Garmin | GTS™ 800 TAS | Garmin GTS™ 800 TAS GTS8XX Pilot's Guide

Garmin GTS™ 800 TAS GTS8XX Pilot's Guide
GTS Traffic Systems
Pilot’s Guide
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Record of Revisions
Revision
Date
A
12/02/09 Production release.
B
3/21/14
C
D
08/30/16 Updated ADS-B info
11/08/17 Updated per latest SW
Description
Added new GTS models and reorganized/edited content.
November 2017
Printed in the U.S.A.
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WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS
WARNING: The GTS TAS and TCAS I systems are intended for advisory use
only to aid the pilot in visually acquiring traffic. No avoidance maneuvers
should be based solely upon traffic information. It is the responsibility of
the pilot in command to see and maneuver to avoid traffic.
CAUTION: Pilots should be aware of TAS/TCAS I system limitations.
TAS/TCAS I systems require intruder transponders to respond to system
interrogations. If an intruder transponder does not respond to interrogations
due to antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, it will not
be displayed, or display may be intermittent. Pilots should remain vigilant
for traffic at all times when using TAS/TCAS I systems for non-transponder
equipped airplanes or unresponsive airplanes.
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Contents
Section 1 System Description........................................................................3
Section 2 General Theory of Operation.........................................................3
2.1 Active Surveillance...................................................................................... 3
2.2 ADS-B IN.................................................................................................... 4
Section 3 System Specifications....................................................................7
Section 4 System Components......................................................................8
4.1 System Processor........................................................................................ 8
4.1.1 GTS 800/820/850 System Processors................................................ 8
4.1.2 GTS 825/855 System Processor........................................................ 8
4.2 Antennas................................................................................................... 9
4.2.1 Directional Antennas...................................................................... 10
4.2.2 Omni-Directional Antenna.............................................................. 11
4.3 External Amplifier..................................................................................... 11
4.3.1 GPA 65 Amplifier Module (GTS 820 & 850 only)............................. 11
Section 5 System Interfaces........................................................................12
5.1 Altitude Source......................................................................................... 12
5.2 Transponder Interface............................................................................... 12
5.3 Traffic Display........................................................................................... 12
5.4 Audio System........................................................................................... 12
5.5 Landing Gear Position.............................................................................. 13
5.6 Radar Altimeter........................................................................................ 13
5.7 GPS......................................................................................................... 13
5.8 Magnetic Heading.................................................................................... 13
5.9 Air/Ground Switch.................................................................................... 13
5.10 Control Switches.................................................................................... 13
Section 6 System Operation........................................................................14
6.1 Operating Modes..................................................................................... 14
6.1.1 Control of Modes........................................................................... 14
6.2 Traffic Information.................................................................................... 14
6.2.1 No-Bearing TAs.............................................................................. 15
6.3 ADS-B In Applications - SURF, AIRB........................................................... 17
6.4 Traffic Alerting.......................................................................................... 18
6.4.1 TAS/TCAS I Alerting........................................................................ 18
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6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.4.2 ADS-B In Alerting........................................................................... 21
6.4.3 TA Aural Alerts............................................................................... 24
Ownship Air/Ground Detection................................................................. 25
6.5.1 Automatic Mode Switching............................................................. 25
Calculated Height Above Ground.............................................................. 25
Ground Traffic Filtering............................................................................. 26
6.7.1 Mode S Targets.............................................................................. 27
6.7.2 Radar Altimeter.............................................................................. 27
6.7.3 Calculated Height Above Ground.................................................... 27
Self-Test................................................................................................... 28
Section 7 Q and A........................................................................................29
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
What are the benefits of ADS-B? .............................................................. 29
When is ADS-B In available?..................................................................... 29
How are active and ADS-B In targets displayed?....................................... 29
What capabilities does GPS data provide?................................................. 29
What kind of transponder is required for use with the GTS Traffic System?.29
Is ADS-B Out required with the GTS Traffic System?................................... 30
Section 8 Glossary.......................................................................................31
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Section 1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Garmin GTS Traffic Systems are a family of Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS)
and Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS). The systems feature
both active interrogation of aircraft transponders and reception of 1090 MHz
Extended Squitter ADS-B broadcasts (ADS-B IN).
GTS Traffic Systems include the following products:
• GTS 800 TAS
• GTS 820 TAS and GTS 850 TCAS I
• GTS 825 TAS and GTS 825 TCAS I
• GTS 8000 TCAS II
Terms used in this Pilot’s Guide:
• TAS: Refers to any TAS system (GTS 800/820/825)
• TCAS I: Refers to any TCAS I system (GTS 850/855)
• TAS / TCAS I: Refers to any TAS or TCAS I system
(GTS 800/820/825/850/855)
• TCAS II: Refers to the GTS 8000
NOTE: Details on the GTS 8000 TCAS II operation are not included in this
guide. For information on a GTS 8000 TCAS II system, refer to the aircraftspecific installation documentation.
Section 2 GENERAL THEORY OF OPERATION
2.1 Active Surveillance
GTS Traffic Systems actively interrogate the transponders of other nearby
aircraft to determine their bearing, distance, altitude and vertical trend relative
to your aircraft. Aircraft with operating transponders are detected, and aircraft
with altitude reporting transponders will also include altitude and vertical trend
information (level, climbing, or descending). This information is then shown on
a compatible traffic display.
GTS Traffic Systems also provide visual and aural alerts to assist in visually
acquiring traffic. Aural and visual alerts are provided as a Traffic Advisory (TA)
for conflicting traffic.
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2.2 ADS-B IN
The GTS ADS-B In capability allows it to receive traffic data through a built in
1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) receiver. ADS-B IN is a core technology
in the FAA NextGen air traffic control system and is comprised of three segments:
ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R (Rebroadcast), and TIS-B. The ADS-B In function
must be enabled at the time of system installation. If the ADS-B In function is
disabled, only active surveillance is used.
NOTE: Full ADS-B In functionality is only available in GTS 800, GTS 820,
and GTS 850 systems with system software version 4.00 and later; and in
GTS 825 and GTS 855 systems with system software version 3.00 and later.
Earlier software versions provide limited ADS-B IN functionality: Position
data from the 1090 ES ADS-B is used to derive bearing for a correlated
intruder tracked with active surveillance.
Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) is the automatic
broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on
fixed objects. These broadcasts contain much more data than just a simple
position report, they include: identity (Flight ID/Tail Number, ICAO registration
number, etc), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, indications of
equipment capabilities, and emergency status.
Figure 1 ADS-B Operation - FAA Illustration
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Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Rebroadcast (ADS-R) is the rebroadcast
of ADS-B data. ADS-B may transmitted on either 1090 MHz or 978 MHz. ADS-B
In capable aircraft may only be able to receive data on one link. Therefore, a
means to get data from one data link to the other is required. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations and provides this service by
taking data from one link and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, two
aircraft are in the service volume for a ground station, and one transmitting on
1090 MHz and the other 978 MHz, the ground station will retransmit the data
from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each
other. The GTS is capable of receiving ADS-B directly on the 1090 MHz data
link only. ADS-R allows the GTS to “see” the aircraft that transmits ADS-B on the
978 MHz data link.
Figure 2 ADS-R Operation - FAA Illustration
Traffic Information Service - Broadcast (TIS-B) provides a bridge between
the radar based ATC system and the ADS-B based system. When an ADS-B In
capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B ground station,
the ground station will begin to broadcast a portion of the ATC radar picture
to the aircraft. This aircraft is then included in the list of aircraft that is being
provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
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TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage,
in Secondary Surveillance Radar coverage, and the other aircraft is in secondary
surveillance radar coverage and transmitting altitude.
ATC radar tracks for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant is provided by the ground station, to include altitude, position,
ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B data is broadcast once every three to
thirteen seconds depending on the characteristics of the FAA radar ground
station.
The GTS is capable of active surveillance and will directly track most
targets provided via TIS-B. If the GTS is not able to track a target using active
surveillance (e.g. it is at a range too far to track reliably), it can still be displayed
if provided via TIS-B.
Figure 3 TIS-B Operation - FAA Illustration
NOTE: Even if the display is showing TIS-B traffic, unless the TIS-B
participant indication is present (see Table 1) TIS-B services are not being
provided specific to your aircraft.
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Garmin display units have the capability to show the status of the ground
station services being received. An example for the GTN is shown below. See the
display device Pilot Guide for the symbology used on that display.
Unit
Symbol
Description
Within coverage of a TIS-B ground station.
GTN
Not within coverage of a TIS-B ground station.
GTN
Table 1 Map TIS-B Availability Symbols for the GDL 88
Section 3 SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
The specifications for each member of the GTS Traffic Systems family are
contained in Table 2.
Product
GTS 800 GTS 820 GTS 825 GTS 850
GTS 855
Type
TAS
TSO-C147
(Class A)
TAS
TSO-C147
(Class A)
TAS
TSO-C147
(Class A)
TCAS I
TSO-C118
TCAS I
TSO-C118
ADS-B Capability
TSO-C166b
TSO-C195b
[Note 1, 2]
TSO-C166b
TSO-C195b
[Note 1, 2]
TSO-C166b
TSO-C195a
[Note 2]
TSO-C166b
TSO-C195b
[Note 1, 2]
TSO-C166b
TSO-C195a
[Note 2]
Transmit Power
40 Watts
250 Watts
400 Watts
250 Watts
400 Watts
Maximum Range
22 NM
40 NM
40 NM
40 NM
80 NM
# Targets Tracked
45
75
75
75
75
Table 2 GTS Traffic Systems Specifications
Note 1:
GTS 800/820/850 require system software version 3.00 or later for TSO-C166b
compliance.
Note 2:
For TSO-C195b compliance, GTS 800/820/850 require system software version
4.00 or later. For TSO-C195a compliance, GTS 825/855 require system software
version 3.00 or later.
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Section 4 SYSTEM COMPONENTS
4.1 System Processor
Each GTS Traffic System includes a system processor. The system processor
connects to all of the required and optional antennas, displays, controls, and
aircraft interfaces.
Figure 4 GTS System Processor
4.1.1 GTS 800/820/850 System Processors
The GTS 800/820/850 systems use a unique system processor. The GTS 800
system processor is different from a GTS 820 or GTS 850 system processor.
4.1.2 GTS 825/855 System Processor
The GTS 825/855 systems share a common system processor known as the
“GTS Processor.” The GTS Processor can be configured during installation to be
either a GTS 825 TAS or a GTS 855 TCAS I.
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4.2 Antennas
The GTS Traffic Systems use one or two dedicated externally-mounted
antennas to transmit transponder interrogations to other aircraft. The same
antenna or antennas are used to receive transponder replies and ADS-B
broadcasts from other aircraft.
A directional antenna on top of the aircraft is always required and is used to
determine the bearing to the intruder aircraft. Interrogations transmitted from
the top antenna are directional, which reduces the number of transponders that
reply to the interrogation and reduces congestion on the 1090 MHz frequency.
An optional second antenna may be installed on the bottom of the aircraft
to improve performance. A bottom mounted antenna adds additional visibility
for targets that could be shaded from the top antenna (for example, targets
that are underneath the aircraft). The bottom antenna may be a directional
antenna or an omni-directional antenna. If a directional antenna is installed on
the bottom, it may be used to determine the bearing to the intruder aircraft
(omni-directional antennas cannot determine bearing). The bearing accuracy
of a bottom directional antenna on a fixed gear airplane may be less than that
of the top antenna, due to the presence of the landing gear. Bearing from the
bottom antenna on a retractable gear airplane is not used when the landing
gear is extended. Interrogations transmitted from the bottom antenna are always
omni-directional, regardless of the antenna type.
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4.2.1 Directional Antennas
4.2.1.1 GA 58 Directional Antenna
The GA 58 is a directional four-element antenna that may be installed on the
top and/or bottom of the aircraft.
Figure 5 GA 58 Directional Antenna
4.2.1.2 Sensor Systems Low-Profile Antenna
Sensor Systems antennas are low-profile directional antennas that may be
installed on the top and/or bottom of the aircraft.
Figure 6 Sensor Systems Low-Profile Directional Antenna
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4.2.2 Omni-Directional Antenna
Numerous omni-directional (monopole) antennas are suitable for installation
on the bottom of the aircraft. Omni-directional antennas cannot determine the
bearing to an intruder aircraft.
Figure 7 Bottom-Mounted Omni-Directional (Monopole) Antenna
4.3 External Amplifier
4.3.1 GPA 65 Amplifier Module (GTS 820 & 850 only)
The GPA 65 is a combined Power Amplifier and Low Noise Amplifier that is
required for use with the GTS 820 and GTS 850 systems only.
Figure 8 GPA 65 PA/LNA Module
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Section 5 SYSTEM INTERFACES
The GTS Traffic System includes interfaces to various required and optional
aircraft systems.
5.1 Altitude Source
At least one pressure altitude source is required for system operation. The
pressure altitude source is compared to the pressure altitude replies from other
aircraft to calculate their relative altitudes. Pressure altitude interfaces are
available from a serial altitude encoder or digital air data computer.
5.2 Transponder Interface
All GTS Traffic Systems except the GTS 800 require an interface to a
compatible Mode S transponder. The transponder interface allows the highpower GTS systems to determine how many TCAS-equipped aircraft are in
the area. To reduce frequency congestion, transmit power is adjusted based on
the number of other TCAS-equipped aircraft in the area. The GTS 800 systems
transmit at a lower power level and do not require a transponder interface.
5.3 Traffic Display
At least one traffic display is required, and multiple traffic displays are
supported. The traffic display shows a two-dimensional (top-down) view of
traffic that is detected by the GTS system. Bearing, distance, relative altitude, and
vertical trend can be depicted on the traffic display. When the ADS-B In function
is installed and active, additional data provided by ADS-B (e.g. directionality) is
shown on compatible displays. Some traffic displays include integrated controls
for selecting the system operating mode and altitude filter. For details on the
capabilities of a compatible traffic display, refer to the documentation for that
display.
Contact your Garmin dealer to learn which displays are compatible with
the GTS systems. Some displays may require the purchase and installation of
additional modules and/or software.
5.4 Audio System
The GTS must be interfaced to an audio system so that traffic advisory aural
alerts and self-test messages can be heard by the crew.
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5.5 Landing Gear Position
Landing gear position for retractable gear aircraft is interfaced to the GTS
system. Landing gear position may be used to mute traffic advisory audio, adjust
the sensitivity of traffic alerts, or compensate a bottom directional antenna.
5.6 Radar Altimeter
A radar altimeter may be optionally interfaced to the GTS system. Radar
altimeter height may be used to mute traffic advisory audio, adjust the sensitivity
of traffic alerts, or filter out traffic targets that are on/near the ground.
5.7 GPS
GPS is an optional interface to the GTS system that can provide position,
groundspeed, and altitude (GPS-calculated). GPS input may be used to enable
several functions, including ADS-B In, automatic air/ground determination, or
calculated height above ground.
5.8 Magnetic Heading
Magnetic heading is an optional interface to the GTS system. Magnetic
heading may be used to correct the bearing of traffic targets during turns, and it
also aids the ADS-B In function. Magnetic heading interfaces are available from
analog gyro systems or digital AHRS.
5.9 Air/Ground Switch
An air/ground switch (e.g. squat or airspeed switch) is an optional interface
to the GTS system which may be used for automatic air/ground determination.
5.10 Control Switches
The GTS system supports external switches for selecting the operating mode
(operate/standby), initiating a self-test, or canceling/muting traffic advisories.
Use of external switches is required with certain traffic displays that do not
include integrated controls. External switches, when installed, are a momentary
pushbutton type.
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Section 6 SYSTEM OPERATION
6.1 Operating Modes
The system typically powers up in Standby mode. In Standby mode, the
system is powered on, but no traffic surveillance functions are performed.
Operate mode is the normal mode for operations. All active and ADS-B In
traffic surveillance functions are performed in Operate mode.
Self-test mode is a manually-selected mode that briefly performs a test of the
system. Refer to the self-test section of this guide for additional information.
If the system detects a fault that will prevent normal operation, the system
will enter and remain in Fail mode.
6.1.1 Control of Modes
Standby, Operate, and Self-test modes may be manually selected via system
controls. When the ADS-B In function is installed and the unit is in Operate
mode, the ADS-B in feature can be turned on and off. The controls are either
integrated with the traffic display(s) or installed as external control switches.
For display(s) that integrate control of ADS-B In and GTS Modes, configuration
can be set to allow ADS-B In feature to be turned on or off while GTS is in
Standby. This feature requires display(s) support.
6.2 Traffic Information
The function of the GTS Traffic System is to provide information regarding
nearby traffic to the crew. For each traffic target that is tracked by the GTS, the
system computes the bearing, range, relative altitude, and vertical trend for the
target. Relative altitude and vertical trend are available for targets with altitude
reporting capability. When ADS-B data is received for a traffic target, additional
information is available such as directionality, ground track, and other identifying
information (ICAO address, flight ID, tail number). Traffic information may be
available from several sources such as active surveillance, ADS-B, ADS-R, and
TIS-B. The GTS correlates data from multiple sources to create a single, fused
traffic picture for the flight crew. This traffic information is displayed to the
crew on an interfaced display. See the display device Pilot Guide for the display
capabilities and symbology (Table 3) used on that display. Figure 9 shows an
example traffic display showing range, bearing, relative altitude, and vertical
trend. Figure 10 shows an example traffic display capable of showing additional
data received via ADS-B.
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Intruder Altitude
and Vertical Trend
Figure 9 Example Traffic Display
6.2.1 No-Bearing TAs
If the bearing of a TA target cannot be determined, a No-Bearing TA will be
issued (Figure 9). No-Bearing TAs are typically displayed as a yellow text banner
on the traffic display. The text typically includes “TA” followed by the distance,
relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow. Relative altitude and vertical trend
arrow are not available for targets that do not report altitude.
* Indicates Multiple Targets. Touch the target to show all
targets. Then touch Next to get info on each of the targets.
ADS-B and TCAS
Status and Altitude
Filter
Traffic Motion
Vector (Green)
Map
Orientation
Selected
Traffic Info
Touch For
Next Target
Proximate
Non-Directional
Traffic
Ownship
Icon
Traffic Display
Radius
Selected Vector
Motion and Duration
Touch To View
Traffic Menu
Figure 10 Example Traffic Display
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NOTE: Always refer to the traffic display documentation for details on
how traffic information is depicted on each display.
Symbol
16
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information. Traffic
Advisory (TA) targets are typically displayed as a yellow circle
and are generated when the GTS predicts that a target may
pose a collision threat. Traffic Advisory sensitivity, criteria, and
types are described in the following sections.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range. Displayed
at outer range ring at proper bearing. If a TA is beyond the
currently-selected traffic display range, it is typically shown
with a half-circle icon at the edge of the display range. Refer
to the traffic display documentation for details regarding offscale TA depictions.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the
direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory (PA) without directional information. PA
targets are typically displayed as a solid diamond. PAs are
defined as traffic within 6 NM horizontally and 1200 feet
vertically that are not a Traffic Advisory.
Non-threat traffic with directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Non-threat traffic without directional information. Other
Traffic (OT) targets are typically displayed as a hollow
diamond and do not meet the criteria for any other traffic
type.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information.
Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is
only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic
is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or
own aircraft is on the ground.
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Symbol
Description
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed
when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on
the ground.
Table 3 GTS Traffic Symbology
6.3 ADS-B In Applications - SURF, AIRB
When the ADS-B In function is installed and the GTS is interfaced to a
certified compatible display unit, ADS-B display is available for the flight crew’s
situational awareness and to enhance the visual acquisition of surrounding traffic.
The GTS is capable of supporting two display “modes:” Airborne Situational
Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness (SURF).
AIRB is in operation in the en route environment, outside of five NM from or
more than 1,500 feet above the nearest airport. AIRB supports the flight crew’s
situational awareness and visual acquisition of surrounding airborne traffic (see
Figure 10).
SURF is in operation within the terminal environment (within five NM
and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation). When SURF is active, and the
zoom scale on the traffic display is less than two NM, the airport environment
(including taxiways and runways) is displayed in addition to traffic. This is to
aid in situational awareness of runway occupancy/availability, etc (see Figure
11).
Map
Orientation
ADS-B and
TCAS Status and
Altitude Filter
Traffic
Display
Radius
Ownship
Icon
Selected Vector
Motion and Duration
Touch To View
Traffic Menu
Figure 11 Example Traffic Display
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6.4 Traffic Alerting
GTS provides visual and aural alerts to assist in visually acquiring traffic.
Aural and visual alerts are provided as a Traffic Advisory (TA) for conflicting
traffic. A TA is generated based on range and altitude closure rate (time until
collision) or if the intruder aircraft encroaches within a minimum distance.
When an intruder aircraft is tracked with active surveillance, TAS/TCAS I
alerting is used for that aircraft. If an intruder cannot be tracked with active
surveillance but is tracked by ADS-B In, then ADS-B alerting is used for that
aircraft. Intruder aircraft can only be tracked by ADS-B In when ADS-B In is
installed and operating.
NOTE: The GTS Traffic System does not provide the ADS-B Traffic Awareness
System (ATAS) application defined by TSO-C195b.
6.4.1 TAS/TCAS I Alerting
6.4.1.1 Sensitivity Level
To prevent nuisance TAs in the airport environment, there are two sensitivity
levels available: Sensitivity Level A (SL A) and Sensitivity Level B (SL B). The
Sensitivity Level determines what criteria will be used for TAs. SL A is less
sensitive and traffic must be closer before it will generate an alert. SL B is more
sensitive and traffic may be farther away to generate an alert. The logic for
choosing the sensitivity level is based on available system inputs. If none of the
inputs described below are available, the system will always remain in the most
sensitive level, SL B.
6.4.1.1.1 Height Above ground
If the aircraft is equipped with a radar altimeter, it will be used as the source
of height above ground. If the aircraft is not equipped with a radar altimeter,
calculated height above ground (see below) will be used. SL A will be used
when the height above ground is less than 2,000 feet. SL B will be used when
the height above ground is greater than 2,000 feet.
NOTE: Calculated Height Above Ground is used for sensitivity level selection
in GTS 800, GTS 820, and GTS 850 systems with software version 4.00 and
later; and in GTS 825 and GTS 855 systems with system software version
3.00 and later. In earlier software versions, only radar altimeter is used for
sensitivity level selection.
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6.4.1.1.2 Landing Gear Position
If the aircraft has retractable landing gear, SL A will be used when the landing
gear is extended. SL B will be used when the landing gear is retracted. Landing
gear position does not affect sensitivity level if height above ground is available.
6.4.1.1.3 Groundspeed
GPS groundspeed may be used to select the sensitivity level only if height
above ground and landing gear position is not available. SL A will be used when
the groundspeed is less than 120 knots. SL B will be used when the groundspeed
is greater than 120 knots.
6.4.1.1.4 No Available Inputs
If none of the above inputs are available (radar altimeter, calculated height
above ground, landing gear position, or groundspeed), the system will always
remain in the most sensitive level, SL B.
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6.4.1.2 TA Criteria
Targets may become a TA based on closure rate (time until collision) or if they
encroach within a minimum distance. The criteria used depend on the current
sensitivity level and whether the target has altitude reporting capability. Once a
TA is generated, it will remain a TA for at least 8 seconds, even if the target no
longer satisfies the criteria for a TA. Table 4 summarizes the criteria used for TAs.
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20
seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20
seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 NM and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15
seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.2 NM.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30
seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30
seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 NM and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20
seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.55 NM.
Table 4 TA Alerting Criteria
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6.4.2 ADS-B In Alerting
To be tracked with active surveillance, an intruder aircraft must receive
interrogations and transmit replies. If the intruder aircraft does not detect
interrogations (e.g. it is too far to receive interrogations), it cannot be tracked by
GTS active surveillance. When ADS-B In is installed and active, GTS may receive
ADS-B, ADS-R, or TIS-B for an intruder aircraft that can’t be tracked with active
surveillance. Such targets are tracked with ADS-B In only, and are included in
the display of traffic. GTS will also generate alerts for targets tracked with ADS-B
In only.
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6.4.2.1 Sensitivity Level
As with TAS/TCAS I TA implementations, height above ground is used to
adjust the sensitivity of the ADS-B In alerting algorithm. Radar Altitude (if
available), Calculated Height Above Ground, and ownship altitude are used
to adjust the sensitivity of the ADS-B In alerting algorithm in accordance with
Table 5:
Sensitivity
Height
Radar
Height Above
Ownship
Level
Above
Altitude
Terrain (HAT)
Altitude
Airport
(feet)
(if available)*
(feet)
(HAA) (feet)
4
4
4
5
6
7
8
≤ 1,500 and w/in
5 NM of airport
reference point
Unavailable
Unavailable
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Any
Any
Any
≤ 1,500
Unavailable
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Any
≤ 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Unavailable or
> 1,500
Any
Any
≤ 5,000
> 5,000 and
≤ 10,000
> 10,000 and
≤ 20,000
> 20,000
Table 5 Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
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6.4.2.2 TA Criteria
Targets may become a TA based on closure rate (time until collision) or if
they encroach within a minimum distance. The criteria used depends on the
current sensitivity level. Once a TA is generated, it will remain a TA for at least
5 seconds, even if the target no longer satisfies the criteria for a TA. Table 6
summarizes the criteria used for TAs.
Sensitivity
Level
4
5
6
7
8
TA Alerting Conditions
Within the next 30 seconds, intruder range and relative altitude are
predicted to be within 0.20 NM and 400 ft.
Within the next 35 seconds, intruder range and relative altitude are
predicted to be within 0.35 NM and 700 ft.
Within the next 40 seconds, intruder range and relative altitude are
predicted to be within 0.55 NM and 700 ft.
Within the next 45 seconds, intruder range and relative altitude are
predicted to be within 0.80 NM and 700 ft.
Within the next 48 seconds, intruder range and relative altitude are
predicted to be within 1.10 NM and 700 ft.
Table 6 TA Alerting Conditions
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6.4.3 TA Aural Alerts
When a target becomes a TA, an aural alert message is played to advise the
crew. The aural alert may include an ATC-description of the target’s bearing,
altitude, and distance. For example, “Traffic! One o’clock, High, Two miles.”
The aural alert format is shown in Table 7:
Bearing
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
Relative Altitude
“High”, “Low”, “Same
Altitude” (if within 200
feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
Distance
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten
Miles”, or “More than ten
miles”
Table 7 Aural Alerts
Optionally, TA aural alerts may be shortened under some circumstances. A
TA aural alert may be shortened to “Traffic, Traffic!” in the following cases:
• Another TA is already present, or
• The range to the TA target is less than 0.25 NM
NOTE: Shortened TA aural alerts are currently only available in GTS 800,
GTS 820, and GTS 850 systems with system software version 4.00 or
later, and GTS 825 and GTS 855 systems with system software version
2.20 or later.
6.4.3.1 TA Aural Muting
TA aural alerts may be muted or canceled under some circumstances. Muting
or canceling of the TA aural alert does not affect the visual display of the TA.
6.4.3.1.1 Height Above Ground
If the aircraft is equipped with a radar altimeter, all TA aural alerts will be
muted when the height above ground is less than 400 feet.
6.4.3.1.2 Landing Gear Position
If the aircraft has retractable landing gear, all TA aural alerts will be muted
when the landing gear is extended. Landing gear position does not mute TA
aural alerts if height above ground is available.
6.4.3.1.3 TAWS/Windshear Alerts
TA aural alerts may be temporarily muted by higher-priority aural alerts,
such as TAWS or windshear. The TA aural alert will resume when the higherpriority aural alert is no longer active.
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6.4.3.1.4 External Switch
A TA aural alert may be canceled with an optional momentary pushbutton
switch. Pressing this switch during a TA aural alert will cancel/mute that aural
alert. Subsequent TA aural alerts will be played, and the switch must be pressed
each time that it is desired to cancel/mute a TA aural alert.
6.5 Ownship Air/Ground Detection
Optional external interfaces can be used to determine whether the ownship
is on the ground or in the air. Interfaces that may be used for determining the
air/ground state include:
• An air/ground switch (e.g. squat or airspeed switch).
• GPS groundspeed. Greater than 35 knots indicates in air, and less than
30 knots indicates on ground.
• Air/ground message from a Garmin avionics system.
Ownship air/ground detection is used for the automatic mode switching and
calculated height above ground features.
6.5.1 Automatic Mode Switching
The system can automatically switch between Operate and Standby modes
based on whether the ownship is in the air or on the ground. The system will
automatically select Operate mode 8 seconds after becoming airborne. Standby
mode will automatically be selected 24 seconds after landing.
For GTS 800, GTS 820, and GTS 850 systems using SW v4.10 or later or
GTS 825 and GTS 855 systems using SW v3.10 or later, when a Pressure Altitude
fault clears, the GTS unit will go into Operate mode if it was operating prior to
the fault.
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6.6 Calculated Height Above Ground
For aircraft that are not equipped with a radar altimeter, the system can
calculate the height above ground using information from various optional
interfaces. This calculation can enable additional functionality (such as ground
traffic filtering), without requiring a radar altimeter interface.
NOTE: The Calculated Height Above Ground feature is only available in
GTS 800, GTS 820, and GTS 850 systems with system software version
4.00 or later; and only available in GTS 825 and GTS 855 systems with
system software version 2.20 or later.
Height above ground can be calculated using data provided by a connected
display. If provided by the display, the GTS can use Height Above Terrain
provided by a display’s TAWS function, or it can calculate height above ground
using altitude data provided for nearby airports.
NOTE: Height above ground data from a connected display can only be
used by GTS 800, GTS 825, and GTS 855 systems with system software
version 4.00 and later; or by GTS 825 and GTS 855 systems with system
software version 3.00 and later.
Height above ground can be calculated using an internal airport database
and optional 3-D GPS interface. The system’s internal airport database contains
locations and elevations for airports throughout the world. By comparing the
3-D GPS position and altitude to the airport database, the ownship’s height
above ground can be calculated. If GPS altitude is not available, 2-D GPS input
(position only) can be used along with baro-corrected altitude from an air data
computer to perform the calculation.
Additionally, if the system has detected that it is on the ground, the onground position and pressure altitude will be used as a known ground reference
point. If GPS position is not available, the on-ground altitude will still be used
as a reference point as long as the ownship is on the ground and for up to 60
seconds after takeoff.
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6.7 Ground Traffic Filtering
To reduce nuisance alerts and reduce traffic display clutter, traffic that is on or
near the ground may not be shown on the traffic display or generate traffic alerts.
When ADS-B In is installed and the SURF application is active, on-ground traffic
may be displayed. On-ground traffic will be shown on compatible displays using
distinct symbols if the traffic is tracked using ADS-B In. See the display device
Pilot Guide for the capabilities and symbology used on that display. On-ground
traffic will not generate alerts. There are several methods used for filtering out
ground traffic.
6.7.1 Mode S Targets
Mode S transponders include in their replies an indication of whether the
aircraft is on the ground or in the air. Mode S traffic that indicates the traffic is on
the ground will not be displayed unless SURF is active and the target is tracked
with ADS-B In. This is the only method used to determine whether Mode S
traffic is on the ground.
NOTE: The system does not indicate to the crew which traffic targets are
Mode S equipped.
6.7.2 Radar Altimeter
Radar altitude, if available, may be used to determine which traffic targets are
on the ground. For example, if the current radar altitude is 1000 feet, then traffic
with a relative altitude of -1000 feet would be considered to be on the ground
and would not be displayed unless SURF is active and the target is tracked with
ADS-B In. Ground traffic is only filtered when the radar altitude is less than
1,700 feet.
6.7.3 Calculated Height Above Ground
If radar altitude is not available, calculated height above ground may be used
to filter out ground traffic. Calculated height above ground is used similarly to
how radar altitude is used. Ground traffic is only filtered when the calculated
height above ground is less than 1,700 feet.
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6.8 Self-Test
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the self-test.
The self-test mode is used to verify that the system is functioning normally.
Self-test must be manually initiated from the Standby mode and takes
approximately ten seconds to complete. During the self-test, a pattern of traffic
symbols is shown on the traffic display. The test pattern consists of the following
traffic:
• A Traffic Advisory at 9 o’clock, 2 miles, 200 feet below and climbing.
There is no Traffic Advisory aural alert for this test traffic.
• A Proximity Advisory at approximately 1 o’clock, 3.6 miles, 1000 feet
below and descending.
• Other Traffic at approximately 11 o’clock, 3.6 miles, 1000 feet above
and level.
Figure 12 Self-Test Mode
If the self-test is successful, the aural announcement “[TAS / TCAS I] System
Test Passed” (depending on the system type) will be played. If the self-test is
unsuccessful, the aural announcement “[TAS / TCAS I] System Test Failed” will
be played.
The system may be installed so that the self-test cannot be initiated while
airborne.
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Section 7 Q AND A
7.1 What are the benefits of ADS-B?
ADS-B data contains additional information about a target aircraft including
flight ID, latitude, longitude, barometric and geometric altitude, velocity, and
direction. The additional data provided by ADS-B can be shown on a compatible
display to enhance flight crew situational awareness of traffic.
7.2 When is ADS-B In available?
ADS-B In functionality is available when the feature is enabled via
configuration settings during equipment installation. When installed, the feature
can be enabled or disabled by the flight crew when the GTS system is in Operate
mode. A compatible display is required to allow pilot control of ADS-B In and
display of additional ADS-B In data for intruder aircraft.
7.3 How are active and ADS-B In targets displayed?
Refer to the traffic display documentation to determine the capabilities of
each display.
7.4 What capabilities does GPS data provide?
GPS data is required for the ADS-B In feature. GPS data is also used in some
installations for air/ground detection, automatic mode switching, and calculated
height above ground.
GPS data is optional and the system can provide active traffic surveillance
with or without GPS data.
7.5 What kind of transponder is required for use
with the GTS Traffic System?
All installations except the GTS 800 require the use of a compatible
Mode S transponder. The transponder provides an indication of how many other
TCAS-equipped aircraft are nearby, so that the GTS traffic system can adjust its
transmit power and reduce frequency congestion.
The GTS 800 does not require a transponder interface (regulatory
requirements for transponder usage still apply).
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7.6 Is ADS-B Out required with the GTS Traffic
System?
No. The ADS-B In feature uses ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B, but the ownship is
not required to be equipped with ADS-B Out.
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Section 8 GLOSSARY
Active Surveillance:
Tracking of traffic targets using aircraft transponders
ADS-B:
Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast
ADS-B IN:
Traffic Surveillance using position and state data received
from ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B messages.
ADS-R:
Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Rebroadcast
ASA:
Aircraft Surveillance Applications
ATCRBS:
Air Traffic Control Radio Beacon Service - A surveillance
system that uses active interrogations and Mode A/C
replies from transponders
GPS:
Global Positioning System
MHz:
MegaHertz - A unit of measure for radio frequency
Mode A:
A type of ATCRBS transmission which requests (via Mode
A interrogations) or reports (via Mode A replies) aircraft
identity information
Mode C:
A type of ATCRBS transmission which requests (via Mode
C interrogations) or reports (via Mode C replies) aircraft
altitude information
Mode S:
A type of secondary surveillance radar transmission which
contains a unique 24-bit discrete address, thus allowing
interrogations to be addressed to individual aircraft. Mode
S transmissions can be short (56 bits) or long (112 bits),
with long transmissions containing a 56-bit “message”
field.
NM:
Nautical Mile
OT:
Other Traffic (other than TA or PA traffic)
PA:
Proximity Advisory
TA:
Traffic Advisory
TAS:
Traffic Advisory System
TCAS:
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System
TIS-B:
Traffic Information Service - Broadcast
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Garmin GTS Traffic Systems
190-00587-02 Rev. D
© 2017 GARMIN Corporation
GARMIN International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Rd., S.E., Salem, Oregon 97302, U.S.A.
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park,
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR, U.K.
GARMIN Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road, Xizhi District, New Taipei City, Taiwan
www.garmin.com
Part Number 190-00587-02 Rev. D
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