculator display. X-Left:-1 Y-Near:-1 Z-Low: -1 Step Indep: 10 X-Right:1 Y-Far: 1 Z-High: 1 Depnd: 8 Note: The Step Indep: and Depnd: values represent the number of gridlines to be used in the plot. The larger these number, the slower it is to produce the graph, although, the times utilized for graphic generation are relatively fast. For the time being we’ll keep the default values of 10 and 8 for the Step data. • Press @ERASE @DRAW to draw the three-dimensional surface. The result is a wireframe picture of the surface with the reference coordinate system shown at the lower left corner of the screen. By using the arrow keys ( ) you can change the orientation of the surface. The orientation of the reference coordinate system will change accordingly. Try changing the surface orientation on your own. The following figures show a couple of views of the graph: š™—˜ Page 10-6 • When done, press @EXIT. • Press @CANCL to return to the PLOT WINDOW environment. • Change the Step data to read: Step Indep: 20 • Press @ERASE @DRAW to see the surface plot. Sample views: • When done, press @EXIT. • Press @CANCL to return to PLOT WINDOW. • Press $ L „ô ˜ , or Depnd: 16 @@@[email protected]@@, to return to normal calculator display. Try also a Fast 3D plot for the surface z = f(x,y) = sin (x2+y2) • Press window. • Press • Press @ERASE @DRAW to draw the slope field plot. Press @EXIT @EDIT @)LABEL @MENU to see the plot unencumbered by the menu and with identifying labels. , simultaneously if in RPN mode, to access the PLOT SETUP and type ‘SIN(X^2+Y^2)’ @@@[email protected]@@. L Page 10-7 LL $ L • Press • Press @CANCL to return to the PLOT WINDOW environment. Then, press , or @@@[email protected]@@, to return to normal calculator display. @)PICT to leave the EDIT environment. Reference Additional information on graphics is available in Chapters 12 and 22 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 10-8 Chapter 11 Calculus Applications In this Chapter we discuss applications of the calculator’s functions to operations related to Calculus, e.g., limits, derivatives, integrals, power series, etc. The CALC (Calculus) menu 4 „Ö Many of the functions presented in this Chapter are contained in the calculator’s CALC menu, available through the keystroke sequence (associated with the key): The first four options in this menu are actually sub-menus that apply to (1) derivatives and integrals, (2) limits and power series, (3) differential equations, and (4) graphics. The functions in entries (1) and (2) will be presented in this Chapter. Functions DERVX and INTVX are discussed in detail later. Limits and derivatives Differential calculus deals with derivatives, or rates of change, of functions and their applications in mathematical analysis. The derivative of a function is defined as a limit of the difference of a function as the increment in the independent variable tends to zero. Limits are used also to check the continuity of functions. Function lim The calculator provides function lim to calculate limits of functions. This function uses as input an expression representing a function and the value Page 11-1 ‚N~„l where the limit is to be calculated. Function lim is available through the command catalog ( ) or through option 2. LIMITS & SERIES… of the CALC menu (see above). Function lim is entered in ALG mode as lim(f(x),x=a) to calculate the limit lim f ( x ) . In RPN mode, enter the function first, then the expression x→ a ‘x=a’, and finally function lim. Examples in ALG mode are shown next, including some limits to infinity. The infinity symbol is associated with the 0 key, i.e.., „è. Functions DERIV and DERVX The function DERIV is used to take derivatives in terms of any independent variable, while the function DERVX takes derivatives with respect to the CAS default variable VX (typically ‘X’). While function DERVX is available directly in the CALC menu, both functions are available in the DERIV.&INTEG submenu within the CALCL menu ( „Ö). Function DERIV requires a function, say f(t), and an independent variable, say, t, while function DERVX requires only a function of VX. Examples are shown next in ALG mode. Recall that in RPN mode the arguments must be entered before the function is applied. Page 11-2 Anti-derivatives and integrals An anti-derivative of a function f(x) is a function F(x) such that f(x) = dF/dx. One way to represent an anti-derivative is as a indefinite integral, i.e., ∫ f ( x )dx = F ( x ) + C if and only if, f(x) = dF/dx, and C = constant. Functions INT, INTVX, RISCH, SIGMA and SIGMAVX The calculator provides functions INT, INTVX, RISCH, SIGMA and SIGMAVX to calculate anti-derivatives of functions. Functions INT, RISCH, and SIGMA work with functions of any variable, while functions INTVX, and SIGMAVX utilize functions of the CAS variable VX (typically, ‘x’). Functions INT and RISCH require, therefore, not only the expression for the function being integrated, but also the independent variable name. Function INT, requires also a value of x where the anti-derivative will be evaluated. Functions INTVX and SIGMAVX require only the expression of the function to integrate in terms of VX. Function INTVX is available in the CALC menu, the other functions are available in the command catalog. Some examples are shown next in ALG mode: Page 11-3 Please notice that functions SIGMAVX and SIGMA are designed for integrands that involve some sort of integer function like the factorial (!) function shown above. Their result is the so-called discrete derivative, i.e., one defined for integer numbers only. Definite integrals In a definite integral of a function, the resulting anti-derivative is evaluated at the upper and lower limit of an interval (a,b) and the evaluated values subtracted. Symbolically, we write b ∫a f ( x)dx = F (b) − F (a ), where f(x) = dF/dx. To calculate definite integrals of functions using the CAS variable VX (typically, ‘X’), use function PREVAL(f(x),a,b). For example, Infinite series A function f(x) can be expanded into an infinite series around a point x=x0 by using a Taylor’s series, namely, Page 11-4 f ( x) = ∑ ∞ n= 0 f (n) ( xo ) ⋅ ( x − xo ) n , n! where f(n)(x) represents the n-th derivative of f(x) with respect to x, f(0)(x) = f(x). If the value x0 = 0, the series is referred to as a Maclaurin’s series. Functions TAYLR, TAYLR0, and SERIES Functions TAYLR, TAYLR0, and SERIES are used to generate Taylor polynomials, as well as Taylor series with residuals. These functions are available in the CALC/LIMITS&SERIES menu described earlier in this Chapter. Function TAYLOR0 performs a Maclaurin series expansion, i.e., about X = 0, of an expression in the default independent variable, VX (typically ‘X’). The expansion uses a 4-th order relative power, i.e., the difference between the highest and lowest power in the expansion is 4. For example, Function TAYLR produces a Taylor series expansion of a function of any variable x about a point x = a for the order k specified by the user. Thus, the function has the format TAYLR(f(x-a),x,k). For example, Function SERIES produces a Taylor polynomial using as arguments the function f(x) to be expanded, a variable name alone (for Maclaurin’s series) or an expression of the form ‘variable = value’ indicating the point of expansion of Page 11-5 a Taylor series, and the order of the series to be produced. Function SERIES returns two output items a list with four items, and an expression for h = x - a, if the second argument in the function call is ‘x=a’, i.e., an expression for the increment h. The list returned as the first output object includes the following items: 1 - Bi-directional limit of the function at point of expansion, i.e., lim f ( x ) x→ a 2 - An equivalent value of the function near x = a 3 - Expression for the Taylor polynomial 4 - Order of the residual or remainder Because of the relatively large amount of output, this function is easier to handle in RPN mode. For example, the following screen shots show the RPN stack before and after using function SERIES: ƒ Drop the contents of stack level 1 by pressing decompose the list. The results are as follows: , and then enter µ , to In the right-hand side figure above, we are using the line editor to see the series expansion in detail. Reference Additional definitions and applications of calculus operations are presented in Chapter 13 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 11-6 Chapter 12 Multi-variate Calculus Applications Multi-variate calculus refers to functions of two or more variables. In this Chapter we discuss basic concepts of multi-variate calculus: partial derivatives and multiple integrals. Partial derivatives To quickly calculate partial derivatives of multi-variate functions, use the rules of ordinary derivatives with respect to the variable of interest, while considering all other variables as constant. For example, ∂ (x cos( y) ) = cos( y), ∂ (x cos( y) ) = − x sin( y) , ∂x ∂y You can use the derivative functions in the calculator: DERVX, DERIV, ∂, described in detail in Chapter 11 of this Guide, to calculate partial derivatives (DERVX uses the CAS default variable VX, typically, ‘X’). Some examples of first-order partial derivatives are shown next. The functions used in the first two examples are f(x,y) = SIN(y), and g(x,y,z) = (x2+y2)1/2sin(z). Page 12-1 Multiple integrals A physical interpretation of the double integral of a function f(x,y) over a region R on the x-y plane is the volume of the solid body contained under the surface f(x,y) above the region R. The region R can be described as R = {a<x<b, f(x)<y<g(x)} or as R = {c<y<d, r(y)<x<s(y)}. Thus, the double integral can be written as ∫∫ φ ( x, y ) dA = ∫ b g(x) d ∫f ( x ) c a φ ( x, y )dydx = ∫ s( y) ∫r ( y ) φ ( x, y )dydx R Calculating a double integral in the calculator is straightforward. A double integral can be built in the Equation Writer (see example in Chapter 2), as shown below. This double integral is calculated directly in the Equation Writer by selecting the entire expression and using function @EVAL. The result is 3/2. Reference For additional details of multi-variate calculus operations and their applications see Chapter 14 in the calculator’s User Guide. Page 12-2 Chapter 13 Vector Analysis Applications This chapter describes the use of functions HESS, DIV, and CURL, for calculating operations of vector analysis. The del operator The following operator, referred to as the ‘del’ or ‘nabla’ operator, is a vectorbased operator that can be applied to a scalar or vector function: ∇[ ] = i ⋅ ∂ [ ]+ j ⋅ ∂ [ ]+ k ⋅ ∂ [ ∂x ∂y ∂z ] When applied to a scalar function we can obtain the gradient of the function, and when applied to a vector function we can obtain the divergence and the curl of that function. A combination of gradient and divergence produces the Laplacian of a scalar function. Gradient The gradient of a scalar function φ(x,y,z) is a vector function defined by gradφ = ∇φ . Function HESS can be used to obtain the gradient of a function.. The function takes as input a function of n independent variables φ(x1, x2, …,xn), and a vector of the functions [‘x1’ ‘x2’…’xn’]. The function returns the Hessian matrix of the function, H = [hij] = [∂φ/∂xi∂xj], the gradient of the function with respect to the n-variables, grad f = [ ∂φ/∂x1 ∂φ/∂x2 … ∂φ/∂xn], and the list of variables [‘x1’, ‘x2’,…,’xn’]. This function is easier to visualize in the RPN mode. Consider as an example the function φ(X,Y,Z) = X2 + XY + XZ, we’ll apply function HESS to this scalar field in the following example: Thus, the gradient is [2X+Y+Z, X, X]. Page 13-1 Alternatively, use function DERIV as follows: Divergence The divergence of a vector function, F(x,y,z) = f(x,y,z)i +g(x,y,z)j +h(x,y,z)k, is defined by taking a “dot-product” of the del operator with the function, i.e., divF = ∇ • F . Function DIV can be used to calculate the divergence of a vector field. For example, for F(X,Y,Z) = [XY,X2+Y2+Z2,YZ], the divergence is calculated, in ALG mode, as follows: DIV([X*Y,X^2+Y^2+Z^2,Y*Z],[X,Y,Z]) Curl The curl of a vector field F(x,y,z) = f(x,y,z)i+g(x,y,z)j+h(x,y,z)k,is defined by a “cross-product” of the del operator with the vector field, i.e., curlF = ∇ × F . The curl of vector field can be calculated with function CURL. For example, for the function F(X,Y,Z) = [XY,X2+Y2+Z2,YZ], the curl is calculated as follows: CURL([X*Y,X^2+Y^2+Z^2,Y*Z],[X,Y,Z]) Reference For additional information on vector analysis applications see Chapter 15 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 13-2 Chapter 14 Differential Equations In this Chapter we present examples of solving ordinary differential equations (ODE) using calculator functions. A differential equation is an equation involving derivatives of the independent variable. In most cases, we seek the dependent function that satisfies the differential equation. The CALC/DIFF menu „Ö The DIFFERENTIAL EQNS.. sub-menu within the CALC ( ) menu provides functions for the solution of differential equations. The menu is listed below with system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes: These functions are briefly described next. They will be described in more detail in later parts of this Chapter. DESOLVE: Differential Equation SOLVEr, solves differential equations, when possible ILAP: Inverse LAPlace transform, L-1[F(s)] = f(t) LAP: LAPlace transform, L[f(t)]=F(s) LDEC: Linear Differential Equation Command Solution to linear and non-linear equations An equation in which the dependent variable and all its pertinent derivatives are of the first degree is referred to as a linear differential equation. Otherwise, the equation is said to be non-linear. Page 14-1 Function LDEC The calculator provides function LDEC (Linear Differential Equation Command) to find the general solution to a linear ODE of any order with constant coefficients, whether it is homogeneous or not. This function requires you to provide two pieces of input: • • the right-hand side of the ODE the characteristic equation of the ODE Both of these inputs must be given in terms of the default independent variable for the calculator’s CAS (typically X). The output from the function is the general solution of the ODE. The examples below are shown in the RPN mode: Example 1 – To solve the homogeneous ODE d3y/dx3-4⋅(d2y/dx2)-11⋅(dy/dx)+30⋅y = 0. Enter: 0 ` 'X^3-4*X^2-11*X+30' ` LDEC The solution is (figure put together from EQW screenshots): where cC0, cC1, and cC2 are constants of integration. This result can be rewritten as y = K1⋅e–3x + K2⋅e5x + K3⋅e2x. Example 2 – Using the function LDEC, solve the non-homogeneous ODE: d3y/dx3-4⋅(d2y/dx2)-11⋅(dy/dx)+30⋅y = x2. Enter: Page 14-2 'X^2' ` 'X^3-4*X^2-11*X+30' ` LDEC The solution is: which can be simplified to y = K1⋅e–3x + K2⋅e5x + K3⋅e2x + (450⋅x2+330⋅x+241)/13500. Function DESOLVE The calculator provides function DESOLVE (Differential Equation SOLVEr) to solve certain types of differential equations. The function requires as input the differential equation and the unknown function, and returns the solution to the equation if available. You can also provide a vector containing the differential equation and the initial conditions, instead of only a differential equation, as input to DESOLVE. The function DESOLVE is available in the CALC/DIFF menu. Examples of DESOLVE applications are shown below using RPN mode. Example 1 – Solve the first-order ODE: dy/dx + x2⋅y(x) = 5. In the calculator use: 'd1y(x)+x^2*y(x)=5' ` 'y(x)' ` DESOLVE The solution provided is {‘y = (5*INT(EXP(xt^3/3),xt,x)+CC0)*1/EXP(x^3/3))’ }, which simplifies to ( ) y ( x) = 5 ⋅ exp(− x 3 / 3) ⋅ ∫ exp( x 3 / 3) ⋅ dx + C 0 . Page 14-3 The variable ODETYPE You will notice in the soft-menu key labels a new variable called @ODETY (ODETYPE). This variable is produced with the call to the DESOL function and holds a string showing the type of ODE used as input for DESOLVE. Press @ODETY to obtain the string “1st order linear”. Example 2 – Solving an equation with initial conditions. Solve d2y/dt2 + 5y = 2 cos(t/2), with initial conditions y(0) = 1.2, y’(0) = -0.5. In the calculator, use: ` [‘d1d1y(t)+5*y(t) = 2*COS(t/2)’ ‘y(0) = 6/5’ ‘d1y(0) = -1/2’] ‘y(t)’ DESOLVE ` Notice that the initial conditions were changed to their Exact expressions, ‘y(0) = 6/5’, rather than ‘y(0)=1.2’, and ‘d1y(0) = -1/2’, rather than, ‘d1y(0) = -0.5’. Changing to these Exact expressions facilitates the solution. Note: To obtain fractional expressions for decimal values use function (See Chapter 5). Press µµ Q to simplify the result. The solution is: i.e., J ‘y(t) = -((19*5*SIN(√5*t)-(148*COS(√5*t)+80*COS(t/2)))/190)’. Press @ODETY to get the string “Linear w/ cst coeff” for the ODE type in this case. Page 14-4 Laplace Transforms The Laplace transform of a function f(t) produces a function F(s) in the image domain that can be utilized to find the solution of a linear differential equation involving f(t) through algebraic methods. The steps involved in this application are three: 1. Use of the Laplace transform converts the linear ODE involving f(t) into an algebraic equation. 2. The unknown F(s) is solved for in the image domain through algebraic manipulation. 3. An inverse Laplace transform is used to convert the image function found in step 2 into the solution to the differential equation f(t). Laplace transform and inverses in the calculator The calculator provides the functions LAP and ILAP to calculate the Laplace transform and the inverse Laplace transform, respectively, of a function f(VX), where VX is the CAS default independent variable (typically X). The calculator returns the transform or inverse transform as a function of X. The functions LAP and ILAP are available under the CALC/DIFF menu. The examples are worked out in the RPN mode, but translating them to ALG mode is straightforward. ` Example 1 – You can get the definition of the Laplace transform use the following: ‘f(X)’ LAP in RPN mode, or LAP(F(X))in ALG mode. The calculator returns the result (RPN, left; ALG, right): Compare these expressions with the one given earlier in the definition of the Laplace transform, i.e., ∞ L{ f (t )} = F ( s ) = ∫ f (t ) ⋅ e − st dt , 0 Page 14-5 and you will notice that the CAS default variable X in the equation writer screen replaces the variable s in this definition. Therefore, when using the function LAP you get back a function of X, which is the Laplace transform of f(X). ` Example 2 – Determine the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) = sin(s). Use: ‘1/(X+1)^2’ ILAP The calculator returns the result: ‘X/EXP(X)’, meaning that L -1{1/(s+1)2} = x⋅e-x. Fourier series A complex Fourier series is defined by the following expression f (t ) = ∑ c ⋅ exp( 2inTπt ), +∞ n = −∞ n where cn = 1 T T ∫0 f (t ) ⋅ exp( 2 ⋅ i ⋅ n ⋅π ⋅ t ) ⋅ dt , n = −∞,...,−2, −1,0,1, 2,...∞. T Function FOURIER Function FOURIER provides the coefficient cn of the complex-form of the Fourier series given the function f(t) and the value of n. The function FOURIER requires you to store the value of the period (T) of a T-periodic function into the CAS variable PERIOD before calling the function. The function FOURIER is available in the DERIV sub-menu within the CALC menu ( ). „Ö Fourier series for a quadratic function Determine the coefficients c0, c1, and c2 for the function g(t) = (t-1)2+(t-1), with period T = 2. Page 14-6 Using the calculator in ALG mode, first we define functions f(t) and g(t): Next, we move to the CASDIR sub-directory under HOME to change the value of variable PERIOD, e.g., „ §`J `2 K ` (hold) @)CASDI @PERIOD ‚× Return to the sub-directory where you defined functions f and g, and calculate the coefficients. Set CAS to Complex mode (see chapter 2) before trying the exercises. Function COLLECT is available in the ALG menu ( ). Page 14-7 c0 = 1/3, c1 = (π⋅i+2)/π2, c2 = (π⋅i+1)/(2π2). Thus, The Fourier series with three elements will be written as g(t) ≈ Re[(1/3) + (π⋅i+2)/π2⋅exp(i⋅π⋅t)+ (π⋅i+1)/(2π2)⋅exp(2⋅i⋅π⋅t)]. Reference For additional definitions, applications, and exercises on solving differential equations, using Laplace transform, and Fourier series and transforms, as well as numerical and graphical methods, see Chapter 16 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 14-8 Chapter 15 Probability Distributions In this Chapter we provide examples of applications of the pre-defined probability distributions in the calculator. The MTH/PROBABILITY.. sub-menu - part 1 „´ The MTH/PROBABILITY.. sub-menu is accessible through the keystroke sequence . With system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes, the following functions are available in the PROBABILITY.. menu: In this section we discuss functions COMB, PERM, ! (factorial), and RAND. Factorials, combinations, and permutations The factorial of an integer n is defined as: n! = n⋅ (n-1) ⋅ (n-2)…3⋅2⋅1. By definition, 0! = 1. Factorials are used in the calculation of the number of permutations and combinations of objects. For example, the number of permutations of r objects from a set of n distinct objects is n Pr = n(n − 1)( n − 1)...(n − r + 1) = n! /( n − r ) Also, the number of combinations of n objects taken r at a time is n r = n(n − 1)(n − 2)...(n − r + 1) n! = r! r!(n − r )! Page 15-1 We can calculate combinations, permutations, and factorials with functions COMB, PERM, and ! from the MTH/PROBABILITY.. sub-menu. The operation of those functions is described next: • • • COMB(n,r): Calculates the number of combinations of n items taken r at a time PERM(n,r): Calculates the number of permutations of n items taken r at a time n!: Factorial of a positive integer. For a non-integer, x! returns Γ(x+1), where Γ(x) is the Gamma function (see Chapter 3). The factorial symbol (!) can be entered also as the keystroke combination . ~‚2 Example of applications of these functions are shown next: Random numbers The calculator provides a random number generator that returns a uniformly distributed random real number between 0 and 1. To generate a random number, use function RAND from the MTH/PROBABILITY sub-menu. The following screen shows a number of random numbers produced using RAND. (Note: The random numbers in your calculator will differ from these). Additional details on random numbers in the calculator are provided in Chapter 17 of the User’s Guide. Specifically, the use of function RDZ, to restart lists of random numbers is presented in detail in Chapter 17 of the User’s Guide. Page 15-2 The MTH/PROB menu - part 2 In this section we discuss four continuous probability distributions that are commonly used for problems related to statistical inference: the normal distribution, the Student’s t distribution, the Chi-square (χ2) distribution, and the F-distribution. The functions provided by the calculator to evaluate probabilities for these distributions are NDIST, UTPN, UTPT, UTPC, and UTPF. These functions are contained in the MTH/PROBABILITY menu introduced earlier in this chapter. To see these functions activate the MTH menu: and select the PROBABILITY option: „´ The Normal distribution Functions NDIST and UTPN relate to the Normal distribution with mean µ , and variance σ2. To calculate the value of probability density function, or pdf, of the f(x) for the normal distribution, use function NDIST(µ,σ2,x). For example, check that for a normal distribution, NDIST(1.0,0.5,2.0) = 0.20755374. This function is useful to plot the Normal distribution pdf). The calculator also provides function UTPN that calculates the upper-tail normal distribution, i.e., UTPN(µ,σ2, x) = P(X>x) = 1 - P(X<x), where P() represents a probability. For example, check that for a normal distribution, with µ = 1.0, σ2 = 0.5, UTPN(1.0,0.5,0.75) = 0.638163. The Student-t distribution The Student-t, or simply, the t-, distribution has one parameter ν, known as the degrees of freedom of the distribution. The calculator provides for values of the upper-tail (cumulative) distribution function for the t-distribution, function Page 15-3 UTPT, given the parameter ν and the value of t, i.e., UTPT(ν,t) = P(T>t) = 1P(T<t). For example, UTPT(5,2.5) = 2.7245…E-2. The Chi-square distribution The Chi-square (χ2) distribution has one parameter ν, known as the degrees of freedom. The calculator provides for values of the upper-tail (cumulative) distribution function for the χ2-distribution using [UTPC] given the value of x and the parameter ν. The definition of this function is, therefore, UTPC(ν,x) = P(X>x) = 1 - P(X<x). For example, UTPC(5, 2.5) = 0.776495… The F distribution The F distribution has two parameters νN = numerator degrees of freedom, and νD = denominator degrees of freedom. The calculator provides for values of the upper-tail (cumulative) distribution function for the F distribution, function UTPF, given the parameters νN and νD, and the value of F. The definition of this function is, therefore, UTPF(νN,νD,F) = P(ℑ >F) = 1 - P(ℑ <F). For example, to calculate UTPF(10,5, 2.5) = 0.1618347… Reference For additional probability distributions and probability applications, refer to Chapter 17 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 15-4 Chapter 16 Statistical Applications ‚Ù 5 The calculator provides the following pre-programmed statistical features accessible through the keystroke combination (the key): Entering data „² Applications number 1, 2, and 4 from the list above require that the data be available as columns of the matrix ΣDAT. This can be accomplished by entering the data in columns using the matrix writer, , and then using functions STOΣ to store the matrix into ΣDAT. For example, enter the following data using the Matrix Writer (see Chapters 8 or 9 in this guide), and store the data into ΣDAT: 2.1 1.2 3.1 4.5 2.3 1.1 2.3 1.5 1.6 2.2 1.2 2.5. The screen may look like this: Notice the variable @£DAT listed in the soft menu keys. Calculating single-variable statistics ‚Ù After entering the column vector into ΣDAT, press Single-var.. The following input form will be provided: @@@[email protected]@ to select 1. Page 16-1 The form lists the data in ΣDAT, shows that column 1 is selected (there is only one column in the current ΣDAT). Move about the form with the arrow keys, and press the @ [email protected] soft menu key to select those measures (Mean, Standard Deviation, Variance, Total number of data points, Maximum and Minimum values) that you want as output of this program. When ready, press @@@[email protected]@. The selected values will be listed, appropriately labeled, in the screen of your calculator. For example: Sample vs. population The pre-programmed functions for single-variable statistics used above can be applied to a finite population by selecting the Type: Population in the SINGLE-VARIABLE STATISTICS screen. The main difference is in the values of the variance and standard deviation which are calculated using n in the denominator of the variance, rather than (n-1). For the example above, use now the @CHOOSE soft menu key to select population as Type: and re-calculate measures: Page 16-2 Obtaining frequency distributions The application 2. Frequencies.. in the STAT menu can be used to obtain frequency distributions for a set of data. The data must be present in the form of a column vector stored in variable ΣDAT. To get started, press . The resulting input form contains the following fields: ‚Ù˜ ΣDAT: Col: X-Min: Bin Count: Bin Width: @@@[email protected]@@ the matrix containing the data of interest. the column of ΣDAT that is under scrutiny. the minimum class boundary to be used in the frequency distribution (default = -6.5). the number of classes used in the frequency distribution (default = 13). the uniform width of each class in the frequency distribution (default = 1). Given a set of n data values: {x1, x2, …, xn} listed in no particular order, one can group the data into a number of classes, or bins by counting the frequency or number of values corresponding to each class. The application 2. Frequencies.. in the STAT menu will perform this frequency count, and will keep track of those values that may be below the minimum and above the maximum class boundaries (i.e., the outliers). As an example, generate a relatively large data set, say 200 points, by using the command RANM({200,1}), and storing the result into variable ΣDAT, by using function STOΣ (see example above). Next, obtain single-variable information using: . The results are: ‚Ù @@@[email protected]@@ Page 16-3 This information indicates that our data ranges from -9 to 9. To produce a frequency distribution we will use the interval (-8,8) dividing it into 8 bins of width 2 each. ‚Ù˜ • Select the program 2. Frequencies.. by using . The data is already loaded in ΣDAT, and the option Col should hold the value 1 since we have only one column in ΣDAT. • Change X-Min to -8, Bin Count to 8, and Bin Width to 2, then press @@@[email protected]@@ @@@[email protected]@@ . Using the RPN mode, the results are shown in the stack as a column vector in stack level 2, and a row vector of two components in stack level 1. The vector in stack level 1 is the number of outliers outside of the interval where the frequency count was performed. For this case, I get the values [ 14. 8.] indicating that there are, in the ΣDAT vector, 14 values smaller than -8 and 8 larger than 8. • ƒ Press to drop the vector of outliers from the stack. The remaining result is the frequency count of data. The bins for this frequency distribution will be: -8 to -6, -6 to -4, …, 4 to 6, and 6 to 8, i.e., 8 of them, with the frequencies in the column vector in the stack, namely (for this case): 23, 22, 22, 17, 26, 15, 20, 33. This means that there are 23 values in the bin [-8,-6], 22 in [-6,-4], 22 in [-4,2], 17 in [-2,0], 26 in [0,2], 15 in [2,4], 20 in [4,6], and 33 in [6,8]. You can also check that adding all these values plus the outliers, 14 and 8, show above, you will get the total number of elements in the sample, namely, 200. Fitting data to a function y = f(x) The program 3. Fit data.., available as option number 3 in the STAT menu, can be used to fit linear, logarithmic, exponential, and power functions to Page 16-4 data sets (x,y), stored in columns of the ΣDAT matrix. For this application, you need to have at least two columns in your ΣDAT variable. For example, to fit a linear relationship to the data shown in the table below: x 0 1 2 3 4 5 y 0.5 2.3 3.6 6.7 7.2 11 • First, enter the two columns of data into variable ΣDAT by using the matrix writer, and function STOΣ. • To access the program • ‚Ù˜˜ 3. Fit data.., use the following keystrokes: The input form will show the current ΣDAT, already loaded. If needed, change your set up screen to the following parameters for a linear fitting: @@@[email protected]@@ To obtain the data fitting press @@[email protected]@. The output from this program, shown below for our particular data set, consists of the following three lines in RPN mode: 3: '0.195238095238 + 2.00857242857*X' 2: Correlation: 0.983781424465 1: Covariance: 7.03 Page 16-5 Level 3 shows the form of the equation. Level 2 shows the sample correlation coefficient, and level 1 shows the covariance of x-y. For definitions of these parameters see Chapter 18 in the User’s Guide. For additional information on the data-fit feature of the calculator see Chapter 18 in the User’s Guide. Obtaining additional summary statistics The application 4. Summary stats.. in the STAT menu can be useful in some ˜‚Ù calculations for sample statistics. To get started, press move to the fourth option using the down-arrow key The resulting input form contains the following fields: DAT: X-Col, Y-Col: once more, , and press @@@[email protected]@@. the matrix containing the data of interest. these options apply only when you have more than two columns in the matrix ΣDAT. By default, the x column is column 1, and the y column is column 2. If you have only one column, then the only setting that makes sense is to have X-Col: 1. summary statistics that you can choose as results of this program by checking the appropriate field using [ CHK] when that field is selected. Σ _ΣX _ ΣY…: Many of these summary statistics are used to calculate statistics of two variables (x,y) that may be related by a function y = f(x). Therefore, this program can be thought off as a companion to program 3. Fit data.. As an example, for the x-y data currently in ΣDAT, obtain all the summary statistics. ‚Ù˜˜˜ • To access the summary stats… option, use: • Select the column numbers corresponding to the x- and y-data, i.e., X-Col: 1, and Y-Col: 2. • Using the @ [email protected] @@@[email protected]@@ key select all the options for outputs, i.e., _ΣX, _ΣY, etc. Page 16-6 • Press @@@[email protected]@@ to obtain the following results: Confidence intervals The application 6. Conf Interval can be accessed by using @@@[email protected]@@. The application offers the following options: ‚Ù— These options are to be interpreted as follows: 1. Z-INT: 1 µ.: Single sample confidence interval for the population mean, µ, with known population variance, or for large samples with unknown population variance. 2. Z-INT: µ1−µ2.: Confidence interval for the difference of the population means, µ1- µ2, with either known population variances, or for large samples with unknown population variances. 3. Z-INT: 1 p.: Single sample confidence interval for the proportion, p, for large samples with unknown population variance. Page 16-7 4. Z-INT: p1− p2.: Confidence interval for the difference of two proportions, p1-p2, for large samples with unknown population variances. 5. T-INT: 1 µ.: Single sample confidence interval for the population mean, µ, for small samples with unknown population variance. 6. T-INT: µ1−µ2.: Confidence interval for the difference of the population means, µ1- µ2, for small samples with unknown population variances. Example 1 – Determine the centered confidence interval for the mean of a population if a sample of 60 elements indicate that the mean value of the sample is x = 23.2, and its standard deviation is s = 5.2. Use α = 0.05. The confidence level is C = 1-α = 0.95. Select case 1 from the menu shown above by pressing @@@[email protected]@@. Enter the values required in the input form as shown: Press @HELP to obtain a screen explaining the meaning of the confidence interval in terms of random numbers generated by a calculator. To scroll down the resulting screen use the down-arrow key . Press @@@[email protected]@@ when done with the help screen. This will return you to the screen shown above. ˜ To calculate the confidence interval, press @@@[email protected]@@. calculator is: The result shown in the Press @GRAPH to see a graphical display of the confidence interval information: Page 16-8 The graph shows the standard normal distribution pdf (probability density function), the location of the critical points ±zα/2, the mean value (23.2) and the corresponding interval limits (21.88424 and 24.51576). Press @TEXT to return to the previous results screen, and/or press @@@[email protected]@@ to exit the confidence interval environment. The results will be listed in the calculator’s display. Additional examples of confidence interval calculations are presented in Chapter 18 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Hypothesis testing A hypothesis is a declaration made about a population (for instance, with respect to its mean). Acceptance of the hypothesis is based on a statistical test on a sample taken from the population. The consequent action and decision-making are called hypothesis testing. ‚Ù—— The calculator provides hypothesis testing procedures under application 6. Conf Interval can be accessed by using @@@[email protected]@@. As with the calculation of confidence intervals, discussed earlier, this program offers the following 6 options: These options are interpreted as in the confidence interval applications: Page 16-9 1. Z-Test: 1 µ.: Single sample hypothesis testing for the population mean, µ, with known population variance, or for large samples with unknown population variance. 2. Z-Test: µ1−µ2.: Hypothesis testing for the difference of the population means, µ1- µ2, with either known population variances, or for large samples with unknown population variances. 3. Z-Test: 1 p.: Single sample hypothesis testing for the proportion, p, for large samples with unknown population variance. 4. Z-Test: p1− p2.: Hypothesis testing for the difference of two proportions, p1-p2, for large samples with unknown population variances. 5. T-Test: 1 µ.: Single sample hypothesis testing for the population mean, µ, for small samples with unknown population variance. 6. T-Test: µ1−µ2.: Hypothesis testing for the difference of the population means, µ1- µ2, for small samples with unknown population variances. Try the following exercise: Example 1 – For µ0 = 150, σ = 10, x = 158, n = 50, for α = 0.05, test the hypothesis H0: µ = µ0, against the alternative hypothesis, H1: µ ≠ µ0. ‚Ù—— Press @@@[email protected]@@ to access the confidence interval feature in the calculator. Press @@@[email protected]@@ to select option 1. Z-Test: 1 µ. Enter the following data and press @@@[email protected]@@: You are then asked to select the alternative hypothesis: Page 16-10 Select µ ≠ 150. Then, press @@@[email protected]@@. The result is: Then, we reject H0: µ = 150, against H1: µ ≠ 150. The test z value is z0 = 5.656854. The P-value is 1.54×10-8. The critical values of ±zα/2 = ±1.959964, corresponding to critical x range of {147.2 152.8}. This information can be observed graphically by pressing the soft-menu key @GRAPH: Reference Additional materials on statistical analysis, including definitions of concepts, and advanced statistical applications, are available in Chapter 18 in the User’s Guide. Page 16-11 Chapter 17 Numbers in Different Bases Besides our decimal (base 10, digits = 0-9) number system, you can work with a binary system (base 2, digits = 0,1), an octal system (base 8, digits = 0-7), or a hexadecimal system (base 16, digits=0-9,A-F), among others. The same way that the decimal integer 321 means 3x102+2x101+1x100, the number 100110, in binary notation, means 1x25 + 0x24 + 0x23 + 1x22 + 1x21 + 0x20 = 32+0+0+4+2+0 = 38. ‚ã 3 The BASE menu The BASE menu is accessible through (the key). With system flag 117 set to CHOOSE boxes (see Chapter 1 in this guide), the following entries are available: With system flag 117 set to SOFT menus, the BASE menu shows the following: This figure shows that the LOGIC, BIT, and BYTE entries within the BASE menu are themselves sub-menus. These menus are discussed in detail in Chapter 19 of the calculator’s User’s Guide. Writing non-decimal numbers „â Numbers in non-decimal systems, referred to as binary integers, are written preceded by the # symbol ( ) in the calculator. To select the current Page 17-1 base to be used for binary integers, choose either HEX(adecimal), DEC(imal), OCT(al), or BIN(ary) in the BASE menu. For example, if @HEX is selected, binary integers will be a hexadecimal numbers, e.g., #53, #A5B, etc. As different systems are selected, the numbers will be automatically converted to the new current base. ! To write a number in a particular system, start the number with # and end with either h (hexadecimal), d (decimal), o (octal), or b (binary), examples: HEX DEC OCT BIN Reference For additional details on numbers from different bases see Chapter 19 in the calculator’s User’s Guide. Page 17-2 Chapter 18 Using SD cards The calculator provides a memory card port where you can insert an SD flash card for backing up calculator objects, or for downloading objects from other sources. The SD card in the calculator will appear as port number 3. Accessing an object from the SD card is performed similarly as if the object were located in ports 0, 1, or 2. However, Port 3 will not appear in the menu when using the LIB function (‚á). The SD files can only be managed using the Filer, or File Manager („¡). When starting the Filer, the Tree view will show: 0: IRAM 1: ERAM 2: FLASH 3: SD HOME |-sub-directories When you enter in the SD tree, all objects will appear as backup objects. Therefore, it is not possible to tell what type a given objects by just looking at its name in the Filer. Long names are supported, however all names longer than 62 characters will be ignored. THIS IS IMPORTANT, names longer than 62 characters can’t be used with the Filer and will simply be ignored. As an alternative to using the File Manager operations, you can use functions STO and RCL to store and recall objects from the SD card, as shown below. Storing objects in the SD card You can only store an object at the root of the SD, i.e., no sub-directory tree can be build into Port 3 (This feature may be enhanced in a future flash ROM upgrade). To store an object, use function STO as follows: • In algebraic mode: Enter object, press K, type the name of the stored object using port 3 (e.g., :3:VAR1), press `. • In RPN mode: Page 18-1 Enter object, type the name of the stored object using port 3 (e.g., :3:VAR1), press K. Recalling an object from the SD card To recall an object from the SD card onto the screen, use function RCL, as follows: • In algebraic mode: Press „©, type the name of the stored object using port 3 (e.g., :3:VAR1), press `. • In RPN mode: Type the name of the stored object using port 3 (e.g., :3:VAR1), press „©. With the RCL command, it is possible to recall variables by specifying a path in the command, e.g., in RPN mode: :3: {path} ` RCL. The path, like in a DOS drive, is a series of directory names that locate the position of the variable within a directory tree. However, some variables stored within a backup object cannot be recalled by specifying a path. In this case, the full backup object (e.g., a directory) will have to be recalled, and the individual variables then accessed in the screen. Purging an object from the SD card To purge an object from the SD card onto the screen, use function PURGE, as follows: • In algebraic mode: Press I @PURGE, type the name of the stored object using port 3 (e.g., :3:VAR1), press `. • In RPN mode: Type the name of the stored object using port 3 (e.g., :3:VAR1), press I @PURGE. Page 18-2 Limited Warranty hp 49g+ graphing calculator; Warranty period: 12 months 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. HP warrants to you, the end-user customer, that HP hardware, accessories and supplies will be free from defects in materials and workmanship after the date of purchase, for the period specified above. If HP receives notice of such defects during the warranty period, HP will, at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to be defective. Replacement products may be either new or like-new. HP warrants to you that HP software will not fail to execute its programming instructions after the date of purchase, for the period specified above, due to defects in material and workmanship when properly installed and used. If HP receives notice of such defects during the warranty period, HP will replace software media which does not execute its programming instructions due to such defects. HP does not warrant that the operation of HP products will be uninterrupted or error free. If HP is unable, within a reasonable time, to repair or replace any product to a condition as warranted, you will be entitled to a refund of the purchase price upon prompt return of the product with proof of purchase. HP products may contain remanufactured parts equivalent to new in performance or may have been subject to incidental use. Warranty does not apply to defects resulting from (a) improper or inadequate maintenance or calibration, (b) software, interfacing, parts or supplies not supplied by HP, (c) unauthorized modification or misuse, (d) operation outside of the published environmental specifications for the product, or (e) improper site preparation or maintenance. HP MAKES NO OTHER EXPRESS WARRANTY OR CONDITION WHETHER WRITTEN OR ORAL. TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OR CONDITION OF MERCHANTABILITY, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE IS LIMITED TO THE DURATION OF THE EXPRESS WARRANTY SET FORTH ABOVE. Some countries, states or provinces do not allow limitations on the duration of an implied warranty, so the above limitation or exclusion might not apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights and you might also have other rights that vary from country to country, state to state, or province to province. Page W-1 7. TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, THE REMEDIES IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT ARE YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. EXCEPT AS INDICATED ABOVE, IN NO EVENT WILL HP OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR LOSS OF DATA OR FOR DIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING LOST PROFIT OR DATA), OR OTHER DAMAGE, WHETHER BASED IN CONTRACT, TORT, OR OTHERWISE. Some countries, States or provinces do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you. 8. The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services. HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. FOR CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND: THE WARRANTY TERMS CONTAINED IN THIS STATEMENT, EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT LAWFULLY PERMITTED, DO NOT EXCLUDE, RESTRICT OR MODIFY AND ARE IN ADDITION TO THE MANDATORY STATUTORY RIGHTS APPLICABLE TO THE SALE OF THIS PRODUCT TO YOU. Service Europe Page W-2 Country : Austria Belgium Denmark Eastern Europe countries Finland France Germany Greece Holland Italy Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Telephone numbers +43-1-3602771203 +32-2-7126219 +45-8-2332844 +420-5-41422523 +35-89640009 +33-1-49939006 +49-69-95307103 +420-5-41422523 +31-2-06545301 +39-0422-303069 +47-63849309 +351-213-180020 +34-917-820111 +46-851992065 Switzerland Asia Pacific L.America Turkey UK Czech Republic South Africa Luxembourg Other European countries Country : Australia Singapore Country : Argentina Brazil Mexico Venezuela Chile Columbia Peru Central America & Caribbean Guatemala Puerto Rico Costa Rica N.America +41-1-4395358 (German) +41-22-8278780 (French) +39-0422-303069 (Italian) +420-5-41422523 +44-207-4580161 +420-5-41422523 +27-11-541 9573 +32-2-7126219 +420-5-41422523 Telephone numbers +61-3-9841-5211 +61-3-9841-5211 Telephone numbers 0-810-555-5520 Sao Paulo 3747-7799; ROTC 0-800-157751 Mx City 5258-9922; ROTC 01-800-472-6684 0800-4746-8368 800-360999 9-800-114726 0-800-10111 1-800-711-2884 1-800-999-5105 1-877-232-0589 0-800-011-0524 Country : U.S. Canada Telephone numbers 1800-HP INVENT (905) 206-4663 or 800- HP INVENT ROTC = Rest of the country Page W-3 Regulatory information This section contains information that shows how the hp 49g+ graphing calculator complies with regulations in certain regions. Any modifications to the calculator not expressly approved by Hewlett-Packard could void the authority to operate the 49g+ in these regions. USA This calculator generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and may interfere with radio and television reception. The calculator complies with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. In the unlikely event that there is interference to radio or television reception(which can be determined by turning the calculator off and on), the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna. Relocate the calculator, with respect to the receiver. Connections to Peripheral Devices To maintain compliance with FCC rules and regulations, use only the cable accessories provided. Canada This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003. Cet appareil numerique de la classe B est conforme a la norme NMB-003 du Canada. Japan この装置は、情報処理装置等電波障害自主規制協議会(VCCI)の基準 に基づく第二情報技術装置です。この装置は、家庭環境で使用することを目 的としていますが、この装置がラジオやテレビジョン受信機に近接して使用 されると、受信障害を引き起こすことがあります。 取扱説明書に従って正しい取り扱いをしてください。 Page W-4

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