Garmin | Cirrus Perspective Touch SF50 | Garmin Cirrus Perspective Touch SF50 Perspective Touch Pilot’s Guide for the Cirrus Vision SF50

Garmin Cirrus Perspective Touch SF50 Perspective Touch Pilot’s Guide for the Cirrus Vision SF50
Cirrus Perspective® Touch by Garmin
Pilot’s Guide
Cirrus Vision SF50
Copyright © 2016, 2018 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 1986.B2 or later for the Cirrus Vision SF50. Some differences in operation
may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to later software versions.
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Garmin Corporation
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Contact Garmin Product Support at www.flygarmin.com.
For warranty information refer to www.flygarmin.com.
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored
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Garmin®, G3000®, WATCH® and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. These trademarks may not be used
without the express permission of Garmin.
Connext™, and WireAware™ are trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. These trademarks may not be used without
the express permission of Garmin.
SurfaceWatch™ is a trademark of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries and may not be used without the express permission of Garmin.
Cirrus Perspective® is a registered trademark of Cirrus Design Corporation.
SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio are provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio, Inc.
AC-U-KWIK® is a registered trademark of Penton Business Media Inc.
AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
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representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any
incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
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the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
respect to the AC-U-KWIK information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AC-U-KWIK Organizations do not warrant or
make any representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Licensee agrees not to sue AC-U-KWIK Organizations and, to the
190-01979-01 Rev. A
Cirrus Perspective Touch by Garmin Pilot’s Guide for the Vision SF50
maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
to any actual or alleged inaccuracies in the information arising out of Garmin’s use of the information in the datasets. Some jurisdictions
do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Cirrus Perspective Touch by Garmin Pilot’s Guide for the Vision SF50
190-01979-01 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: Do not rely on the displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) as the sole source of obstacle
and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum
clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Do not operate this equipment without first obtaining qualified instruction.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
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iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and heading indications in the following geographic
areas Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field: North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes; South
of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W.
(Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada);
North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South
latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
WARNING: Always use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic
avoidance. Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the
accuracy or reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles,
or traffic.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of
the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
WARNING: Do not assume weather radar transmission is disabled unless all display panes displaying
weather radar are set to Standby Mode, and are displaying ‘STANDBY’ in the center of each weather radar
display. Transmission is also disabled by touching the Radar On Button or pressing the Radar On Softkey to
set the weather radar system to Off Mode, as indicated by a gray annunciator.
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Cirrus Perspective Touch by Garmin Pilot’s Guide for the Vision SF50
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Do not allow repairs to be made by anyone other than an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the
aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
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v
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured
compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable
database and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
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Cirrus Perspective Touch by Garmin Pilot’s Guide for the Vision SF50
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Electronic aeronautical charts displayed on this system have been shown to meet the guidance in AC
120 76D as a Type B Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) for FlightCharts and ChartView. The accuracy of the charts
is subject to the chart data provider. Own-ship position on airport surface charts cannot be guaranteed to
meet the accuracy specified in AC 120-76D. Possible additional requirements may make a secondary source
of aeronautical charts, such as traditional paper charts or an additional electronic display, necessary on the
aircraft and available to the pilot. If the secondary source of aeronautical charts is a Portable Electronic
Device (PED), its use must be consistent with the guidance in AC 120-76D.
NOTE: Operate Perspective Touch system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days of
continuous operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
NOTE: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may appear as
a partial symbol.
NOTE: The navigation databases used in Garmin navigation systems contain Special Procedures. Prior
to flying these procedures, pilots must have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the
corresponding current, and legitimately-sourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special
Procedure in the navigation database DOES NOT imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
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190-01979-01 Rev. A
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
BY USING THE DEVICE, COMPONENT OR SYSTEM MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY GARMIN (“THE GARMIN PRODUCT”), YOU AGREE TO
BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT
CAREFULLY. Garmin Ltd. and its subsidiaries (“Garmin”) grants you a limited license to use the software embedded in the Garmin Product
(the “Software”) in binary executable form in the normal operation of the Garmin Product. Title, ownership rights, and intellectual property
rights in and to the Software remain with Garmin and/or its third-party providers. You acknowledge that the Software is the property of
Garmin and/or its third-party providers and is protected under the United States of America copyright laws and international copyright
treaties. You further acknowledge that the structure, organization, and code of the Software are valuable trade secrets of Garmin and/or its
third-party providers and that the Software in source code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin and/or its third-party providers.
You agree not to reproduce, decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse assemble, reverse engineer, or reduce to human readable form the
Software or any part thereof or create any derivative works based on the Software. You agree not to export or re-export the Software to
any country in violation of the export control laws of the United States of America.
190-01979-01 Rev. A
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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Cirrus Perspective Touch by Garmin Pilot’s Guide for the Vision SF50
190-01979-01 Rev. A
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-01979-00
Revision
A
Date
11/21/16
190-01979-01
A
04/10/18
190-01979-01 Rev. A
Page Range
Description
All
Production Release for GDU 6.56
All
Production Realease for GDU 20.81
Updated EAS Information
Added Bluetooth Capability
Updated Database Loading
Added VRP’S
Revision Throughout Flight Planning section
Added Visual Approaches
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REVISION INFORMATION
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................. 1
System Power-up...................................................... 5
System Controls....................................................... 6
Touchscreen Controller................................................... 6
Screen Overview.......................................................... 11
Controlling Display Panes............................................. 26
System Operation................................................... 31
Normal Operation........................................................ 31
Reversionary Display Operation.................................... 32
Touchscreen Controller Failure...................................... 33
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 34
Standby Flight Display.................................................. 36
Reversionary AHRS and ADC Sensor Operations.............. 37
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 38
Annunciations............................................................. 41
Initialization............................................................ 42
System Management............................................. 45
Avionics Settings......................................................... 45
Crew Profiles............................................................... 54
Avionics Status............................................................ 56
Additional System Setup Options.................................. 57
Screen Cleaning........................................................... 58
Utilities.................................................................... 59
Timer.......................................................................... 59
Trip Statistics............................................................... 60
Secure Digital Cards.............................................. 65
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 70
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 70
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 73
Altimeter.................................................................... 74
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 78
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 78
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 80
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 86
Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator.................................... 93
2.2 Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology)....... 94
SVT Operation............................................................. 95
SVT Features............................................................... 96
Field of View............................................................. 100
2.3 Supplemental Flight Data................................... 102
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Wind Data................................................................ 102
Timer........................................................................ 102
Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Indications........................ 103
2.4 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions....... 104
Marker Beacon Annunciations.................................... 104
Altitude Alerting........................................................ 104
Low Altitude Annunciation......................................... 105
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting..... 105
2.5 Abnormal Operations.......................................... 107
Abnormal GPS Conditions.......................................... 107
Comparator Annunciations......................................... 108
Garmin SVT Troubleshooting....................................... 109
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 109
Standby Flight Display................................................ 110
SECTION 3 ENGINE AND AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
3.1 Engine/Airframe Systems Indications ............... 115
Engine Indications..................................................... 117
Fuel.......................................................................... 121
Electrical................................................................... 122
Landing Gear............................................................ 123
Flaps........................................................................ 124
Throttle Friction Lock Indicator.................................... 125
Trim.......................................................................... 125
Cabin Pressurization.................................................. 126
3.2 Aircraft Systems .................................................. 127
Status & Info............................................................. 128
Landing Gear............................................................ 129
Engine & Fuel............................................................ 131
Electrical................................................................... 133
Ice Protection............................................................ 135
Environmental & Pressure.......................................... 137
System Tests.............................................................. 140
Landing field Elevation............................................... 141
Fadec Stale Fault Reset............................................... 142
GCU Reset................................................................ 142
IPS Stall Offset Reset.................................................. 142
SECTION 4 AUDIO AND CNS
4.1 Overview............................................................... 143
Touchscreen Controller Audio and CNS Controls........... 144
PFD COM/NAV display............................................... 146
4.2 COM Operation..................................................... 147
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation.................... 147
COM Frequency Tuning............................................... 149
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Frequency Spacing..................................................... 156
Automatic Squelch..................................................... 157
Volume..................................................................... 158
4.3 NAV Operation...................................................... 159
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 159
NAV Receiver Tuning.................................................. 160
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 168
DME ........................................................................ 170
4.4 Mode S Transponder(s)........................................ 172
Transponder Controls................................................. 172
Transponder/Mode Selection....................................... 173
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 176
IDENT Function......................................................... 177
4.5 Additional Audio Functions................................. 178
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 178
Cockpit Speaker......................................................... 178
Intercom................................................................... 178
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 182
Simultaneous COM Operation..................................... 183
Music 1 and Music 2 (Auxilary Audio).......................... 184
Music 1 and Music 2 (SiriusXM Radio Audio) (Optional).186
Audio Feedback (Clicks)............................................. 189
Telephone Audio........................................................ 190
4.6 Abnormal Operation............................................ 191
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 191
COM Failure.............................................................. 191
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 192
Audio Controller Fail-Safe Operation........................... 192
GTC Failure............................................................... 192
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction.......................................................... 193
PFD Navigation Status Bar and MFD Navigation Data Bar...
195
5.2 Using Map Displays.............................................. 197
Map Settings Synchronization..................................... 197
Map Orientation........................................................ 198
Map Range............................................................... 200
Map Panning............................................................. 203
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 209
Absolute Terrain........................................................ 211
Map Symbols............................................................ 215
Airways.................................................................... 222
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Track Vector.............................................................. 224
Navigation Map Wind Vector...................................... 225
Fuel Range Ring........................................................ 226
Field of View (SVT)..................................................... 227
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.................................... 228
Latitude/Longitude Lines............................................ 229
Obstacles.................................................................. 230
5.3 Waypoints.............................................................. 231
Airports.................................................................... 232
Intersections............................................................. 238
NDBs........................................................................ 241
VORs........................................................................ 244
VRP.......................................................................... 247
User Waypoints......................................................... 250
5.4 Airspaces............................................................... 259
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ........................................... 263
5.6 Flight Planning...................................................... 272
Creating a Flight Plan................................................ 277
Importing and Exporting Flight Plans with a Mobile Device.
284
Importing and Exporting Flight Plans with an SD Card.. 286
Inverting a Flight Plan................................................ 288
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 289
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................. 291
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 299
Collapsing and expanding Airways.............................. 301
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 303
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 310
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 314
Along Track Offsets.................................................... 315
Parallel Track............................................................. 318
Closest Point of Flight Plan......................................... 321
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 322
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 329
Altitude Constraints................................................... 331
Vertical Situation Display............................................ 334
Vertical Navigation Direct To....................................... 336
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 340
Departures................................................................ 342
Arrivals .................................................................... 344
Approaches .............................................................. 347
5.9 Trip Planning......................................................... 360
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Trip Statistics............................................................. 361
Fuel Statistics............................................................ 362
Other Statistics.......................................................... 362
5.10 Weight and Balance Planning............................. 364
Weight and Balance Caution And Warning Conditions... 369
5.11 Takeoff and Landing Data................................... 370
Takeoff Data.............................................................. 370
Landing Data............................................................ 371
5.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 373
FMS Degradation....................................................... 373
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SiriusXM Weather................................................. 378
Activating Services..................................................... 378
Accessing SiriusXM Weather Products......................... 379
Garmin Connext Weather.................................... 412
Registering the system for Garmin Connext Services..... 412
Accessing Garmin Connext Weather Products............... 413
Connext Weather Data Requests................................. 420
Garmin Connext Weather Products.............................. 424
Abnormal Operations................................................. 439
FIS-B Weather....................................................... 440
Accessing FIS-B Weather Information.......................... 440
FIS-B Weather Products.............................................. 446
Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 457
System Description.................................................... 457
Principles of Airborne Weather Radar........................... 457
Antenna Beam Illumination........................................ 458
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 461
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 461
Weather Display And Interpretation............................. 463
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 477
Additional Radar Displays........................................... 478
System Status............................................................ 481
Vertical Situation Display Terrain....................... 483
VSD Inset Window..................................................... 483
Terrain SVT............................................................ 487
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 488
Displaying Relative Terrain Information........................ 490
TAWS-B.................................................................. 497
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Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 498
Displaying Relative Terrain Information........................ 500
System Status............................................................ 510
TAWS-B Abnormal Operations.................................... 511
6.8 TCAS I Traffic......................................................... 512
Theory of Operation................................................... 512
Traffic Alerts.............................................................. 515
Operations................................................................ 516
System Status.......................................................... 520
6.9 ADS-B Traffic......................................................... 522
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 522
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting.................... 524
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 525
Operation................................................................. 526
ADS-B System Status................................................. 530
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Controls....................................................... 535
7.2 Flight Director Operation.................................... 537
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 537
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 538
Command Bars.......................................................... 538
Flight Director Modes................................................. 539
7.3 Vertical Modes...................................................... 540
Pitch Hold Mode (PIT)................................................ 542
Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)........................ 543
Altitude Hold Mode (ALT)........................................... 544
Vertical Speed Mode (VS)........................................... 545
Flight Level Change Mode (FLC).................................. 546
Glidepath Mode (GP)................................................. 551
Glideslope Mode (GS)................................................ 552
Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes..................... 553
Level Mode (LVL) ...................................................... 554
7.4 Lateral Modes....................................................... 555
Roll Hold Mode (ROL)................................................ 556
Heading Select Mode (HDG)....................................... 556
Navigation Modes (GPS, VOR, LOC)............................. 557
Approach Modes (GPS, VAPP, LOC).............................. 559
7.5 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation.............. 561
Flight Control............................................................ 561
Engaging the Autopilot.............................................. 562
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Disengaging the Autopilot.......................................... 562
Throttle Friction Lock.................................................. 562
7.6 Abnormal Operation............................................ 563
Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS)..................... 563
Overspeed Protection................................................. 563
Underspeed Protection............................................... 564
Suspected Autopilot Malfunction................................ 565
Overpowering Autopilot Servos................................... 565
Emergency Descent Mode.......................................... 566
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14
xvi
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SafeTaxi................................................................. 571
SurfaceWatch........................................................ 573
Information Display................................................... 574
Alerts....................................................................... 575
Charts..................................................................... 578
Chartview................................................................. 578
FliteCharts................................................................ 585
Airport Directory.................................................. 591
Database Cycle Number and Revisions............. 592
Cycle Number and Revision........................................ 592
Satellite Telephone and Datalink Services........ 594
Registering the System With Garmin Connext............... 594
Contacts................................................................... 595
Telephone Communication (Optional).......................... 597
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 603
WiFi Connections.................................................. 613
Connext Setup...................................................... 616
SiriusXM Satellite Radio (If Installed)............... 618
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Services.......................... 618
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 619
Scheduled Messages............................................ 623
Flight Data Logging............................................. 628
Auxiliary Video...................................................... 630
Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)............ 632
Roll Engagement....................................................... 632
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 634
Angle of Attack Protection.......................................... 635
High Airspeed Protection............................................ 636
Electronic Documents.......................................... 637
Installed Documents.................................................. 637
User Documents........................................................ 637
Viewing Electronic Documents.................................... 638
8.15 Electronic Checklists............................................ 644
8.16 Position Reporting............................................... 647
8.17 Abnormal Operation............................................ 650
GDL 69A Data Link Receiver Troubleshooting............... 650
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 653
CAS Message Prioritization......................................... 654
Voice Alerts............................................................... 659
Comparator Annunciations......................................... 660
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................. 662
System Annunciations................................................ 663
Flight Plan Import/Export Messages............................ 681
Pilot Profile Import/Export Messages........................... 681
AFCS Alerts............................................................... 682
Terrain-SVT Alerts and Annunciations.......................... 683
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 684
TAS/TCAS I Alerts and Annunciations........................... 685
Weather Radar Annunciations..................................... 686
ADS-B System Status................................................. 687
GDL 69A Data Link Receiver Messages........................ 688
Surfacewatch Alert Annunciations............................... 688
Database Management................................................. 689
Loading Updated Databases....................................... 690
Database Updates Using a Supplemental Data Card..... 691
Database Updates Using Flight Stream 510.................. 694
Database Synchronization Feature ............................. 699
Database Deletion Feature ........................................ 699
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update................... 701
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 713
Map Symbols.................................................................. 717
INDEX
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the Cirrus Perspective® Touch by Garmin Integrated Avionics System as
installed in the Vision SF50 aircraft. It is an integrated flight control system that presents flight instrumentation,
position, navigation, communication, and identification information to the flight crew using flat-panel color
displays and Touchscreen Controllers. The system consists of the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1400W (2) – The Garmin Display Unit (GDU) 1400W features a 14-inch light emitting diode (LED)
backlit widescreen display. The unit installed on the left/pilot side is configured as the Primary Flight Display
(PFD). In normal operations, it shows a PFD Display, and may also show a Display Pane. The right/copilot
unit is designated as the Multi Function Display (MFD). In normal operations, it shows the Engine Indication
System (EIS) Display, in addition to one or two Display Panes. The display units communicate with each other,
the Touchscreen Controllers, and with the on-side GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) through a HighSpeed Data Bus (HSDB) Ethernet connection.
• GDC 74A (2) – The Air Data Computer(s) (ADC) process data from the pitot/static system and outside air
temperature (OAT) sensor. The ADC provides pressure altitude, density altitude, vertical speed, airspeed, mach
number, OAT, and total air temperature data. Each ADC is connected to the on-side GDU 1400W using an
ARINC 429 connection, to the on-side and cross-side IAU using an ARINC 429 connection. An RS-232 backup
path also connects each ADC to each on-side IAU.
• GTC 580 (3) – The Touchscreen Controller provides PFD/MFD control, in addition to Flight Management
System (FMS) functions, data entry capability, Standby Flight Display, NAV/COM/audio control to the system.
The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as GTC1. The unit installed in the center is designated as
GTC2, and the one installed on the right/copilot side is GTC3. GTC1 and GTC3 are connected to the respective
on-side GDU 1400W and to GTC2 via HSDB. GTC2 is also connected to the GMA 36 Remote Audio Unit with
an HSDB connection. Only GTC1 provides the Standby Flight Display.
• GMA 36 (1) – The Remote Audio Unit integrates navigation/communication radio (NAV/COM) digital audio,
intercom, and marker beacon audio. The GMA 36 is connected to GTC2 using an HSDB interface and to the
#1 GIA using an RS-232 and digital audio connection.
• GIA 63W (2) – The Integrated Avionics Units (IAU) function as the main communications hub, linking several
LRUs with each on-side GDU 1400W. Each IAU contains a GPS Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS)
receiver, a very high frequency (VHF) communication/navigation/glideslope (COM/NAV/GS) receiver, a Flight
Director (FD) and system integration microprocessors.
• GEA 71 (1) – The Engine Airframe Unit receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors.
This unit communicate with both IAUs using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GTX 33 with ES or GTX 33D with ES (1 standard or 2 optional) – The solid-state Transponder provides
Modes A/C/S capability, 1090 MHz Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)
transmission. The GTX 33D with ES also features diversity. The transponder(s) communicate with both IAUs
through an RS-232 digital interface.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GRS 77 or GRS 79 (2) – The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) provides aircraft attitude and
heading information via ARINC 429 protocol to the on-side and cross-side IAU, and to the on-side GDU
1400W. An RS-232 backup path connects each AHRS to each IAU. The AHRS contains advanced sensors
(including accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the Magnetometer to obtain magnetic field
information, with the ADC to obtain air data, and with both IAUs to obtain GPS information. AHRS operation
is discussed in System Operation, later in this section.
• GMU 44 (2) – The Magnetometer measures local magnetic field and sends data to the AHRS for processing
to determine aircraft magnetic heading. The magnetometer receives power directly from the AHRS and
communicates with it via an RS-485 and RS-232 digital interface.
• GDL 69A SXM (1 optional) – The SiriusXM Satellite Data Link Radio Receiver receives weather information,
as well as digital audio entertainment. The Data Link Receiver communicates with the #3 GTC and optional
GDL 59 via a HSDB connection. A subscription to SiriusXM Weather and/or SiriusXM Satellite Radio service is
required to enable the GDL 69A SXM capability.
• GDL 88D (1 optional) – The Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) receives Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B) traffic data and Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) weather information. It is connected
to the #1 GTC via HSDB.
• GMC 707 (1) – The AFCS Mode Controller provides AFCS control through an RS-232 digital interface. The
unit connects to both GDU 1400W displays.
• GSA 9000 (1) – The GSA 9000 Servo is used for automatic control of pitch including stick pusher functionality.
The GSA 9000 connects to each IAU using an RS-485 interface.
• GSA 80 HS (1) – The GSA 80 HS Servo is used for the yaw stability augmentation system (SAS). This servo is
connected to each IAU using an RS-485 interface.
• GSA 81 (3 standard or 4 optional) – The GSA 81 Servos are used for automatic control of roll, pitch trim,
throttle, and an optional part-time yaw damper. These servos are connected to each IAU using an RS-485
interface.
• GWX 70 (1 optional) – The GWX 70 provides airborne real-time weather and ground mapped radar data to the
displays. The unit is connected to the #2 GDU 1400W with an HSDB connection.
• GTS 855 (1 optional) – The GTS 855 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) uses active
interrogations of Mode S and Mode C transponders to provide traffic data to the pilot independent of the air
traffic control system. It is connected to the #1 GDU 1400W via HSDB.
• GDL 59 (1 optional) – The GDL 59 provides a WiFi datalink and System Data Logging capability. The unit
is connected to the optional GDL 69A SXM SiriusXM Satellite Data Link Radio Receiver via HSDB, and to the
optional GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver(s) using an RS-232 bus and a digital/analog connection.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GSR 56 (1 optional) – The Iridium Transceiver provides voice communications by means of the pilot and
copilot headsets in the cockpit. The transceiver can also send and receive short message service (SMS) text
messages. The GSR 56 also receives data link weather products from the optional Garmin Connext weather
service through the Iridium satellite network. The transceiver can also send and receive data provided by the
optional GDL 59 through the RS-232 bus.
• Flight Stream 510 (1 optional) – Provides wireless Bluetooth® connectivity between a compatible mobile
device and the avionics system.
The Cirrus Vision SF50 is also equipped with a Garmin Automated Flight Control System (AFCS), which
includes the Flight Director (FD), Autopilot (AP), pitch and roll trim, manual electric trim (MET), and optional
yaw damper (YD) functions of the Cirrus Perspective Touch by Garmin system.
NOTE: Refer to the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) Section for details on the Garmin AFCS.
Figure 1-1 shows interconnection of the LRUs.
NOTE: For information on optional equipment not shown in Figure 1-1, consult the applicable optional
interface user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of this
additional equipment
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GMC 707
(AFCS Mode
Controller)
#1
GDU 1400W
(PFD)
GDL 69A SXM
(SiriusXM
Audio and
Weather
Datalink)
#1 GTC 580
(Touchscreen
Controller)
#2 GTC 580
(Touchscreen
Controller)
#3 GTC 580
(Touchscreen
Controller)
GWX 70
(Weather
Radar)
GDL 88D
(ADS-B Datalink)
BARO Set
#2
GDU 1400W
(MFD)
FS 510
(SD Card
Bluetooth
Link)
GTS 855
(TCAS I)
Display
Reversion
GMA 36
(Audio
Processor)
#1 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#2 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#1 GDC 74A
(Air Data
Computer)
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
GPS/SBAS
#1 GRS 77/79
(Attitude &
Heading)
#2 GRS 77/79
(Attitude &
Heading)
VOR/LOC
G/S
AFCS Mode
Logic
AFCS Mode
Logic
Standby
ADARS
EVS
(Enhanced
Vision System)
#2 GMA 44
(Magnetometer)
VHF COM
G/S
GSR 56
(Iridium
Datalink)
#2 GDC 74A
(Air Data
Computer)
#1 GMA 44
(Magnetometer)
VOR/LOC
GDL 59
(WiFi
Datalink)
Flight
Director
GSA 9000
Pitch Servo
Flight
Director
Servo
Management
GSA 81 (2)
Roll/Throttle Servos
Servo
Management
GSA 80 HS
Yaw SAS Servo
GSA 81
Pitch Trim Servo
CPCS
(Cabin Press.
Control System)
IPS
(Ice Protection
System)
IFE
(Moving Map)
GSA 81
Part-time Yaw Damper
KN-63
(DME)
GEA 71
(Engine & Airframe I/F)
CCCS
(Cabin Climate
Control System)
#1 GTX 33 w/ES or
GTX 33D w/ES
(Transponder)
Recoverable
Data Module
(Data Logger)
GSR 56
(Iridium)
#2 GTX 33 w/ES
(Transponder)
ELT
(Emerg. Locator
Transmitter)
FADEC
(if no GDL 59)
Garmin Equipment
Non-Garmin Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 Basic System Block Diagram
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: See the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for specific procedures concerning avionics power application
and emergency power supply operation.
NOTE: Refer to Appendix A for system-specific annunciations and alerts.
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical busses.
The PFD, MFD, Touchscreen Controllers, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous
built-in test features that exercise the processors, memory, external inputs, and outputs to provide safe operation.
Upon power-up, annunciator lights on the AFCS Controller illuminate momentarily.
On the PFD, the Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) initializes and displays “AHRS ALIGN: Keep
Wings Level”. The AHRS should display valid attitude and altitude typically within the first minute of power-up.
When configured to be in Split Mode, the Checklist Display Pane appears on the right portion of the PFD.
When the MFD powers up, it shows the Engine Indication System (EIS) display, the Navigation Map Pane
and Aircraft Status Pane. The Navigation Map Pane shows a “NO GPS POSITION” banner annunciation. When
the system has acquired a sufficient number of satellites, the aircraft’s current position appears on any displayed
navigation maps.
GTC1 displays the PFD Home Screen. GTC2 displays the Initialization Screen. GTC3 shows the NAV/COM
Home Screen.
PFD Display
Display Pane
Figure 1-2 PFD Power-Up
GTC1 PFD Home Screen
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EIS Display
Figure 1-3 MFD Power-Up
GTC2 Initialization Screen
Figure 1-4 Touchscreen Controller Power-Up
GTC3 NAV/COM Home Screen
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM CONTROLS
The system controls simplify operation, minimize crew workload, and reduce the time required to access
sophisticated functionality. Controls are located on the Touchscreen Controllers and on the Automatic Flight
Control System (AFCS) Controller. The Touchscreen Controllers are discussed in this section. AFCS controls are
described in the AFCS section. See the Audio and Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) Section for
detailed information about NAV/COM controls.
PFD
GTC1
MFD
GTC2
GTC3
AFCS Controller
Figure 1-5 Cirrus Perspective Touch by Garmin System Controls
TOUCHSCREEN CONTROLLER
The three Touchscreen Controllers, designated from left to right as GTC1, GTC2, and GTC3, are a pedestalmounted user interface allowing for ease of data entry, as well as operation of the PFD, Display Panes, and
NAV/COM system. Many procedures in this Pilot’s Guide are performed using the Touchscreen Controllers. In
addition, GTC1 provides a Standby Flight Display in the event of certain display or sensor failure conditions.
3
4
1
5
6
2
7
8
Figure 1-6 GTC 580 Touchscreen Controller
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1 Screen Title
Displays the title of the current screen
2 Screen
Displays set of context sensitive controls and data
3 Button Bar
Displays System level buttons (e.g. Home, MSG, Full/Half/Split, Scroll Up/Down, Back,
Enter, Cancel)
4 Label Bar
Displays labels to show status and current functions of knobs and softkeys, when functions are
available.
5 Small Upper Knob
Provides functions as labeled on the Label Bar (e.g. Display Pane selection, COM Freq/
switching/Hold, Data Entry/map panning)
6 Large Upper Knob
Provides functions as labeled on the Label Bar (e.g. Display Pane selection, COM Freq/switching,
Data Entry/map panning)
7 Softkeys
Provides functions as labeled on the Label Bar (e.g. PFD/MFD/NAV Com Control Mode selection)
8 Lower Knob
Provides functions as labeled on the screen (e.g. COM volume/squelch/map range adjustment/
checklist item control)
The Touchscreen Controller uses a grid of infrared beams and sensors to detect the location of touch input,
even when the operator is wearing gloves. Objects or debris on the glass surface can interfere with these
infrared beams and cause unintended activation of buttons. A screen cleaning procedure, described later in this
section, is available to temporarily disable the touch recognition capability to facilitate screen cleaning.
In normal operations, all Touchscreen Controllers can control the PFD and NAV/COM system. In addition,
GTC2 can control Display Panes on both the MFD, and on the PFD when the PFD is showing a Display Pane
in Split Mode. The pilot selects a control mode for a given controller (i.e. PFD, MFD, NAV/COM) by pressing
context-sensitive softkeys located on the right portion of each controller bezel. These softkeys are aligned
with labels for each control mode currently available on a given controller. A box appears around the selected
control mode, and a green arrow points to the currently selected softkey.
The Touchscreen Controller’s functions are arranged by screen. Each screen has a title which appears at the top
of the screen area. The contents of each screen change dynamically in response to the selected control mode, and
to pilot or system input. At the top level of each mode is a corresponding home screen containing mode-specific
controls. ‘PFD Home’ is the Home Screen for PFD control mode. ‘MFD Home’ is the Home Screen for MFD (i.e.
Display Pane) control mode. ‘NAV/COM Home’ is the Home Screen for NAV/COM control mode.
All of the Touchscreen Controller’s available functions for the selected control mode are accessible from the
Home Screen. The Home Screen may be accessed any time it is not currently displayed by touching the Home
Button in the Button Bar on the right side of the screen area. Procedures in this Pilot’s Guide generally begin
from the Home Screen as a reference point; however it is not necessary to return to the Home Screen before
performing each procedure if the appropriate screen is already displayed.
As the Touchscreen Controller is used, certain selections will cause another screen to be displayed. To return
to the previous screen, touch the Back or Cancel Button (as applicable) in the Button Bar, or touch the Home
Button to return to the Home Screen. If the Home Screen was the previous screen, pressing either the Back or
Home Button will also return to the Home Screen.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
If the system issues a message, the MSG button is shown on the Button Bar. Touching this button will display
the Notifications Screen. The Button Bar also contains buttons for controlling the size of MFD Display Panes
(Full or Half Mode), discussed later in this section). The following buttons may be displayed on the Button Bar,
depending on current availability and/or settings.
Returns to the Home Screen
Selects split display mode on the PFD.
Returns to the previous screen
Selects half-display mode on the MFD.
Displays the System Messages window on
Touchscreen Controller. Flashes when a new
system message is issued.
Selects full-display mode when controlling
the MFD. Selects full display mode when
controlling the PFD.
Displays the Telephone window on
Touchscreen Controller. Flashes when a new
telephone call is received.
Scrolls up in a list
Displays the Initialization Screen on
Touchscreen Controller. Button appears on
the Home Screen if initialization tasks have
not been completed.
Scrolls down in a list
Displays the SMS Text Inbox window on
Touchscreen Controller. Flashes when a new
SMS message is received.
Cancels data entry and returns to the
previous screen
Displays the Connext Notifications window
on the Touchscreen Controller. Flashes when
a new Connext message is received.
Accepts entered data into the system.
In addition, the Button Bar displays buttons for Warning and Caution conditions. Refer to the Appendices
section for more information about the alerting system.
The Label Bar, on the right side of the Touchscreen Controller, displays the current function of each control
as a reference. These functions include Map Range adjustment, Display Pane selection, radio volume/squelch
adjustment, COM radio tuning, and alphanumeric data entry.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The labels change based on the context of the options being performed. If a Touchscreen Controller knob
cannot be used because of a failure in a system component (COM, NAV, Audio, etc.), the Label Bar also indicates
this status; refer to the Audio and CNS section for more information about radio failures.
The Touchscreen Controller recognizes input based on a touch, a gesture (such as sliding a finger), or by
pressing or turning the knobs or softkeys.
On-screen buttons are selected by momentarily touching them with a finger and then releasing. It is not
necessary to apply pressure, as the infrared touchscreen surface detects only the presence and movement of the
finger, not pressure. When touched, the button background is highlighted in blue until the finger is released.
If enabled, an aural ‘click’ sound is also issued to confirm the button has been touched. When releasing the
finger, make sure it is released within the boundary of the button, otherwise the input is considered invalid. If
enabled, an aural tone is heard to indicate the touch input was not accepted.
Some adjustments are made using horizontal or vertical sliders. To use, simply touch within the slider box
and slide the finger in the desired slider bar direction, then release the finger. The finger may move outside
of the slider box during adjustment; slider movement stops when either the finger is released or the slider has
reached its maximum travel. In some cases, the slider can also be adjusted by touching a + or - button if it
accompanies the slider, such as in the Map Detail Adjustment Slider shown in the figure below. In addition,
a slider adjustment may also be accomplished using knobs on the Touchscreen Controller if the Label Bar
indicates the selected slider supports this additional control.
Volume Adjustment Slider
Map Detail Adjustment Slider
Figure 1-7 Sliders on the Touchscreen Controller
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
When a window on the Touchscreen Controller screen contains more information than the window can
currently show, a scroll bar and scroll buttons appear. To scroll inside of a window, touch the controller while
moving the finger up or down accordingly or touch and drag the finger up or down. To scroll more quickly,
move the finger up or down rapidly in a flicking motion. Scrolling can also be performed by pressing the Up
or Down scroll buttons, each touch of the scroll button will display one ‘page’ of information. Press and hold
the Up or Down scroll buttons for a continuous scroll.
Some screens provide tabs as a means to group multiple categories of information or buttons. Touch the
desired tab to display its contents and manage settings or information. The selected tab is highlighted.
Selected Tab Highlighted
Scroll Bar
Other Available Tabs
Scroll Arrows
Figure 1-8 Touchscreen Controller with Tabs and Scroll Arrows
Elements on the Touchscreen Controller screens (such as buttons and sliders) may appear subdued (dimmed)
to indicate their functions are currently not available. Generally, pilot-selectable fields appear in cyan. In some
cases, the system may highlight the expected button in cyan which completes a data entry process or function.
Button subdued until Direct-To is activated
Touch the
highlighted
button to activate
the Direct-To
function
Figure 1-9 Subdued Buttons on Touchscreen Controller
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
BUTTON TYPES
Annunciator Buttons operate in an on/off state. An ‘on’ or enabled button displays a green annunciator; an
‘off’ or disabled button displays a gray annunciator. Touch the annunciator button to change its state.
On or Enabled
Off or Disabled
Figure 1-10 Touchscreen Controller Annunciator Buttons
Datafield Buttons can be modified based on information the pilot can enter or change, and often contain
cyan alphanumeric text. Touching datafield buttons will either display a pop-up window from which a
selection can be made, or display a keypad to supply the data. See the Data Entry discussion in this section
for more information.
Selected
Datafield
Button
Options
for
Selected
Datafield
Button
Datafield
Buttons
Figure 1-11 Touchscreen Controller Datafield Buttons
If a system failure causes a button’s function to be inaccessible, an amber ‘X’ appears over the button. These
buttons will not respond if touched.
SCREEN OVERVIEW
The following is a brief overview of the major screens used to access Touchscreen Controller functions.
Additional specific screens used to perform functions are shown and discussed in detail throughout this Pilot’s
Guide.
NOTE: Screen appearance including available buttons may differ based on installed options and equipment.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD MODE TOUCHSCREEN CONTROLLER SCREENS
MFD Home
Shows Navigation Map Pane in the selected Display Pane. When the Navigation Map Pane is displayed, the
button becomes the Map Settings Button. Touch the Map Settings Button to access the Map Settings Screen
on the Touchscreen Controller.
or
Shows Traffic Map Pane in the selected Display Pane. When the Traffic Map Pane is displayed, the button becomes
the Traffic Settings Button. Touch the Traffic Settings Button to access the Traffic Settings Screen on the
Touchscreen Controller.
or
Shows a Weather (SiriusXM, Connext, or Radar) Pane in the selected Display Pane. When the weather pane is
displayed, the button becomes the Weather Selection Button. Touch the Weather Selection Button to access
the Weather Selection Screen on Touchscreen Controller.
or
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Shows the TAWS Pane in the selected Display Pane. When the TAWS Pane is displayed, the button becomes the
TAWS Settings Button. Touch the TAWS Settings Button to access the TAWS Settings Screen on Touchscreen
Controller.
or
Accesses Direct-To Screen on Touchscreen Controller.
Accesses Active Flight Plan Screen on the Touchscreen Controller. A Flight Plan display is shown on the selected
Display Pane.
Accesses Procedures Screen on Touchscreen Controller. Additional map displays may be shown as procedures are
selected.
Accesses Charts Screen on Touchscreen Controller. Charts are shown on the selected Display Pane.
Accesses Systems Screen on Touchscreen Controller. Systems data can be selected for display on the Touchscreen
Controller, and displayed on a Display Pane. Also provides access to systems controls, systems tests, and optional
video controls.
Accesses the Checklists for display in the selected Display Pane.
Accesses the Services Screen on Touchscreen Controller. Includes optional Iridium phone and text messaging
services, Position Reports, and Contacts.
Accesses the Utilities Screen on Touchscreen Controller. Includes Trip Planning functions, Minimums, Trip Statistics,
Timer, Scheduled Messages, GPS Status, Initialization, Electronic Documents (optional), Screen Cleaning, Crew
Profile, and Setup. If SurfaceWatch option is not installed, Weight and Balance functions are also on the Utilities
Screen.
Button shown on MFD Home when SurfaceWatch option is installed. Accesses the PERF Screen. Provides controls
for entering takeoff, landing, and weight and balance data and speed bugs.
or
Button shown on MFD Home when SurfaceWatch option is not installed. Shows Speed Bugs Screen for
controlling the display of Vspeed Reference Bugs on the PFD.
Provides information about Airports, Intersections, VORs, NDBs, VRPs, User Waypoints. Also allows creation of User
Waypoints.
Provides information about the nearest Airports, Intersections, VORs, NDBs, VRPs, User Waypoints, Airspace, ARTCC
facilities, Flight Service Stations, and Weather reporting stations.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Weather Selection Screen
Shows optional SiriusXM Weather data in the selected Display Pane. Touch the button again to access SiriusXM
Weather Settings on Touchscreen Controller.
Shows optional Connext Weather data in the selected Display Pane. Touch the button again to access Connext
Weather Settings on Touchscreen Controller.
Shows optional Weather Radar data in the selected Display Pane. Touch the button again to access Weather
Radar Settings on Touchscreen Controller.
Shows optional Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) (optional) Weather data in the selected Display Pane.
Touch the button again to access the FIS-B Weather Settings on the Touchscreen Controller.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Aircraft Systems Screen
Shows the Aircraft Status Pane, with synoptic information about the aircraft doors, brakes, oxygen and IPS fluid
quantities. Also shows approximate values and parameters for certain performance calculations.
Shows the Engine/Fuel Pane, with information about the fuel quantities, flow, pressures, temperatures, valve and
pump states, FADEC mode, and filter conditions.
Shows the Electrical Pane, with information about the batteries, generators, and electrical buses.
Shows the Environmental Pane, with information about the oxygen system, cabin temperature, bleed systems,
condenser, compressor, and fans.
Shows the Ice Protection Pane, with synoptic information about the ice protection system, pitot and AOA heat.
Shows the Landing Gear Pane, with synoptic information about the landing gear positions, weight on wheels
(WOW) sensor status, pump status, and hydraulic pump fluid temperature.
Displays the System Tests Screen. This screen provides controls for testing the following systems: Fire, Stall
Warning, Oxygen, Traffic, and optional TAWS.
Shows the Landing Field Elevation Screen. Provides controls for entering the landing field elevation, and selecting
the source of landing field elevation data.
Provides functions accessible to maintenance personnel with password.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Shows the Video Pane (optional) in the selected Display Pane. Provides controls for adjusting EVS video on the
display (brightness, contrast, saturation).
Issues a request to reset (clear) all inactive/stale FADEC faults.
Issues a request to reset the Generator Control Unit (GCU).
Issues a request to reset the icing configuration stall speed high notification.
Services Screen
Music Screen provides controls for the optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio including channel information, selection,
and volume settings.
Accesses the optional Connext Position Reports Screen. Provides controls for sending automatic or manual
position reports.
Accesses the optional Contacts Screen for management of contact information including phone and email
addresses. Also provides quick access to stored contacts via phone, SMS, or email.
Telephone Screen (available with the Iridium voice telephone option) shows the status of the Iridium satellite
telephone connection and provides telephone controls.
SMS Text Messaging Screen (available with the Iridium voice telephone option) provides management of incoming
and outgoing SMS (short message service) text messages.
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Utilities Screen
Button shown on the Utilities Screen when SurfaceWatch option is not installed. Displays the Weight and Balance
Screen for entering weight and fuel information and performing computations. Shows the Weight and Balance
Pane on the MFD in Full Mode.
Shows the Trip Planning Pane in the selected Display Pane, and accesses the Trip Planning screen on the
Touchscreen Controller.
Accesses the Minimums screen on the Touchscreen Controller. Provides controls for the Minimum Descent
Altitude/Decision Height alerting function. Button displays the current minimums altitude and source if provided.
Accesses the Trip Statistics screen on the Touchscreen Controller. Shows information regarding Flight Time,
Departure/Arrival Time, Odometer, Trip Odometer, Trip Air Odometer, Fuel Used, Average Ground Speed, Maximum
Ground Speed, Average Wind Speed, and Average Wind Direction. Also provides settings for resetting trip statistics.
Accesses the Timer screen on the Touchscreen Controller. Controls the timer on the PFD.
Used to create custom messages to be displayed one-time or periodically. The Touchscreen Controller displays
these System Messages on the Notifications Screen.
Accesses the GPS Status Screen for control of GPS sensors. Shows the GPS Status Pane in the Selected Display
Pane.
Displays the Initialization Screen on the Touchscreen Controller. Provides controls for selecting the Crew Profile,
checking Database Status, System Tests, Initial Fuel, Weight and Balance, Flight Plan, and optional Takeoff Data.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Shows optional controls for viewing electronic documents on the Touchscreen Controller, and displays documents
in the selected Display Pane.
Feature temporarily disables touchscreen glass input to allow for manual cleaning. Turn or press any knob or
softkey on the Touchscreen Controller to exit Screen Cleaning Mode.
Displays Crew Profile Screen, which provides controls for activating and managing crew profiles.
Displays the Setup Screen, which provides controls for avionics settings and status, data link settings, WiFi
settings, and for displaying the status of avionics databases.
Setup Screen
Provides controls for changing system avionics settings, such as, time format, units of measure, airspace alert
settings, and MFD Data Bar Fields.
Displays information on the Touchscreen Controller for installed LRUs, system software, and databases.
Shows the SiriusXM Information Screen on the Touchscreen Controller. Used to activate audio and data services
from SiriusXM Satellite Radio and to verify subscriptions of SiriusXM Weather products.
Used to register with the optional Garmin Connext. Also provides information on current Connext registration.
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Provides controls for Connext® settings and for selecting available wireless networks, and for storing favorite wireless
hotspots. Also provides controls used to access Connext functionality when configured with the optional FS 510.
Provides access to the Database Status Screen for checking database cycle information.
Provides access to the optional ADS-B Status Screen for information on the reception of ADS-B services.
PERF Screen
NOTE: SurfaceWatch option required for PERF screen to be shown.
Shows Takeoff Data Screen for entering takeoff data.
Shows Landing Data Screen for entering landing data.
Shows Speed Bugs Screen for controlling the display of Vspeed Reference Bugs on the PFD.
Shows the Weight and Balance Screen for entering weight and fuel information and performing computations.
Shows the Weight and Balance Pane on the MFD in Full Mode.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Waypoint Info Screen
Accesses airport information including frequencies, weather, procedures, charts, runways, and airport directory
data.
Shows information for a selected intersection including bearing, distance, and location.
Provides VOR information including frequencies and location.
Provides NDB information including frequencies and locations.
Provides VRP information including bearing, distance, and location.
Provides location information for User Waypoints including a list of User Waypoints.
Create User Waypoints based on present position or a designated location.
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Nearest Screen
Displays a list of the nearest airports, with runway, bearing, and distance information.
Displays a list of the nearest intersections with bearing and distance information.
Displays a list of the nearest VORs with bearing, distance, and frequency information.
Displays a list of the nearest NDBs with bearing, distance, and frequency information.
Displays a list of the nearest VRPs with bearing and distance information.
Displays a list of the nearest User Waypoints with bearing and distance information.
Displays information about the nearest airspace and status.
Displays information about the nearest ARTCC facilities including bearing, distance, and frequencies.
Displays the nearest Flight Service Stations with bearing, distance, and frequency information
Displays the nearest weather reporting sources, bearings, distances, and frequencies
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PFD MODE TOUCHSCREEN CONTROLLER SCREENS
PFD Home
Cycles through GPS, LOC1/VOR1 and LOC2/VOR2 navigation modes on the CDI
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by FMS (only available with active leg). When OBS is active the
annunciator is green.
or
Selects SUSP mode on the CDI when navigating by FMS. When SUSP is active the annunciator is green.
Cycles the Bearing 1 through OFF, NAV1, NAV2, and FMS.
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Cycles the Bearing 2 through OFF, NAV1, NAV2, and FMS.
Scrolls CAS messages up and down. Buttons subdued unless scrolling is necessary to see all active CAS
messages.
Accesses the Speed Bugs screen on Touchscreen Controller, where the speed bugs can be configured.
Accesses the Timer screen on the Touchscreen Controller. Controls timer on PFD.
Accesses the Minimums screen on the Touchscreen Controller. Set MDA or DH.
Shows the Traffic Map on the PFD in inset format when the PFD is in Full Mode. Shows the Traffic Map Pane
on the PFD when the PFD is in Split Mode.
Accesses the PFD Map Settings Screen on the Touchscreen Controller. The Inset Map is not available when in
split mode.
Accesses the Sensors Screen. Allows for manual selection of ADC and AHRS sensors.
Accesses the PFD Settings Screen to view or set PFD Mode, AOA, Flight Director Active Format, SVT Terrain,
SVT Pathways, Flight Path Marker, Horizon Heading, SVT Airport Signs, Wind, Time Format, Time Offset, COM
Channel Spacing, Baro Select Units, Meters Overlay, and Screen Cleaning function.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PFD Settings
Deactivates touch input on the Touchscreen Controller to facilitate cleaning. Press or turn a knob on the
controller to resume touch input.
PFD Settings
Allows the GDU to be split into a condensed PFD and Display Pane, which appears on the
inboard portion of the screen.
Full: Selects full size PFD display.
Split: Selects a condensed PFD and a display pane
Selects the display mode for the Angle of Attack (AOA) indicator on the PFD.
Auto: Automatically displays the Angle of Attack Indicator when the aircraft is in a landing
configuration.
On: Displays AOA indicator on the PFD.
Off: Removes AOA indicator from the PFD.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Shows the type of Flight Director available.
Enables/disables synthetic terrain depiction. When Enabled, the annunciator is green.
Enables/disables synthetic terrain pathways depiction. When enabled, the annunciator is
green. When synthetic terrain is disabled, button is subdued.
Enables/disables Flight Path Marker depiction on the PFD. When SVT Terrain is enabled,
the Flight Path Marker is automatically displayed on the PFD, and the Flight Path Marker
Button on the Touchscreen Controller will be dimmed.
Enables/disables display of compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line. When Enabled, the
annunciator is green. Button is subdued when synthetic terrain is disabled.
Enables/disables the display of position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm
of the current aircraft position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport is within
approximately 9 nm. When Enabled, the annunciator is green. Button is subdued when
synthetic terrain is disabled.
Option 1: Wind direction arrows with headwind and crosswind components
Option 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
Option 3: Wind direction arrow with direction and speed
Off: Wind information not displayed.
Selects the Time Format: Local 12hr, Local 24hr, or UTC
Displays the Local and UTC time offset.
Selects the COM Channel Spacing: 25 kHz or 8.33 kHz
Inches (IN): Displays the BARO setting as inches of mercury.
Hectopascals (HPA): Displays the BARO setting as hectopascals.
Enables/disables the display of the meter overlay on the Altimeter.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PFD Sensors
Accesses the ADC Sensor Screen where the Air Data Computer (ADC) can be manually selected.
Accesses the AHRS Sensors Screen where the Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors used
can be manually selected.
CONTROLLING DISPLAY PANES
In normal operations, the pilot uses GTC2 to select and control Display Panes in MFD control mode. The
system highlights the border of the selected display pane being controlled in cyan. The Label Bar indicates
when the upper knobs may be used to select a Display Pane for control by displaying the word ‘Pane’ with
three icons below it representing each possible pane location. The configuration of each display determines
the number of Display Panes currently available for control (Full, Half, or Split Modes). A cyan icon represents
the selected Display Pane. A black icon represents a Display Pane available for selection, but is not currently
selected. A gray icon represents a Display Pane not currently shown, and therefore cannot be controlled. See
the following figures for examples of GTC control of Display Panes in MFD Mode.
Display Pane cannot
be selected (Grey
Icon)
Selectable Display
Pane (Black Icon)
Selected Display
Pane (Cyan Icon)
Figure 1-12 GTC Display Pane Control Icons
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MFD FULL AND HALF MODES
The MFD provides the capability to show Display Panes in either Full Mode or Half Mode, provided the
selected Display Pane is capable of being shown in a Full Mode format. The presence of either the Full or
Half Mode Button on the GTC Button Bar indicates the availability of one of these modes for the selected
Display Pane. Touch the Full Button to show the selected Display Pane in Full Mode. Touch the Half Button
to return to Half Mode. In Full Mode, the MFD shows the EIS/ASI Display and a single, enlarged Display
Pane. In Half Mode, the MFD shows the EIS Display and two Display Panes (mode selections do not affect
the EIS Display formatting). The MFD Full and Half Modes are not available in Reversionary Mode.
When the system is powered-up on the ground, the MFD begins operation in Half Mode.
PFD FULL AND SPLIT MODES
The PFD shows a full PFD display in Full Mode, and a condensed PFD with a Display Pane in Split Mode.
The Display Pane on the PFD in Split Mode is the same size as a Display Pane on the MFD in Half Mode. A
Full or Split Button in the Button Bar indicates which display mode is available for the PFD. Additionally,
a PFD Mode Button is available on the PFD Settings Screen, which can be used to select Full or Split Mode
on the PFD. Display panes can only be chosen from the MFD Home Screen on the Touchscreen controller.
PFD in Split Mode with a
Display Pane
MFD in Half Mode with two
Display Panes
Selected Pane (Cyan)
Display Panes Available for
Selection
GTC2 in MFD Mode
Figure 1-13 GTC2 Display Pane Control from the MFD Home Screen (PFD Split Mode active)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD in Half Mode with two
Display Panes
PFD in Full Mode (no Display
Pane)
Selected
Display Pane
Display Pane
Available for
Selection
Display Pane Not
Available
GTC2 in MFD Mode
Figure 1-14 GTC2 Display Pane Control from the MFD Home Screen (MFD Half Mode active)
MFD in Full Mode with one
Display Pane
PFD in Full Mode (no Display
Pane)
Selected
Display Pane
Display Pane Not
Available
Display Pane Not
Available
GTC2 in MFD Mode
Figure 1-15 GTC2 Display Pane Control from the MFD Home Screen (MFD Full Mode active)
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DATA ENTRY
Two methods exist for directly entering alphanumeric data (e.g., waypoint identifiers, barometric minimum
descent altitude) into the system: using the Touchscreen Controller’s alphanumeric keypad, or the large and
small upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller. In some instances, such as when entering an identifier,
the system anticipates the desired identifier based on the characters being entered. In this case, if the desired
identifier appears, use the Enter Button to confirm the entry without entering the rest of the identifier
manually. This can save the pilot from entering all the characters of the identifier.
Besides character-by-character data entry, the system also provides a shortcut for entering waypoint
identifiers. When the cursor is on a field awaiting entry of a waypoint identifier, touching the Find button
accesses four different lists of waypoint identifiers for quick selection: Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan (if active
flight plan waypoints are available), and a Favorite waypoints list. In addition, the system provides the ability
to search by Facility Name or by City. The system automatically completes the identifier, facility, and city
fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
Using the Touchscreen Controller keyboard to enter alphanumeric data:
1) Select a Datafield Button on the Touchscreen Controller for which data entry is required (i.e. waypoint, radio
frequency, etc.). A keypad will appear, and the Datafield Button will be highlighted in cyan.
2) Touch the desired letters or numbers, one at a time.
3) If an alphabetic keypad is displayed and numbers are desired, touch the 123... Button.
4) If the numeric keypad is displayed and letters are desired, touch the ABC... Button.
5) To accept the entry, touch the Enter Button. Otherwise, touch the Back, Cancel, or Home Button (on the
Button Bar) to exit the datafield without saving the entry.
Touch to use Numeric Buttons
Touch to use Alphabetic Buttons
Figure 1-16 Entering Text on the Keypad
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Using the Touchscreen Controller’s large and small right knob to enter data:
1) Select a datafield button on the Touchscreen Controller for which data entry is required (i.e. waypoint, radio
frequency, etc.). A keypad will appear, and the data field will be highlighted in cyan.
2) Begin entering data by turning the small upper knob to select a character for the first placeholder.
Turning the knob to the right scrolls through the alphabet (where appropriate) toward the letter Z, starting in
the middle at K, and the digits zero through nine. Turning the knob to the left scrolls in the opposite direction.
3) Turn the large upper knob to move the cursor to the next placeholder in the field.
4) Repeat, using the small upper knob to select a character and the large upper knob to move the cursor, until the
field is complete.
5) Push the upper knob or touch the Enter Button to confirm entry. Otherwise, touch the Back or Home Button
to exit the field without saving the entry.
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1.4 SYSTEM OPERATION
The displays are connected via a single Ethernet bus for high-speed communication. As shown in Figure
1-1, each IAU is connected to a single display. This allows the units to share information, enabling true system
integration.
NORMAL OPERATION
PFD AND MFD
In normal operations, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (such as heading, airspeed, altitude,
vertical speed) in either Full Mode or Split Mode. In Full Mode, the PFD occupies the entire display portion
of the GDU. In Split Mode, the PFD is condensed to accommodate a Display Pane on the inboard portion of
the GDU.
PFD in Split Mode with a Display Pane
MFD Operating in Half Mode with Two Display Panes
Figure 1-17 PFD and MFD in Normal Operations
The MFD shows Engine Indications on the left portion of the GDU. It also shows either a single Display
Pane in Full Mode, or two Display Panes side-by-side in Half Mode.
TOUCHSCREEN CONTROLLERS
In normal operations, all Touchscreen Controllers can control the PFD and NAV/COM functions. The
middle Touchscreen Controller can also control Display Panes on both GDU displays when MFD Mode is
selected on this controller using the MFD Softkey. The large and small upper knobs on the middle GTC
selects a Display Pane for control in MFD Mode. Turning either knob clockwise moves the cyan pane selection
highlight to the right, and turning either knob counter-clockwise moves the cyan pane selection highlight to
the left. Refer to the Controlling Display Panes discussion for more information.
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REVERSIONARY DISPLAY OPERATION
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when the LRUs are communicating using backup paths. Refer to the
Appendices for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
If either the PFD or MFD fails or is off-line, the system automatically shows a display Reversionary Mode.
This mode combines a PFD display, an EIS display, and a Display Pane on the operating GDU in a condensed
format. If the system is unable to detect a failed GDU, the pilot can manually activate display Reversionary
Mode by pressing the red Display Backup Button mounted between the PFD and MFD.
MFD Operating in Reversionary Mode
PFD Failed
GTC1 in Standby Flight Display Mode
GTC2
GTC3
Figure 1-18 Reversionary Mode with Failed PFD
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If the PFD fails or is off-line, GTC1 shows the Standby Flight Display, using attitude and air data from the
standby sensors. The Standby Flight Display includes an Airspeed Indicator, Attitude Indicator, Altimeter
and Altimeter Setting. Softkeys and knobs on GTC1 control the Standby Flight Display; refer to the Flight
Instruments section for more information about these controls. GTC2 and GTC3 provide the PFD, MFD
pane, and NAV/Com control modes on the MFD operating in Reversionary Mode. Other conditions besides a
PFD failure may cause the Standby Flight Display to appear; refer to the AHRS Operation discussion for more
information on these conditions.
If the MFD fails or is off-line, GTC1 continues to operate as a Touchscreen Controller (i.e., no Standby Flight
Display), and allows the selection of PFD Mode or NAV/Com Mode.
If both the PFD and MFD fail, GTC1 shows the Standby Flight Display. Since the PFD and MFD are not
available to control, the PFD Home Screen and MFD Home Screen on any remaining Touchscreen Controller
displays a large amber ‘X’ on the controller when PFD or MFD control mode is selected.
TOUCHSCREEN CONTROLLER FAILURE
If GTC1 or GTC3 fails or is off-line, GTC2 continue to provide the same control modes as were previously
available (PFD, MFD, NAV/COM). The Standby Flight Display is not available if GTC1 encounters a complete
failure (for example, if GTC1 is not receiving any power.)
If GTC2 fails or is off-line, GTC3 provides MFD control mode in addition to the PFD and NAV/COM control
modes available prior to the failure. GTC1 operates normally if GTC2 fails.
If two Touchscreen Controllers have failed or are off-line simultaneously, the PFD, MFD, and NAV COM
control modes are available on the remaining Touchscreen Controller. Functions may be limited if this occurs,
as data paths may not be available.
If all Touchscreen Controllers fail or are off-line, the PFD and MFD continue to operate in Normal Mode,
however controls for the PFD, MFD, and NAV/COM tuning will be unavailable. Refer to the Audio and CNS
Section for more information on NAV/COM failure modes.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
WARNING: Do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and heading indications in the following geographic
areas( due to variations in the earth’s magnetic field): North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes; South
of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W.
(Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada);
North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South
latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
NOTE: Refer to Appendix A for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
In addition to using internal sensors, the AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air data
to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field
measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air data
information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available and depend upon
the combination of available sensor inputs (as shown in the following figure). Loss of air data, GPS, or
magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated to the pilot by System Messages.
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS Normal
Mode
NO
YES
Air Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Heading Invalid
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-19 AHRS Operation
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GPS INPUT FAILURE
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
Two GPS inputs are provided to the AHRS. If GPS information from one of the inputs fails, the AHRS uses
the operating GPS input and a System Message is issued to inform the flight crew. If both GPS inputs fail,
the AHRS can continue to provide attitude and heading information to the PFD as long as magnetometer and
airspeed data are available and valid.
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes and
continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output on the
PFD does become invalid (as indicated by an red “X”).
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
Failure of the air data input has no affect on the AHRS output while AHRS is receiving valid GPS
information. Invalid/unavailable airspeed data in addition to GPS failure results in loss of all attitude and
heading information on the PFD.
MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION DATABASE
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic Field
Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field and
its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every five years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt the pilot on startup
when an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information
being displayed to the pilot.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
STANDBY FLIGHT DISPLAY
The Standby Flight Display (SFD) appears on GTC 1 due to certain failure conditions (e.g. loss of all primary
AHRS, loss of all primary ADCs, loss of PFD). Additionally, the SFD also appears if all valid sensors miscompare.
Figure 1-20 GTC 1 with Standby Flight Display
The SFD shows the airspeed, altitude and attitude of the aircraft. Standby ADARS (Air Data Attitude Reference
System) data is fed to the Standby Flight Display from a non-Garmin standby ADARS sensor on the aircraft.
GTC 1 may not be returned to normal GTC operation until the condition(s) that caused the Standby Flight
Display to originally appear are resolved. Once the condition(s) are resolved, GTC1 may be returned to normal
operation by twice pressing the red Display Backup Button mounted between the PFD and MFD.
Softkeys and knobs on the GTC1 control the Standby Flight Display; refer to the Flight Instruments section
for information about controlling the SFD.
NOTE: Refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information about operating the Standby Flight Display.
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REVERSIONARY AHRS AND ADC SENSOR OPERATIONS
The system monitors AHRS and air data from redundant sensors. In normal operations, the PFD and MFD
use attitude/heading data from AHRS 1 and air data from ADC 1. If another sensor is selected, either manually
or automatically, an annunciation appears above the Roll Scale on the PFD.
Figure 1-21 PFD with Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
The Sensors Screen on the Touchscreen Controller provides AHRS 1, AHRS 2, ADC 1, and ADC 2 Buttons
for selection. Additional buttons for selecting the standby sensor (STBY) are not shown in normal operations.
Figure 1-22 Sensors Screen
If the AHRS 1 or ADC 1 sensors fail, and the aircraft is in the air, the system automatically selects the
appropriate AHRS 2 or ADC 2. If both AHRS sensors fail, or if both ADCs fail, the system automatically selects
the appropriate standby sensor, and the STBY Button appears on the Sensors Screen. The standby sensor
remains selected until the flight crew manually select a non-standby AHRS or ADC button.
NOTE: In the case of certain types of sensor failures, the system may make sensor selections automatically.
Refer to the Appendices for more information about reversionary AHRS and ADC sensor annunciations
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS 1 for the left/pilot side or GPS 2 for the right/copilot side) may be viewed on the GPS 1 or GPS 2
Status Pane and the GPS Status Screen on the Touchscreen Controller.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired an SBAS (Satellite Based
Augmentation System) signal. While the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by
obstructions causing one GPS receiver to have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning
the aircraft may result in one of the GPS receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message by touching the MSG Button on
Touchscreen Controller. If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Screen and compare the information
for GPS 1 and GPS 2. Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
Figure 1-23 GPS Receiver Information
Displaying information for a GPS receiver:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > GPS Status.
2) Touch the GPS1 Button to select the #1 GPS receiver. The button annunciator is green when enabled, gray
when disabled. The system displays the GPS1 Status Pane.
3) Touch the GPS 2 Button to select the #2 GPS receiver. The button annunciator will be green when selected on.
The system displays the GPS2 Status Pane.
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SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
SATELLITE SIGNAL STATUS
The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution
of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a
circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying.
EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
GPS RECEIVER STATUS
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active GPS
receiver (GPS 1 or GPS 2) is shown in the lower right of the GPS 1 and GPS 2 Status Pane. When the receiver
is in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. ‘ACQUIRING’ is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired
for computing a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D navigational GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates ‘INACTIVE’. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates ‘3D DIFF NAV’ and SBAS
indicates ‘ACTIVE’.
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GPS SATELLITE SIGNAL STRENGTHS
The GPS 1 and GPS 2 Status Panes can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due
to poor satellite coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength
bar is displayed for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for
WAAS) below each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal
bar appearance:
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
SBAS SELECTION
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the WAAS, EGNOS, or MSAS
coverage area, it may be desirable to disable the reception of the applicable SBAS signal (although it is not
recommended). When enabled, the annunciator on the applicable button shows green.
Enabling/disabling individual SBAS providers:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > GPS Status.
2) Touch the EGNOS, MSAS, or WAAS (any combination) Annunciator Button(s) to enable or disable. A green
annunciation indicates an enabled SBAS selection, disabled selections are gray.
RAIM (RECEIVER AUTONOMOUS INTEGRITY MONITORING) PREDICTION
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended
approach.
NOTE: The system RAIM prediction capability does not meet all RAIM prediction requirements. Reference
the RAIM/Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) Prediction Tool at www.flygarmin.com as required.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
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Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
Predicting RAIM availability:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > GPS Status > Location.
2) Touch the Waypoint Button to enter the location for which RAIM will be predicted. Touch the Present
Position Button to enter the aircraft’s current position as the prediction location.
3) If the Waypoint Button was touched in step 2, enter the waypoint identifier using the alphanumeric buttons or
the large and small right knobs. If the Present Position Button was touched in step 2, proceed to step 5.
4) Touch the Enter Button.
5) The location selected for RAIM prediction is now displayed on the Location Button.
6) Touch the Arrival Time Button.
7) Enter the planned arrival time for the selected location using the numeric buttons
8) Touch the Enter Button. The time is now displayed on the Arrival Time Button.
9) Touch the Arrival Date Button.
10) Touch the button for the desired year. If necessary, touch and drag in the window, or use the Up and Down
buttons to display the desired year.
11) Touch the button for the desired month. If necessary, touch and drag in the window, or use the Up and Down
buttons to display the desired month.
12) Touch the button for the desired day. If necessary, touch and drag in the window, or use the Up and Down
buttons to display the desired day. The selected date is now displayed on the Arrival Date Button.
13) Touch the Compute RAIM Button. One of the following will be displayed in the RAIM Status field.
• ‘Computing’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘Not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘--------’—RAIM has not been computed for the specified waypoint, time, and date combination
ANNUNCIATIONS
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with the failed
data. Depending on the LRU, the ‘X’ may be amber or red. Upon system power-up, certain instruments remain
invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All windows should be operational within one minute of power-up.
If any window remains flagged, the system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
NOTE: For a detailed description of all annunciations and alerts, refer to Appendix A. Refer to the Airplane
Flight Manual (AFM) for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
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1.5 INITIALIZATION
Initialization is a process that prompts the flight crew to perform system checks and enter flight parameters, and
is completed prior to each flight using the Touchscreen Controllers. After powering up the system on the ground,
the Initialization Screen appears on GTC2. On this screen, the pilot can select a Crew Profile, verify database
statuses, view initialization information from the aircraft manufacturer, perform system tests, enter weight, fuel,
and flight plan information.
Figure 1-24 Initialization Screen
Each initialization task is represented on the Initialization Screen by a task button and check box. Each task
button provides a shortcut to the screen associated with the task. Depending on the task, a green completed
check mark appears on the button when the flight crew views the screen for a given task, or provides at least the
minimum amount of information needed to mark the task as completed.
Once all Initialization Tasks are marked complete, touch the Accept Initialization Button to exit the Initialization
Screen and view the Home Screen. Touching the Accept Initialization Button prior to the completion of all
Initialization Tasks will cause a pop-up screen to appear as shown below. Touching the OK Button on the pop-up
screen acknowledges the incomplete initialization and opens the MFD Home Screen; touching the Cancel Button
removes the pop-up.
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Figure 1-25 System Initialization Exit Confirmation
Initialization tasks may be completed or revised at any time during the same power cycle. The system will even
work in the background to apply check marks to completed Initialization Tasks that are accessed via the MFD
Home Screen. The Initialization Screen may also be accessed at any time via Home > Utilities > Initialization.
Initialization may be accomplished multiple times within the same power cycle by accessing the Initialization
Screen and touching the Reset Initialization Button. This removes the green check marks and arms the “Init
process not completed...” pop-up warning.
Initializing the system:
1) Touch Crew Profile and select a Crew Profile from the list of available profiles. (Crew Profiles are discussed
later in this section for more information on creating, importing, and exporting Crew Profiles)
2) Touch Database Status to view the Cycle number, Effective and Expiration dates for the Navigation, Standby
Navigation (STBY Navigation), FliteCharts or ChartView, Basemap, Terrain, Obstacle, SafeTaxi, Airport Directory
and Checklist databases. (See Appendix B Database Management for details on updating Databases)
Figure 1-26 Database Status Screen
3) Touch the Next Button to proceed to the Safety Information Screen. A Display Pane appears with information
from the aircraft manufacturer. Touch the Next or Previous Button as necessary to view the information.
4) Touch Next Button to proceed to the System Tests Screen to perform system tests. See the EAS section for
system testing details.
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5) Touch the Next Button to proceed to the Initial Fuel Screen to input initial fuel quantity information.
6) Touch the Next Button to proceed to the Weight and Balance Screen to provide weight and fuel information.
(See the Flight Management Section, Trip Planning - Weight and Fuel Planning details).
7) Touch Next to proceed to the Active Flight Plan Screen to Add Origin, Add Enroute Waypoints and Add
Destination. (See the Flight Management Section, Flight Planning for details).
8) Touch the Next Button to proceed to the Takeoff Data Screen (available with the SurfaceWatch™ option). Input
information about the origin airport runway. Refer to the Flight Management section for more information
about entering Takeoff Data.
9) Touch the INIT Button to return the Initialization Screen. As each task is completed a green checkmark appears
in the completed column on the Initialization Screen
Figure 1-27 System Initialization Completed Tasks
10) Touch Accept Initialization to accept the initialization values and proceed to the Home Screen. Or Touch
Reset Initialization to reset initialization values.
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1.6 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
The Touchscreen Controllers allow management of various system settings, in addition to providing status
and database information for the system. The system stores the settings in the active Crew Profile, and this
information is retained through a system power cycle. Refer to the Crew Profile discussion later in this section
for more information.
AVIONICS SETTINGS
Avionics Settings are categorized into five tabs (System, Units, Alerts, MFD Fields, and Audio). Settings
the flight crew can change are accompanied by buttons. Settings that cannot be changed by the flight crew are
displayed for informational purposes, without corresponding buttons.
SYSTEM SETTINGS
• Time display format (local 12 hour, local 24 hour, or UTC )
• Time offset
• Keyboard Format
• Flight Director Active Format (Single Cue or Dual Cue)
• GPS CDI range
• COM transceiver channel spacing
• Stability and Protection
• Nearest Airport Runway Surface
• Nearest Airport Minimum Length
• Show Airport Chart on Landing
NOTE: The time offset is used to define current local time. UTC (also called GMT or Zulu) date and time are
calculated directly from the GPS satellite signals and cannot be changed.
Setting the Time Format:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the System Tab.
3) Touch the Time Format Button (displays currently selected time format in cyan).
4) Touch a time format option button (Local 12hr, Local 24hr, or UTC).
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Setting the Time Offset Value (for Local 12hr or Local 24hr selections):
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, from the System Tab.
3) Touch the Time Offset button (currently selected time offset shown in cyan).
4) Input the desired value using the numeric keypad or the upper large and small right knobs and touch the ENTER Button.
Date
‘Time Format’
Datafield
Time
‘Time Format’ Options
Figure 1-28 Time Format Settings
Keypad Format
The system offers two keypad formats. The alphabetical format and QWERTY format is shown in the
figure below. While the QWERTY keypad is displayed, the Button Bar appears below the keypad area.
Alphabetical Keypad
QWERTY Keypad
Figure 1-29 Keypad Formats on the Touchscreen Controller
Selecting a keypad format:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the System Tab.
3) Touch the Keyboard Format datafield button.
4) Touch either the Alphabetical or QWERTY Button to select the desired keypad format.
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GPS CDI
The GPS CDI setting controls range scale of the CDI when FMS is the active nav source. The flight crew
can specify a range to use, or allow the system to automatically determine the CDI range based on the phase
of flight or navigation database information. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information
on the range of the CDI.
Setting the GPS CDI Range:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the System Tab.
3) Touch the GPS CDI range button.
4) Touch a button to select a specific distance used for the CDI range, or touch the AUTO Button for the system to
adjust the CDI range automatically based on flight parameters.
COM Channel Spacing
The ‘COM Channel Spacing’ datafield allows the pilot to select 8.33 kHz or 25.0 kHz COM frequency
channel spacing.
Setting COM Channel Spacing:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the System Tab.
3) Scroll and touch the COM Channel Spacing Button (button displays the current spacing setting in cyan).
4) Touch either the 8.33 kHz or 25.0 kHz Buttons.
Electronic Stability and Protection
Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature intended to discourage the
exceedance of attitude, airspeed, and angle of attack (AOA) parameters. This feature will only operate
when the aircraft is above 200 feet AGL and the autopilot is not engaged. The pilot can enable/disable ESP
on the Avionics Settings Screen.
Enabling/disabling ESP:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the System Tab.
3) Scroll and touch the Stability & Protection Button. ESP is enabled when button annunciator is green,
disabled when gray.
Nearest Airport Runways
Nearest airport matching criteria (such as minimum runway length and/or surface type) can be entered
to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are not of appropriate surface from being displayed
in the list as nearest airports .
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Setting the Nearest Airport surface matching criteria:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the System Tab.
3) Scroll to and touch the Nearest Airport Runway Surface Button (button displays current runway surface selection
in cyan).
4) Touch one of the following runway surface buttons: Any, Hard Only, or Hard/Soft.
Setting the Nearest Airport Minimum Runway Length matching criteria:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the System Tab.
3) Scroll to and touch the Nearest Airport Min Rwy Length Button (button displays current length setting in cyan).
4) Input a minimum runway surface distance using the keypad or the large and small upper knobs, then touch
Enter or push the upper knob to accept the entry.
Showing Airport Charts on Landing
The system can automatically display a chart for the current airport upon landing to enhance situational
awareness while taxiing. Refer to the Additional Features section for more information about displaying
charts.
Enabling/disabling the display of airport charts on landing:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the System Tab.
3) Scroll and touch the Show Airport Chart on Landing Button.
4) Touch the On Button to enable the feature or the Off Button to disable the feature.
UNITS SETTINGS
• Nav Angle
• Magnetic Variance
• Distance/Speed
• Altitude/Vertical Speed
• External Temperature
• Cockpit/Cabin Temperature
• Fuel
• Weight
• Position Format
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The Units Tab allows for configuration of the measurement units. A button appears next to the current
unit setting only for those units which the flight crew can modify. Measurement units without an associated
button are shown only for informational purposes and cannot be modified by the flight crew.
• Nav angle (magnetic, true)
When set to ‘Magnetic (°)’, magnetic variation is calculated into the displayed value. When ‘True (°T)’ is
selected, no magnetic variation is calculated and a ‘T’ is displayed next to the value.
Affects Current Heading, Selected Heading, and Selected Course.
Affects the BRG, DTK, TKE, TRK, and XTK fields.
• Distance/Speed (metric, nautical)
• Altitude/Vertical Speed (feet, meters)
• External Temperature (Celsius or Fahrenheit)
• Cockpit/Cabin Temperature (Celsius or Fahrenheit)
Affects the displays of cockpit and cabin temperature on the Environmental Pane.
• Fuel (gallons or liters)
• Weight (pounds or kilograms)
• Position Format (HDDD°MM.MM’, HDDD°MM’SS.S”)
Affects all position displays.
Changing unit settings:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Units Tab.
3) Scroll if necessary and touch button corresponding to the units to be changed (current units selection displayed
in cyan).
4) Touch a units button from the list.
Setting
Displayed for
Reference,
Not Flight
Crew
Selectable
Button
Indicates
Setting is
Flight Crew
Selectable
Figure 1-30 Viewing Unit Data on the Avionics Settings Screen
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ALERTS SETTINGS
• Baro transition alert climb
• Baro transition alert descent
• SurfaceWatch alert inhibit
• Airspace alert altitude buffer
• Arrival Alert
• Class B/TMA airspace alert
• Class C/TCA airspace alert
• Class D airspace alert
• Restricted airspace alert
• MOA (Military) airspace alert
• Other (ADIZ) airspace alert
The Alerts Tab allows configuration of the following alert settings:
• Baro transition alert (climb and descent)
• SurfaceWatch alert inhibit
• Altitude buffer distance alert
• Airspace alerts
Baro Transition Alert settings
The Baro Transition Alert flashes the barometric pressure setting. The Baro Transition Alert serves as
a reminder to the pilot to change the barometric pressure setting to standard when climbing through
the barometric transition altitude, or to change the barometric pressure setting from standard to the
local altimeter setting when descending through the barometric transition altitude. Refer to the Flight
Instruments section for more information about the Baro Transition Alert.
Configuring the Baro Transition Alerts:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Alerts Tab.
3) Touch the Baro Transition ALT Climb Button. Button annunciator is green when alert is enabled, gray when
disabled.
4) Touch the Baro Transition ALT Climb datafield button. Use the keypad or large and small upper knobs to select
the desired altitude at which the system will issue an alert if the aircraft climbs through this altitude while the
altimeter setting has not been set to standard. Touch Enter or push the upper knob to accept the selection.
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5) Touch the Baro Transition LVL Descent Button. Button annunciator is green when alert is enabled, gray
when disabled.
6) Touch the Baro Transition LVL Descent datafield button. Use the keypad or large and small upper knobs to
select the desired flight level at which the system will issue an alert if the aircraft descends through this flight
level while the altimeter setting has not been changed from standard. Touch Enter or push the upper knob
to accept the selection.
Surfacewatch Inhibit
The optional SurfaceWatch™ feature alerts to the flight crew in certain potentially unsafe conditions
during taxi, takeoff, and landing. SurfaceWatch also displays an Information Box on the PFD. The flight
crew can inhibit the SurfaceWatch alerts and displays using the Avionics Settings Screen. Refer to the
Additional Features section for more information on the SurfaceWatch feature.
Inhibiting/enabling SurfaceWatch:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Alerts Tab.
3) Touch the SurfaceWatch Inhibit Button. SurfaceWatch is inhibited when button annunciator is green,
enabled when gray.
Airspace Alerts
The Airspace Alerts allow the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off.
This does not affect the Nearest Airspace alerts or the airspace boundaries depicted on the Navigation Map
pane. It simply enabled/disables the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an airspace.
Alerts for the following airspaces can be enabled/disabled:
• Class B/TMA
• Restricted
• Class C/TCA
• MOA (Military)
• Class D
• Other airspaces/ADIZ
Enabling/disabling an airspace alert:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Alerts Tab.
3) Scroll as necessary and touch any of the of the following buttons to enable/disable the corresponding alert:
CLASS B/TMA, CLASS C/TCA, CLASS D, Restricted, MOA (Military), Other. Button annunciator is green
when alert is enabled, gray when disabled.
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An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For
example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an
alert message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected
to enter it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Setting the altitude buffer distance:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Alerts Tab.
3) Touch the Airspace Alert Alt Buffer altitude button (displays current selection in cyan).
4) Enter the desired altitude buffer using the numeric keypad or the large and small right knobs, then touch the
ENTER Button or press the right knob.
MFD FIELDS SETTINGS
• MFD Data Bar Field 1
• MFD Data Bar Field 2
• MFD Data Bar Field 3
• MFD Data Bar Field 4
The MFD Navigation Data Bar displays four navigation data bar fields. The system assigns each data bar
field a corresponding number, 1 though 4, as displayed from left-to-right.
The following data may be selected for display in each of the four fields of the Navigation Data Bar.
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• Bearing (BRG)
• Flight Timer (FLT)
• Distance (DIS)
• Fuel On Board (FOB)
• Distance to Destination (DTG)
• ETA at Final Destination (LDG)
• Desired Track (DTK)
• Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
• Endurance (END)
• Track Angle Error (TKE)
• Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA)
• Track (TRK)
• Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
• Vertical Speed Required (VSR)
• Estimated Time Enroute (ETE)
• Cross-Track Error (XTK)
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Change the information shown in an MFD Data Bar field:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the MFD Fields Tab.
3) Scroll as needed and touch the MFD Data Bar Field Number to be changed (1 through 4); the current selection
for each data bar field displayed in cyan.
4) Scroll as needed and touch the button corresponding to the desired data to be shown in the selected MFD Data
Bar Field.
AUDIO SETTINGS
• Audio Alert Voice
• Pilot 3D Audio
•Pilot L-R Swap
• Copilot 3D Audio
• Copilot L-R Swap
Audio
From the Audio Tab the audio alert voice gender can be set to male or female. Pilot and Copilot 3D
audio can be enabled or disabled. Also, the 3D audio left/right reference may be changed so that COM 1
and COM 2 audio is heard in the desired ear.
To change the audio alert voice:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Audio Tab.
3) Touch the Audio Alert Voice button (current voice gender displayed in cyan).
4) Touch the audio alert voice gender button (Male or Female).
Enable/disable the Pilot 3D Audio:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Audio Tab.
3) Touch the Pilot 3D Audio Button. A green annunciator indicates the feature is enabled. If desired, enable the
Pilot L-R Swap feature to direct the audio to the desired ear.
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Enable/disable the Pilot L-R (Left/Right) Swap:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Audio Tab.
3) Touch the Pilot L-R Swap Button. A green annunciator indicates the feature is enabled.
Enable/disable the Copilot 3D Audio:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Audio Tab.
3) Touch the Copilot 3D Audio Button. A green annunciator indicates the feature is enabled. If desired, enable
the Copilot L-R Swap feature to direct the audio to the desired ear.
Enable/disable the Copilot L-R (Left/Right) Swap:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Audio Tab.
3) Touch the Copilot L-R Button. A green annunciator indicates the feature is enabled.
CREW PROFILES
The system automatically stores various settings and selections within the active crew profile, and retains
these settings through power cycles. These include a wide range of parameters for both the pilot and copilot
including (but not limited to) map settings, avionics settings, PFD settings, user waypoints, various softkey
selections, and weight and balance information.
After system power-up, the Initialization Screen on the Touchscreen Controller shows the currently active
crew profile, which was active during the previous power cycle. If needed, the flight crew may activate a
different crew profile on the Initialization Screen or the Crew Profile Screen.
The Crew Profile Screen provides additional capabilities for managing crew profiles. The system can store
up to 25 crew profiles. From here, crew profiles may be added, renamed, activated, copied, or deleted. In
addition, crew profiles can be imported from an SD card, or exported to an SD card on the Crew Profile Screen.
By default, ‘DEFAULT PROFILE’ is the active crew profile. This profile cannot be deleted or renamed. The
DEFAULT PROFILE Button contains an alphanumeric version number.
Active Crew
Profile
Available
Profiles Stored
on the System
Available
Options for
Selected
Crew Profile
Add a New
Crew Profile
Import a Crew Profile
from an SD Card
Selected Crew Profile
Figure 1-31 Managing Crew Profiles on the Crew Profile Screen
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Adding a new crew profile:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Crew Profile.
2) Scroll if necessary, and touch the Add Profile Button.
3) Input the name to assign to the crew profile using the keypad or the large and small upper knobs, then touch
Enter or press the upper knob. Crew Profiles may be up to 16 characters long, and cannot share the exact
name of an existing crew profile.
Activating a crew profile:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Crew Profile.
2) Scroll if necessary, and touch the button for the crew profile to be activated.
3) Touch the Activate Button. When finished, the system displays the name of the selected crew profile in the
‘Active Profile’ window.
Copying an existing crew profile:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Crew Profile.
2) Scroll if necessary, and touch the button for the crew profile to be copied.
3) Touch the Copy Button.
4) Input the name to assign to the copied crew profile using the keypad or the large and small upper knobs, then
touch Enter or press the right knob. Crew Profiles may be up to 16 characters long, and cannot share the exact
name of an existing crew profile. The Crew Profile screen displays the name of the copied profile in the list.
Renaming an existing crew profile:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Crew Profile.
2) Scroll if necessary, and touch the button for the crew profile to be renamed.
3) Touch the Rename Button.
4) Input the new name to assign to the selected crew profile using the keypad or the large and small upper knobs,
then touch Enter or press the upper knob. Crew Profiles may be up to 16 characters long, and cannot share the
exact name of an existing crew profile. The Crew Profile screen displays the name of the renamed crew profile
in the list.
Deleting a crew profile:
NOTE: The system cannot delete the currently active crew profile. If necessary, activate another crew profile
prior to deletion.
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Crew Profile.
2) Scroll if necessary, and touch the button for the profile to be deleted.
3) Touch the Delete Button.
4) Touch the OK Button to confirm and delete the profile, or touch the Cancel Button.
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Importing a crew profile from an SD card:
1) If necessary, insert an SD card containing a crew profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Crew Profile.
3) Touch the Import Button.
4) Scroll if necessary, and touch the button for the crew profile to be imported.
Exporting a crew profile to an SD card:
1) If necessary, insert an SD card to store a crew profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Crew Profile.
3) Scroll if necessary, and touch the button for the crew profile to be exported from the list.
4) Touch the Export Button.
AVIONICS STATUS
The Avionics Status Screen provides information about installed LRUs, airframe system software, and
databases.
LRU INFO
The LRU Info Tab on the Avionics Status Screen displays the status, serial numbers, and software version
numbers for all detected system LRUs. The system displays a green checked box for each active LRUs. An
amber ‘X’ box indicates a failed LRU. Inform a service center or Garmin dealer if an LRU has failed.
Viewing LRU information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Status.
2) If necessary, touch the LRU Info Tab.
3) Scroll as needed and touch a LRU button to display a pop-up window with additional information for the
selected LRU.
4) When finished, touch the pop-up window (if displayed), or touch Back or Home.
LRU Info Tab
Selected
Additional
Information
Shown for
Selected
LRU
Active LRU
(Touch
to View
Additional
Information)
Failed
LRU
Figure 1-32 Viewing LRU Info Information on the Touchscreen Controller
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AIRFRAME
The Airframe Tab of the Avionics Status Screen displays pertinent information about the airframe including
the System ID number, System Software Version number, Configuration ID, and Cockpit Reference Guide
part number.
Viewing airframe information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Status.
2) If necessary, touch the Airframe Tab.
3) Scroll as needed to view the airframe information.
DATABASE
The Database Tab of the Avionics Status screen displays pertinent information on all system databases
(PFD1, MFD1, GTC1, GTC2, GTC3).
Viewing database information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Status.
2) If necessary, touch the Database Tab.
3) Touch MFD1, PFD1, GTC1, GTC2, or GTC3 Buttons to view database information for the selected LRU.
4) Scroll as needed to view the database information for the selected LRU, then touch Back or Home.
ADDITIONAL SYSTEM SETUP OPTIONS
SIRIUSXM AND GARMIN CONNEXT® WEATHER INFORMATION
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather products or the
Additional Features Section for information about SiriusXM Satellite Radio.
Viewing SiriusXM Information:
From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > SiriusXM Info
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. The service is activated by providing SiriusXM
Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or
the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM to activate the subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions. Either or both
services can be activated. SiriusXM uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an activation signal to the system.
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the SiriusXM Information Screen
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.flygarmin.com)
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Activating SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio:
1) Position the aircraft so the data link receiver antenna has an unobstructed view of the sky.
2) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > SiriusXM Info > Start. Touchscreen Controller displays
‘ACTIVATING’.
3) When system indicates activation has completed, touch ‘Lock’ to save the activation changes, or touch ‘Cancel’
to exit without saving changes.
Viewing Connext® Registration Information:
From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Connext® Registration
For more information on how to register Garmin Connext, see the Hazard Avoidance Section.
WIRELESS SETUP
The system is capable of connecting to a wireless network. Furthermore, if installed, the system is capable
of pairing to a mobile device via Bluetooth connection and the Garmin Connext® feature.
For more information on Connext and WiFi Setup, see the Additional Features Section.
SCREEN CLEANING
Screen Cleaning mode temporary deactivates touch input on the Touchscreen Controller screen to facilitate
cleaning. The screen can be cleaned using a microfiber or soft cotton cloth lightly dampened with clean water.
Do not use chemical cleaning agents, as these may damage the coating on the glass surface.
Cleaning the Touchscreen Controller screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Screen Cleaning.
Or:
From PFD Home, touch PFD Settings > Screen Cleaning.
2) The Touchscreen Controller indicates the screen may be cleaned. Clean the screen as needed.
3) Press or turn any knob or softkey to return to the previous screen.
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1.7 UTILITIES
The Timer and Trip Statistics features provide a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a
record of the time of departure as well as distance tracking—odometer, trip odometer, and average ground speeds
and maximum ground speeds.
TIMER
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS) for the PFD. When
the countdown on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before
reaching zero on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when reset,
the digits are zeroed.
Figure 1-33 Timer (Touchscreen Controller)
Setting the generic timer:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Timer.
Or:
From PFD Home, touch the Timers Button.
2) Touch the Time Button.
3) Input the desired time using the numeric keypad or the large and small right knobs, then touch the Enter Button
or press the right knob.
4) Touch the Start Button. The button changes to ‘Stop’.
5) To stop the timer, touch the Stop Button.
6) To reset the timer, touch the Reset Button.
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TRIP STATISTICS
FLIGHT TIME
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time the aircraft
lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Touch the Flight Time Start At Button.
3) Touch either the Power-On or In-Air Button.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Touch the Flight Time timer button (cyan text in button displays flight time).
3) Touch the Reset Button to reset the flight timer or touch the Cancel Button.
Figure 1-34 Trip Statistics Options
DEPARTURE TIME
The system records the time at which departure occurs. The departure time is selectable as either from the
time the system was powered-up, or when the aircraft becomes airborne. The displayed departure time can
also be reset to display the current time at the point of reset.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Touch the Departure Time Start At Button.
3) Touch either the Power On or In-Air Button.
Resetting the departure time:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Touch the Departure Time datafield button.
3) Touch the Reset Button.
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ODOMETER
The Odometer presents a total distance traveled since the last reset.
Setting the odometer automatic reset criterion:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Touch the Odometer Reset Button.
3) Touch the Power On, In-Air, or Manually Button. Note manual reset is always available regardless of the
option selected for automatic reset.
Manually resetting the odometer:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Touch the Odometer distance button (shows current odometer reading in cyan).
3) Touch the Reset Button to reset the odometer, or touch the Cancel Button.
TRIP ODOMETER
The Trip Odometer presents a total distance traveled for the active flight plan since the last reset.
Setting the Trip Odometer automatic reset criterion:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Touch the Trip Odometer Reset Button.
3) Touch the Power On, In-Air, or Manually Button. Note manual reset is always available regardless of the
option selected for automatic reset.
Manually resetting the Trip Odometer:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Touch the Trip Odometer distance button (shows current trip odometer reading in cyan.)
3) Touch the Reset Button to reset the trip odometer, or touch the Cancel Button.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of GPS repeaters, metal buildings, metal structures, or
electromagnetic fields on the ground may cause the Average Ground Speed or Maximum Ground Speed Trip
Statistics to be calculated incorrectly.
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AVERAGE GROUND SPEED
‘Avg Ground Speed’ presents a ground speed average since the last reset.
Setting the average ground speed automatic reset criterion:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Avg Ground Speed’ buttons.
3) Touch the Avg Ground Speed Reset Button.
4) Touch the Power-On, In-Air, or Manually Button. Note manual reset is always available regardless of the
option selected for automatic reset.
Manually resetting the Odometer:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Avg Ground Speed’ buttons.
3) Touch the speed button for the ‘Avg Ground Speed’ (button displays average ground speed in cyan).
4) Touch the Reset Button to reset the average ground speed, or touch the Cancel Button.
MAXIMUM GROUND SPEED
‘Max Ground Speed’ shows the highest recorded ground speed since the last reset.
Setting the Maximum Ground Speed automatic reset criterion:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Max Ground Speed’ buttons.
3) Touch the Max Ground Speed Reset Button.
4) Touch the Power-On, In-Air, or Manually Button. Note manual reset is always available regardless of the
option selected for automatic reset.
Manually resetting the Maximum Ground Speed:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Max Ground Speed’ buttons.
3) Touch the speed button for the ‘Max Ground Speed’ (button displays maximum speed in cyan).
4) Touch the Reset Button to reset the Maximum Ground Speed, or touch the Cancel Button.
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TRIP AIR ODOMETER
The ‘Trip Air Odometer’ presents the distance traveled while the aircraft was in the air since the last reset.
Setting the Trip Airborne Odometer automatic reset criterion:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Trip Air Odometer’ buttons.
3) Touch the Trip Air Odometer Reset Button.
4) Touch the Power-On, In-Air, or Manually Button. Note manual reset is always available regardless of the
option selected for automatic reset.
Manually resetting the Trip Air Odometer:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Trip Air Odometer’ buttons.
3) Touch the distance button for the ‘Trip Air Odometer’ (button displays the distance flown in cyan).
4) Touch the Reset Button to reset the Trip Air Odometer, or touch the Cancel Button.
AVERAGE WIND SPEED
The ‘Avg Wind Speed’ displays the average wind speed since the last reset.
Setting the Average Wind Speed automatic reset criterion:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Avg Wind Speed’ buttons.
3) Touch the Avg Wind Speed Reset Button.
4) Touch the Power-On, In-Air, or Manually Button. Note manual reset is always available regardless of the
option selected for automatic reset.
Manually resetting the Average Wind Speed:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Avg Wind Speed’ buttons.
3) Touch the speed button for the ‘Avg Wind Speed’ (button displays the average wind speed in cyan).
4) Touch the Reset Button to reset the Average Wind Speed, or touch the Cancel Button.
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AVERAGE WIND DIRECTION
The ‘Avg Wind Direction’ displays the average wind direction since the last reset.
Setting the Average Wind Direction automatic reset criterion:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Avg Wind Direction’ buttons.
3) Touch the Avg Wind Direction Reset Button.
4) Touch the Power-On, In-Air, or Manually Button. Note manual reset is always available regardless of the
option selected for automatic reset.
Manually resetting the Average Wind Direction:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Stats.
2) Scroll to display the ‘Avg Wind Speed’ buttons.
3) Touch the speed button for the ‘Avg Wind Speed’ (button displays the average wind speed in cyan).
4) Touch the Reset Button to reset the Average Wind Speed, or touch the Cancel Button.
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1.8 SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: DO NOT use the database SD cards for any purpose other than database storage.
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The PFD and MFD data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right portion of the
display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used for various databases,
checklists, system software updates, recording flight data, and storing electronic documents.
Not all SD cards are compatible with the system. Use only SD cards supplied by Garmin or the aircraft
manufacturer.
Insert an SD card
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel.
Remove an SD card
Gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch and eject the card.
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-35 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Garmin Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and indicators
(bug) on selected flight instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these indicators (bug) and
readouts, as they appear on the display during certain AFCS flight director modes.
A single Primary Flight Display (PFD) feature a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical speed, and
course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic,
and weather information are also presented on the PFD and is further explained in other sections of this Pilot’s
Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
– Indicated airspeed
• Vertical Navigation (VNAV) indications
– Airspeed awareness ranges
• Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI), showing
– Vspeed reference bugs
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Mach number
– Bearing pointers
• Groundspeed
– Navigation source
• True airspeed
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
– HSI Map
• Altimeter, showing
• Generic Timer
– Trend vector
• Wind data
– Barometric setting
• Time
– Selected Altitude
• Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
The PFD also displays various alerts and annunciations discussed throughout this Pilot’s Guide.
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19
17
18
16
15
1
2
14
3
13
4
12
5
11
6
10
9
7
8
1
Airspeed Indicator
12
Turn Rate Indicator
2
Indicated Airspeed
13
Barometric Altimeter Setting
3
Current Heading
14
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
15
Selected Altitude
5
Selected Heading Bug
16
Altimeter
6
True Airspeed
17
Selected Altitude Bug
7
Ground Speed
18
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
System Time
19
Attitude Indicator
9
Timer
10
Navigation Status Bar
11
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display
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1
18
2
17
3
16
4
5
15
6
14
7
13
9
8
1
Reversionary Sensor Annunciation
11
Bearing Information Bar
2
Airspeed Indicator
13
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height
3
IAS Comparator Annunciation
14
Selected Course
4
Selected Heading
15
Aircraft Symbol
7
Wind Data
16
Current Vertical Speed
8
Angle of Attack Indicator
17
Glideslope Indicator
10
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
18
Marker Beacon Annunciation
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for speed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The numeric labels and
major tick marks on the moving tape represent intervals of 10 knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with
60 knots of airspeed scale viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until reaching maximum operating speed (VMO/MMO), at which point it appears red
along with the Mach number readout.
The Mach number is displayed below the Airspeed Indicator at altitudes where the aircraft is Mach limited
prior to becoming IAS limited. The color of the readout is the same as the color of the airspeed pointer.
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Indicated
Airspeed
Approach
Speed
Cue
Manual
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Airspeed
Range
Bands
Overspeed
Vspeed
Reference
Bugs
Mach Number
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
Speeds above the maximum operating speed, VMO or MMO depending on aircraft altitude, appear in the high
speed awareness range, shown on the airspeed tape by a red/white barber pole. An aural overspeed warning
tone is generated if the airspeed exceeds the high airspeed limit. If the indicated airspeed is within the red
range, the airspeed pointer is displayed in red. The Approach Speed Cue is a hollow green circle that appears
on the airspeed tape. The Approach Speed Cue is driven by the Angle of Attack (AOA), and approximates
1.3VS1.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of airspeed indicator when
airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the tip of the
airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of acceleration
or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line shows
approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VMO/MMO or
enters the low speed awareness (LSA) range, the airspeed or Mach readout changes to amber. The trend vector
is absent if the aircraft is on the ground, speed remains constant, or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is
not available due to a system failure.
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The Airspeed Reference is displayed above the Airspeed Indicator in cyan (MAN speed mode). A bug
corresponding to this speed is shown on the tape when the vertical Flight Director (FD) is in the Flight Level
Change Mode (FLC). The airspeed reference setting is limited to an airspeed that is higher than the solid red
Low Speed Awareness (LSA) range on the airspeed indicator. As the LSA range changes, the airspeed reference
and bug change as well, disallowing at any point an airspeed reference in the LSA range. If system cannot
calculate the LSA range due to missing data or other failure, an amber ‘LSA FAIL’ annunciation appears on the
airspeed tape and the red LSA band is removed from the airspeed tape.
In addition the red LSA band, additional colored bands appear on the airspeed tape. A half green/half white
band represents the landing configuration flaps speed range. A solid white band represents the full flaps
operating speed range. A solid green band represents the normal operating range.
While in MAN speed mode if the Airspeed Reference or Mach Reference exceeds the range shown on the tape,
a cyan selection bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. See the AFCS Section for more information
about the Airspeed Reference.
Landing Takeoff
General
Vspeeds can be changed and their bugs enabled or disabled. When active (enabled), the Vspeeds are displayed
at their respective locations to the right of the airspeed scale. By default, all Vspeed values are reset and all bugs
turned off during power up.
Vspeed
Bug
Vx
Vx
Vy
Vy
Vr
Vr
Vapp
Vapp
Table 2-1 Vspeed Bug Labels
The system categorizes Vspeed reference bugs as takeoff, landing, or general, and these bugs are grouped by
their respective tabs on the Speed Bugs Screen. Vspeed bugs in the general category may be enabled at any
time. For vspeed bugs in the takeoff or landing category, enabling a bug in one category automatically disables
it in the other category.
Prior to the display of Indicated Airspeed, enabled speed reference bugs appear in a list from highest to
lowest at the bottom of the airspeed tape. Once indicated airspeed begins, enabled vspeed bugs appear in their
respective positions along the right side of the airspeed tape. While the aircraft is in the air, if landing category
vspeed bugs are enabled, but outside of the viewable range of the airspeed tape, these bugs appear in a list at
the bottom of the airspeed tape.
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Takeoff Vspeeds
Landing Vspeeds
Figure 2-4 Vspeed Settings on the Speed Bugs Screen
Changing Vspeeds and enabling/disabling Vspeed bugs:
1) From PFD Home, touch Speed Bugs
2) Touch the General, Takeoff, or Landing Tab.
3) To enable or disable a Vspeed bug, touch the button for the Vspeed bug. The button annunciator is green when
the Vspeed bug is enabled, gray when disabled.
4) To set or change a Vspeed value, touch the Data Field for the Vspeed, input a value using the keypad or large
and small right knobs, and touch the Enter Button or push the right knob. The pencil icon next to the Vspeed
value indicates that the Vspeed is a pilot-selected value that differs from the original value.
Figure 2-5 Pilot-Entered Vspeed
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Enabling or disabling all General, Takeoff or Landing Vspeed bugs:
1) From PFD Home, touch Speed Bugs.
2) Touch the General, Takeoff, or Landing Tab.
3) To enable all Vspeed bugs, touch the All On Button.
4) To disable all Vspeed, touch the All Off Button.
Restoring all Vspeed defaults:
1) From PFD Home, touch Speed Bugs.
2) Touch the Restore All Defaults Button.
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
8
1
7
2
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
5
Aircraft Symbol
(Formatted for Single-cue
Command Bars)
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-6 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown every 5˚. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks occur every
2.5˚.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
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Figure 2-7 Slip/Skid Indication
When the optional Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™) system is available, additional
indications may appear on the pitch and roll scales; refer to the Additional Features and AFCS Sections for more
information about Garmin ESP.
ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays barometric altitude values on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The pilot can
choose display units format for the Altimeter as feet or meters.
If the altitude is displayed in feet, the Altimeter shows 600 feet of barometric altitude at a time, with numeric
labels and major tick marks displayed at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20 feet.
If the altitude is displayed in meters, the Altimeter shows 180 meters of barometric altitude at a time, with
numeric labels and major tick market displayed at intervals of 50 meters. Minor tick marks are at intervals of
10 meters.
The Indicated Altitude is displayed in the black pointer.
Selecting the altitude/vertical speed display units:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) Touch the Units Tab.
3) Scroll and touch the Altitude/Vertical Speed units button.
4) Touch either the Feet (FT, FPM) Button or the Meters (MT, MPS) Button.
5) When finished, touch the Back Button or the Home Button.
This setting affects altitude and vertical speed displays used throughout the system, in addition to those
shown on the PFD. Refer to the System Overview section for more information on units settings.
NOTE: The altimeter units shown on the Standby Flight Display are not affected by the selection chosen in
the previous procedure.
When a Selected Altitude is set, a cyan Selected Altitude Intercept Arc (if enabled) is displayed on the
navigation maps when the aircraft is climbing or descending. This arc appears at the estimated position the
aircraft will intercept the Selected Altitude; refer to the Flight Management Section for additional information
about the Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.
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SELECTED ALTITUDE
Setting the Selected Altitude:
Turn the ALT Knob on the AFCS Controller to update the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments. Quickly turning
the ALT Knob will change the selected altitude in larger increments.
If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available for the Selected altitude.
If desired, press the ALT Knob to synchronize the selected altitude with the displayed altitude to the nearest 10
ft.
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
(Meters)
Current
Altitude
(Meters)
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude
Bug
MDA/DH
Bug
Current
Altitude
Barometric
Setting Box
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
Figure 2-8 Altimeter Settings, In Hg and Metric
The system can display metric units overlays for the Indicated and Selected Altitudes, while the altimeter
maintains its scale in feet.
Enabling/disabling metric overlays on the Altimeter:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Settings.
2) Scroll down until Meters Overlay Enable becomes visible.
3) To turn the function on or off, touch the Meters Overlay Enable Button. An illuminated green annunciator
below ‘Enable’ indicates that the function is on.
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape, the end resting at the
approximate altitude to be reached in 6 seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric pressure setting creates discontinuities
in VNV vertical navigation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for
the aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV
Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
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NOTE: Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNAV vertical deviation, moving
the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the
descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNAV Target Altitude, the aircraft may
not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
ALTIMETER SETTING
Turning the BARO Knob changes the altimeter barometric pressure setting. Pressing the BARO Knob
will set standard barometric pressure (29.92), displayed as ‘STD BARO’. If ‘STD BARO’ has been set prior to
turning the BARO Knob, an Altimeter Setting Preview Window is displayed upon turning the knob as shown
in the following figure. The preview altimeter setting is cyan while turning the BARO Knob and momentarily
afterwards, then it becomes gray. This feature allows setting the altimeter prior to descending below the
standard barometric transition altitude. Pressing the BARO Knob after descending through the transition sets
the previewed value to the current altimeter setting.
Figure 2-9 Altimeter Setting Preview
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
1) Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting. If the setting is entered into the Altimeter Setting Preview
Window, proceed to step 2.
2) Press the BARO Knob after descending past the barometric transition altitude.
Selecting standard barometric pressure:
Press the BARO Knob to select standard pressure; STD BARO is displayed in the Barometric Setting box.
Figure 2-10 Standard Barometric Altimeter Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Settings.
2) Scroll down, and touch the Baro Select Units Button.
3) Touch either the Inches (IN) or Hectopascals (HPA) Button.
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BAROMETRIC TRANSITION ALTITUDE ALERT
The Baro Transition Alert serves as a reminder to the pilot to change the barometric pressure setting to
standard when climbing through the barometric transition altitude, or to change the barometric pressure
setting from standard to the local altimeter setting when descending through the barometric transition altitude.
This is displayed by the flashing cyan barometric pressure setting when crossing the transition altitude.
There are two distinct options for alerts, BARO Transition ALT Climb when crossing up through the
transition altitude, and BARO Transition LVL Descent when crossing down through the transition level. Users
may set the alerts individually through the following procedure, or may choose to use the published altitude
by selecting the Revert to Published button. Selecting this button after a user-defined entry has been made
reverts to the published transition altitude of the origin airport for BARO Transition ALT Climb and of the
destination airport for BARO Transition LVL Descent.
Setting the Baro Transition Alert:
1) From the MFD Home Screen, touch Utilities >Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) Touch the Alerts Tab.
• To turn the alert on or off, touch the respective BARO Transition ALT CLIMB or BARO Transition LVL
Descent Button.
• To set or change the Baro Transition Alert Altitude, touch the respective data field. Enter the desired altitude
or flight level on the keypad, and touch Enter.
Figure 2-11 Baro Transition Alert
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VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape. The current
vertical speed is displayed in the pointer along the tape. The pilot can choose the display units format for the
VSI and altimeter as feet or meters.
If the VSI is displayed in feet, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 2000 and 4000 feet per minute. Minor tick marks appear for every 1000 fpm. If the current vertical speed is greater than 100 fpm, digits appear
in the pointer. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 4000 fpm, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of
the tape while displaying the current vertical speed numerically.
If the VSI is displayed in meters, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 10 and 20 meters per second. Minor tick marks appear for every five meters per second. If the current vertical speed it least 0.5 meters per
second, digits appear in the pointer. If the rate of ascent or descent exceeds 20 minutes per second, the pointer
appears at the corresponding edge of the tape while displaying the current vertical speed numerically.
A magenta chevron is displayed on the VSI to indicate the Required Vertical Speed for reaching a VNAV target
altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has generated. See the Flight Management
and AFCS sections for details on VNAV features. Refer to Section 2.3, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNAV indications on the PFD.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
When Vertical Navigation (VNAV) is being used, the Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) appears to the left of
the altimeter and is displayed with a magenta ‘V’ at the top of the scale and a magenta chevron indicating the
baro-VNAV vertical deviation. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” alert. The
VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management Section for
details on VNAV features, and refer to Section 2.3, Supplemental Flight Data, for more information about VNAV
indications on the PFD.
The Glideslope Indicator appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned in the active
NAV field and the aircraft heading and selected course are within 107°. A green diamond acts as the Glideslope
Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. The Glideslope Preview, a hollow gray diamond,
is displayed when the navigation source is set to GPS, in addition to a localizer frequency being tuned on the
navigation receiver and receiving glideslope information. When the system auto-switches the active navigation
source to the localizer frequency the Glideslope Indicator is displayed as a solid green diamond. If a localizer
frequency is tuned and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
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VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Speed
Pointer
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 2-12 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicators (VSI and VDI)
Glideslope Preview when
GPS is NAV source
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 2-13 Glideslope Indicator
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the
active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC clearance, the aircraft may be
centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath Indicator appears.
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for RNAV approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LPV, LP+V). When one of these RNAV approaches is loaded into the flight
plan, GPS is the selected navigation source, and SBAS is used for vertical approach guidance, the Glidepath
Indicator appears as a magenta diamond or a gray diamond prior to being active. Full-scale deflection (two
dots), is angular with upper and lower limits. The upper limit is +/-492 feet (150 meters) and lower limits
depend on approach service level.
•
LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, and LP+V, is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
•
LPV is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
If the approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
diamond.
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach, and between the FAF and MAP, the Vertical Deviation Limit
Indicators appear as vertical white lines indicating the area where deviation exceeds allowable limits for the
glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator provides a scaled representation of +/- 75 feet of the calculated
glidepath. The “window” between the lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The length of the lines
will change while progressing through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator enters an excessive
deviation area, the Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators are amber.
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Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
Glidepath
Preview
Glidepath
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
(excessive
deviation)
Glidepath
Indicator
(BaroVNAV)
Figure 2-14 Glidepath Indicator
Figure 2-15 Glidepath Indicator with Vertical
Deviation Limit Indicators
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach and SBAS is unavailable, baro-VNAV (barometric vertical
navigation) is used for vertical guidance. This occurs due to any of the following conditions:
•
SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
•
The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
•
SBAS is manually disabled on the GPS Status Screen of the Touchscreen Controller.
Baro-VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV procedure does not support
SBAS vertical guidance.
While Baro-VNAV is active, the Glidepath Indicator is labeled with a magenta ‘V’ and appears as a magenta
pentagon, when active, or as a gray pentagon prior to being active. The pentagon is amber when excessive
vertical deviation indicators are present, and the indicator is within an area of excessive deviation. The system
automatically applies temperature compensation to this displayed glidepath using data from the aircraft’s
temperature probe. This compensation occurs without any action from the flight crew.
If the approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
pentagon.
NOTE: For information about manually applying temperature compensation to waypoints prior to the Baro-
VNAV approach glidepath becoming active, refer to the Flight Management Section.
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points and numeric labels occur every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor
tick marks at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond bug. A dashed gray line appears below this bug as an
additional visual representation of the current track. The HSI also presents turn rate, course deviation, bearing,
and navigation source information and is available in two formats (360˚ compass rose and HSI Map).
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The HSI with the HSI Map disabled contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/
From Indicator, and a sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1,
and LOC1) or a double line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/
From arrow rotates with the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
17
16
15
14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
2
Selected Heading Bug
11
To/From Indicator
3
12
Course Pointer
4
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Navigation Source
13
Selected Course
5
Aircraft Symbol
14
Lubber Line
6
Crosstrack Error
15
Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
16
8
OBS Mode Active
9
Lateral Deviation Scale
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
17 Selected Heading
Figure 2-16 Horizontal Situation Indicator
The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay capabilities such as topographical, weather, and land information. The HSI Map contains a Course Pointer, a combined To/
From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral deviation scale. Upon passing a station, the To/
From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the HSI Map
can appear either as an arrowhead (GPS, VOR, OBS) as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight Management
Section for information about using HSI Map overlays.
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Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation Source
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
Course Pointer
Figure 2-17 HSI Map
A digital reading of the current heading appears above the rotating compass card. A magenta diamond on
the HSI represents the current track over the ground the aircraft is flying. To the upper left of the HSI, the
Selected Heading is shown in cyan for three seconds after it is adjusted, which corresponds to the cyan heading
bug on the compass rose. The Desired Track (DTK) is shown in magenta to the upper right of the HSI when
the selected navigation source is GPS and OBS Mode is not active. The Selected Course (CRS) is shown to the
upper right of the HSI when the selected navigation source is VOR or LOC and in magenta when the selected
navigation source is GPS with OBS Mode active. Upon station passage, the To/From Indicator flips and points
to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional To/From flag. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on
the can appear in two different ways: an arrowhead (GPS, VOR, OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
When the pilot enables the HSI Map, the HSI is formatted to show a navigation map on the rotating compass
card. The following information appears above the Current Heading when the HSI Map is enabled:
• A sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and
deviation indicators are combined)
• Flight Phase
• Deviation scale
• Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode Annunciation
• Navigation Source
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
• OBS Mode/Suspect Mode Status
Changing the HSI display format:
1) From PFD Home, press PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Layout button.
3) Touch the HSI Map button.
Upon station passage, the To/From Indicator flips and points to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional
To/From flag. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the can appear in two different ways: an
arrowhead (GPS, VOR, OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
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The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted The cyan
bug on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading. While the HSI is displayed in HSI Map format,
if the Selected Heading Bug is adjusted off the shown portion of the compass rose, the Selected Heading Bug
will appear at the edge of the HSI Map.
Adjusting the selected heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading on the AFCS Controller to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the upper knob to set the Selected Course.
Press the upper knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint
or navigation station.
Current Heading
Selected Heading Bug
Selected
Course
Selected
Heading
Figure 2-18 Heading and Course Indications (Magnetic)
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation or
referenced to true north (denoted ‘T’), and are set on the Avionics Settings Screen. When an approach referenced
to true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the navigation angle
setting to ‘True’ at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-19 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle setting:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities >Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) Touch the Units Tab.
3) Touch the Nav Angle Button.
4) Touch either the Magnetic ( º ) or True ( ºT ) Button.
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Figure 2-20 Navigation Angle Settings
TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and
right of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector
shows the current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in six seconds, based
on the present turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the
standard turn rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates
greater than four deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is
no longer valid.
Half-standard
Turn Rate
Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 deg/sec
Figure 2-21 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and GPS sources by
touching the Bearing 1 button or the Bearing 2 Button on the PFD Home Screen. The bearing pointers are
cyan and are single-line (Bearing 1) or double-line (Bearing 2). A pointer symbol is shown in the NAV/DME
Information Windows to indicate the navigation source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are
visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible
due to data unavailability.
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Bearing 1
Pointer
Bearing 2
Pointer
Figure 2-21 HSI with Bearing and Distance Information
Identifier Frequency
Distance
Bearing
Source 1
Bearing
Source 2
Figure 2-22 HSI with Bearing and Distance Information
Distance
to Bearing
Source
Waypoint Bearing
Identifier
When a bearing pointer is displayed, the information associated with it is also displayed. The following
information is displayed to the below the HSI:
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS)
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Pointer icon (Bearing 1 = single line, Bearing 2 =
double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Frequency (NAV)
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency, the bearing source and bearing pointer are removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed in lieu of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and dashes appear next to the bearing source if the NAV radio
is not receiving the tuned VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and no waypoint is active.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) From PFD Home, touch the Bearing 1 Button or the Bearing 2 Button to display the desired bearing pointer
and information and a source.
2) Touch the Bearing 1 Button or the Bearing 2 Button if desired to change the source with each touch (NAV21,
NAV2, GPS).
3) To remove the bearing pointer and information, touch the Bearing 1 or the Bearing 2 Button again.
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COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
Navigation
Source
CDI
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
Figure 2-23 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can show GPS, VOR, or LOC as the navigation source. Color indicates the current navigation
source, magenta for GPS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are defined by an GPSderived distance when coupled to the GPS. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots)
while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol. When
navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI scale indicates five degrees for the first dot and 10 degrees
for the second dot.
An approach course preview appears as a dashed gray pointer and CDI on the HSI when GPS is the selected
navigation source and all of the following conditions are met:
• A ILS or localizer approach is loaded.
• The approach frequency is tuned.
• The aircraft is in the terminal or approach flight phase.
• The aircraft is within 30 nm of the localizer.
As the aircraft approaches the final approach course, the two course pointers converge. When the system
auto-switches to the localizer NAV source the pointer and CDI becomes green.
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Preview CRS
Pointer and CDI
Localizer Approach
Course Preview
Figure 2-24 Navigation Sources
Changing navigation sources:
1) From PFD Home, touch the Nav Source Button to change from GPS to VOR1.
2) Touch the Nav Source Button again to change from VOR1 to VOR2.
3) Touch the Nav Source Button a third time to return to GPS.
GPS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
LOC2
Selected
Figure 2-25 Selecting a Navigation Source
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active waypoint, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
The system does not automatically switch from GPS to LOC navigation source until the AFCS captures the
LOC mode. This means that unless the crew arms the LOC mode using the APPR button, the system will not
automatically transition to LOC.
Activating a Vector-to-Final (VTF) causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. GPS steering guidance
is not provided after this switch.
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On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to the
FAF, it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically switches from GPS to
LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
Figure 2-26 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
GPS CDI SCALING
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed on the Avionics Settings Screen and the full-scale deflection
setting may also be changed on this screen. If the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for
enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled accordingly and the selected setting is displayed rather than
the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) Touch the System Tab.
3) Scroll if necessary and touch the GPS CDI Data Field.
4) Touch a button for the desired setting (0.30NM, 1.00NM, 2.00NM, or AUTO).
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Figure 2-27 GPS CDI Settings
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
When set to ‘Auto’ (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Table 2-2).
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-28 Automatic CDI Scaling
• While on the ground (and no flight plan entered), the system is set to enroute scaling. The first time the
flight plan is viewed, the departure airport is automatically populated into the active flight plan and the CDI
scaling switches to terminal.
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not CA or FA
• At 30 nm from the departure airport the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
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- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further. This transition normally occurs within 2.0 nm
of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling automatically once the approach
procedure is activated or if Vector-to-Final (VTF) is selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
Figure 2-29 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V and Visual Approach
CDI Scaling
FAF
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
2 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
angle set
by system
350 ft
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-30 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V and LPV Approach
CDI Scaling
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal scaling under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not CA or FA
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Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(LP)
Missed Approach
LNAV + V
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-29)
VISUAL
L/VNAV
LPV
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure 2-30)
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to amber.
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
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OBS MODE
NOTE: VNAV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in an GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to” waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving map. If desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the system
resumes automatic sequencing of waypoints, and follows the course set in OBS Mode. The flight path on the
moving map retains the modified course line. Sequencing will occur based upon the automatic waypoint
sequencing criteria. Depending on aircraft position, crosstrack error, and turn anticipation arc, the system
may sequence sooner than expected, or to a different waypoint than expected.
GPS
Selected
OBS Mode
Enabled
Figure 2-31 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating an GPS flight plan:
1) From PFD Home, touch the OBS Button to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the upper knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the upper Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Touch the OBS Button again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. ‘SUSP’ appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Button label
changes to SUSP, indicating that the suspension is active. To deactivate the suspension and resume automatic
sequencing of approach waypoints, touch the SUSP Button.
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-32 Suspension of Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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ANGLE OF ATTACK (AOA) INDICATOR
The Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator appears on the PFD below the Airspeed Indicator and displays the
normalized angle of attack. White, amber, and red arcs indicate AOA ranges. A normalized AOA value of
1.0 corresponds to a stall, and will cause the stick pusher to activate if this condition is reached. The system
dynamically calculates the red and amber arc ranges based on parameters such as bank angle, and flaps position. The red arc begins at the Stall Warning threshold and ends at 1.0 (Stall / Stick Pusher threshold). The amber arc
represents maneuvering margin to a 35 degree bank angle. At bank angles of 35 degrees or greater, the amber
band has zero thickness. The pointer color matches the color of the arc associated with the current AOA value.
The flight crew can enable/disable the display of the AOA Indicator on the PFD, or select the Auto Mode. In
Auto Mode, the AOA Indicator appears when all of the following conditions are met:
• Landing gear is down and locked
• Flaps are extended greater than 10º
• Normalized AOA is greater than 0.35
If these conditions are not met while Auto Mode is selected, then the AOA Indicator is automatically removed
from the PFD.
Figure 2-33 Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicator
Selecting the AOA Indicator display mode:
1) From PFD Home, touch the PFD Settings Button.
2) Touch the AOA settings button.
3) Touch the On, Off, or Auto Button.
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2.2 GARMIN SVT™ (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is a visual enhancement to the system. SVT depicts a forwardlooking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of view is 44 degrees to
the left and 44 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD), or on the
Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude,
heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arc-second database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant
features. The terrain data resolution of 4.9 arc-seconds, meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in
squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds on each side, is required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required
data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
The Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) is integrated within SVT to provide visual and auditory
alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts
are displayed in red and amber shading on the PFD.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the TAWS terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
• Airport Signs
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Figure 2-34 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
SVT controls are on the PFD Settings Screen. Each SVT feature (SVT Terrain, Horizon Heading, and SVT
Airport Signs) has a corresponding Enable Button. A green annunciator on the button indicates the feature is
enabled; a gray annunciator indicates the feature is disabled.
The Flight Path Marker accompanies the display of SVT Terrain. If desired, SVT Airport Signs and Horizon
Heading can be enabled with the display of SVT Terrain. The PFD Settings Screen contains the following SVT
controls:
• SVT Terrain Enable Button shows SVT Terrain and Flight Path Marker.
• Horizon Heading Enable Button shows heading marks and digits on the zero pitch line.
• SVT Airport Signs Enable Button shows airport signposts when SVT Terrain is enabled.
Enabling/disabling SVT Terrain with Flight Path Marker:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Settings.
2) Touch the SVT Terrain Enable Button. Button annunciator is green when enabled, gray when disabled.
Enabling/disabling Horizon Headings:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Settings.
2) Scroll as necessary, then touch the Horizon Heading Enable Button. Button annunciator is green when enabled,
gray when disabled.
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Enabling/disabling Airport Signs:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the SVT Terrain Enable Button to enable the display of SVT Terrain (button annunciator is
green).
3) Scroll and touch the SVT Airport Signs Enable Button.
SVT FEATURES
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Synthetic
Terrain
Figure 2-35 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: The terrain feature is not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation information provided
by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM appears when the Synthetic Terrain feature is enabled. The FPM represents the direction of the
flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol represents the
aircraft heading.
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Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 2-36 Flight Path Marker Position is Affected by Wind
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the Horizon Heading Enable
Button on the GTC.
TRAFFIC
NOTE: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may appear as
a partial symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed in the Inset map or
MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For
more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
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AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the Enable Button.
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 2-37 SVT Airport Signs
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of
the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be
gray in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be
outlined with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft
gets closer to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed. If the
optional SurfaceWatch feature is installed, additional detail appears on the runways and taxiways; refer to the
Additional Features section for more information.
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Runway
Selected for
Approach with
white outline
Other Runway
on Airport
Additional runway
detail from optional
SurfaceWatch
feature
Figure 2-38 Airport Runways
TERRAIN ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts. In addition to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning alert,
TAWS alerting or Terrain SVT will also indicate potential impact areas. These potential impact areas correspond
to red and/or yellow symbols on the PFD Inset Map, Navigation Map Panes, and the TAWS or terrain SVT
Pane. For more detailed information regarding TAWS or Terrain SVT, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
Terrain
Caution
Annunciation
Terrain
Potential
Impact Area
Caution
Potential
Impact
Area
Caution
Figure 2-39 Terrain Alert
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Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols
found on the navigation maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. When employing the TAWS or Terrain SVT system, unlike
the Inset Map and Navigation Map Pane, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to
warn of potential conflict with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual TAWS
or Terrain SVT Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the
aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
TAWS
Annunciation
Potential
Impact
Obstacle
Warning
Potential
Impact
Areas
Figure 2-40 SVT Obstacles
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the Navigation Map Pane. Two dashed lines forming a V‑shape
in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Enabling or Disabling the field of view indication:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab.
3) Scroll and touch the Field of View Button to enable or disable the field of view indication. A green annunciator
on the button indicates the field of view is enabled. A gray annunciator indicates the field of view is disabled.
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and Field of View
turned on.
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Lines depict SVT
field of view
shown on the PFD
Figure 2-41 SVT with Field of View Enabled on the Navigation Map Pane
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2.3 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including wind
data and Vertical Navigation (VNAV) indications.
WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed (relative to the aircraft) in knots can be displayed on the bottom left of the PFD
as shown in the figure below. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or
unavailable, the system shows “NO WIND DATA”. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways:
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-42 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Settings.
2) Scroll as necessary, and touch the Wind Button.
3) Touch desired wind option button (Option 1, Option 2, Option 3, or Off) to change how wind data is
displayed.
• Option 1: Wind direction arrows with headwind and crosswind components
• Option 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
• Option 3: Wind direction arrow with numeric headwind (H) or tailwind (T) and crosswind (X) components.
• Off: Removes wind data from the PFD
TIMER
The timer can be accessed from PFD Home on the Touchscreen Controller, and allows for quick access for
timing functions (either counting up or down) for the pilot.
Setting the timer:
1) From PFD Home, touch the Timers Button.
2) Touch the Time Button.
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3) Input the desired time using the numeric keypad, then touch the Enter button.
4) Touch either Up or Down button
5) To start timer, touch the Start button. The button changes to ‘Stop’.
6) To stop the timer, touch the Stop button.
7) To reset the timer, touch the Reset button.
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV) INDICATIONS
When a VNAV flight plan has been activated, VNAV indications (VNAV Target Altitude, RSVI, VDI) appear on
the PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and double chime audio alert. See the Flight
Management section for details on VNAV features. VNAV indications are removed from the PFD according to
the criteria listed in Table 2-3.
VNAV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 2-43 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
Criteria
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
VNAV cancelled
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNAV Target Altitude
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded 75º limit
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
Top of
Descent
Message
VNAV Indication Removed
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNAV Target
Speed (RSVI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude
X
X
X
X
X
X
Next valid VNAV
X
X
target altitude
displayed
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 2-3 VNAV Indication Removal Criteria
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2.4 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in cyan, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-44 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ALTITUDE ALERTING
Altitude Alerting provides the pilot with visual and aural alerts when approaching the Selected Altitude.
Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The following occur when approaching
the Selected Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to black text on a cyan
background and flashes for five seconds.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 ft of the Selected Altitude and the Selected Altitude changes to cyan text
on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude) an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude changes to amber text on a black background and
flashes for five seconds.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-45 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available and the TAWS system is
inhibited, unavailable or has failed.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation appears to the top left of the Altimeter, flashing
for several seconds then remaining displayed until the condition is resolved.
Figure 2-46 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH), based on barometric,
radar, or temperature compensated altitude can be set. When active, the altitude setting is displayed to the
lower left of the Altimeter and with a bug at the corresponding altitude along the Altimeter (once the altitude is
within the visible range of the tape). The following visual annunciations alert the pilot when approaching the
MDA/DH:
• Once set, the ‘BARO MIN’ or ‘TEMP COMP’ box appears with the altitude in cyan text. The bug appears on
the altitude tape in cyan once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn white.
• Once the aircraft reaches the MDA/DH, the bug and text appear amber and the voice alert, “Minimums
Minimums”, is heard.
Cyan Within 2500 ft
White Within 100 ft
Amber When Altitude Reached
MDA/DH
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-47 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the setting
for the alert. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA/DH, once it reaches 50 feet above
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the MDA/DH, alerting is disabled. The MDA/DH is set from the PFD. The function is reset (set to “Off”) when
another approach is activated, and on the next avionics power cycle.
Setting the Baro Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) From PFD Home, touch Minimums.
Or:
From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Minimums.
2) On the Minimums Screen, touch the Minimums Button.
3) To select barometric minimums, touch the Baro Button. To select Temperature Compensated barometric
minimums, touch the Temp Comp Button. To disable Minimums, touch the Off Button.
4) If Temp Comp was selected, and the destination temperature was not entered previously, the Destination Temp
Screen appears. Enter the destination temperature using the keypad or large and small right knobs, then touch
the Enter Button or push the right knob. If the temperature is negative, touch the +/- Button if necessary in
order to place a minus sign in front of the temperature datafield.
5) Enter the MDA/DH altitude on the Minimums Screen using the keypad or large and small right knobs. When
finished, touch the Enter Button or push the right knob.
If Temp Comp was selected, a Temp at Dest Button appears on the Minimums Screen displaying the
temperature setting. To update this temperature, touch the Temp at Dest Button and enter a new value.
Figure 2-48 Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height
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2.5 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-4 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur.
Annunciation
Location
GPS LOI
Left of HSI
GPS
INTEG
OK
Left of HSI
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight
GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits (annunciation
displayed for 5 seconds)
Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS
Lower left of
position to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan
aircraft symbol
waypoints
DR
Table 2-4 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-49 Abnormal GPS Condition Annunciations
In Dead Reckoning Mode the following items on the PFD are then shown in amber:
• CDI (when GPS is the selected navigation source; the CDI is removed after 20 minutes)
• Flight Phase
• Current Track Bug
• Wind Data
• Distances to bearing sources displayed in the NAV/DME Information Bar
• GPS bearing pointers
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode and they become increasingly
inaccurate over time.
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COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, a comparator annunciation is displayed in black text on a amber background. If one or
both of the sensed values are unavailable, the comparator annunciation is black text on a white background. The following is a list of the possible annunciations:
Figure 2-50 Sensor Comparator Annunciations on the PFD
Comparator
Condition
Annunciation
ALT
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If both airspeed sensors detect < 35 knots, this is inhibited.
IAS
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10 knots.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 knots.
HDG
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
PIT
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
ROL
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
VDI
Difference in temperature compensated altitudes is > 50 ft.
ALT
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
IAS
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
HDG
No data from one or both heading sensors.
PIT
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
ROL
No data from one or both roll sensors.
VDI
No temperature compensated altitude data available.
Table 2-5 Comparator Annunciations
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GARMIN SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
Garmin SVT™ is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs.
SVT is disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVT data,
the PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
• Attitude data
• Heading data
• GPS position data
• 4.9 arc-second terrain data
• Obstacle data
• Terrain SVT or TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn of extreme
pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon
line. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or bottom of the screen to represent earth
or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during extreme pitch attitudes.
Figure 2-51 Unusual Attitude Display
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the display.
Blue Band
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Figure 2-52 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter, Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display and
the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from the PFD (and corresponding GTC buttons are disabled) when the
aircraft experiences unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• Wind Data
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• AFCS Annunciations
• System Time
• Selected Altitude
• Flight Director Command Bars
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• VNAV Target Altitude
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• Selected Course or Desired Track
• Inset Map
• True Airspeed
• Groundspeed
• Selected Heading
STANDBY FLIGHT DISPLAY
The Standby Flight Display (SFD) appears on GTC 1 due to certain failure conditions (e.g. loss of all primary
AHRS, loss of all primary ADCs, loss of PFD). Additionally, the SFD also appears if all valid sensors are
miscompared. If the MFD fails or is off-line, GTC1 continues to operate as a Touchscreen Controller (i.e., no
Standby Flight Display), and allows the selection of MFD Mode, PFD Mode, and NAV/COM Mode.
If both the PFD and MFD fail, GTC1 shows the Standby Flight Display. Since the displays are not available to
control, the PFD Home Screen and the MFD Home Screen on any remaining Touchscreen Controller displays a
large amber “X” on the controller when PFD or MFD control mode is selected.
The Standby Flight Display displays the airspeed, altitude and attitude of the aircraft. Red chevrons will
appear during excessive pitch up and down conditions. Standby air data is fed to the Standby Flight Display
from a non-Garmin standby sensor on the aircraft. GTC 1 may not be returned to normal GTC operation until
the condition(s) that caused the Standby Flight Display to originally appear are resolved. Once the condition(s)
are resolved, GTC1 may be returned to normal operation by twice pressing the red Display Backup Button
mounted between the PFD and MFD.
When the Standby Flight Display activates, the SFD barometric setting is initialized to be the same as the
primary barometric setting from the PFD. After initialization, the SFD barometric can only be controlled by the
lower knob on the GTC1 (the SFD does not stay synchronized to the primary barometric setting after the SFD
is active and initialized). If the Standby Flight Display baro setting differs from the primary baro on the PFD,
both readouts will be amber.
Softkeys and knobs on the GTC1 control the Standby Flight Display.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Airspeed
Indicator
Altimeter
Metric
Overlay
Indicated
Airspeed
Softkeys
Barometric
Altimeter
Setting
Lower Knob
Figure 2-53 GTC 580 Touchscreen Controller
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting on the Standby Flight Display:
Turn the lower knob on Touchscreen Controller to select the desired setting.
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units on the Standby Flight Display:
Press the bottom softkey on the Touchscreen Controller to select either the Inches (IN) or Hectopascals
(HPA).
Enabling/disabling metric overlays on the Standby Flight Display:
Press the top softkey on Touchscreen Controller to select the metric altitude overlay.
Selecting standard barometric pressure:
Push the lower knob to select standard pressure; ‘STD BARO’ is displayed in the Barometric Setting.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
SECTION 3 ENGINE AND AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for limitations.
The system offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically monitoring critical
system parameters during all phases of flight using the following:
• The Engine Indication Systems (EIS) displays electrical, fuel, engine, pressurization, landing gear, flaps, and
trim information on the left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD).
• The Aircraft Systems Screen on the Touchscreen Controller provides additional display and control information
for system tests, landing field elevation, and synoptics for system status, engine and fuel, environmental and
pressure, electrical, ice protection, and landing gear.
In combination with these, aural alerts, additional avionics messages, and master indicators are used to inform
the crew of aberrant flight conditions. The system also provides maintenance data for the ground crew.
EIS
Display
Figure 3-1 EIS (MFD - Normal)
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
In the event of a display failure, depending on the failed display(s), the operating display(s) may be re-configured
to present Primary Flight Display (PFD) symbology together with condensed EIS and MFD information (refer to
the System Overview for more information about Reversionary Mode).
EIS
Display
Figure 3-2 EIS (Reversionary Mode)
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
3.1 ENGINE/AIRFRAME SYSTEMS INDICATIONS
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for the appropriate engine limits.
Engine and airframe information is presented using gauges and numeric displays. During normal operating
conditions, gauge pointers and display text appear in white. When unsafe operating conditions occur, gauge
pointers and displays change color to indicate caution (amber) or warning (red). Amber digits on a black
background or white digits on a red background are shown for numerical display values. Refer to each indicator
description for additional details on display behavior.
When parameters are out of range of the display, or unavailable, white dashes are shown. If sensor data for a
parameter becomes invalid or unavailable, there will be an amber “X” across the indicator and/or display.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
6
11
3
2
8
4
5
15
13
14
12
13
14
16
7
15
16
17
9
18
17
18
19
20
Figure 3-3 EIS Display (Normal)
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12
10
19
20
Figure 3-4 EIS Display (Reversionary)
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
1
% Thrust
Displays N1 as a percentage of maximum continuous thrust (MCT)
2
Interstage Turbine Temperature
(ITT °C)
3 Engine High Pressure Rotation
Compressor Speed (N2%)
4 Oil Temperature
(Oil °C)
Displays Interstage Turbine Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
Displays Engine High Pressure Rotation Compressor Speed as a
percentage
Displays oil temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
5
Oil Pressure
Displays pressure of oil supplied to the engines in pounds per
square inch (psi)
(Oil PSI)
6 Engine Fan Rotation Speed (N1%) Displays Engine Fan Rotation Speed as a percentage
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7
Fuel Tank Quantity and Selected
Fuel Tank
Displays total fuel quantity in gallons
Displays individual fuel quantities for the center and wing fuel tanks
8
Emergency Bus Voltage
Displays emergency bus volts
9
Fuel Flow (GPH)
Displays current fuel flow in gallons per hour (GPH)
10
Generator Current
Displays Generator 1 and 2 power in amps
11
Fuel Tank Temperature
Displays fuel temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
12
Battery Current
Displays Battery 1 and 2 power in amps
13
Landing Gear Position
Displays landing gear position and Vlo extend or retract
14
Pitch Trim Surface Position
Displays pitch trim along a vertical scale
15
Flap Position
16
Roll Trim Surface Position
Displays flap deflection indicated by flap positions labeled UP,
50%, 100%
Displays roll trim position along a scale
17
Cabin Altitude Rate
Displays change rate in feet per minute (Rate FPM)
18
Cabin Altitude
Displays cabin altitude in feet (Alt Ft)
19
Cabin Pressure Differential
Displays pressure differential
20
Destination Elevation
Displays elevation of destination landing field
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
ENGINE INDICATIONS
% Thrust
N1 Speed
Oil Pressure
N2 Speed
ITT
Oil Temperature
Figure 3-5 Engine Indications
The upper portion of the EIS Display is devoted to showing indications for the engines: engine stage
rotation speeds (N1 and N2; shown as percentages), Thrust Mode indication information, Interstage Turbine
Temperatures (ITT; degrees Celsius, °C), and oil pressure (pounds per square inch, psi) and temperature (°C).
The N1 gauges indicate the engine fan rotation speeds, while the N2 displays show the engine high pressure
compressor rotation speeds. Both are shown as percentages.
Operating limits defining the exceedance levels are based on engine conditions and are provided by the
FADEC. Actual temperature and pressure values are read from sensors.
% Thrust Display
A digital display and a white pointer along a green band indicate the % thrust normal operating range;
the end of the green band is Max Continuous Thrust (MCT). A cyan Takeoff Bug represents the takeoff
thrust level.
% Thrust Analog Pointer
Max Continuous Thrust (MCT)
Takeoff Bug
Figure 3-6 % Thrust Indicator
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
N1 INDICATIONS
The N1 gauges indicate the engine fan rotation speeds and are displayed as percentages.
N1 Normal Indications
A green band indicates normal operating range; the end of the band is Max Continuous Thrust (MCT) N1.
The N1 analog pointer and digits will be white while within the normal operating range. The cyan takeoff bug
indicates N1% at takeoff setting.
Max Continuous Thrust (MCT) N1
Takeoff Bug
N1 Analog Pointer
Figure 3-7 N1 Normal
N1 Exceedance
A red threshold line is displayed at the N1 Max Steady State Speed. The N1 pointer will turn from white
to red and the analog digits will turn white with a red background (continuously flashes) when the N1 Fan
Speed is at an exceedance level.
Red Threshold Line
N1 Analog Pointer
Takeoff Bug
Max Continuous Thrust (MCT)
Figure 3-8 N1 Exceedance
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
N2 DISPLAY
N2 is displayed below the ITT display. A green band indicates normal operating range. The N2 analog pointer
and digits are white during normal operation (including engine start). White digits on a red background are
displayed when the N2 is at or beyond the red threshold line exceedance level.
Red Threshold Line
N2 Analog Pointer
N2 Digital Display
Figure 3-9 N2 Display
INTERSTAGE TURBINE TEMPERATURE (ITT)
The ITT indication consists of a numeric display as well as an analog display. The displays are in degrees
Celsius (°C).
ITT Normal Indications
ITT analog pointer will be white while within the normal operating range and not exceeding the steady state
limit red threshold line.
Red Threshold Line
ITT Analog Pointer
Digital ITT Display
Figure 3-10 ITT Normal Indications
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
ITT Exceedance Indications
A red threshold line is displayed at the ITT Steady State Limit. The ITT pointer will turn from white to
red and the analog digits will turn white with a red background (continuously flashes) if the ITT Steady State
Limit is at an exceedance level.
Red Threshold Line
ITT Analog Pointer
Digital ITT Display
Figure 3-11 ITT Exceedance Indications
OIL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE
Oil pressure and temperature are shown beside the ITT display. Oil pressure and temperature digits are white
during normal operation. White digits on a red background (continuously flashes) or amber digits on a black
background (continuously flashes) are displayed in the event that the oil temperature or pressure is not within
the normal range.
Oil Temperature Analog Pointer
Oil Pressure Analog Pointer
Oil Temperature Digital Display
Oil Pressure Digital Display
Figure 3-12 Oil Temperature and Pressure
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
FUEL
FUEL QUANTITY
The fuel display is located below the N1 and N2 displays. The fuel quantity is displayed as a total fuel
quantity, and individual quantities are shown for the left and right tanks. Fuel flow is displayed gallons per
hour (GPH). Fuel temperature is displayed in degrees Celsius (°C).
Left Tank Fuel Quantity
GPH Analog Pointer
Right Tank Fuel Quantity
Analog Pointer
Left Tank Fuel Quantity
Analog Pointer
Right Tank Fuel Quantity
Total Fuel Quantity
Fuel Used - Gallons per Hour
Fuel Temperature
Figure 3-13 Fuel Display
FUEL TANK SELECTION
The left and right fuel tanks can be selected automatically, or manually by the pilot. Automatic selection
will be displayed as a white box around the ‘L’ or ‘R’ designation in white text (Figure 3-14). Manual selection
will be displayed as a cyan box around the cyan text “L MAN’ or ‘MAN R’ (Figure 3-15).
Right Tank Auto-Select
Left Tank Auto-Select
Figure 3-14 Fuel Tank Auto Selection
Left Tank Manual-Select
Right Tank Manual-Select
Figure 3-15 Fuel Tank Manual Selection
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
ELECTRICAL
Electrical Display digital values for normal voltage and current are displayed in white. Low voltage values and
current values are amber. High voltage values and current values are white with a red background (continuously
flashes). When external power is connected with the correct voltage, ‘Ext Pwr’ will be shown on the display.
Emergency Bus Volts
Generator 1 and 2 Amps
Battery 1 and 2 Amps
Figure 3-16 Electrical Display - External Power Off
External Power On Indication
Figure 3-17 External Power On
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
LANDING GEAR
Landing gear statuses are shown on the EIS display with statuses for the landing gear being either up, down
or in transition for the nose and main landing gears (Refer to Table 3-1). Abnormal (amber) and warning (red)
states may be displayed if in an uncommanded position or if landing gear warnings are active.
Nose Landing Gear
Right-side Main
Landing Gear
Left-side Main
Landing Gear
Figure 3-18 Landing Gear Indications
Description
Indication
Landing Gear
Down and
Locked
Landing Gear
Up
Landing Gear
Transitioning
Landing Gear
Caution
Abnormal
Landing Gear
Warning
Invalid Landing
Gear Indication
Table 3-1 Landing Gear Indications
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
FLAPS
Flap position is normally displayed using a rotating pointer the flap lever setting (Up, 50%, 100%). When
the actual flap position is not the same as the commanded flap position, an amber box will be displayed
around the commanded position and the pointer will be amber. When the actual flap position and the
commanded flap position are the same, a green box will be displayed, and the pointer will be cyan. When
the flaps are in transition to the commanded position, a cyan box will be displayed around the commanded
position and the pointer will be cyan.
Commanded
Flap Position
Flap
Positions
Actual Flap
Position
Figure 3-19 Commanded Flap Position Box - Normal
Commanded
Flap Position
Flap
Positions
Actual Flap
Position
Figure 3-20 Commanded Flap Position Box - Transition
Commanded
Flap Position
Actual Flap
Position
Flap
Positions
Figure 3-21 Commanded Flap Position Box - Caution
Invalid Flap
Indication
Flap
Positions
Figure 3-22 Invalid Flap Position Box - Amber X
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
THROTTLE FRICTION LOCK INDICATOR
When the Throttle Friction Lock is engaged, a lock indicator will be shown on the top of the EIS display
by the % Thrust display.
Throttle Friction Lock Indicator
Figure 3-23 Throttle Friction Lock
TRIM
Pitch and roll trim indications are shown along scales at the bottom of the EIS Display. When the aircraft is on
the ground and the trim positions are in the correct settings for takeoff, the pitch pointer will cyan and will be
within the green band. While in flight, the pointer will be cyan and the green band and ‘TO’ text on the pitch
indicator will be removed. The pitch pointer will turn red and the pitch and angle digital display will flash red
and white to indicate a warning condition. The pitch trim angle digital display will be black and white inverse
video to indicate an advisory condition. The roll trim indicator will be cyan and will move to indicate roll trim
position.
Pitch Angle
Pitch Pointer
Roll Pointer
Figure 3-24 Normal Trim Indications - In Air
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
CABIN PRESSURIZATION
The Cabin Pressurization Display shows cabin pressurization information (cabin altitude, cabin altitude rate
of change, cabin differential pressure) along with the Landing Field Elevation and operating modes.
CABIN ALTITUDE
The Cabin Altitude (Alt Ft) indicates the pressure altitude to which the cabin has been pressurized. When
the Cabin Pressurization Control System is operating in High Landing Field Elevation mode, ‘HIGH FIELD
ELEVATION’ is shown in white text surrounded by a white box.
CABIN ALTITUDE RATE OF CHANGE
The cabin pressure altitude rate change is displayed in feet per minute (Rate FPM). A directional arrow
indicates an increase (arrow up) or a decrease (arrow down) in cabin pressure altitude rate of more 100 FPM.
CABIN DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE
The Cabin Differential Pressure (Diff PSI) value indicates the cabin pressure differential. Normal pressure
values are white and high values are shown in red.
DESTINATION ELEVATION
The Landing Field Elevation (Dest Elev) is shown on the Cabin Pressurization Display. FMS entered values
appear in magenta. Manually entered values are cyan. If the Landing Field Elevation data has not been
entered, or is invalid or not available, magenta dashes will be displayed in auto mode, and cyan dashes are
displayed in manual mode. See Section 3.2, S Aircraft Systems, Landing Field Elevation, for instructions on
how to set the Destination Elevation.
Pressure Change Rate
Destination Elevation
Cabin Altitude
Differential Pressure
Figure 3-25 Cabin Pressure Display - FMS
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
3.2 AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
Synoptics diagrams show current conditions of certain aircraft functionalities on aviation system diagrams.
Lines and components shown in the diagrams change color to indicate various conditions such as flow, normal,
automatic, manual, advisory, caution, or warning. Refer to the specific synoptic sections for more information.
Aircraft systems depicted in the synoptic diagrams include:
• Ice Protection
• Status & Information
• Electrical
• Landing Gear
• Environmental & Pressure
• Engine & Fuel
Figure 3-26 Systems/Synoptics Overview
Additionally, FADEC State Fault Reset, GCU Reset and IPS Stall Offset Reset are covered in this section. The
Maintenance Button is to be used by maintenance personnel only. Refer to Additional Features for information
on how to use Video Button functions.
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
STATUS & INFO
The Status Synoptics Page shows external power, IPS fluid, oxygen, parking brake, and door status. Synoptic
objects and text for doors are red when open. Synoptic icon, status/position text and text color/background
may change based on component status.
Accessing the Aircraft Status Synoptics:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > Status & Info.
Emergency Exit
Door Position
Oxygen Level
Display
Parking Brake
Position
Main Valve
Position
Cabin Door
Position
Baggage Door
Position
IPS Fluid Level
Display
External Power
Status
Figure 3-27 Status and Info
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
LANDING GEAR
The Landing Gear Synoptic Page uses a simplified diagram of the aircraft’s hydraulic system to display the
system status. When the landing gear system is operating normally, all objects and lines are shown in green
on the system diagram. Lines between objects represent hydraulic lines. When the pump is shown in green
it is powered on. When the pump is shown in white it is powered off (see Table 3-2). Amber objects, text/
background indicate an abnormal or caution state. Red objects, text/background indicate a warning state.
Accessing the Landing Gear Synoptics:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > Landing Gear.
Hydraulic Pump
ON/OFF
Nose Gear
Position
Hydraulic
Temperature Display
Parking Brake
ON/OFF
Gear Select
Position
Right Main
Gear Position
Left Main Gear
Position
Figure 3-28 Landing Gear Synoptics
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
Unit
Icons and Descriptions
Pumps
Pump On
Pump Off
Caution
Gear Up
Gear Down
In Transition
Gear
Caution
Warning
Table 3-2 - Landing Gear Synoptic Objectsl
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
ENGINE & FUEL
The Engine & Fuel Synoptic Page uses a simplified diagram of the aircraft’s fuel system to display the system
status. The fuel quantity and temperature displays repeat the displays from the EIS. When the fuel system
is operating normally, all objects and lines are shown in green, blue or white on the system diagram. Lines
between objects represent fuel lines. Green lines indicate that there is flow. White lines indicate that there is
no flow. Blue lines represent flow with manual selection. Amber objects, text/background, or lines indicates an
abnormal or caution state. Red objects or text/background indicate a warning state (see Table 3-3).
Accessing the Engine & Fuel Synoptics:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > Engine & Fuel.
Fuel Time
Remaining
Fuel Used
Fuel Remaining
Fuel Range
Total Fuel
Quantity
Right Tank Fuel
Quantity/Temperature
Left Tank Fuel
Quantity/Temperature
Right Fuel
Tank
Left Fuel
Tank
Electric Fuel
Pump
Selector Valve #1
Status/Position
Shut Off Valve
Position
Selector Valve #2
Status/Position
Fuel Pressure
Indicator
Fuel Flow
Display
Fuel Filter
Indicator
Inlet Pressure
Inlet Temperature
Oil Filter
Indicator
FADEC Mode
Oil Debris
Indicator
Engine Idle Mode
Figure 3-29 Fuel Synoptics
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
Unit/Status
Auto/Normal/On
Icons and Descriptions
Manual/Open/On Off/Closed/Unselected
Caution/FailC
Warning/Fail
Fuel Pump
Shut-Off
Valve
Selector
Valves
Valve Closed
Fuel
Pressure
Indicator
Oil Debris
Indicator
Oil and
Fuel Filters
Fuel Tank
Status
Automatic
Manual
Unselected
Caution
Fuel Level
Normal
Caution
Warning
Table 3-3 - Fuel Synoptic Objects
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
ELECTRICAL
The Electrical Synoptic Page uses a simplified diagram of the aircraft’s electrical system to display the system
status. When the electrical system is operating normally, all objects and lines are shown in green or white on
the system diagram. Lines between objects represent electrical current flow. Green lines indicate that there is
current flow. White lines indicate that there is no current flow. Objects in green are powered on. Objects in
white are powered off. Amber objects, text/background, or lines indicates an abnormal or caution state. Red
objects or text/background indicates a warning state (see Table 3-4).
Accessing the Electrical Synoptics:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > Electrical.
Figure 3-30 Electrical Synoptics
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
Unit
Generator
Icons and Descriptions
On
Off
Caution
Warning
Warning Max
Bus
On
Off
Caution
Warning
Warning
Invalid
Battery
On
Off
Caution
On Max
Invalid
Caution Max
Normal
No Power
Caution
Warning
Normal
No power
Caution
Warning
Connected
Removed
Caution
Warning
Contactor
Diode
External Power
Table 3-4 Electrical Synoptic Objects
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
ICE PROTECTION
The Ice Protection Synoptic Page uses a simplified diagram of the aircraft’s ice protection system to display
the system status. Lines between objects indicate bleed air flow. Green lines indicate flow. White lines indicate
that there is no flow. Objects in green are open or on. Objects in white are off or closed, with the exception of
sensors, which are white when on. Amber objects, text/background, or lines indicates an abnormal or caution
state. Red objects, lines, or text/background indicates a warning state (see Table 3-5).
Accessing the Ice Protection Synoptics:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > Ice Protection.
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
IPS Fluid Level
IPS Fluid Pump #1
IPS Fluid Pump #2
Left Pitot Heat Status
Right Pitot Heat Status
AOA Heat Status
Left Main Wing
Upper Boot Status
Right Main Wing
Upper Boot Status
Left Main Wing
Lower Boot Status
Right Main Wing
Lower Boot Status
TT2 Probe Heat Status
Tail Stabilizer Boot
Status
Boot Air Temperature
Engine Inlet Temperature
Engine Inlet Pressure
Boot Air Pressure Status
Windshield IPS Status
Pitot/AOA Heat Status
Wing/Stab IPS Status
Engine IPS Status
Figure 3-31 Ice Protection Synoptics
Unit
Icons and Descriptions
Pumps
Pump On
190-01979-01 Rev. A
Pump Off
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
Unit
Valves
Icons and Descriptions
Power/Valve Open
No Power/Valve Closed
Caution/ Valve Open
Warning Valve Closed
Warning INOP
Sensors
Normal
Caution
Warning
Pitot Heat
AOA Heat
IPS Fluid
Normal
Boot Air
Temp
Mail Wing
Lower Boot
136
Warning
Normal
Caution
Warning
Normal
Caution
Warning
On
Normal
Caution
Warning
On
Normal
Caution
Warning
Boot Air
Pressure
Main Wing
Upper Boot
Advisory
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
Unit
Icons and Descriptions
Tail Stabilizer
Boot
On
Normal
Warning
Caution
Table 3-5 - Ice Protection Synoptic Objects
ENVIRONMENTAL & PRESSURE
The Environmental and Pressure Synoptic Page uses a simplified diagram of the aircraft’s environmental
system to display the system status. Lines between objects indicate bleed air flow. Green lines indicate
that there is flow. White lines indicate that there is no flow. Objects in green are on or open. Objects
in white are off or closed. Amber objects, text/background, or lines indicate an abnormal or caution
state. Red objects or text/background indicate a warning state (see Table 3-6).
Accessing the Environmental & Pressure Synoptics:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > Enviro & Pressure.
Compressor Status
Oxygen Level
Condenser Status
Main Valve Status
Passenger Valve Status
Defog Valve Status
Forward Cabin Temperature
Bleed Bias Status
Aft Cabin Temperature
(With Optional Dual Zone ECS)
TCV Status
Cabin Pressure
Bleed Valve Position
Bleed Pressure
Ground Fan Position
Bleed Temperature
Figure 3-32 Environmental Synoptics
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
Icons and Descriptions
Main Valve
Passenger Valve
Normal, Valve Open
Advisory, Open
Caution, Valve Open
Normal, Valve Closed
Caution, Valve Closed
Normal, Valve Open
Valve Fail
Normal, Valve Closed
Bleed Valve
Normal Open
Overpressure
Normal Closed
Underpressure
Defog Valve
138
Bleed Air On,
Valve Closed
Bleed Air Off
Valve Closed
Bleed Air On
Valve Open
Bleed Air Off
Valve Open
Valve Fail
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
Icons and Descriptions
Defog Indicator
Valve Open
Valve Closed
Overheat Caution
Normal
Disable
Fail
Automatic
Manual
Fail
On
Off
Overheat
Warning
Bleed Air Bias
Valve
TCV Valve
Heat Exchanger
Cabin Pressure
Condenser Fan
Ground Fan
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
Icons and Descriptions
Compressor
Oxygen Tank
Normal White
Normal Green
Caution
Warning
Table 3-6 - Environmental & Pressure Synoptic Objects
SYSTEM TESTS
NOTE: Information on system tests is superceded by the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM).
Pilot initiated systems tests are located on the System Test page. These tests are: Engine Fire, Stall Warn,
TAWS, Traffic and Oxygen System. If a GDL88D is installed, the Traffic test button will be greyed out unless
ADS-B has been disabled.
Touching a button for a specific test activates that particular System Test. The Test Status Annunciation
displays the testing status (‘Initializing, ‘Test in Progress or ‘Ready to Execute’) for manual and automatic testing.
Pilot initiated tests cannot run when automatic testing is active. Prior to a test being active, three cyan dashes
will be displayed on the button. While a test is active, the button displays “In Progress” in cyan. The “In
Progress” text pulses so that the crew can quickly identify which test is currently being executed. When the test
is complete, the button displays ‘Done’ (in cyan) or ‘Fail’ (in amber). Selecting the Preflight Test Button will
cause the system to automatically initiate each system test in succession. All tests are mutually exclusive. If a
System Test is selected while another test is already running, the currently active test is cancelled and the new
test is activated. Pressing an active system test will deactivate that test.
Refer to Table 3-7 for the expected results of each system test.
Accessing the System Tests:
1) From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > System Tests.
2) Touch the desired system test.
Preflight
Button
Test Status
Annunciation
Figure 3-33 Aircraft System Tests Screen
Refer to the System Overview for more information on System Tests.
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ENGINE & AIRFRAME SYSTEMS
System Test
Engine fire
Stall Warn
Oxygen System
TAWS
Traffic
Description
• Tests the engine fire indications
• Tests the Stall Warning Protection System.
• Tests the Oxygen system
• Tests the Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS)
• Tests the Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
Table 3-7 System Tests
LANDING FIELD ELEVATION
The Cabin Pressure Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to select Manual or FMS Mode. The
Landing Field Elevation automatically displays magenta dashes during power-up. Once a flight plan is entered,
the Landing Field Elevation is updated to reflect the new destination elevation. FMS entered values appear in
magenta. Manually entered values appear in cyan. If the Landing Field Elevation data is not set while in the air,
the digits are replaced with amber dashes. If the Landing Field Elevation data is not set while on the ground,
the digits are replaced with magenta dashes.
Adjusting the Landing Field Elevation Settings.
1) From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > Landing Field Elev.
2) Touch the FMS or Manual Button as desired. If using FMS Destination, the Landing Elevation digits will be
magenta. If using Manual Mode, the text will be cyan.
3) Touch Landing Elevation Button to set the Landing Elevation.
4) Input the Landing Elevation by touching the number keys, or touch Use FMS Destination Button.
Figure 3-34 Landing Field Elevation - FMS Mode
Figure 3-35 Landing Field Elevation - Manual Mode
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Figure 3-36 Landing Elevation - Manual Input
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FADEC STALE FAULT RESET
Touching the FADEC Stale Fault Reset Button causes a fault reset command to be sent to the FADEC. Refer
to the AFM for more information.
Accessing FADEC Stale Fault Reset:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > FADEC Stale Fault Reset.
GCU RESET
Touching the GCU Reset Button causes a reset command to be sent to the GCU. Refer to the AFM for more
information.
Accessing GCU Reset:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > GCU Reset.
IPS STALL OFFSET RESET
If the IPS System has been powered off and the IPS Stall Offset Reset Button is touched, the Stall Warning
and Protection System (SWPS) will discontinue use of calculations for icing conditions that result in higher stall
speed. The IPS Stall Offset Reset Button is intended to be used by the crew after visual verification that the
wings are free of ice contamination. Refer to the AFM for more information.
Accessing IPS Stall Offset Reset:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > IPS Stall Offset Reset.
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AUDIO AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
NOTE: All volume levels are saved between power cycles.
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Controller, communication
radios, navigation radios, and Mode S transponder. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram
description of the Audio and CNS system interconnection.
The Touchscreen Controller provides tuning of the communication transceivers and microphone and receiver
audio selection. The Audio Controller includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and
passenger(s) as well as a marker beacon receiver, and a COM clearance recorder.
The Mode S transponder is controlled with the Touchscreen Controller. The Transponder Mode/Code Button is
located in the upper left corner of the NAV/COM Home Screen, right below the Transponder Mode/Code Button.
The Transponder Mode/Code Button displays the active four-digit code, mode, and reply status (Figure 4-1).
The following Audio and CNS features are discussed in this section:
• COM
• Cockpit Speaker
• NAV
• Intercom
• Marker Beacon Receiver
• Clearance Recorder and Player
• DME
• SiriusXM Radio Entertainment
• Transponder
• Audio Feedback (Clicks)
• Mono/Stereo Headsets
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TOUCHSCREEN CONTROLLER AUDIO AND CNS CONTROLS
1
2
3
20
4
19
18
17
16
15
5
14
6
13
7
12
11
10
9
8
Figure 4-1 Touchscreen NAV/COM Home Screen
1
STBY Button (COM1) – Displays/removes the COM1 Standby Screen. The COM1 Standby Screen is used
to enter and transfer COM1 frequencies.
2
COM1 Button – Transfers the standby and active COM1 frequencies.
3
Large/Small Upper Knob – Function as labeled (see #4). Data Entry: Large knob moves the cursor from field
to field. Small knob edits character by character. Frequency Entry: Large knob increases/decreases MHz;
Small knob increases/decreases kHz. Press the small knob to confirm the frequency. Press and hold to
transfer the standby frequency to the active frequency.
4
Function Label – Indicates right large and small knob function.
Typical Frequency Entry: COM1/COM2 Frequency, “Push:1-2” indicates that pressing the small knob will
change the cursor between COM1 and COM2. “Hold:” indicates that pressing and holding the small
knob will switch the standby and active frequencies.
Typical Data Entry: Data Entry, “Push: Enter” indicates that pressing the small knob will accept the changes
in a data field. “Hold: ” indicates that pressing and holding the small knob will switch the standby and
active data fields.
5
144
NAV/COM Home Screen softkey – Selects the Navigation and Communication home screen on the
Touchscreen Controller.
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6
Function Label – Indicates lower knob function. Typical: Pilot COM1/COM2 Volume, Push: Squelch
7
Lower Knob – Function as labeled (see #6).
8
XPDR IDENT button – Transmits a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). When pressed,
the word IDENT is displayed in green on the ‘Active Transponder Indication/IDENT’ button (see #20). The
green IDENT will pulsates for the duration of the transmission.
9
Keypad – Used for finding, entering, and editing the frequency in the selected standby COM Frequency
window.
10
Play Button – Used to playback the digital COM audio recorded by the clearance recorder. Multiple
presses will go back incrementally to the previous message within the clearance recorder.
11
COM2 Button– Transfers the standby and active COM2 frequencies.
12
STBY Button (COM2) – Displays/removes the COM2 Standby Screen. The COM2 Standby Screen is used
to enter and transfer COM2 frequencies.
13
Intercom Button – Displays/removes the Intercom Screen. The Intercom Screen is used to control the
intercom isolation, volume, and squelch settings for the pilot, copilot, and passenger.
14
Audio & Radios Button – Displays/removes the Audio & Radios Screen. The Audio & Radios Screen is
used to control the Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) and Audio settings for the pilot and
copilot.
15
MON Button – Controls which receivers are being explicitly monitored by the pilot.
16
Pilot Music 1 button – Enables/Disables the entertainment audio selected on the Music 1 input from the
Audio & Radios Screen.
17
Pilot Isolate Button – Displays the Intercom Screen and deselects the intercom link between the pilot and
the copilot/passengers. The Intercom Screen is used to control the intercom isolation, volume, and squelch
settings for the pilot, copilot, and passenger.
18
MIC Button – Switches the pilot’s active COM radio between the #1 COM transceiver and the #2 COM
transceiver.
19
Transponder Code/Mode Button – Indicates the current Code and Mode of the transponder and displays/
removes the Transponder Screen. The Transponder Screen is used to select the transponder mode by
selecting a mode button. It is also used to select the code by using the keypad or by selecting the VFR
Button. While the transponder is replying to an interrogation, an R is displayed on the button.
20
Active Transponder Indication/IDENT Button – Indicates which transponder is active and, when presssed,
transmits a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). When selected, the word IDENT is
displayed in green and pulsates for the duration of the transmission (see # 8).
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PFD COM/NAV DISPLAY
2
3
1
Figure 4-2 Active NAV Window, Active COM Frequency Box, Flight ID Indicator
146
1
Active NAV Source/Frequency Box – Displays active NAV station ID and frequency. The DME distance will
also display if the DME is set to the selected NAV source.
2
Active COM Source/Frequency Box – Displays selected communication source, frequency, and the
communication source description (if available).
3
Flight ID Box – Displays the Flight ID\Tail number.
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AUDIO AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TRANSCEIVER SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
NOTE: The MIC and MON buttons on the NAV/COM Home Screen only affect the pilot’s radio selections,
unless the copilot selects the Sync to Pilot option on the Audio & Radios Screen.
The COM1 and COM2 Frequencies are shown on the NAV/COM Home Screen and also on the Audio &
Radios Screen. The COM transceiver can be selected for transmitting using the Touchscreen Controller.
The active COM frequency is displayed in green. The standby frequency of the COM selected for tuning is
cyan. When the standby frequency of the COM selected for tuning is being tuned with the upper knobs, the
entire standby frequency button is highlighted in cyan The other standby frequency is white.
Selecting a COM Radio for transmission:
From NAV/COM Home, touch the MIC Button to switch between COM1 and COM2 radios until the desired
COM is selected.
Or:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Touch the desired MIC Button on the Audio & Radios Screen to select the COM radio for transmission.
Selecting a COM Radio for monitoring:
From NAV/COM Home, touch the MON Button to monitor the COM not selected for transmission.
Or:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Touch the COM1 Button or COM2 Button to select the COM radio for monitoring.
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NAV/COM Home Screen
COM1 Active Frequency
(selected for transmission)
COM1 Standby Frequency
MIC Button
(COM1 selected
for transmission)
COM2 Primary Frequency
COM2 Standby Frequency
Audio & Radios Screen
MIC Button (COM1
selected for transmission)
COM1 Active Frequency
COM1 Standby Frequency
MIC Button(COM2)
COM2 Primary Frequency
COM2 Standby Frequency
Communication
Source/Primary
Frequency displayed
on PFD (COM1
selected for
transmission)
Figure 4-3 Selecting a COM Radio for Transmission
CNS Bar Symbol
Description
COM1 selected for transmission/monitoring
COM2 selected for transmission/monitoring
Table 4-1 CNS Bar MIC/MON Button Symbols
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TRANSMIT/RECEIVE INDICATIONS
During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM frequency and the green MIC triangle
will flash. During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by the active COM frequency.
NAV/COM Home Screen
Transmit Indicator
Receive Indicator
Audio & Radios Screen
Transmit Indicator
Receive Indicator
Transmit Indicator on PFD
Receive Indicator on PFD
Figure 4-4 COM Radio Transmit and Receive Indications
COM FREQUENCY TUNING
Selecting a COM1/2 frequency using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the COM1 STBY Button or COM2 STBY Button to select that radio for tuning.
2) Use the keypad to select the frequency.
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3) Touch the Enter Button to accept the new frequency as the COM1/COM2 standby frequency; or touch the
XFER Button to accept the new frequency as the COM1/COM2 active frequency and transfer the previously
active frequency to the standby frequency; or touch the COM1/COM2 active frequency on the NAV/COM Home
Screen to accept the new frequency as the COM1/COM2 active frequency and transfer the previously active
frequency to the standby frequency.
Or:
1) Press the small upper knob to select the COM desired for tuning (selected standby frequency is cyan).
2) Turn the large and small right knobs to tune the frequency (Large knob increases/decreases MHz; Small knob
increases/decreases kHz).
3) Press the small upper knob to enter the new frequency as the standby frequency; or press and hold the small
upper knob to transfer the new standby frequency to the active frequency.
Find Button
Frequency selected
for tuning
Enter Button
Frequency Transfer
(XFER) Button
Figure 4-5 COM Frequency Tuning Keypad
Knob function
labels
Or:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Touch the COM1/COM2 volume slider, or press the small upper knob, to select COM1/COM2 for tuning.
3) Turn the large and small upper knobs to select the frequency (Large knob increases/decreases MHz; Small knob
increases/decreases kHz).
4) Press the small upper knob to accept the new frequency as the standby frequency; or press and hold the small
upper knob to accept the new frequency as the COM1/COM2 active frequency and transfer the previously active
frequency to the standby frequency; or touch the COM1/COM2 active frequency on the NAV/COM Home
Screen to accept the new frequency as the COM1/COM2 active frequency and transfer the previously active
frequency to the standby frequency.
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COM selected
for tuning (cyan
border)
COM1 Volume Slider
COM2 Frequency
Button
Knob function labels
Figure 4-6 Audio & Radios Screen - COM1/COM2 Frequency Tuning
Or:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Touch the COM1/COM2 frequency button to display the COM1/COM2 Standby Screen.
3) Use the keypad to select the desired frequency.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the new frequency as the COM1/COM2 standby frequency; or touch the
XFER Button to accept the new frequency as the COM1/COM2 active frequency and transfer the previously
active frequency to the standby frequency.
Transferring the active and standby COM frequencies:
From NAV/COM Home, touch the COM1 or COM2 button to transfer the standby and active frequencies.
Or:
1) From NAV/COM Home, press the small upper knob to select the COM desired for transfer (selected standby
frequency is cyan).
2) Press and hold the small upper knob to transfer the new standby frequency to the active frequency
Or:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Scroll the list to find COM1 or COM2.
3) Touch the COM1 or COM2 volume slider to select the radio for frequency transfer.
4) Press and hold the small upper knob to transfer the frequencies.
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Finding and selecting a COM frequency from the NAV/COM Home Screen:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Find Button to display the Find COM Frequency Screen.
3) Touch the tab for the desired type of frequency (Recent, Nearest, Dest, Flight Plan, or Favorite).
4) Scroll the list to find the desired frequency.
5) Touch the frequency button to accept the new frequency as the COM1/COM2 standby frequency.
Find
Button
Select a tab for the frequency
category
Select the frequency button to tune
the standby frequency
Selecting Multiple accesses another
level with selectable frequencies
Figure 4-7 Find COM Frequency Screen
Finding and selecting a COM frequency from the Airport Info Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport to display the Airport Information Screen.
2) If needed, touch the airport button to enter/find the desired airport.
3) Touch the Freqs Tab to display the Airport Frequencies Screen.
4) Scroll the list to find the desired frequency.
5) Touch the frequency button to display the Load Frequency Screen.
6) Touch the location button to load the frequency to COM1/2 Active/Standby or Favorites.
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Airport
Button
Freqs
Tab
Frequency
Button
Location
Buttons
Touch the Audio & Radios
Button to display the
Audio & Radios Screen
Figure 4-8 Airport Info Screen Tuning
Finding and selecting a COM frequency from the Nearest Airport Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > Airport to display the Nearest Airport Screen.
2) Scroll the list to find the desired airport.
3) Touch the airport button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
4) Touch the Airport Info Button to display the Airport Information Screen.
5) Touch the Freqs Tab to display the Airport Frequencies Screen.
6) Scroll the list to find the desired frequency.
7) Touch the frequency button to display the Load Frequency Screen.
8) Touch the location button to load the frequency to COM1/2 Active/Standby or Favorites.
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Airport
Button
Airport Info
Button
Freqs
Tab
Frequency
Button
Location
Buttons
Touch the Audio & Radios
Button to display the
Audio & Radios Screen
Figure 4-9 Nearest Airport Tuning
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Finding and selecting a COM frequency from the Nearest Airspace/ARTCC/FSS/Weather Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch the Nearest > (Airspace or ARTCC or FSS or Weather) to display the Nearest
(Airspace or ARTCC or FSS or Weather) Screen.
2) Scroll the list to find the desired frequency.
3) Touch the frequency button to display the Load Frequency Screen.
4) Touch the location button to load the frequency to COM1/2 Active/Standby or Favorites.
Frequency
Button
Touch the Audio & Radios
Button to display the
Audio & Radios Screen
Figure 4-10 Nearest Airspace/ARTCC/FSS/Weather Tuning
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FREQUENCY SPACING
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000
to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected,
all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
8.33-kHz Channel Spacing
25-kHz Channel Spacing
Figure 4-11 COM Channel Spacing
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities >Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) Scroll the list to show the COM Channel Spacing button.
3) Touch the COM Channel Spacing button to display the choice of 25.0 kHz or 8.33 kHz.
4) Touch the channel spacing button.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-12 Changing COM Frequency Channel Spacing
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AUTOMATIC SQUELCH
Automatic Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good
sensitivity to weak COM signals. To disable Automatic Squelch for the selected transceiver, press the lower
knob while viewing the NAV/COM Home Screen and while the selected audio source is a COM radio. When
Automatic Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the
headsets and speaker, if selected. Pressing the lower knob again enables Automatic Squelch .
When Automatic Squelch is disabled, a white SQ appears next to the active COM frequency.
Automatic Squelch
Off Indicator
NAV/COM Home Screen
Lower knob - Push to
disable/enable Automatic
Squelch
Figure 4-13 COM Radio Automatic Squelch Disable/Enable
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VOLUME
The selected COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on the touchscreen controller by
turning the lower knob or by sliding your finger right or left on the COM volume slider. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. Sliding to the right increases
volume, sliding to the left decreases volume. When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the
active frequency on the active COM button, and remains for two seconds after the change.
Selected COM Volume
Lower Knob - Turn to
adjust COM volume
Figure 4-14 COM Volume Level
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4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The active NAV frequency selected for navigation is shown on the PFD. Active and Standby NAV frequencies
are shown on the NAV/COM Touchscreen Controller.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by touching the Nav Source Button located on the PFD Home Screen. The NAV frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Touching the Nav Source Button once selects
NAV1 as the navigation radio. Touching the Nav Source Button a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation
radio. Touching the Nav Source Button a third time activates GPS mode. Touching the Nav Source Button
again cycles back to NAV1.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI. Both active NAV
frequencies are displayed in white on the Touchscreen Controller.
The NAV Radio is selected by pressing the NAV Source
button - displayed on the GTC PFD Home Screen
NAV1 Active Frequency
and ID - displayed on the PFD
Figure 4-15 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and for using
VOR or ADF as one of the sources for the bearing pointer.
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NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding buttons on the Touchscreen Controller.
Touching the NAV1 or NAV2 Button selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard
over the headset and the speaker (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
NAV1 Active Frequency/ID
NAV1 Standby Frequency
NAV2 Active Frequency/ID
NAV2 Standby Frequency
NAV1 Button
(selected for monitoring)
NAV2 Button
(not selected)
Figure 4-16 Selecting a NAV Radio for Monitoring
Selecting/deselecting a navigation radio for monitoring:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Touch the NAV1 or NAV2 Button on the Audio & Radios Screen to select/deselect the radio for monitoring.
NAV RECEIVER TUNING
The NAV frequencies are tuned from the Touchscreen Controller.
NAV selected
for tuning (cyan
border)
NAV1 Volume Slider
NAV2 Frequency Button
Knob function labels
Figure 4-17 Audio & Radios Screen - NAV1/NAV2 Frequency Tuning
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Selecting a NAV frequency using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Touch the NAV1/NAV2 frequency button to select NAV1/NAV2 for tuning, and display the NAV1/NAV2 frequency
tuning screen.
3) Use the keypad to select the desired frequency.
4) Touch the Enter Button to enter the new frequency as the NAV1/NAV2 standby frequency; or touch the XFER
Button to enter the new frequency as the NAV1/NAV2 standby frequency and transfer it to the active frequency.
Knob function labels
Find Button
Enter Button
XFER Button
Figure 4-18 NAV Frequency Tuning Window
Or:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Touch the NAV1/NAV2 volume slider to select NAV1/NAV2 for tuning.
3) Turn the large and small upper knobs to tune the frequency (Large knob increases/decreases MHz; Small knob
increases/decreases kHz).
4) Press the small upper knob to enter the new frequency as the NAV1/NAV2 standby frequency; or press and hold
the small upper knob to transfer the new standby frequency to the active frequency.
Transferring the active and standby NAV frequencies:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Scroll the list to find NAV1 or NAV2.
3) Touch the NAV1 or NAV2 volume slider to select the radio for frequency transfer.
4) Press and hold the small upper knob to transfer the frequencies.
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Finding and selecting a NAV frequency from the Airport Info Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport to display the Airport Information Screen.
2) If needed, touch the airport button to enter/find the desired airport.
3) Touch the Freqs Tab to display the Airport Frequencies Screen.
4) Scroll the list to find the desired frequency.
5) Touch the frequency button to display the Load Frequency Screen.
6) Touch the location button to load the frequency to NAV1/2 Active/Standby or Favorites.
7) Touch the Done Button to return to the Airport Frequencies Screen.
Airport
Button
Frequency
Button
Freqs
Tab
Location
buttons
Touch the Audio & Radios
Button to display the
Audio & Radios Screen
Touch the Done Button
to return to the Airport
Frequencies Screen
Figure 4-19 Airport Info Screen Tuning
Finding and selecting a NAV frequency from the VOR Info Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > VOR to display the VOR Information Screen.
2) If needed, touch the VOR button to enter/find the desired VOR.
3) Touch the frequency button to display the Load Frequency Screen.
4) Touch the location button to load the frequency to NAV1/2 Active/Standby or Favorites.
5) Touch the Done Button to return to the Airport Frequencies Screen.
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Location
buttons
VOR
Button
Frequency
Button
Figure 4-20 VOR Info Screen Tuning
Finding and selecting a NAV frequency from the Nearest Airport Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > Airport to display the Nearest Airport Screen.
2) Scroll the list to find the desired airport.
3) Touch the airport button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
4) Touch the Airport Info Button to display the Airport Information Screen.
5) Touch the Freqs Tab to display the Airport Frequencies Screen.
6) Scroll the list to find the desired frequency.
7) Touch the frequency button to display the Load Frequency Screen.
8) Touch the location button to load the frequency to NAV1/2 Active/Standby or Favorites.
9) Touch the Done Button to return to the Airport Frequencies Screen.
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Airport Info
Button
Airport
Button
Freqs
Tab
Frequency
Button
Location
buttons
Figure 4-21 Nearest Airport Tuning
Finding and selecting a NAV frequency from the Nearest VOR or Weather Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch the Nearest > (VOR or Weather) to display the Nearest (Airspace or Weather) Screen.
2) Scroll the list to find the desired frequency.
3) Touch the frequency button to display the Load Frequency Screen.
4) Touch the location button to load the frequency to NAV1/2 Active/Standby or Favorites.
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Frequency
Button
Location
Buttons
Figure 4-22 Nearest VOR/FSS/Weather Tuning
Viewing Current NAV selections from any NAV ‘Load Frequency’ Screen:
1) From any NAV ‘Load Frequency’ Screen, touch the Audio & Radios Button on the Load Frequency Screen to
display the Audio and Radio Screen with the current NAV selections in view.
2) Touch the Back Button to return to the Load Frequency Screen.
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Touch the Audio & Radios Button
to display the Audio and Radios
Screen with the appropriate NAV
selections in view
Touch the Back
Button to return to
the Load Frequency
Screen
Figure 4-23 Tuning from the Airport Info Screen
VOR/LOC ID
When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio, a white ID appears to the right of the active
NAV frequency. Pressing the lower knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only for the selected radio. To
turn both NAV IDs on/off, select each NAV in turn and press the lower knob to turn the Morse code on/off.
The decoded Morse code identifier received from the navigation source is displayed on the PFD in the
Active Frequency and ID field, and also on the GTC on the NAV Frequency Button (Figure 4-24). Audio
verification of the selected station identifier is still required.
Decoded Station
Identifier
PFD
Decoded
Station
Identifier
Morse Code
audio ID is
selected On
GTC
Figure 4-24 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
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VOLUME
While the NAV radio is selected, the radio volume level for that radio can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on
the touchscreen controller by turning the lower knob or by sliding your finger right or left on the NAV volume
slider. Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
Sliding to the right increases volume, sliding to the left decreases volume.
Selected NAV Volume
Lower Knob - Turn to
adjust NAV volume
Figure 4-25 NAV Volume Level
AUTO-TUNING OF NAV FREQUENCIES
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 and NAV2
active frequency field. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 and NAV2 active frequency fields
are transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
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• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2 and the approach is activated, the approach frequency
is transferred to the active frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
• If the current CDI navigation source for either PFD is NAV1 or NAV2 and the approach is loaded, the
approach frequency is transferred to the standby frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
If the Current CDI NAV
Source is NAV1 or NAV2
Approach Frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency field of the selected CDI NAV radio.
If the Current CDI NAV
Source is GPS
Approach
Current NAV1 and NAV2 frequencies will be transferred
to the standby field. The approach frequency will be
LOADED
transferred to the ACTIVE NAV1 and NAV2 frequency
fields.
Approach
Approach Frequency is transferred to the active
If the approach frequency was already loaded into the
ACTIVATED frequency field on both NAV1 and NAV2, and the NAV1 standby frequency field, it will be transferred to
previously active frequencies will be transferred to
the ACTIVE frequency field.
standby.
Table 4-2
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft. The receiver detects the three marker tones
– outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter
on the PFD.
Outer Marker
Indication
Middle Marker
Indication
Inner Marker
Indication
Figure 4-26 Marker Beacon Annunciations on the PFD
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The Touchscreen Controller provides three different states of marker beacon audio operation; Selected,
Deselected, and Muted. Pressing the Marker Button on the Audio & Radios Screen selects/deselects marker
beacon audio. The button annunciator indicates when marker beacon audio is selected.
Pressing the High Sense Button switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The High
Sense function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during
an approach. The Low Sense function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while
over a station.
The Marker Beacon volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on the touchscreen controller by turning
the lower knob or by sliding your finger right or left on the Marker Beacon Volume Slider. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. Sliding to the right increases
volume, sliding to the left decreases volume.
Marker Beacon
Volume Slider
Marker Beacon
High Sense
Button
Marker Button
Marker Volume
Knob Label
Figure 4-27 Marker Beacon Flashing Mute Button
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the flashing MUTE Button on the NAV/COM Home Screen
mutes the audio but does not affect the marker annunciations (Figure 4-28). The marker tone is silenced, then
waits for the next marker tone. The flashing MUTE Button is also removed during audio muting. The audio
returns when the next marker beacon signal is received.
Marker Beacon
Mute Button
(flashing)
Figure 4-28 Marker Beacon Flashing Mute Button
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DME
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME and bearing information windows.
The system tunes DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The following DME information is displayed on the Touchscreen Controller:
• DME tuning mode (DME transceiver pairing)
• DME receiver volume
DME Control Button
DME Button
ADF Volume Knob Label
DME Volume Slider
Figure 4-29 DME Tuning
The selected DME volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on the touchscreen controller by turning
the lower knob or by sliding your finger right or left on the NAV volume slider. Turning the knob clockwise
increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. Sliding to the right increases volume,
sliding to the left decreases volume.
DME TUNING
NOTE: The system remembers the last frequency used for DME tuning and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state
prior to shutdown.
The following DME modes can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
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DME Audio Select
Button
DME Mode Control
Button
DME Mode Select
Buttons
Figure 4-30 DME Mode Selection
Selecting a DME mode:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch Audio & Radios to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) Scroll the list to find the DME.
3) Touch the DME mode control button to display the DME Mode Window.
4) Touch the NAV1 Mode, NAV2 Mode, or HOLD Mode Button to select the DME mode. An ‘H’ is appended
to the end of the frequency on the PFD to represent DME Hold mode.
‘H’ Represents DME Hold Mode
Figure 4-31 DME Hold Mode on PFD
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4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDER(S)
The system is equppiped with one Mode S transponder and has an option for a second Mode S transponder.
The Mode S Transponder provides Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. Selective
addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address. The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Active transponder selection, transponder mode selection, code entry, and IDENT activation are controlled
and displayed on the NAV/COM Touchscreen Controller.
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Active Transponder
Indication/IDENT Button
Transponder
Code/Mode Button
Transponder
IDENT Button
Figure 4-32 Transponder Display and Controls
TRANSPONDER/MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic or manual. The Mode Selection Buttons can be accessed by touching
the Transponder Code/Mode Button on the NAV/COM Home Screen. If equipped with an optional second
transponder, the active transponder is selected by touching the Active Button on the Transponder Screen
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Touch the Transponder Code/Mode Button to display the Transponder Screen.
2) Touch a Mode Selection Button to activate the transponder mode.
Transponder Mode
Selection Buttons
Active Button
- Selects active transponder
(if equipped with optional
second transponder)
Figure 4-33 Active Transponder and Transponder Mode Selection
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STANDBY MODE
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inoperative.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by selecting the Standby Button on the Transponder Screen.
In Standby, the transponder is powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are
transmitted. When Standby is selected, the transponder code is displayed in white, and a white STBY
indication appears in the Transponder Code/Mode Button.
Standby Mode
Figure 4-34 Standby Mode
MANUAL ON MODE
ON Mode can be selected at any time by touching the ON Button. ON Mode generates Mode A and
Mode S replies as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode
C altitude reporting is inhibited. In ON Mode, a white ON indication appears in the Transponder Mode
Button on the ground. A green ON indication appears in the Transponder Mode Button when the aircraft
is airborne.
Airborne On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
On-Ground On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Figure 4-35 On Mode
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ALTITUDE REPORTING MODES
ALT Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground or airborne. ALT mode
can also be selected manually by touching the Altitude Reporting Button on the transponder screen.
When ALT mode is selected, an ALT indication will appear on Transponder Mode Button. Selecting ALT
mode enables transmission of transponder replies and squitters. Transmissions will include pressure altitude
information. The ALT indication and transponder code on the Transponder Mode Button will appear green
while airborne and white while on the ground. When the transponder is operating with an air state of onground it will disable replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not
show up on the traffic systems of other aircraft.
Airborne ALT Mode (Mode
C Altitude Reporting)
On-Ground ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting Inhibited.)
Figure 4-36 Altitude Reporting Mode
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
Transponder Code Button.
Reply to Interrogation
Figure 4-37 Transponder Reply Indication
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ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with the keypad:
1) Touch the Transponder Code/Mode Button to display the Transponder Screen.
2) Use the keypad to select the desired code.
3) Touch the Enter Button to enter the new code.
Transponder Code Entry
ENTER Button
VFR Button
Figure 4-38 Transponder Code Entry
Entering a transponder code with the knobs:
1) Touch the Transponder Code/Mode Button to display the Transponder Screen.
2) Turn the large upper knob one click either way to place the editing cursor on the first digit of the existing code.
3) Turn the small upper knob to enter the first digit.
4) Turn the large upper knob to move the cursor to the next digit.
5) Turn the small upper knob to enter the next digit, repeat steps 4 and 5 until complete.
6) Touch the Enter Button, or push the small upper knob, to enter the new code.
Or:
1) Touch the Transponder Code/Mode Button to display the Transponder Screen.
2) Turn the small upper knob one click either way to erase the previous code and place the editing cursor on the
first digit.
3) Turn the small upper knob to enter the first digit.
4) Turn the large upper knob to move the cursor to the next digit.
5) Turn the small upper knob to enter the next digit, repeat steps 4 and 5 until complete.
6) Touch the Enter Button, or push the small right knob, to enter the new code.
Pressing the Cancel Button before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the previous code.
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VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by selecting the VFR Button. When the VFR Button is
selected, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the Transponder Code Button.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact an
authorized service center for configuration.
Transponder Code Entry
ENTER Button
VFR Button
Figure 4-39 Transponder VFR Code Entry
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT Button is inoperative.
Touching the Active Transponder Indication/IDENT Button or XPDR IDENT Button on the NAV/COM
Home Screen sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication distinguishes the
identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. When the IDENT or XPDR IDENT
Button is touched, the word IDENT appears in green on the Active Transponder Indication/IDENT Button and
pulsates for the duration of the identity indication.
Transponder
IDENT Active
Figure 4-40 Transponder IDENT Active (Green)
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO FUNCTIONS
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Controller, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both
ears. If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset
hears audio in the left ear only.
COCKPIT SPEAKER
All of the radios can be heard over the cockpit speaker. Pressing the Speaker Button selects and deselects the
cockpit speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed.
The speaker volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on the touchscreen controller by turning the
middle knob or by sliding your finger right or left using the Speaker volume slider. Turning the knob clockwise
increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. Sliding to the right increases volume,
sliding to the left decreases volume.
Speaker Volume Slider
Speaker Button
Figure 4-41 Cabin Speaker Audio Selection
INTERCOM
The G3000 includes an eight-mode intercom system (ICS) for the pilot and copilot. The intercom allows for
isolation of audio for the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers. Touch the Intercom Button on the NAV/COM Home
Screen to bring up the Intercom screen. The intercom links between the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers are
enabled/disabled by touching the connecting arrows on the Intercom Screen.
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Pilot/Copilot Link
Arrow
Copilot Volume
Button
Pilot Volume
Button
Intercom Button on the
NAV/COM Home Screen
Pass Volume
Pilot/Passenger
Button
Link Arrow
Figure 4-42 Intercom Controls
Passenger/Coplilot
Link Arrow
Touch the Link Arrows to enable (green) or disable (gray) the link. When a connecting arrow between two
positions is green, the audio between those positions is open. When the arrow is gray, the audio is isolated to
each position.
Positions
disconnected
Positions
connected
Figure 4-43 Intercom Screen
Touch the Pilot Isolate Button on the NAV/COM Home Screen to bring up the Intercom screen and to
automatically isolate the Pilot audio from the Copilot and Passenger audio. Touching the Pilot Isolate Button
will disable the Pilot/Copilot link and the Pilot/Passenger link.
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Pilot Isolate Button on the
NAV/COM Home page
Pilot/Copilot
Link disabled
Pilot/Passenger
Link disabled
Figure 4-44 Pilot Isolation Controls
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
The Touchscreen Controller controls the volume and squelch for the pilot, copilot, and passengers
independently.
The selected intercom volume or squelch level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on the touchscreen controller
by turning the lower knob or by sliding your finger right or left on the slider. Turning the knob clockwise
increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. Sliding to the right increases volume,
sliding to the left decreases volume.
By default, the automatic squelch is enabled. Touch the Auto Button on the Intercom Setting screen to disable
the automatic squelch and activate the manual squelch controls.
Adjusting the intercom volume:
1) Touch the Intercom Button on the NAV/COM Home Screen to display the Intercom Screen.
2) Touch the Pilot Volume, Copilot Volume, or Pass Volume Button to display the Pilot, Copilot, or Passenger
Intercom Settings Screen.
3) Adjust the volume by using the middle knob or by sliding your finger on the volume slider.
Adjusting the squelch:
By default, the automatic squelch is enabled. Touch the Auto Button on the Intercom Setting screen to
disable the automatic squelch and activate the manual squelch controls.
1) Touch the Intercom Button on the NAV/COM Home Screen to display the Intercom Screen.
2) Touch the Pilot Volume, Copilot Volume, or Pass Volume Button to display the Pilot, Copilot, or Passenger
Intercom Settings Screen.
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3) Touch the Auto Squelch button to deselect it.
4) Adjust the squelch by using the lower knob or by sliding your finger on the squelch slider.
Pilot Volume
Button
Copilot Volume
Button
Pass Volume
Button
Auto Squelch
Button
(Disabled)
Intercom Button on the
NAV/COM Home Screen
Squelch Slider
Figure 4-45 Intercom Volume/Squelch Controls
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CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
The Audio Controller contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the COM radio
signal from whichever COM radio is selected for the Pilot Mic. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate
memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of recording time has been reached, the recorder begins recording over the
stored memory blocks, starting from the oldest block.
Powering down the system automatically clears all recorded blocks.
RECORDER CONTROLS ON THE NAV/COM HOME SCREEN
Touching the Play Button on the NAV/COM Home Screen once plays the latest recorded memory block.
Touching the Play Button while audio is playing begins playing the previously recorded memory block. Each
subsequent touch of the Play Button selects the previously recorded memory block. Once all recorded memory
blocks have been played, a subsequent touch of the Play Button will stop the message, and touching the Play
Button again will return to play the most recently recorded memory block.
Touch the Play Button
to play the latest
recorded memory
block.
Figure 4-46 NAV/COM Home Screen Recorder Controls
RECORDER CONTROLS ON THE AUDIO & RADIOS SCREEN
Touching the Recorder (Play) Button located on the Audio & Radios menu plays the latest recorded memory
block. The Recorder (Stop) Button is displayed while the audio is playing. When the present memory block
has finished playing the Recorder (Play) Button is displayed again.
Touching the Recorder (Stop) Button during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is
detected during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Touching the Play Previous Button begins playing the previously recorded memory block. Each subsequent
press of the Play Previous Button selects the previously recorded memory block, if any more exist. Touching
the Play Next Button begins playing the next recorded memory block. Each subsequent press of the Play Next
Button selects the next recorded memory block, if any more exist.
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Recorder Button
Stop
Play
Play Previous Button
Play Next Button
Figure 4-47 Audio & Radios Screen Recorder Controls
SIMULTANEOUS COM OPERATION
Both the pilot and the copilot can transmit and receive simultaneously over separate COM radios. When
using simultaneous COM operation, the active COM selections and indications for each position can be accessed
through the respective Pilot or Copilot Tabs on the Audio & Radios Screen.
The active COM indications on the NAV/COM Home Screen will reflect the inputs that are selected on the
Pilot Tab. The green MIC triangle on the NAV/COM Home Screen will flash to indicate transmission from the
pilot position only. The active COM radio and frequency for the Copilot will appear white on the NAV/COM
Home Screen and will include the transmit (TX) and receive (RX) indications as appropriate.
If both pilots select the same COM radio, the pilot has priority on COM1 and the copilot has priority on
COM2.
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Pilot Tab
Copilot Tab
Pilot Tab (COM1 is selected as the active
COM for the pilot position)
Copilot Tab (COM2 is selected as the
active COM for the copilot position)
Pilot position has
selected COM1
Copilot position has
selected COM2
NAV/COM Home Screen
Figure 4-48 Simultaneous COM Operation
MUSIC 1 AND MUSIC 2 (AUXILARY AUDIO)
The Audio Controller provides stereo auxiliary entertainment inputs. These inputs are compatible with
popular portable entertainment devices such as MP3 players, cell phones, and tablets. The headphone output
of an entertainment device is plugged into one of two auxilary jacks in the cockpit. Each auxilary jack is
associated with either, the Music 1 or the Music 2 button on the Audio & Radios Screen.
Selecting/deselecting the Auxiliary Audio input:
From NAV/COM Home, Touch the Pilot Music 1 Button to select/deselect the Music 1 auxilary audio input for
the pilot position.
Or:
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1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) If selecting for the Copilot or Passengers, touch the Copilot Tab or the Pass Tab.
3) Scroll the list to find Music 1 or Music 2.
4) Touch the Music 1 or Music 2 Button to select/deselect the auxiliary audio input for the selected position
(pilot, copilot, or passengers).
Music 1 Button
Music 2 Button
Music Volume Knob Label
Figure 4-49 Auxilary Audio Controls
The auxiliary audio volume can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on the touchscreen controller by turning the
middle knob or by sliding your finger right or left on the volume slider.
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AUXILIARY AUDIO MUTING
Auxiliary audio muting occurs when the configured activity (intercom, radio inputs, and/or aural alerts) is
heard. Auxiliary audio is always soft muted when an interruption occurs from these sources. Soft muting is
the gradual return of auxilary audio to its original volume level. The time required for Auxiliary audio volume
to return to normal is between one-half and four seconds.
Configuring Auxiliary Audio Mute Settings:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) If selecting for the Copilot or Passengers, touch the Copilot Tab or the optional Pass Tab.
3) Scroll the list to find Music 1 or Music 2.
4) Touch the Mute Settings Button to display the Music 1 or Music 2 Mute Settings Window.
5) Select the Intercom, and/or the Radio Inputs, and/or the Aural Alerts (Pilot and Copilot only) Buttons to
select which items will mute auxiliary audio.
Radio Inputs Button
Intercom Button
Aural Alerts Button
(only available on
Pilot and Copilot tabs)
Figure 4-50 Music Mute Controls
MUSIC 1 AND MUSIC 2 (SIRIUSXM RADIO AUDIO) (OPTIONAL)
The SiriusXM Radio audio is controlled with the Music 1 or Music 2 buttons on the Audio & Radios Screen. To operate the SiriusXM audio, make sure there are no cords plugged into the associated auxilary audio jack(s)
for the Music 1 or Music 2 channel that will be used for the SiriusXM Radio audio.
Refer to the Additional Features Section for more details on SiriusXM Radio Audio from the Data Link Receiver.
Selecting/Deselecting SiriusXM Audio:
From NAV/COM Home, touch the Pilot Music 1 Button to select/deselect the SiriusXM Radio input for the pilot
position.
Or:
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1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) If selecting for the Copilot or Passengers, touch the Copilot Tab or the Pass Tab.
3) Scroll the list to find the Music 1 Button.
4) Touch the Music 1 Button to select/deselect the SiriusXM Radio input for the selected position (pilot, copilot or
passenger).
Music 1 Button
Music 2 Button
Music Volume Knob Label
Figure 4-51 Auxilary Audio Controls
The SiriusXM audio volume can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on the touchscreen controller by turning the
lower knob or by sliding your finger right or left on the volume slider.
SIRIUSXM AUDIO MUTING
SiriusXM audio muting occurs when the configured activity (intercom, radio inputs, and/or aural alerts) is
heard or when there is an alert. SiriusXM audio is always soft muted when an interruption occurs from these
sources. Soft muting is the gradual return of SiriusXM audio to its original volume level. The time required
for SiriusXM audio volume to return to normal is between one-half and four seconds.
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Configuring SiriusXM audio Mute Settings:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) If selecting for the Copilot or Passengers, touch the Copilot Tab or the Pass Tab.
3) Scroll the list to find Music 1.
4) Touch the Mute Settings Button to display the Music Mute Settings Window.
5) Select the Intercom, and/or the Radio Inputs, and/or the Aural Alerts (Pilot and Copilot only) Buttons to
select which items will mute SiriusXM audio.
Radio Inputs Button
Intercom Button
Aural Alerts Button
(only available on
Pilot and Copilot tabs)
Figure 4-52 Music Mute Controls
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AUDIO FEEDBACK (CLICKS)
Pilot or Copilot interaction with the Touchscreen Controller will produce audible feedback in the form of
clicks. Incorrect touch commands or invalid interaction with the Touchscreen Controller will produce an error
tone. The audible feedback can be configured to suit the preference of the user.
Configuring audio feedback:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) If selecting for the Copilot, touch the Copilot Tab.
3) Scroll the list to find Clicks.
4) Touch the Clicks button to display the Audio Feedback Settings.
5) Touch the desired audio feedback setting.
Setting
Off
Errors Only
On
Description
No feedback will be audible to the selecting position.
Only Error tones will be audible. All error tones from the Touchscreen Controllers will be audible
to the selecting position.
All feedback tones will be audible. All feedback tones from the Touchscreen Controllers will be
audible to the selecting position.
Table 4-3 Audio Feedback Settings
The audio feedback (clicks) volume can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on the touchscreen controller by turning
the lower knob or by sliding your finger right or left on the volume slider.
Clicks Volume Slider
Clicks Button
Figure 4-53 Speaker Audio Selection
The Satellite Telephone volume can be adjusted from 0 to 100% on the touchscreen controller by turning the
lower knob or by sliding your finger right or left on the volume slider.
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TELEPHONE AUDIO
Refer to the Additional Features Section for more details on the Satellite Telephone Data Link Services.
Selecting/deselecting the Satellite Telephone audio:
1) From NAV/COM Home, touch the Audio & Radios Button to display the Audio & Radios Screen.
2) If selecting for the Copilot, touch the Copilot Tab.
3) Scroll the list to find the TEL Button.
4) Touch the TEL Button to select/deselect the Satellite Telephone input for the selected position (pilot or copilot).
Telephone Volume Slider
TEL Button
Figure 4-54 Telephone Audio Selection
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4.6 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the G3000 includes equipment failures of the system components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices. A failure of any communication or navigation
system on the Audio & Radio Screen will be displayed with a amber X.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If both of the onside push-to-talk (PTT) Keys become stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35
seconds of continuous operation. An L MIC STUCK ON (pilot side) or an R MIC STUCK ON (copilot side)
CAS message will appear to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
The MIC Button Annunciator flashes as long as the PTT Key remains stuck.
COM FAILURE
In case of a COM system failure, an amber X may appear on the frequency display.
PFD
GTC
Figure 4-55 COM Failure
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COM TUNING FAILURE
A discrepancy between the active COM frequency on the GTC, and the actual tuned frequency reported by
the controlling GIA, causes the active COM frequency digits on the GTC and PFD to turn amber.
PFD
GTC
Figure 4-56 COM Tuning Failure
AUDIO CONTROLLER FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of the Audio Controller, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone
directly to the COM1 transceiver. Audio will not be available on the speaker, the intercom continues to work.
GTC FAILURE
In case of a GTC failure, the operational GTC will control the pilot, co-pilot, and passenger audio and radios.
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The Cirrus Perspective® Touch by Garmin is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and
surveillance system. This section of the Pilot’s Guide explains GPS navigation using the system.
The most prominent parts of the system are the Primary Flight Display (PFD), the Multi Function Display (MFD),
and the Touchscreen Controllers (GTC). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors
is displayed on these units. A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., FMS, VOR) and the active approach
service level (RNP, LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, or LPV). LP and LPV approach service levels are only
available with SBAS.
The Inset Map is a small version of the Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD.
When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is not displayed. The HSI Map is also a small version of
the Navigation Map and is displayed in the center of the HSI. Either the Inset Map or the HSI Map may be enabled
by touching the PFD Map Settings Button on the PFD Home Screen, touching the Layout Button, then touch
the desired map selection button. To remove the map, touch the Off Button.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), absolute terrain data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data can be reduced by selecting the Detail Softkey on the
PFD for the Inset Map, and by the Map Detail Slider on the Touchscreen Controller for navigation maps. The
Navigation Map can be oriented three different ways: North Up, Track Up, or Heading Up.
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. To change the map range
on any map: (1) turn the lower knob on the Touchscreen Controller counter-clockwise to decrease the range,
or clockwise to increase the range; or (2) touch two fingers on the Touchpad and move them apart to decrease
range, or pinch using two fingers to increase range.
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Current Track
Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Navigation Status Bar
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD Inset Map
Navigation Mode
Current Track
Indicator
HSI Map
Navigation Status Bar
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD HSI Map
Navigation Data Bar
Map Orientation
Destination Airport
Info Bar
Navigation Map
Pane Title
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Absolute Terrain Data
- Hazard Data
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Map Display
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PFD NAVIGATION STATUS BAR AND MFD NAVIGATION DATA BAR
The PFD Navigation Status Bar located below the HSI contains two fields displaying the following information:
PFD Navigation Status Bar
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Estimated Time Enroute (ETE) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g.,
‘TOD within 1 minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status bar are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Right Holding Pattern
Direct-to
Left Holding Pattern
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc
Vector to Final
The Navigation Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields. Each displays one of the
following items:
BRG
DIS
DTG
DTK
END
ESA
ETA
ETE
Bearing
Distance
Distance to Destination
Desired Track
Endurance
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
FLT
FOB
LDG
MSA
TKE
TRK
VSR
XTK
Flight Timer
Fuel on Board
ETA at Final Destination
Minimum Safe Altitude
Track Angle Error
Track
Vertical Speed Required
Cross-Track Error
The four fields of the Destination Airport Info Bar display the following items:
DEST Destination Identifier
FOD Fuel over Destination
ENR
DTG
ETE to Final Destination
Distance to Destination
Navigation Data Bar and Destination Airport Info Bar
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The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the Touchscreen Controller.
The default selections (in order left to right) are BRG, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings to display the Avionics Settings Screen.
2) Touch the MFD Fields Tab to display the MFD Data Bar Field selection list.
3) If necessary, scroll through the data field list to find the desired field.
4) Touch the MFD Data Bar Field Button to display the data options list.
5) If necessary, scroll through the data options list to find the desired option.
6) Touch the desired data option button.
7) Repeat steps 3 - 6 as necessary.
Data Bar
Field Select
Buttons
MFD Fields
Tab
Figure 5-4 MFD Data Bar Field Selection
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively to provide situational awareness in flight. Most maps can display the following
information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.)
with names
• Map range
•Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Obstacle data
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing
to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other
pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
The information in this section applies to any panes that show the navigation map.
MAP SETTINGS SYNCHRONIZATION
Map settings can be synchronized with the settings of any display, and will keep them synchronized when
changes are made to the settings. The synchronization will be for all displays.
Enabling/disabling map settings synchronization:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings > Map Sync.
2) Touch the All Button.
3) Touch the PFD, MFD Left, or MFD Right Button to initially synchronize all map settings with the selected
display.
Or:
Touch the Off Button to disable synchronization.
Off Button
Map Sync
Button
All Button
Figure 5-5 Map Settings Synchronization
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MAP ORIENTATION
Three different orientation options are available for most system map display pane. This allows flexibility in
determining aircraft position relative to other items on the map (North Up) or for determining where map items
are relative to where the aircraft is going (Track Up or Heading Up). The map orientation is shown in the upper
left corner of the map display pane.
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north.
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading (default setting).
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Orientation Button.
3) Touch the Heading Up, Track Up, or North Up Button to select the navigation map orientation.
The map can be configured to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the map range reaches a
minimum range.
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Other Tab to display the options list.
3) Touch the North Up Above Button to enable/disable auto North Up.
4) Touch the North Up Above range button to display the Map North Up Above Window.
5) Scroll the list if necessary to find the desired range, and touch the range button.
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Orientation
Button
North Up Above
Button
North Up Above
Range Button
Heading Up Button
Track Up Button
North Up Button
Heading Lubber Line
Current Track Tick Mark
Heading Up Orientation
Track Up Orientation
Figure 5-7 Map Orientation Selection
North Up Orientation
The range arcs include tick marks indicating compass directions. Track Up indicates current track with a tick
mark on the outside of the arc. Heading Up indicates current heading with a heading lubber line, and the heading
bug and reference line are displayed while the heading is being adjusted, and remain displayed for three seconds
after the last adjustment.
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MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. To change the map range
on any map: (1) turn the lower knob on the Touchscreen Controller counter-clockwise to decrease the range,
or clockwise to increase the range; or (2) touch two fingers on the Touchpad and move them apart to decrease
range, or pinch using two fingers to increase range.
Auto Zoom On
Auto Zoom Off
Figure 5-8 Map Range
Push Touchscreen lower knob to
activate Touchpad
- Pinch to increase range
- Move fingers apart to decrease range
Touchpad
Zoom Gesture
Figure 5-9 Touchpad Map Range Control
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AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by manually adjusting the range, and remains until the
active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on the Touchscreen Controller Map Settings Screen). Auto zoom is suspended while the map
pointer is active.
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact areas. If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any map capable of displaying
traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic advisory.
When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the navigation maps return to the previous auto zoom range based on the
active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off. Control of the ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is
done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times (set on the Touchscreen Controller Map
Settings Screen). These settings determine the minimum and maximum distance to display based upon the
aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Touchscreen Controller Map Settings Screen) determines how long
auto zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available
(1000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 0.75 nm.
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Configuring automatic zoom:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Other Tab to display the options list.
3) Touch the Auto Zoom Button to enable/disable auto zoom.
4) Touch the Auto Zoom Settings Button to display the Auto Zoom Settings Screen.
5) Touch the Auto Zoom Max Look Fwd Button to display the numeric keyboard.
6) Use the keypad to enter the maximum look forward time. Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
7) Repeat steps 5 and 6 for ‘Min Look Fwd’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99 minutes).
Auto Zoom Button
Auto Zoom Settings Button
Auto Zoom Max Look Fwd
Button
Auto Zoom Time Out Button
Auto Zoom Min Look Fwd
Button
Figure 5-10 Auto Zoom Setup
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MAP PANNING
The Map Pointer Control Screen allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range by panning the map
(upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller or Touchpad)
• Highlight and select locations on the map (upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller or Touchpad)
• Graphically initiate a Direct To a selected airport, NAVAID (VOR, Intersection, NDB), or user waypoint (¯
Button)
• Display an information screen for a selected airport, NAVAID (VOR, Intersection, NDB), user waypoint, or
airspace (Info Button)
• Designate locations for use in flight planning (Insert in FPL Button)
• Graphically create user waypoints (Create WPT Button)
• Measure the bearing and distance from the aircraft present position to any location on the navigation map, or
between any two points on the navigation map (BRG/DIS Button)
• Review airspace, obstacle and airway information in a pop-up window on the navigation map
When the Map Pointer function is selected by pressing the lower knob on the Touchscreen Controller, the
Map Pointer flashes on the map display, and the Map Pointer Control Screen is displayed on the Touchscreen
Controller. A window also appears at the upper left of the map display pane showing the latitude/longitude of
the pointer, the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the
land at the position of the pointer.
Map Pointer Options Buttons
Push Touchscreen lower knob to
activate Touchpad
Touchpad
- Slide finger to move the pointer.
Move Pointer Gesture
Figure 5-11 Touchpad Map Pointer Control
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Map Pointer
Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
Panning the map:
1) Press the lower knob on the Touchscreen Controller to display the Map Pointer.
2) Turn the upper knobs on the Touchscreen Controller, or slide your finger on the Touchpad, to move the Map
Pointer on the map. The map will pan when the pointer approaches the edge of the map.
3) Press either knob on the Touchscreen Controller, or touch the Back Button, to remove the Map Pointer and
recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
When the Map Pointer is placed on an airport, the name of the airport is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When an airport is highlighted on the map display, pertinent information
is available by pressing the Info Button on the Touchscreen Controller.
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Map Pointer
Information
Map Pointer
on Airport
Info Tab
Info
Button
Airport
Information
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airport
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint.
2) Touch the Info Button to display the waypoint information screen.
3) Touch the Back Button on the Touchscreen Controller to return to the Map Pointer Control Screen without
removing the Map Pointer from the Navigation Map.
Or:
Press either knob on the Touchscreen Controller to exit the waypoint information screen, remove the Map
Pointer from the Navigation Map, and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
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When the Map Pointer is placed on a NAVAID, the name of the NAVAID is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When a NAVAID is highlighted on the map display, pertinent information
is available by pressing the Info Button on the Touchscreen Controller.
Map Pointer
Information
Map Pointer
on VOR
Info
Button
VOR
Information
Figure 5-14 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on VOR
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When the Map Pointer is placed on a User Waypoint, the name of the User Waypoint is highlighted (even if
the name was not originally displayed on the map). When a User Waypoint is highlighted on the map display,
pertinent information is available by pressing the Info Button on the Touchscreen Controller.
Map Pointer
Information
Map Pointer
on User
Waypoint
Info
Button
User
Waypoint
Information
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on User Waypoint
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When the Map Pointer is on an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown in a box above and to the right of the Map Pointer. The information includes the name and class
of airspace, the ceiling in feet above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL. When an airspace is
selected on the map display, additional frequency information is also available by pressing the Info Button on
the Touchscreen Controller.
Map Pointer
Information
Airspace
Information
Map Pointer
on Airspace
Info
Button
Airspace
Information
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airspace
Reviewing information for a special use or controlled airspace:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an airspace boundary
2) Touch the Info Button to display the Airspace Info Screen.
3) Touch the Back Button on the Touchscreen Controller to return to the Map Pointer Control Screen without
removing the Map Pointer from the Navigation Map.
Or:
Press the either knob on the Touchscreen Controller to exit the Airspace Info Screen, remove the Map Pointer
from the Navigation Map, and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
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MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing can be measured on a navigation map or on a data link weather map may be calculated
using the knobs on the Touchscreen Controller or the Touchpad. Measurement can be from the aircraft’s present
position to any point, or between any two points The bearing and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement
Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying the points to measure. Latitude/Longitude, distance,
bearing and elevation data of the Measure Pointer is provided in a window at the top left of the map.
Measuring bearing and distance between the aircraft present position and any other point:
1) Press the lower knob on the Touchscreen Controller (with a navigation map or data link weather map displayed).
2) Touch the BRG/DIS Button. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
3) Move the pointer using the upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller or the Touchpad to the desired location.
A dashed Measurement Line is drawn from the aircraft present position to the location of the Measure Pointer.
The latitude/longitude, distance, bearing and elevation data of the Measure Pointer are displayed at the top left
of the map. Move the pointer again to measure to any other point.
4) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance function, press the either knob on the Touchscreen Controller or touch the
Back Button.
Measure Pointer
Information
Measure
Pointer
Measurement
Line
Reference Point
at Aircraft Present
Position
BRG/DIS
Button
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing/Distance from Aircraft Present Position
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Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the lower knob on the Touchscreen Controller (with a navigation map or data link weather map displayed).
2) Touch the BRG/DIS Button. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
3) Move the pointer using the upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller or the Touchpad to the desired reference
location. A dashed Measurement Line is drawn from the aircraft present position to the location of the Measure
Pointer. The latitude/longitude, distance, bearing and elevation data of the Measure Pointer are displayed at the
top left of the map.
4) Touch the Select Ref Button to set the Measure Pointer location as the new reference point for measurement.
The dashed Measurement Line is erased.
5) Move the pointer using the upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller or the Touchpad to the desired location. A
dashed Measurement Line is drawn from the reference point to the location of the Measure Pointer. The latitude/
longitude, distance, bearing and elevation data of the Measure Pointer are displayed at the top left of the map.
6) Repeat steps 3 through 5 to measure between other points.
7) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance function, press either knob on the Touchscreen Controller or touch the
Back Button.
Measure Pointer
Information
Reference
Point
Measurement
Line
Measure Pointer
BRG/DIS
Button
Select Ref
Button
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing/Distance between Two Points
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ABSOLUTE TERRAIN
All navigation maps can display various shades of absolute terrain colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Absolute terrain data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures.
Navigation Map
Black Background
Navigation Map
Absolute Terrain
Data
Absolute Terrain Off
Absolute Terrain On
Sensor
Tab
Off
Button
Terrain
Button
Terrain
Settings
Button
Absolute
Button
Relative
Button
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map - Absolute Terrain Data
Displaying/removing absolute terrain data on navigation maps:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Sensor Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Terrain Button to display the Map Terrain Displayed Window.
4) Touch the Absolute Button to display absolute terrain data on the navigation map.
Or:
Touch the Off Button to remove absolute terrain data from the navigation map.
Relative terrain is discussed in the Hazard Avoidance section.
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Absolute Terrain On
Terrain Off
Figure 5-19 PFD Inset Map - Absolute Terrain Data
Absolute Terrain On
Terrain Off
Figure 5-20 HSI Map - Absolute Terrain Data
Displaying/removing absolute terrain data from the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Terrain Button to display the Inset Terrain Displayed Window.
3) Touch the Absolute Button to display absolute terrain data on the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map.
Or:
Touch the Off Button to remove absolute terrain data from the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map.
4) Press the Back Button to return to the PFD Home Screen.
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The absolute terrain data range is the maximum map range on which absolute terrain data is displayed.
Sensor
Tab
Terrain
Settings
Button
Terrain
Button
Absolute
Terrain
Scale
Button
Range
Button
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Absolute Terrain Data
Selecting an absolute terrain data range on navigation map displays:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Sensor Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Terrain Settings Button to display the TAWS Settings Window.
4) Touch the Map Settings Button to display the Terrain Settings Window.
5) Touch the Terrain Button to display the Map Terrain Range Window.
6) Scroll the list if necessary to find the desired range, and touch the range button.
Selecting an absolute terrain data range on the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Terrain Settings Button to display the TAWS Settings Window.
3) Touch the Map Settings Button to display the Terrain Settings Window.
4) Touch the Terrain Button to display the Map Terrain Range Window.
5) Scroll the list if necessary to find the desired range, and touch the range button.
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In addition, the Navigation Map can display an absolute terrain scale (located in the lower right hand side of
the map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation.
Figure 5-22 Navigation Map - Absolute Terrain Scale
Displaying/removing the absolute terrain scale on navigation map displays:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Sensor Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Terrain Settings Button to display the TAWS Settings Window.
4) Touch the Map Settings Button to display the Terrain Settings Window.
5) Touch the Absolute Terrain Scale Button to display/remove the absolute terrain scale.
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MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type of
symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering of
the symbols from the Inset Map using the DCLTR Softkey and the decluttering of the symbols from the MFD
navigation map using the Map Detail Slider are also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the Land Tab on the Map Settings Screen:
Land Symbols
Symbol
Maximum Range (nm)
Obstacle Data
Roads
See Appendix E
25
Interstate Highway (Freeway)
400
International Highway (Freeway)
400
US Highway (National Highway)
150
State Highway (Local Highway)
100
Local Road (Local Road)
N/A
Railroad
25
25
Large City (> 200,000)
1000
Medium City (> 50,000)
400
Small City (> 5,000)
100
State/Province
1000
Rivers and Lakes (River/Lake)
100
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
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AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the Aviation Tab of the Map Settings Screen:
Aviation Symbols
216
Symbol
Default
Range (nm)
Maximum
Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airways (V Routes and T Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways (J Routes and Q Routes)
50
100
Class B/TMA/AWY
50
150
Class C/TCA)
50
100
Class A/D
50
100
Restricted
50
100
MOA (Military)
50
250
Other/ADIZ
50
250
TFR
250
1000
Class B Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
N/A
15
Class C Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
N/A
15
Class D Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling)
N/A
10
Large Airport (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airport (8100 ft > Longest Runway ≥ 5000 ft,
or Longest Runway < 5000ft with control tower)
100
1000
50
400
Small Airport (Longest Runway < 5000 ft without
control tower)
25
150
VOR Waypoint
100
250
VRP Waypoint
25
40
INT Waypoint
25
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Aviation Symbols
Symbol
Default
Range (nm)
Maximum
Range (nm)
NDB Waypoint
25
50
VRP Waypoint
User Waypoint
SafeTaxi
25
25
1.5
40
1000
5
Runway Extension
7.5
150
Missed Approach Preview On/Off
N/A
N/A
See Additional Features
Altitude/Speed Constraints
1000
1000
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
SYMBOL SETUP
All navigation maps can display aviation and land symbols. Aviation and land symbol types (e.g. runway
extensions, railroads) can be removed individually.
Displaying/removing a navigation or land symbol type:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Aviation Tab or Land Tab, if necessary.
3) Scroll the list to find the desired item.
4) Touch the annunciator button to display/remove the symbol type from navigation maps.
Annunciator Button
Figure 5-23 Map Settings Screen - Individual Items On/Off
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The range button sets the maximum range at which these items will be displayed on the navigation map.
Selecting an Aviation or Land item maximum range:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Aviation Tab or Land Tab, if necessary.
3) Scroll the list to find the desired item.
4) If necessary, touch the Settings Button to display the range buttons.
5) Touch the range button to display the range choices.
6) Touch a range selection button to select the maximum range.
7) Repeat steps 3-6 as necessary.
Range
Button
Settings
Button
Medium
Airport
Range
Button
Figure 5-24 Map Settings Screen - Aviation Data Setup
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Range
Selection
Button
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Range
Button
Range
Selection
Button
Figure 5-25 Map Settings Screen - Land Data Setup
Displaying/removing the VOR compass rose:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Aviation Tab, if necessary.
3) Scroll the list to find the VOR buttons.
4) Touch the VOR Settings Button to display the VOR Settings Screen.
5) Touch the Compass Rose button to display/remove the VOR compass rose.
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MAP DETAIL
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of map detail. The navigation
map detail level is displayed on the Map Settings Screen on the Touchscreen Controller and on the navigation
map. The PFD Inset Map detail level is shown on the Inset Map and the Detail Softkey.
Map Detail
Slider
Detail Indicator
Figure 5-26 Navigation Map - Map Detail
Map Detail
Slider
Detail Indicator
Figure 5-27 PFD Inset Map/HSI Map - Map Detail
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Adjusting the navigation map detail:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings > Map Detail.
2) Slide up or down on the Map Detail Slider to adjust the navigation map detail.
Adjusting the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map detail:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings > Map Detail.
2) Slide up or down on the Map Detail Slider to adjust the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map detail.
Table 5-3 lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
Intersections
NDBs
VORs
VRPs
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
DCLTR 1
DCLTR 2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Least
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-3 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
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AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a "T" before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a "Q" before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Figure 5-28 Airways on MFD Navigation Map
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Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using the Touchscreen Controller. The airway
range can also be programmed to only display airways on the navigation map when the map range is at or below
a specific value.
Displaying/removing airways:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Aviation Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Low Altitude Airways Button to display/remove the low altitude airways.
4) Touch the High Altitude Airways Button to display/remove the high altitude airways.
Range
Button
Low
Altitude
Airways
Button
High
Altitude
Airways
Button
Range
Selection
Button
Figure 5-29 Map Options Screen - Airways Setup
The airway range is the maximum map range at which the airways will be displayed on the navigation map.
Selecting an airway range:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Aviation Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the low altitude or high altitude range button to display the range selection buttons.
4) Touch a range selection button to select the maximum map display range.
Airway Type
Airway Symbol/Line
Highlighted Airway
Information Box
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airways
(V Routes and T Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways
(J Routes and Q Routes)
50
100
Table 5-4 Airway Range Information
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TRACK VECTOR
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is selectable (30
sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track vector. The track
vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always a straight line for
the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-30 Navigation Map - Track Vector
Displaying/removing the track vector:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Track Vector Button to display/remove the track vector.
Time
Button
Time
Selection
Button
Track
Vector
Button
Figure 5-31 Map Options Screen - Track Vector Setup
Selecting track vector look-ahead time:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the time button to display the time selection buttons.
4) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a time selection button to select the look-ahead time.
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NAVIGATION MAP WIND VECTOR
The navigation map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector
information is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds
greater than or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Vector
Figure 5-32 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving.
Displaying/removing the navigation map wind vector:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Wind Vector Button to display/remove the navigation map wind vector.
Wind
Vector
Button
Figure 5-33 Map Options Screen - Wind Vector Setup
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FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows an estimate of the remaining flight distance. A dashed
green circle indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range.
If only reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle. Calculations are based on current
fuel flow and ground speed.
Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-34 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
Displaying/removing the fuel range ring:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Fuel Rng (Rsv) Button to display/remove the fuel range ring.
Fuel Rng (Rsv)
Button
Fuel Reserve Time
Button
Figure 5-35 Map Options Screen - Fuel Range Ring Setup
Selecting fuel reserve time:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the fuel reserve time button to display the keypad.
4) Use the keypad to enter the fuel reserve time.
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FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the absolute terrain
immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of view is 35.5 degrees to the left and to the right if the PFD is
operating in Full Mode, or 25 degrees to the left and to the right in Split Mode. SVT information is shown on
the Primary Flight Display (PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode.
The PFD field of view is represented on the Navigation Map by two dashed lines forming a V‑shape in front
of the aircraft symbol on the map. The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the
Navigation Map plan view and Field of View turned on.
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the Navigation Map
Figure 5-36 PFD and Navigation Map Field of View Comparison
Displaying/removing the field of view indication on the navigation map:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab, if necessary.
3) Scroll to display the Field of View Button.
4) Touch the Field of View Button to display/remove the field of view indication on the navigation map.
Field of
View
Button
Figure 5-37 Map Settings Screen - Field of View Setup
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SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected altitude.
The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
Range to
Altitude Arc
Figure 5-38 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Displaying/removing the selected altitude intercept arc:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Selected Alt Range Arc Button to display/remove the selected altitude intercept arc.
Selected Alt
Range Arc
Button
Figure 5-39 Map Options Screen - Selected Altitude Intercept Arc Setup
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LATITUDE/LONGITUDE LINES
The navigation map can display the latitude and longitude lines. They are shown as cyan dashed lines.
Latitude Line
Longitude Line
Figure 5-40 Navigation Map - Latitude/Longitude Lines
Displaying/removing lat/lon lines:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Lat/Lon Lines Button to display/remove the lines.
Range
Selection
Button
Range
Button
Lat/Lon
Lines
Button
Figure 5-41 Map Settings Screen - Lat/Lon Lines Setup
The range button sets the maximum range at which the lines will be displayed on the navigation map.
Selecting the lat/lon line maximum range:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Other Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Lat/Lon lines range button to display the range selection buttons.
4) Touch a range selection button to select the maximum map display range.
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OBSTACLES
The navigation map can display the location of obstacles (e.g. towers). The obstacles are shown as red, yellow,
or white, depending on the height relative to the aircraft AGL altitude. See the Hazard Avoidance section for
more details on symbol and color usage.
Obstacle
Obstacle Data Displayed
when selected by the
Pointer
Figure 5-42 Navigation Map - Obstacles
Displaying/removing obstacles:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Land Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the Point Obstacle Button to display/remove the obstacles.
Point
Obstacle
Button
Range
Selection
Button
Range
Button
Figure 5-43 Map Options Screen - Obstacle Setup
The range button sets the maximum range at which the obstacles will be displayed on the navigation map.
Selecting the obstacle data range:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Land Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the point obstacle range button to display the range selection buttons.
4) Touch a range selection button to select the maximum map display range.
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be found and tuned from waypoint data. Refer to the Audio
and CNS section for details.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering the
city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the system.
INT Button
Airport Button
VOR Button
NDB Button
User Waypoint
Button
VRP Button
Create Waypoint
Button
Figure 5-44 Waypoint Info Screen
If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Waypoint Duplicates Screen is displayed when the Enter Button is
touched or the small right knob is pressed.
Duplicates
Found
Message
Waypoint
Selection
Button
Figure 5-45 Waypoint Duplicates Screen
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AIRPORTS
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Display cannot be changed; the pilot needs to
be aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information
Display Map.
The Airport Information Display on the MFD displays a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding
area, and the Airport Information Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view airport
information, load frequencies, review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be involved in the
flight plan. For airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. See the Audio and
CNS Section for more information on finding and tuning frequencies. After avionics power-up, the Airport
Information Display defaults to the airport where the aircraft is located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it
defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple airports, it defaults to the airport which is the
current active waypoint.
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Airport/Runway
Diagram
Figure 5-46 Airport Information Display on MFD
Waypoint Options Button
Selected Airport Button
Direct-To, Insert in Flight Plan, Show On Map
(Identifier, Name, Symbol)
Info Tab
Airport City, Region
Airport Bearing, Distance, &
Latitude/Longitude
Airport Elevation,
UTC Offset
Fuel Available, Airport Usage Type
Figure 5-47 Airport Information Screen
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The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Screen:
Usage type: PUBLIC, MILITARY, PRIVATE, or HELIPORT
Fuel Available: AVGAS, JET
Selected Airport Button
Frequency Identifier
Availability
Freqs Tab
Frequency Button
Frequency Identifier Button
Touch to view more information
Tune COM Active Frequency
Tune COM Standby Frequency
Add to Favorites
Figure 5-48 Airport Frequencies Screen
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Frequencies Screen:
COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
COM Frequencies: Approach*, Arrival*, ASOS, ATIS, AWOS, Center, Class B*, Class C*, Clearance, Control, CTA*,
Departure*, Gate, Ground, Helicopter, Multicom, Other, Pre-Taxi, Radar, Ramp, Terminal*, TMA*, Tower, TRSA*, Unicom
* May include Additional Information
NAV Frequencies: ILS, LOC
See the Hazard Avoidance section for the description of the information shown on the Weather Tab. See
the Procedures discussion later in this section about loading procedures from the Proc Tab. See the Additional
Features section for the description of the information shown on the Charts Tab and the Chart NOTAMs Tab.
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Selected Airport Button
Runway Information Button
Designation
Length/Width
Surface
Lighting Available
Runways Tab
Figure 5-49 Airport Runways Screen
The Runways Tab brings up the Airport Runways Screen with a Runway Information Button for each runway
at the selected airport. The Runway Information Button contains information about each runway, and selects
the runway, which scales the Airport Information Pane to focus on the selected runway.
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Runways Screen:
Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL (for pilot-controlled lighting)
Selected Airport Button
Airport Directory
Information
APT DIR Tab
Figure 5-50 Airport Directory Info Screen
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The following types of airport directory information are shown (if available):
Airport: Identifier, Site Number, Name, City, State
Traffic Pattern Altitudes (TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
Weather: Service Type, Frequency, Phone Number
Hours: Facility, Light, Tower, Beacon
Flight Service Station (FSS): Name, Phone Numbers
Location: Sectional, Magnetic Variation
Instrument Approaches: Published Approach, Frequency
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier, Frequency, Radial, Distance
Transportation: Ground Transportation Type Available
Noise: Noise Abatement Procedures
Approach: Facility Name, Frequency, Frequency Parameter
Charts: Low Altitude Chart Number
Runway: Headings, Length, Width, Obstructions, Surface
Notes: Airport Notes
Obstructions: General Airport Obstructions
Pilot Controlled Lighting: High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
Special Operations at Airport
Services Available: Category, Specific Service (e.g. Lodging)
FBO: Type, Frequencies, Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit Cards,
Phone/Fax Numbers
Selecting an airport for review by identifier:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport.
2) Touch the Info Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the selected airport button to display the keypad.
4) Use the keypad to enter the airport identifier.
5) Touch the Enter Button to accept the identifier and display the airport information on the Touchscreen
Controller.
6) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the Airport Information
Display, if necessary.
Finding and selecting an airport for review by facility name or city name:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport.
2) Touch the Info Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the selected airport button to display the keypad.
4) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
5) Touch the Search Tab to display the Search By Button.
6) If necessary, touch the Search By Button to choose Search by City or Search by Facility.
7) Touch the Facility Name Button or the City Name Button to display the keypad.
8) Use the keypad to enter the name.
9) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry and display the search results.
10) Touch an airport selection button to display the airport information on the Touchscreen Controller.
11) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the Airport Information
Display, if necessary.
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Finding and selecting an airport for review by category (Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites):
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport.
2) Touch the Info Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the selected airport button to display the keypad.
4) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
5) Touch the Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites Tab to display a list of airports in the selected category.
6) Touch an airport selection button to display the airport information on the Touchscreen Controller.
7) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the Airport Information
Display, if necessary.
Selecting a runway:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport.
2) Touch the Runways Tab to display the runway information buttons.
3) Touch a runway information button to select the runway.
4) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to view the runway on the navigation
map, if necessary.
The Nearest Airport Display shows a map of the nearest airport and surrounding area, and the Nearest Airport
Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view airport information, load frequencies, review
runways, and review instrument procedures that may be involved in the flight plan. For airports with multiple
runways, information for each runway is available. See the Audio and CNS Section for more information on
finding and tuning frequencies.
The Nearest Airports Screen displays a list of up to 25 nearest airports (five entries can be displayed at one
time). If there are more than five, they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no airports within 200NM,
“No Results found” is displayed.
A dashed white line is drawn on the Nearest Airport Display from the aircraft position to the selected nearest airport.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
Nearest Airport
Figure 5-51 Nearest Airport Display
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Nearest Airport Information
Bearing
Distance
Type of Approach
Length of Runway
Nearest Airport Buttons
(Identifier, Name, Symbol)
Figure 5-52 Nearest Airport Screen
Viewing information for a nearest airport:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > Airport.
2) Touch a nearest airport button to display the Waypoint Options Window. If necessary, touch the Show On Map
Button to highlight the airport on the Nearest Airport Display.
3) Touch the Airport Info Button to display the Airport Information Screen.
4) Touch a Tab to display the desired information on the Touchscreen Controller.
See the Audio and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
The minimum runway length and surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on
the Nearest Airports Screen are set on the Avionics Settings Screen under the System Tab. A minimum runway
length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are not
appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 3000 feet (or meters) for runway length and
“Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) Touch the System Tab, if necessary.
3) Scroll the list to display the Nearest Airport Runway Surface Button.
4) Touch the Nearest Airport Runway Surface Button to display the surface choices.
5) Touch a surface selection button to set the surface criteria.
System
Tab
Nearest
Airport
Runway
Surface
Button
Surface
Selection
Button
Figure 5-53 Nearest Airport Runway Surface Selection
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Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) Touch the System Tab, if necessary.
3) Scroll the list to display the Nearest Airport Min Rwy Length Button.
4) Touch the Nearest Airport Min Rwy Length Button to display the keypad.
5) Use the keypad to enter the minimum length.
6) Touch the Enter Button to accept the length criteria.
Runway
Length
Entry
System
Tab
Nearest
Airport
Min Rwy
Length
Button
Figure 5-54 Nearest Airport Runway Length Selection
INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Screen is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Display shows a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, and
the Intersection Information Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view intersection information.
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected
Intersection
Selected Intersection
Figure 5-55 Intersection Information Display
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Waypoint Options Button
Selected Intersection Button
Direct-To, Insert in Flight Plan, Show On Map
(Identifier, Symbol)
Region
Intersection Latitude/Longitude,
Bearing & Distance
Nearest VOR Identifier
Nearest VOR Radial
Nearest VOR Distance
Figure 5-56 Intersection Information Screen
Selecting an intersection:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > INT.
2) Touch the selected intersection button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad to enter the intersection identifier.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the identifier and display the intersection information on the Touchscreen
Controller.
5) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the Intersection Information
Display, if necessary.
Finding and selecting an intersection by category (Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites):
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > INT.
2) Touch the selected intersection button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites Tab to display a list of intersections in the selected
category.
5) Touch an intersection selection button to display the intersection information on the Touchscreen Controller.
6) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the Intersection Information
Display, if necessary.
The Nearest Intersection Display shows a map of the nearest intersection and surrounding area, and the
Nearest Intersection Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view intersection information, and
initiate a direct-to or insert the intersection in the flight plan.
The Nearest Intersection Screen displays a list of up to 25 nearest intersections (five entries can be displayed
at one time). If there are more than five, they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no intersections
within 200NM, “No Results found” is displayed.
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A dashed white line is drawn on the Nearest Intersection Display from the aircraft position to the selected
nearest intersection.
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
Nearest Intersection
Figure 5-57 Nearest Intersection Display
Nearest Intersection Information
Bearing
Distance
Nearest Intersection Buttons
(Identifier, Symbol)
Figure 5-58 Nearest Intersection Screen
Viewing information for a nearest intersection:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > INT.
2) Touch a nearest Intersection button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
3) Touch the Show on Map Button to display the Nearest Intersection Display, if necessary.
4) Touch the Intersection Info Button to display the Intersection Information Screen.
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NDBS
The NDB Information Display shows a map of the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, and the NDB
Information Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view NDB information.
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected NDB
Selected NDB
Figure 5-59 NDB Information Display
Waypoint Options Button
Selected NDB Button
Direct-To, Insert in Flight Plan, Show On Map
(Identifier, Name, Symbol)
City, Region
NDB Latitude/Longitude,
Bearing & Distance
Nearest Airport
Frequency Button
Tune ADF1/2 Active/Standby
Add to Favorites
Identifier
Symbol
Bearing/Distance
Figure 5-60 NDB Information Screen
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon installed in
conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is at the Outer Marker;
when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
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Selecting an NDB:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > NDB.
2) Touch the selected NDB button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad to enter the NDB identifier.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the identifier and display the NDB information on the Touchscreen
Controller.
5) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the NDB Information Display,
if necessary.
Finding and selecting an NDB for review by facility name or city name:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > NDB.
2) Touch the selected NDB button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Search Tab to display the Search By Button.
5) If necessary, touch the Search By Button to choose Search by City or Search by Facility.
6) Touch the Facility Name Button or the City Name Button to display the keypad.
7) Use the keypad to enter the name.
8) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry and display the search results.
9) Touch an NDB selection button to display the NDB information on the Touchscreen Controller.
10) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the NDB Information Display,
if necessary.
Finding and selecting an NDB by category (Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites):
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > NDB.
2) Touch the selected NDB button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites Tab to display a list of NDBs in the selected category.
5) Touch an NDB selection button to display the NDB information on the Touchscreen Controller.
6) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the NDB Information Display,
if necessary.
The Nearest NDB Display shows a map of the nearest NDB and surrounding area, and the Nearest NDB
Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view NDB information, and initiate a direct-to or insert
the NDB in the flight plan.
The Nearest NDB Screen displays a list of up to 25 nearest NDBs (five entries can be displayed at one time).
If there are more than five, they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no NDBs within 200NM, “No
Results found” is displayed.
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A dashed white line is drawn on the Nearest NDB Display from the aircraft position to the selected nearest
NDB .
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
NDB
Nearest NDB
Figure 5-61 Nearest NDB Display
Nearest NDB Information
Bearing/Distance
NDB Frequency Button
Tune ADF1 Active/Standby Frequency
Add to Favorites
Nearest NDB Buttons
(Identifier, Name, Symbol)
Figure 5-62 Nearest NDB Screen
Viewing information for a nearest NDB:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > NDB.
2) Touch a nearest NDB button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
3) Touch the Show on Map Button to display the Nearest NDB Display, if necessary.
4) Touch the NDB Info Button to display the NDB Information Screen.
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VORS
The VOR Information Screen can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly tune a VOR or ILS frequency. If a VOR station is combined
with a TACAN station it is listed as a VOR-TACAN on the VOR Information Screen and if it includes only DME,
it is displayed as VOR-DME.
The VOR Information Display shows a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, and the VOR
Information Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view VOR information.
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected VOR
Selected VOR
Figure 5-63 VOR Information Display
Waypoint Options Button
Selected VOR Button
Direct-To, Insert in Flight Plan, Show On Map
(Identifier, Name, Symbol)
City, Region
VOR Latitude/Longitude,
Bearing & Distance
Class, Magnetic Variation, Type
Nearest Airport
Frequency Button
Tune NAV1/NAV2 Active/Standby
Add to Favorites
Identifier
Symbol
Bearing/Distance
Figure 5-64 VOR Information Screen
The VOR classes used are: Low Altitude, High Altitude, and Terminal.
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Selecting a VOR:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > VOR.
2) Touch the selected VOR button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad to enter the VOR identifier.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the identifier and display the VOR information on the Touchscreen
Controller.
5) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the VOR Information Display,
if necessary.
Finding and selecting a VOR for review by facility name or city name:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > VOR.
2) Touch the selected VOR button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Search Tab to display the Search By Button.
5) If necessary, touch the Search By Button to choose Search by City or Search by Facility.
6) Touch the Facility Name Button or the City Name Button to display the keypad.
7) Use the keypad to enter the name.
8) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry and display the search results.
9) Touch a VOR selection button to display the VOR information on the Touchscreen Controller.
10) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the VOR Information Display,
if necessary.
Finding and selecting a VOR by category (Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites):
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > VOR.
2) Touch the selected VOR button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites Tab to display a list of VORs in the selected category.
5) Touch a VOR selection button to display the VOR information on the Touchscreen Controller.
6) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the VOR Information Display,
if necessary.
The Nearest VOR Display shows a map of the nearest VOR and surrounding area, and the Nearest VOR Screen
on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view VOR information, initiate a direct-to, insert the VOR in
the flight plan, or tune a NAV frequency.
The Nearest VOR Screen displays a list of up to 25 nearest VORs (five entries can be displayed at one time). If
there are more than five, they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no VORs within 200NM, “No Results
found” is displayed.
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A dashed white line is drawn on the Nearest VOR Display from the aircraft position to the selected nearest
VOR.
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
VOR
Nearest VOR
Figure 5-65 NEAREST VOR Display
Nearest VOR Information
Bearing/Distance
VOR Frequency Button
Tune NAV1/2 Active/Standby Frequency
Add to Favorites
Nearest VOR Buttons
(Identifier, Name, Symbol)
Figure 5-66 Nearest VOR Screen
Viewing information for a nearest VOR:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > VOR.
2) Touch a nearest VOR button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
3) Touch the Show on Map Button to display the Nearest VOR Display, if necessary.
4) Touch the VOR Info Button to display the VOR Information Screen.
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VRP
The VRP Information Screen can be used to view information about a selected visual reporting point (VRP).
The VRP Information Display shows a map of the currently selected VRP and surrounding area, and the VRP
Information Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view VRP information.
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected VRP
Selected VRP
Figure 5-67 VRP Information Display
Waypoint Options Button
Selected VRP Button
Direct-To, Insert in Flight Plan,
Show On Map
(Identifier, Name, Symbol)
City, Region
VRP Latitude/Longitude,
Bearing & Distance
Figure 5-68 VRP Information Screen
Selecting a VRP:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > VRP.
2) Touch the selected VRP Button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad to enter the VRP identifier.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the identifier and display the VRP Information Screen on the Touchscreen
Controller.
5) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the VRP Information Display,
if necessary.
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Finding and selecting a VRP for review by facility name or city name:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > VRP.
2) Touch the selected VRP Button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Search Tab to display the Search By Button.
5) If necessary, touch the Search By Button to choose Search by City or Search by Facility.
6) Touch the Facility Name Button or the City Name Button to display the keypad.
7) Use the keypad to enter the name.
8) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry and display the search results.
9) Touch a VRP Selection Button to display the VRP Information Screen on the Touchscreen Controller.
10) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the VRP Information Display,
if necessary.
Finding and selecting a VRP by category (Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites):
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > VRP.
2) Touch the selected VRP button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites Tab to display a list of VRPs in the selected category.
5) Touch a VRP selection button to display the VRP Information Screen on the Touchscreen Controller.
6) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the VRP Information Display,
if necessary.
The Nearest VRP Display shows a map of the nearest VRP and surrounding area, and the Nearest VRP Screen
on the Touchscreen Controller allows the pilot to view VRP information, initiate a direct-to, or insert the VRP
in the flight plan.
The Nearest VRP Screen displays a list of up to 25 nearest VRPs (five entries can be displayed at one time). If
there are more than five, they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no VRPs within 200NM, “No Results
found” is displayed.
NOTE: The VRP database utilized by the system is limited to European regions only. If the aircraft is
located in a region not covered by this database, the message ‘No Results Found’ will be displayed on the
Touchscreen Controller.
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A dashed white line is drawn on the Nearest VRP Display from the aircraft position to the selected nearest VRP.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
VRP
Nearest VRP
Figure 5-69 Nearest VRP Display
Nearest VRP Information
Bearing/Distance
Nearest VRP Buttons
(Identifier, Name, Symbol)
Figure 5-70 Nearest VRP Screen
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USER WAYPOINTS
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from
any map display (except Trip Planning or Procedure) by selecting a position on the map using the knobs on
the Touchscreen Controller or the Touchpad, or from the User Waypoint Information Screen by referencing a
bearing/distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or latitude and longitude.
Once a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased
upon system power down.
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected User
Waypoint
Selected User Waypoint
Figure 5-71 User WPT Information Display
Selected User Waypoint Button
Waypoint Options Button
(Name, Comment, Symbol)
Direct To, Insert in Flight Plan, Edit,
Delete, Delete All, Show On Map
Region
User Waypoint Definition
Location Type (LAT/LON)
Latitude/Longitude
Distance/Bearing from Aircraft
Figure 5-72 User Waypoint Information Screen (defined by latitude/longitude)
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Selected User Waypoint Button
(Name, Comment, Symbol)
Bearing/Distance from Aircraft
Waypoint Options Button
Direct-To, Insert in Flight Plan, Edit,
Delete, Delete All, Show on Map
User Waypoint Definition
Location Type (RAD/DIS)
Reference Waypoint
Radial/Distance from Waypoint
Latitude/Longitude
Region
Figure 5-73 User Waypoint Information Screen (defined by radial/distance from waypoint)
Selected User Waypoint Button
(Name, Comment, Symbol)
Bearing/Distance from Aircraft
Waypoint Options Button
Direct-To, Insert in Flight Plan, Edit,
Delete, Delete All, Show on Map
User Waypoint Definition
Location Type (RAD/RAD)
Reference Waypoints
Radials from Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude
Region
Figure 5-74 User Waypoint Information Screen (defined by radials from two waypoints)
Selecting a user waypoint:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > User Waypoint.
2) Touch the selected user waypoint button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad to enter the user waypoint name.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the name and display the user waypoint information on the Touchscreen
Controller.
5) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the User WPT Information
Display, if necessary.
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Finding and selecting a user waypoint for review by facility name or city name:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > User Waypoint.
2) Touch the selected user waypoint button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Search Tab to display the Search By Button.
5) If necessary, touch the Search By Button to choose Search by City or Search by Facility.
6) Touch the Facility Name Button or the City Name Button to display the keypad.
7) Use the keypad to enter the name.
8) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry and display the search results.
9) Touch a user waypoint button to display the user waypoint information on the Touchscreen Controller.
10) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the User WPT Information
Display, if necessary.
Finding and selecting a user waypoint by category (Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites):
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > User Waypoint.
2) Touch the selected user waypoint button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Recent, Nearest, Flight Plan, or Favorites Tab to display a list of user waypoints in the selected
category.
5) Touch a user waypoint button to display the user waypoint information on the Touchscreen Controller.
6) Touch the Waypoint Options Button, then the Show on Map Button to display the User WPT Information
Display, if necessary.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
User Waypoint
Nearest User Waypoint
Figure 5-75 Nearest User Waypoint Display
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Nearest User Waypoint Information
Bearing/Distance
Nearest User Waypoint Buttons
(Name, Comment, Symbol)
Figure 5-76 Nearest User Waypoint Screen
Viewing information for a nearest user waypoint:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > User.
2) Touch a nearest user waypoint button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
3) Touch the Show on Map Button to display the Nearest User Display, if necessary.
4) Touch the User Waypoint Info Button to display the User Waypoint Information Screen.
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Screen in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the User Waypoint Information Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Create Waypoint. The current aircraft position is the default
location of the new waypoint.
2) Touch the user waypoint name button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
a) Touch the Type Button to display the Select User Waypoint Type Window.
b) Touch the P. POS Button to retain the aircraft present position as defined by latitude/longitude values.
User Waypoint Name Button
Temporary Button
Type Button
LAT/LON Button Subdued
P. POS LAT/LON Values
may not be edited
Comment Button
Figure 5-77 Create User Waypoint Screen (defined by aircraft present position)
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a) Touch the Type Button to display the Select User Waypoint Type Window.
b) Touch the RAD/DIS Button to select the bearing/distance from a waypoint type.
c) Touch the REF Button to display the keypad.
d) Use the keypad and the Enter Button, or the Find function, to select the waypoint.
e) Touch the RAD Button to display the keypad.
f) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the radial.
g) Touch the DIS Button to display the keypad.
h) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the distance.
User Waypoint Name Button
Temporary Button
Type Button
REF Button
DIS Button
RAD Button
Comment Button
Figure 5-78 Create User Waypoint Screen (defined by bearing/distance from a waypoint)
Or:
a) Touch the Type Button to display the Select User Waypoint Type Window.
b) Touch the RAD/RAD Button to select the bearings from two waypoints type.
c) Touch the REF1 Button to display the keypad.
d) Use the keypad and the Enter Button, or the Find function, to select the waypoint.
e) Touch the RAD1 Button to display the keypad.
f) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the radial.
g) Repeat steps c – f for the second reference waypoint and radial.
User Waypoint Name Button
Temporary Button
Type Button
REF1 Button
RAD1 Button
REF2 Button
RAD2 Button
Comment Button
Figure 5-79 Create User Waypoint Screen (defined by radials from two waypoints)
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Or:
a) Touch the Type Button to display the Select User Waypoint Type Window.
b) Touch the LAT/LON Button to select the latitude/longitude type.
c) Touch the LAT/LON Button to display the keypad.
d) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the latitude and longitude.
User Waypoint Name Button
Temporary Button
Type Button
LAT/LON Button
Comment Button
Figure 5-80 Create User Waypoint Screen (defined by latitude/longitude)
5) If desired, change the waypoint comment.
a) Touch the Comment Button to display the keypad.
b) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the comment.
6) If desired, touch the Temporary Button to change the waypoint storage method. When the annunciator on
the button is green, the waypoint is only stored until the next power cycle. When the annunciator is gray, the
waypoint is stored until manually erased.
7) Touch the Create Button to accept the new user waypoint. If RAD/RAD was used to define the waypoint, and
the radials do not intersect, a message ‘The radials entered do not intersect’ will be displayed. Touch the OK
Button to return to the Create User Waypoint Screen.
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Press the lower knob on the Touchscreen Controller to activate the panning function and display the Map
Pointer Control Screen on the Touchscreen Controller.
2)
Use the upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller or the Touchpad to pan to the map location of the desired
user waypoint.
3) Touch the Create WPT Button. The Create User Waypoint Screen is displayed with the captured position.
4) Touch the user waypoint name button to display the keypad.
5) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
6) If desired, change the waypoint comment. The comment defaults to the abbreviated latitude/longitude of the
user waypoint.
a) Touch the Comment Button to display the keypad.
b) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the comment.
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7) Press the Create Button to create the new waypoint.
8) Press either knob on the Touchscreen Controller to deactivate the panning function and return to the previous
display on the Touchscreen Controller.
User Waypoint Name Button
Comment Button
Figure 5-81 Create User Waypoint Screen (initiated from map page)
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Editing a user waypoint comment:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > User Waypoint.
2) If necessary, touch the WPT List Tab to display the list of user waypoints, and touch the desired user waypoint
selection button.
3) Touch the Waypoint Options Button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit User Waypoint Screen.
5) Touch the Comment Button to display the keypad.
6) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select a user waypoint comment (up to 25 characters).
7) Touch the Save Button to accept the new comment.
8) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Are you sure you want to modify this waypoint?”.
Editing a user waypoint name:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > User Waypoint.
2) If necessary, touch the WPT List Tab to display the list of user waypoints, and touch the desired user waypoint
selection button.
3) Touch the Waypoint Options Button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit User Waypoint Screen.
5) Touch the user waypoint name button to display the keypad.
6) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
7) Touch the Save Button to accept the new name.
8) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Are you sure you want to modify this waypoint?”.
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Editing a user waypoint type and location:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > User Waypoint.
2) If necessary, touch the WPT List Tab to display the list of user waypoints, and touch the desired user waypoint
selection button.
3) Touch the Waypoint Options Button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit User Waypoint Screen.
5) Touch the Type Button to display the User Waypoint Type Window.
6) Touch the RAD/DIS Button, the RAD/RAD Button, the LAT/LON Button, or the P. POS Button to select the
waypoint type.
7) If necessary, touch the REF Button, the RAD Button, the DIS Button, or the LAT/LON Button to bring up the
keypad.
8) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the user waypoint location.
9) Touch the Save Button to accept the new type and location.
10) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Are you sure you want to modify this waypoint?”.
Changing the location of an existing user waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > User Waypoint.
2) If necessary, touch the WPT List Tab to display the list of user waypoints, and touch the desired user waypoint
selection button.
3) Touch the Waypoint Options Button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit User Waypoint Screen.
5) Touch the Type Button to display the User Waypoint Type Window.
6) Touch the P. POS Button to select the aircraft present position as the location.
7) Touch the Save Button to accept the new name.
8) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Are you sure you want to modify this waypoint?”.
DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > User Waypoint.
2) If necessary, touch the WPT List Tab to display the list of user waypoints, and touch the desired user waypoint
selection button.
3) Touch the Waypoint Options Button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
4) Touch the Delete Button.
5) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Would you like to delete the user waypoint XXXXXX?”.
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Deleting all user waypoints:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > User Waypoint.
2) If necessary, touch the WPT List Tab to display the list of user waypoints, and touch the desired user waypoint
selection button.
3) Touch the Waypoint Options Button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
4) Touch the Delete All Button.
5) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Would you like to delete all user waypoints?”.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Interdiction Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR). More
information concerning TFRs is contained in the Hazard Avoidance Section.
MOA (Military)
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
Airspace Altitude Label
Class D Airspace
Class C Airspace
Alert Area
ADIZ
Warning Area
Figure 5-82 Airspaces
Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Aviation Tab.
3) Touch the Airspaces Settings Button to display the Airspace Settings Screen.
4) Touch the Airspace Altitude Labels Button to display/remove the labels from the navigation map.
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The Nearest Airspace Screen and the Message window on the Touchscreen Controller provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them.
The Alerts Tab on the Avionics Settings Screen allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace alerts
on or off. This does not affect the airspaces listed on the Nearest Airspace Screen or the airspace boundaries
depicted on the Navigation Map Display. It simply turns on/off the alert provided when the aircraft is approaching
or near an airspace.
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) Touch the Alerts Tab to display the list of alert settings.
3) Touch the Airspace Alert Alt Buffer Button to display the keypad.
4) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the buffer distance.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) Touch the Alerts Tab to display the list of alert settings.
3) Scroll the list if necessary.
4) Touch the airspace alert enable button to enable/disable the alert.
Airspace Alert Alt Buffer Button
- Airspace Altitude Buffer
(Default Settings Shown)
Alerts Tab
Airspace Alert Enable Button
Figure 5-83 Avionics Settings Screen - Alerts Tab
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected on the Aviation Tab on the Map Settings Screen. See Table
5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace area.
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The Nearest Airspace Screen and the Nearest Airspace Display can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the
flight path. The Nearest Airspace Display shows a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area. The Nearest
Airspace Screen displays airspace information. In addition, a selected frequency associated with the airspace can
be loaded from the Nearest Airspace Screen.
Airspace 3
Nearest Airspace
information displayed
when Show on Map
is selected
Airspace 2
Airspace 1
Figure 5-84 Nearest Airspace Display
Controlling
Agency
Airspace
Info Button
Vertical Limits
Airspace
- Ceiling
- Floor
Name
Type
Frequencies
Airspace
Status
- Type
- Avail/Info (TX/RX)
* Proximity
** Time till
Intercept
Frequency
Tuning Button
Figure 5-85 Nearest Airspace Screen
*Proximity: Ahead, Inside, Ahead<2nm, Within 2nm
**Time till Intercept: Only if Ahead or Ahead < 2nm
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > Airspace.
2) Touch an airspace info button to display the Airspace Options Window.
3) Touch the Show on Map Button to display the Nearest Airspace Information Display, if necessary.
4) Touch the Details Button to see more information about the airspace.
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When an airspace alert occurs, the MSG Button on the Touchscreen Controller begins flashing. Touch the
flashing button to view the list of alerts. The following airspace alerts are displayed in the message window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead –
less than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near
– less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace within 10
minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-5 Airspace Alert Messages
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The function
does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the airspace. If the
current aircraft altitude is within 1500 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is
shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1500 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace,
the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
Figure 5-86 Smart Airspace
Enabling/disabling the Smart Airspace function:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Aviation Tab, if necessary.
3) Scroll the list to find the Airspaces buttons.
4) Touch the Airspaces Settings Button to display the Airspace Settings Screen.
5) Touch the Smart Airspace Button to enable/disable the Smart Airspace function.
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by touching the Direct To Button on the Touchscreen Controller
is quicker to use than a flight plan when needing to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a course from the present position to the selected direct-to
destination, with initial turn as needed. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is cancelled, replaced
with a new direct-to, or a new flight plan leg or sequence is activated.
A vertical navigation (VNAV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from the
current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation direct-to is not available for a climb.
The Direct To Screen on the Touchscreen Controller allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation,
and displays selected direct-to waypoint data on the Touchscreen Controller. Any waypoint can be entered as a
direct-to destination.
Waypoint Selection Button
- Identifier/Symbol/City
Waypoint Tab
Direct-to Point Info
- City/Region
- Bearing/Distance
Flight Plan Tab
VNAV Offset Button
Nearest Tab
VNAV Altitude Button
Recent Tab
Hold Button
Course Button
Activate ¯ Button
Cancel ¯ Button
Figure 5-87 Direct To Screen
Activate and Insert in Flight Plan
Button
NOTE: The FMS enters SUSP mode whenever direct-to is selected to a waypoint that is nearby but slightly
behind the airplane. A short magenta segment is drawn preceding the selected waypoint, on the course
defined by the next leg. The FMS remains in SUSP until the pilot unsuspends the FMS, or selects a new flight
plan course.
Selecting a waypoint as the direct-to destination by identifier:
1) From MFD Home, touch Direct To.
2) Touch the Select Waypoint Button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad to select the waypoint identifier.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the identifier, and return to the Direct To Screen.
5) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to.
Or:
a) Touch the Activate and Insert in Flight Plan Button (only available if the selected waypoint is not
in the flight plan) to display the Insert and Activate ¯ <waypoint> Before? Window.
b) Touch the waypoint selection button to select the flight plan location to insert the direct to waypoint, and
to activate the direct-to.
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Finding and selecting a waypoint as the direct-to destination by facility name or city name:
1) From MFD Home, touch Direct To.
2) Touch the Select Waypoint Button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
4) Touch the Search Tab to display the Search By Button.
5) If necessary, touch the Search By Button to choose Search by City or Search by Facility.
6) Touch the Facility Name Button or the City Name Button to display the keypad.
7) Use the keypad to select the name.
8) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry and display the search results.
9) Touch a waypoint selection button to choose the waypoint as the direct-to destination, and return to the Direct
To Screen.
10) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to.
Or:
a) Touch the Activate and Insert in Flight Plan Button (only available if the selected waypoint is not
in the flight plan) to display the Insert and Activate ¯ <waypoint> Before? Window.
b) Touch the waypoint selection button to select the flight plan location to insert the direct to waypoint, and
to activate the direct-to.
City Name
Button
Search By
Button
- City
- Facility
Waypoint
Selection
Button
Search Tab
Figure 5-88 Find Waypoint Screen - Search by City Name
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Selecting a waypoint as the direct-to destination by category (Nearest or Recent):
1) From MFD Home, touch Direct To.
2) Touch the Nearest Tab or the Recent Tab, as necessary.
3) Touch a waypoint selection button to choose the waypoint as the direct-to destination, and return to the Direct
To Screen.
4) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to.
Or:
a) Touch the Activate and Insert in Flight Plan Button (only available if the selected waypoint is not
in the flight plan) to display the Insert and Activate ¯ <waypoint> Before? Window.
b) Touch the waypoint selection button to select the flight plan location to insert the direct to waypoint, and
to activate the direct-to.
Bearing/Distance to Waypoint
Nearest Tab
Waypoint Selection Button
Figure 5-89 Direct To Screen - Nearest Tab
Selecting a waypoint as the direct-to destination from the active flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Touch a waypoint selection button to display the Waypoint Options Screen.
3) Touch the ¯ button to choose the waypoint as the direct-to destination and display the Direct To Screen.
4) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to.
Or:
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1) From MFD Home, touch Direct To.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Tab.
3) Touch a waypoint selection button to choose the waypoint as the direct-to destination, and return to the
Waypoint Tab of the Direct To Screen.
4) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to.
Direct To (¯) Button
Direct To (¯) Button
Selected Waypoint
Figure 5-90 Waypoint Options Screen
Bearing/Distance to Waypoint
Flight Plan Tab
Waypoint Selection Button
Figure 5-91 Direct To Screen - Flight Plan Tab
Selecting the active flight plan waypoint as the direct-to destination:
1) From MFD Home, touch the ¯ Button to display the Direct To Screen with the active flight plan waypoint
selected as the direct-to destination.
2) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Touch the ¯ button to display the Direct To Screen with the active flight plan waypoint selected the direct-to
destination.
3) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to.
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The direct-to function can be accessed from any waypoint information screen (Airport Information, Intersection
Information, VOR Information, NDB Information, VRP Information, or User Waypoint Information), and from
some of the nearest waypoint screens (Nearest Airport, Nearest Intersection, Nearest VOR, Nearest NDB, Nearest
VRP, Nearest User, or Nearest Weather). If the direct-to is initiated from the Active Flight Plan Screen when no
waypoint has been selected, the default waypoint is either the active flight plan waypoint (if a flight plan is active)
or no waypoint (Select Waypoint Button is active). Direct-to requests on waypoint information screens or nearest
waypoint screens default to the displayed waypoint.
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the screen containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) If necessary, touch the Waypoint Options Button.
3) Touch the ¯ button to choose the waypoint as the direct-to destination, and display the Direct To Screen.
4) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to.
Or:
a) Touch the Activate and Insert in Flight Plan Button (only available if the selected waypoint is not
in the flight plan) to display the Insert and Activate ¯ <waypoint> Before? Window.
b) Touch the waypoint selection button to select the flight plan location to insert the direct to waypoint, and
to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > Airport.
2) Touch a nearest airport button to display the Waypoint Options Window. If desired, highlight the airport on the
navigation map by touching the Show On Map Button.
3) Touch the ¯ button to choose the waypoint as the direct-to destination, and display the Direct To Screen.
4) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to.
Or:
a) Touch the Activate and Insert in Flight Plan Button (only available if the selected waypoint is not
in the flight plan) to display the Insert and Activate ¯ <waypoint> Before? Window.
b) Touch the waypoint selection button to select the flight plan location to insert the direct to waypoint, and
to activate the direct-to.
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Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the map pointer on the navigation map.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From the navigation map display, press the lower knob on the Touchscreen Controller to display the pointer.
2) Use the upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller or the Touchpad to place the pointer at the desired
destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint ID is highlighted, and the
Direct To Button is activated.
4) Touch the Direct To Button to display the Direct To Screen with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to..
Or:
a) Touch the Activate and Insert in Flight Plan Button (only available if the selected waypoint is not in
the flight plan) to display the Insert and Activate ¯ <waypoint> Before? Window.
b) Touch the waypoint selection button to select the flight plan location to insert the direct to waypoint, and
to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct To:
1) From MFD Home, touch Direct To.
2) Touch the Cancel ¯ Button.
3) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Cancel ¯ XXXXXX”.
Cancel ¯
Figure 5-92 Cancelling a Direct To
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When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) From MFD Home, touch Direct To.
2) If necessary, touch the waypoint selection button to enter the waypoint as the direct-to destination. Then, touch
the Course Button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad to select the course.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the course, and return to the Direct To Screen.
5) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to using the manually selected course.
Course
Selection
Figure 5-93 Direct To - Selecting a Manual Course
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) From MFD Home, touch Direct To.
2) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to using the direct course.
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A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint, or
at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNAV altitudes prior to
the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of the direct-to. All
VNAV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more
information regarding the use and purpose of VNAV altitudes and offset distances.
Entering a VNAV altitude and along-track offset for the active waypoint:
1) From MFD Home, touch Direct To.
2) Touch the VNAV Altitude Button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Climb or Cruise Button to choose the type of flight phase.
4) Use the keypad to select the altitude.
5) Touch the Enter Button to accept the altitude, and return to the Direct To Screen.
6) Touch the VNAV Offset Button to display the keypad.
7) Touch the (Before) - Button or the (After) + Button, if necessary.
8) Use the keypad to select the offset distance.
9) Touch the Enter Button to accept the offset distance, and return to the Direct To Screen.
10) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct-to using the VNAV constraints.
Altitude/Offset
Selection
Figure 5-94 Direct To - Setting VNAV Constraints
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Removing a VNAV constraint:
1) From MFD Home, touch Direct To.
2) Touch the VNAV Altitude Button to display the keypad.
3) Touch the Remove VNAV ALT Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Remove VNAV altitude?”.
5) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the direct to without the VNAV constraints.
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the active flight plan to display the direct-to waypoint.
3) Touch the VNAV Altitude Button for the direct-to waypoint to display the VNAV Altitude Window.
4) Touch the Remove VNAV ALT Button.
5) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Remove VNAV Altitude?”.
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding waypoints along
airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The system allows flight planning
information to be entered using the Touchscreen Controller. The flight plan is displayed on maps using different
line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or
missed approach) of the flight plan currently being flown.
The system displays a calculated turn anticipation arc, and provides guidance to follow the arc. When the aircraft
reaches the beginning of the arc, the guidance will prompt a turn, and the course pointer and desired track will
indicate the course for the next flight plan leg. The CDI will indicate the cross track error relative to the arc for the
duration of the turn. The flight plan leg will sequence to the next leg at the apex of the arc, indicated by the To/
From Indicator momentarily switching to From, and the displayed FMS information updating to the new active leg.
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg* (Absolute Terrain On)
Active Course Leg* (Absolute Terrain Off)
Active Heading Leg* (Absolute Terrain On)
Active Heading Leg* (Absolute Terrain Off)
Active Roll Steering Path*† (Absolute Terrain On)
Active Roll Steering Path*† (Absolute Terrain Off)
Course Leg in the current flight segment (Absolute Terrain On)
Course Leg in the current flight segment (Absolute Terrain Off)
Course Leg not in the current flight segment (Absolute Terrain On)
Course Leg not in the current flight segment (Absolute Terrain Off)
Heading Leg (Absolute Terrain On)
Heading Leg (Absolute Terrain Off)
Roll Steering Path † (Absolute Terrain On)
Roll Steering Path † (Absolute Terrain Off)
Future Roll Steering Path ‡ (Absolute Terrain On)
Future Roll Steering Path ‡ (Absolute Terrain Off)
Turn Anticipation Arc (Absolute Terrain On/Absolute Terrain Off)
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A roll steering path is a computed transition between two disconnected legs.
‡ A roll steering path in the flight plan that is beyond the next leg appears as a future roll steering path. When a future roll
steering path becomes the next leg in the flight plan, it appears as a roll steering path.
Table 5-6 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
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Upon power up, the previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft position
is at the origin airport and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not at the origin, on the ground,
or if more than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification, the previously active flight plan
is not retained. One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan
is overwritten when another flight plan is activated.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. One flight plan can
be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. A standby flight plan can be created by copying the
active flight plan or by manual entry. The standby flight plan can be activated. When storing flight plans with
an approach, departure, or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define
the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the stored procedure
information as long as the stored procedure has not been modified by the flight crew. If an approach, departure,
or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the affected stored flight plan(s), and an
alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that one or more stored flight plans need
to be edited.
When the database is updated, stored flight plan airways may need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment
is reloaded from the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads
the sequence of waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is
updated). The update of a flight plan airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints
are changed to regular (non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages
in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
There are four places to create, modify, or view a flight plan:
• Active Flight Plan Screen on the Touchscreen Controller (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Standby Flight Plan Screen on the Touchscreen Controller (create/modify the standby flight plan)
• Flight Plan Catalog Screen on the Touchscreen Controller (create/modify a stored flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Text on the Navigation Map Display (view the active flight plan)
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Flight Plan Name
Direct To (¯) Button
Departure Identifier Button
PROC Button
Waypoint Options Button
Active Flight Plan Leg
Standby Flight Plan Button
Flight Path Angle/Speed Constraint
Button
VNAV Altitude Button
VNAV Button
Flight Plan Options Button
Enroute Button
Figure 5-95 Active Flight Plan Screen
Flight Plan Name
Activate Standby Button
Departure Identifier Button
PROC Button
Waypoint Options Button
Active Flight Plan Button
Bearing/Distance to Waypoint
VNAV Altitude Button
Flight Plan Options Button
Enroute Button
Figure 5-96 Standby Flight Plan Screen
Number of Flight Plans Stored
Number of Available Storage Spots
Stored Flight Plan Options Button
Cumulative Flight Plan Distance
Departure Airport Identifier/Symbol
Destination Airport Identifier/Symbol
Create New Catalog Flight Plan
Button
Figure 5-97 Flight Plan Catalog Screen
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Active Flight Plan Leg
Current VNAV Profile
Active Flight Plan Info
Active Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-98 Active Flight Plan displayed on Navigation Map
- Active VNAV WPT ID/Alt
- Time to TOD, BOD,
TOC, or BOC
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Vertical Speed Required
- Vertical Deviation
Waypoint Selection Button
Prev Button
Next Button
Figure 5-99 Waypoint Options Window - Previous/Next Waypoint Buttons
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
Auto-designation will determine the most likely airport of origin and auto-populate the Active Flight Plan.
Once determined, the airfield identifier automatically appears in the Origin Field and the line immediately below
Origin while keeping the runway (‘RW’) field empty. The line below the origin line serves as the first point in the
flight plan.
Auto-designation occurs between 15 and 60 seconds after display power-up under the following conditions:
• Aircraft position is known
• Aircraft is on the ground
• Nearest airport is within 200NM
• Flight plan is empty
If the pilot manually enters the origin, or any other leg of the flight plan before auto-nomination occurs, nothing
gets inserted automatically. The automatic insertion logic only runs once, so the pilot can edit the origin if the
nearest airport is not the desired origin.
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If the pilot enters a different airport into the first point of the flight plan, the origin will change to this entry, and
the pilot will be prompted to enter the departure runway.
Both the origin airport/runway and the first point of the flight plan will be the same unless a departure is entered
and a manual leg is inserted at the beginning of the loaded departure. Loading a departure locks in the origin
information.
The system automatically sequences through the active flight plan, with the exception of manually terminated
legs (such as FM, HM, or VM).
NOTE: A flight plan leg with manual termination projects the path ahead of the aircraft for five nautical
miles.
The OBS Softkey sets the current course to the active waypoint as the OBS course and suspends automatic
sequencing of waypoints. Activating OBS mode sets the current active-to waypoint as the primary navigation
reference and prevents the system from sequencing to the next waypoint.
If OBS mode is disabled after reaching the defined waypoint, the system will activate suspend mode. The SUSP
Softkey on the PFD must be pressed to exit suspend mode and resume automatic waypoint sequencing. The
flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line. Sequencing will occur based upon the automatic
waypoint sequencing criteria.
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the system resumes
automatic sequencing of waypoints, and follows the course set in OBS Mode. The flight path on the moving map
retains the modified course line. Sequencing will occur based upon the automatic waypoint sequencing criteria.
Depending on aircraft position, crosstrack error, and turn anticipation arc, the system may sequence sooner than
expected, or to a different waypoint than expected.
An active, standby or stored flight plan can be previewed on the Navigation Map by selecting the Show on Map
Button. When a waypoint in a flight plan is selected, the Waypoint Options Window is displayed, and the page
up/page down buttons are replaced by the previous/next waypoint buttons. This allows easier previewing of the
flight plan on the navigation map.
NOTE: ETE can be displayed as either (H)H+MM (ETE greater than 60 minutes) or MM:SS (ETE less than 60
minutes).
Displaying/removing the flight plan preview on the navigation map:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > Flight Plan
Options.
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2) Touch the Show on Map Button. A preview of the flight plan is shown on the Navigation Map Display Pane.
3) Press the Show on Map Button again to remove the preview from the display.
Displaying/removing flight plan text on the navigation map:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Selection > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Inset Window Tab.
3) Touch the Flight Plan Text Button to display/remove the active flight plan text on the Navigation Map Display Pane.
4) Waypoint distances shown on the Flight Plan Text inset may be set as leg to leg distances or cumulative distance
by selecting the CUM Button or Leg-Leg Button.
Displaying/removing the active flight plan progress on the navigation map:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Inset Window Tab.
3) Touch the Flight Plan Progress Button to display/remove the active flight plan progress.
Flight Plan Progress
Active Flight Plan Leg
Next Waypoint
Destination Waypoint
Figure 5-100 Active Flight Plan Progress displayed on Navigation Map
CREATING A FLIGHT PLAN
Stored flight plans listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Screen, can be copied to the standby flight plan, and are
available for activation (becomes the active flight plan). For more information on editing and activating a stored
flight plan, see the Flight Plan Storage discussion later in this section.
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Creating a stored flight plan using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch the Create New Catalog Flight Plan Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
4) Touch the Add Origin Button to display the keypad.
5) Select the identifier of the origin waypoint.
Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select a waypoint Identifier.
Or:
Use the upper right knobs to select a waypoint identifier.
Or:
a) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
b) Touch the Nearest, Recent, Flight Plan, or Favorites Tab and select the waypoint from the list of waypoints.
Or:
a) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
b) Touch the Search Tab to display the Search By Button.
c) If necessary, touch the Search By Button to choose Search by City or Search by Facility.
d) Touch the Facility Name Button or the City Name Button to display the keypad.
e) Use the keypad to select the name, and the Enter Button to accept the entry and display the search results.
f) Touch a waypoint selection button to choose the waypoint.
6) If needed, touch the Origin Button to display the Select Runway Screen. Touch a runway selection button to
select the departure runway and return to the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
7) Touch the Add Destination Button to display the keypad.
8) Select the identifier of the destination waypoint using one of the step 5 procedures.
9) If needed, touch the Destination Button to display the Destination Options Window. Touch the Select Arrival
Runway Button to display the Select Runway Screen. Touch a runway selection button to select the destination
runway and return to the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
10) Touch the Add Enroute Waypoint Button to display the keypad.
11) Select the identifier of the enroute waypoint using one of the step 5 procedures.
12) Repeat step numbers 10 and 11 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
13) When finished, press the Back Button to return to the Flight Plan Catalog Screen. The flight plan is stored in the
next available slot of the Flight Plan Catalog.
The active flight plan is listed on the Active Flight Plan Screen on the Touchscreen Controller. It is the flight
plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is shown on the navigation maps.
Creating an active or standby flight plan using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) For the active flight plan, from MFD Home > Flight Plan.
Or:
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For the standby flight plan, from MFD Home > Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan
2) If adding or changing the airport origin is necessary, touch the Add Origin Button to display the keypad.
3) If necessary, select the identifier of the origin waypoint.
Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select a waypoint Identifier.
Or:
Use the upper right knobs to select a waypoint identifier.
Or:
a) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
b) Touch the Nearest, Recent, Flight Plan, or Favorites Tab and select the waypoint from the list of waypoints.
Or:
a) Touch the Find Button to display the Find Waypoint Screen.
b) Touch the Search Tab to display the Search By Button.
c) If necessary, touch the Search By Button to choose Search by City or Search by Facility.
d) Touch the Facility Name Button or the City Name Button to display the keypad.
e) Use the keypad to select the name, and the Enter Button to accept the entry and display the search results.
f) Touch a waypoint selection button to choose the waypoint.
4) If needed, touch the Origin Button to display the Select Runway Screen. Touch a runway selection button to
select the departure runway and return to the Active Flight Plan Screen.
5) Touch the Add Destination Button to display the keypad.
6) Select the identifier of the destination waypoint using one of the step 3 procedures.
7) Touch the Destination Button to display the Destination Options Window. Touch the Select Arrival Runway
Button to display the Select Runway Screen. Touch a runway selection button to select the destination runway
and return to the Active Flight Plan Screen.
8) Touch the Add Enroute Waypoint Button to display the keypad.
9) Select the identifier of the enroute waypoint using one of the step 3 procedures.
10) Repeat step numbers 8 and 9 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
11) If you are finished adding enroute waypoints, touch the Done Button to remove the Add Enroute Waypoint
Button and the Done Button from the Active Flight Plan Screen (This step is not necessary for the standby flight plan).
12) If needed, touch the Origin Button to display the Origin Options Window to select a new origin airport,
departure runway, departure procedure, or to remove the origin airport.
13) If needed, touch the Destination Button to display the Destination Options Window to select a new destination
airport, arrival runway, arrival procedure, approach procedure, or to remove the destination airport.
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Add Origin Button
Add Enroute Waypoint Button
Done Button
Add Destination Button
Figure 5-101 Active Flight Plan Screen - Empty
Origin Button
Runway
Selection
Button
Destination
Button
Origin and Destination Loaded
Origin Runway Selection
Figure 5-102 Active Flight Plan Screen - Origin and Destination Loaded
Origin
Options
Button
Destination
Options
Button
Origin Options Screen
Destination Options Screen
Figure 5-103 Active Flight Plan Screen - Origin and Destination Options
The standby flight plan is listed on the Standby Flight Plan Screen on the Touchscreen Controller, and is
available for activation (becomes the active flight plan). The standby flight plan may be used as a means to
create a flight plan for future use. Once a standby flight plan is created, it can be stored to the Flight Plan
Catalog.
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Switching between the active and standby flight plan screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Standby Flight Plan Button to display the Standby Flight Plan Screen.
3) Touch the Active Flight Plan Button to return to the Active Flight Plan Screen.
Standby
Flight Plan
Button
Active
Flight Plan
Button
Figure 5-104 Switching between Active and Standby Flight Plan Screen
Activating the standby flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan
2) Touch the Activate Standby Button.
3) Touch the OK Button in response to “Activate Standby Flight Plan and Replace Current Active Route?”. To
cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
The standby flight plan may also be used for diversion planning purposes by linking the standby flight plan to the
aircraft's present position (Join from P. POS Button). Once linked, or "joined", the Standby Flight Plan Screen will
show a white arrow indicating the link from the aircraft present position to a specified waypoint in the standby flight
plan. When the Show on Map option is chosen for the standby flight plan, the Standby Flight Plan Display will depict a
white line between the aircraft present position and the standby flight plan waypoint for which it is currently linked to.
As the aircraft continues navigating the active flight plan, the P. POS link between the aircraft present position and the
standby flight plan will continuously update and sequence to the next waypoint, as necessary, to provide a best point of
diversion from the active flight plan.
NOTE: The Join from P. Pos Button is for planning purposes only. It does not create any changes to the active
flight plan, nor does it provide navigation guidance to the selected waypoint in the standby flight plan.
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Linking aircraft present position (Join From P. POS) to the standby flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch a waypoint options button desired for linking the aircraft present position to.
3) Touch the Join From P. POS Button.
4) A P. POS Button is added to the standby flight plan with a white arrow drawn to indicate the link created. To
change the waypoint that P. POS is linked to, repeat steps 2-4 for the desired waypoint.
Join From P. POS
Button
White arrow
shows link
from P. POS
to the standby
flight plan
waypoint
Links aircraft present
position to the
standby flight plan
Figure 5-105 Standby Flight Plan Screen - Join From P. POS
Standby Flight Plan Display
Aircraft present position
White line indicates link
from P. POS to TYTUS
Standby Flight Plan
KMKC-WLDCT4.KENTN-KEMP
Figure 5-106 Standby Flight Plan Display - Join From P.POS link active
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Updated link from P. POS to KENTN
P.POS link sequenced to KENTN
Figure 5-107 P. POS link sequenced to next waypoint in standby flight plan
Removing P. POS link from the standby flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch the P. POS Button.
3) Touch the Remove Link Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to “Remove link from P. POS?”. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel
Button.
Remove Link Button
- Touch to remove link
between P. POS and the
standby flight plan
Figure 5-108 Standby Flight Plan - Remove link from P. POS
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IMPORTING AND EXPORTING FLIGHT PLANS WITH A MOBILE DEVICE
Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Flight Stream 510 Bluetooth wireless
connection, if installed. Transfer of a flight plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device.
Ignoring a pending flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a flashing Connext Button will appear on
the button bar on the Touchscreen Controller, and a Connext annunciation appears on the PFD.
2) Press the Connext Button to see the notification of the pending flight plan on the Notifications Screen.
3) Press the Connext Button again to ignore the pending flight plan and return to the previous screen. The
pending flight plan is not loaded into the system, though the notification message will still remain on the
Notifications Screen under the Connext Tab for future use.
Flight Plan Received Button
Pending Flight Plan Name
Connext Button
Connext Tab
Figure 5-109 Notifications Screen - Pending Flight Plan Received
Touching the Flight Plan Received Button previews the pending flight plan while simultaneously adding it
to the Standby Flight Plan Screen. The pending flight plan is also automatically added to the Flight Plan Catalog
Screen for future use.
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Viewing and activating a pending flight plan from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a flashing Connext Button will appear on
the button bar on the Touchscreen Controller, and a Connext annunciation appears on the PFD.
2) Touch the Connext Button to see the notification of the pending flight plan on the Notifications Screen.
3) Touch the Flight Plan Received Button to preview and add the pending flight plan to the standby flight plan.
If there is already a loaded standby flight plan, a pop up window will confirm 'Replace Standby Flight Plan?'.
Touch OK to continue.
4) The Standby Flight Plan Screen is now shown on the Touchscreen Controller containing the flight plan which
was transferred from the mobile device.
5) To activate the standby flight plan, touch the Activate Standby Button.
Flight Plan Name
Activate Standby Button
Flight Plan Options Button
Show on Map Activate Standby -
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Figure 5-110 Standby Flight Plan Screen
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IMPORTING AND EXPORTING FLIGHT PLANS WITH AN SD CARD
A stored flight plan can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options > Flight Plan Catalog >
Create New Catalog Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
3) Touch the Import Button to display the Import Flight Plan Screen.
4) Touch a flight plan selection button to display the flight plan information and activate the Import Button.
5) Touch the Import Button.
6) Touch the OK Button to return to the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
Flight Plan
Select
Button
Import
Button
Import
Button
Selected
Flight
Plan Info
Figure 5-111 Flight Plan Import
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
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Exporting a stored Flight Plan to an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card for storing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
3) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
4) Touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
5) Touch the Export Button to display the Export Flight Plan Screen.
6) Touch the File Name: Button to rename the exported flight plan using the keypad or upper right knobs, if
necessary.
7) Touch the Export Button.
8) Touch the OK Button in response to the “Flight Plan Successfully Exported.” prompt to return to the Flight Plan
Options Screen.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Flight Plan
Selection
Button
Flight Plan
Catalog
Button
Export
Button
Export
Button
Figure 5-112 Stored Flight Plan Export
If the export fails, a 'Flight Plan Export Failed' message will be displayed. Touch the OK Button to return to
the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
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INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original origin point.
Inverting the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Options Button to display the Flight Plan Options Window.
3) Touch the Invert Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to “Invert flight plan?”. The flight plan is inverted (all procedures are removed).
To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Invert and Activate Button.
5) Touch the OK Button in response to “Invert and Activate Selected Flight Plan and Replace Current Active
Route?”. The stored flight plan is inverted (all procedures are removed) and becomes the active flight plan. The
stored flight plan is not modified. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
Inverting a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
5) Touch the Flight Plan Options Button.
6) Touch the Invert Button . Touch the OK Button to continue. The flight plan and flight plan comment is inverted (all
procedures are removed). Touch the Back Button to save the changes and return to the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
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FLIGHT PLAN STORAGE
The system can store up to 99 flight plans. Details about each stored flight plan can be viewed on the Flight
Plan Catalog Screen.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen. The flight plan information
is displayed showing departure, destination, and total distance information for the stored flight plans.
3) Touch a stored flight plan button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen to view the waypoints in the stored flight plan.
Cumulative Flight Plan Distance
Stored Flight Plan Button
Departure Airport Identifier/Symbol
Destination Airport Identifier/Symbol
Figure 5-113 Flight Plan Catalog Screen
Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Flight Plan Segment Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Flight Plan Options Button
Figure 5-114 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen
Storing a flight plan from the Active or Standby Flight Plan Screen:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options..
2) Touch the Store Button.
3) Touch the OK Button in response to the question “Store XXXX/XXXX into catalog?”.
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ACTIVATE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and
replaces it with the flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed). For information on how
to invert and activate a stored flight plan, see the Inverting a Flight Plan discussion in this section.
Activating a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a stored flight plan button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Activate Button.
5) Touch the OK Button in response to “Activate Selected Flight Plan and Replace Current Active Route?”. To
cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
COPY A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows copying a stored flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc.,
without affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use
in creating a modified version of the original stored flight plan. A stored flight plan can also be copied to the
standby flight plan.
Copying a stored flight plan to another flight plan memory slot:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a stored flight plan button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Copy Button.
5) Touch the OK Button in response to “Copy Flight Plan <flight plan name>?”. The copied flight plan is placed
at the end of the list of stored flight plans. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
Copying a stored flight plan to the standby flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a stored flight plan button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Copy to Standby Button. If the standby flight plan is empty, the selected flight plan is copied to
the standby flight plan. If there is already a standby flight plan, then a confirmation message is displayed.
5) If necessary, touch the OK Button in response to “Copy Selected Flight Plan and Replace Current Standby Flight
Plan?”. The selected flight plan is copied to the standby flight plan. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel
Button.
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DELETE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Individual flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a stored flight plan button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Delete Button.
5) Touch the OK Button in response to “Delete Flight Plan <flight plan name>?”. The flight plan is deleted, and
any flight plans following it in the list are shifted up. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan, the standby flight plan, or any stored flight plan. Choose
the flight plan, select the desired point of insertion, then select the waypoint to be added to the flight plan.
Flight plans are limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number
of waypoints in the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.”
appears and the new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Flight Plan Segment Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Procedure Options Button
Waypoint Options Button
Enroute Options Button
Flight Plan Options Button
Figure 5-115 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen
Flight Plan Full Message
Figure 5-116 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen - Flight Plan Full
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Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
5) Touch a waypoint options button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
6) Touch the Insert Before Button or the Insert After Button to select where the new waypoint will be placed
in relation to the selected waypoint. The keypad is displayed.
7) Use the keypad, upper right knobs, or the Find function to select the new waypoint.
8) Touch the Enter Button to accept the waypoint and place it in the flight plan.
Insert Before Button
Insert After Button
Selected Waypoint
Remove Waypoint Button
Waypoint Info Button
Figure 5-117 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen - Waypoint Options Window
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
5) Scroll, if necessary to show the Enroute Button.
6) Touch the Enroute Button to display the Enroute Options Window.
7) Touch the Insert Waypoint Button to display the keypad.
8) Use the keypad, upper right knobs, or the Find function to select the new waypoint.
9) Touch the Enter Button to accept the waypoint and place it in the flight plan.
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Enroute Button
Figure 5-118 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen - Adding a Waypoint to the beginning of the Enroute segment of the Flight Plan
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
5) Scroll, if necessary to show the Add Enroute Waypoint Button.
6) Touch the Add Enroute Waypoint Button to display the keypad.
7) Use the keypad, upper right knobs, or the Find function to select the new waypoint.
8) Touch the Enter Button to accept the waypoint and place it in the flight plan.
Add Enroute Waypoint
Button
Figure 5-119 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen - Adding a Waypoint to the end of the Enroute segment of the Flight Plan
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NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a ‘Duplicates found’
message is shown. Touch the Enter Button and the Waypoint Duplicates Screen is displayed. Touch a
waypoint selection button to select the correct waypoint.
Duplicates
Message
Waypoint
Selection
Button
Figure 5-120 Duplicate Waypoints
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan using the following procedures on the Active Flight Plan
Screen. Waypoints are added to the standby flight plan using the same procedures from the Standby Flight Plan
Screen instead of the Active Flight Plan Screen.
Adding a waypoint to the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch a waypoint button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
3) Touch the Insert Before Button or the Insert After Button to select where the new waypoint will be placed
in relation to the selected waypoint. The keypad is displayed.
4) Use the keypad, upper right knobs, or the Find function to select the new waypoint.
5) Touch the Enter Button to accept the waypoint and place it in the flight plan.
Insert Before Button
Insert After Button
Selected Waypoint
Waypoint Info Button
Remove Waypoint Button
Figure 5-121 Active Flight Plan Screen - Waypoint Options Window
Or:
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1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll, if necessary to show the Enroute Button.
3) Touch the Enroute Button to display the Enroute Options Window.
4) Touch the Insert Waypoint Button to display the keypad.
5) Use the keypad, upper right knobs, or the Find function to select the new waypoint.
6) Touch the Enter Button to accept the waypoint and place it in the flight plan.
Enroute Button
Figure 5-122 Active Flight Plan Screen - Adding a Waypoint to the beginning of the Enroute segment of the Flight Plan
Or:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll, if necessary to show the Add Enroute Waypoint Button.
3) Touch the Add Enroute Waypoint Button to display the keypad.
4) Use the keypad, upper right knobs, or the Find function to select the new waypoint.
5) Touch the Enter Button to accept the waypoint and place it in the flight plan.
6) If you are finished adding waypoint at the end of the enroute segment, touch the Done Button to remove the
Add Enroute Waypoint Button and the Done Button from the Active Flight Plan Screen (not necessary for
the standby flight plan).
Add Enroute Waypoint
Button
Figure 5-123 Active Flight Plan Screen - Adding a Waypoint to the end of the Enroute segment of the Flight Plan
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Adding waypoints to the active or standby flight plan using the map pointer:
1) For the active flight plan: Go to step 2.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Press the lower right knob on the Touchscreen Controller to the display Map Pointer Control Screen on the
Touchscreen Controller, and to activate the map pointer on the Navigation Map Display Pane. Use the upper
right knob on the Touchscreen Controller or the Touchpad to move the pointer to the map location of the
desired waypoint. When the pointer highlights a map location that can be added to the flight plan, the Insert
in FPL Button is activated.
3) Touch the Insert In FPL Button. The Insert Before Waypoint Screen is displayed.
4) Touch the waypoint selection button to select where to insert the new waypoint. The waypoint is inserted into
the flight plan before the selected waypoint, and the Touchscreen Controller returns to the Map Pointer Options
Screen. Press the either knob on the Touchscreen Controller to deactivate the map pointer and return to the
previous screen.
Map Pointer
- KTOP Highlighted
Active Flight Plan Info
Figure 5-124 Active Flight Plan Display - Map Pointer Active
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Insert In
FPL Button
Waypoint
Selection
Button
Figure 5-125 Inserting Waypoint in Active Flight Plan
KTOP Inserted
Figure 5-126 KTOP in Flight Plan
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Flight plan waypoints which are not part of a procedure can be defined as fly over waypoints. The aircraft will
fly over the waypoint before turning to the next leg instead of turning short to the next leg.
Enabling/disabling a fly over waypoint:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch a waypoint selection button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
3) Touch the Fly Over Waypoint Button to enable/disable the waypoint as a fly over waypoint.
TOP Fly By Turn Arc
TOP Fly By Waypoint Fly Over Waypoint
Button
Figure 5-127 TOP Defined as a Fly By Waypoint
TOP Fly Over Turn Path
TOP Fly Over Waypoint
(Fly Over Icon)
Fly Over Waypoint
Button
Figure 5-128 TOP Defined as a Fly Over Waypoint
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ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
Airways can be added to the active flight plan, standby flight plan, or any stored flight plan. An airway can
only be loaded if there is a waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an
arrival or approach procedure. The system also anticipates the desired airway based on the selected waypoint
and the flight plan.
Adding an airway to the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a waypoint options button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
3) Touch the Load Airway Button to display the Airway Selection Screen.
4) Touch the Sort A->Z Button to select/deselect alphabetical sorting of the airway waypoints.
5) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an airway selection button to select the airway and display the Select Exit
Window (if Sort A->Z is selected, the exit points are displayed in alphabetical order, not the order they appear
in the airway).
6) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an airway exit point selection button to select the airway exit point and
display the Airway Waypoint Sequence.
7) Touch the Load Airway Button to insert the airway into the active or standby flight plan.
Airway
Selection
Button
Selected
Airway
Entry Point
Load
Airway
Button
Airway
Waypoint
Sequence
Airway
Exit Point
Selection
Button
Figure 5-129 Adding an Airway to the Active Flight Plan
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Load
Airway
Button
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Inserted Airway
Inserted Airway Header
- Airway Identifier:
[airway id].[exit wpt id]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
Figure 5-130 Active Flight Plan Display - V4 Airway Loaded
Inserted Airway Header
- Airway Identifier:
[airway id].[exit waypoint id]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
Figure 5-131 Active Flight Plan Screen - V4 Airway Loaded
Adding an airway to a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
5) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a waypoint options button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
6) Touch the Load Airway Button to display the Airway Selection Screen.
7) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an airway selection button to select the airway and display the Select Exit
Window.
8) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an airway exit point selection button to select the airway exit point and
display the Airway Waypoint Sequence.
9) Touch the Load Airway Button to insert the airway into the stored flight plan.
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RESTRICTIONS ON ADDING AIRWAYS
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a directional
restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only in the direction MTD-ABB-BNE-DEVAL.
Airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the list of airway
waypoints AMANO, VAKOR, LIBRO, NELDA, DIRKA, GZO, KOSET, and SARKI:
• Starting from AMANO, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Starting from SARKI, the airway can be flown only to LIBRO.
• Between NELDA and GZO, the airway can be flown in either direction.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
COLLAPSING AND EXPANDING AIRWAYS
The system allows airways to be collapsed or expanded. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated
on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The Active Flight Plan Screen always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and the “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
Airway
Collapsed
Airway
Expanded
Figure 5-132 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
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Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an airway selection button to display the Airway Options Window.
3) Touch the desired selection button to collapse/expand an individual airway, or collapse/expand all airways.
4) Touch the Back Button to return to the Active Flight Plan Screen.
By default, the system will collapse all airways as they are loaded into the flight plan. If instead, it is preferred
to have airways expanded within the flight plan as they are loaded, this setting may be changed.
Changing settings for newly loaded airways:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an airway selection button to display the Airway Options Window.
3) Touch the Load New Airways Button.
4) Touch the selection button for the desired setting (Expanded or Collapsed).
Collapse Airway Button
Expand Airway Button
Expand All Button
Collapse All Button
Load New Airways Button
Figure 5-133 Airway Options Screen - Collapsing/Expanding Airways
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ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the Procedures section for more details.
Stored Flight Plan Name
Load Departure Button
Stored Flight Plan Waypoint List
Load Arrival Button
Load Approach Button
Figure 5-134 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen - Flight Plan Options
DEPARTURE
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the origin airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Departure Button
Airport Button
Transition Button
Departure Waypoint Sequence
Runway Button
Preview Button
Filter by Button
Remove Button
Load Button
Figure 5-135 Departure Selection Screen
The Filter by Button on the Departure Selection Screen changes the selection order between: Filter by
Departure - selecting the departure first, then showing only the transitions and runways available for that
departure; or Filter by Runway - selecting the runway first, then showing only the departures and transitions
available for that runway. Any of the buttons can still be selected in any order you choose.
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Preview of
Selected
Departure
Origin Airport
Figure 5-136 Departure Display - Preview of the Selected Departure
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
5) Touch the Flight Plan Options Button to display the Flight Plan Options Window.
6) Touch the Load Departure Button to display the Departure Selection Screen.
7) Touch the Departure Button to display the Select Departure Screen with a list of available departures.
8) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a departure selection button to select the departure and return to the
Departure Selection Screen.
9) Touch the Transition Button to display the Select Transition Screen with a list of available transitions.
10) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a transition selection button to select the transition and return to the
Departure Selection Screen.
11) Touch the Runway Button to display the Select Runway Screen with a list of available runways.
12) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a runway selection button to select the runway and return to the Departure
Selection Screen.
13) Touch the Preview Button, then the Show on Map Button to show the preview of the departure on the
navigation map or touch the Show Chart Button to show the departure chart instead of the navigation map.
14) Touch the Load Button to insert the departure into the stored flight plan.
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Stored Flight Plan Name
Inserted Departure Header
- Departure Identifier: [departure
airport]-[departure runway].
[departure name].
[departure transition]
(e.g., KMKC-RW01.TIFTO4.TIFTO)
Figure 5-137 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen - Departure Inserted
Departure End Point
Loaded Departure
Origin Airport
Figure 5-138 Stored Flight Plan Display - Departure Inserted
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ARRIVAL
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Arrival Button
Airport Button
Transition Button
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Runway Button
Preview Button
Filter by Button
Remove Button
Load Button
Figure 5-139 Arrival Selection Screen
The Filter by Button on the Arrival Selection Screen changes the selection order between: Filter by Arrival selecting the arrival first, then showing only the transitions and runways available for that arrival; or Filter by
Runway - selecting the runway first, then showing only the arrivals and transitions available for that runway.
Any of the buttons can still be selected in any order you choose.
Destination Airport
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-140 Arrival Display - Preview of the Selected Arrival
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
5) Touch the Flight Plan Options Button to display the Flight Plan Options Window.
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6) Touch the Load Arrival Button to display the Arrival Selection Screen. If necessary, touch the Airport Button
to enter the destination airport.
7) Touch the Arrival Button to display the Select Arrival Screen with a list of available arrivals.
8) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an arrival selection button to select the arrival and return to the Arrival
Selection Screen.
9) Touch the Transition Button to display the Select Transition Screen with a list of available transitions.
10) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a transition selection button to select the transition and return to the Arrival
Selection Screen.
11) Touch the Runway Button to display the Select Runway Screen with a list of available runways.
12) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a runway selection button to select the runway and return to the Arrival
Selection Screen.
13) Touch the Preview Button, then the Show on Map Button to show the preview of the arrival on the navigation
map or touch the Show Chart Button to show the arrival chart instead of the navigation map.
14) Touch the Load Button to insert the arrival into the stored flight plan.
Stored Flight Plan Name
Inserted Arrival Header
- Arrival Identifier: [destination
airport]-[arrival transition].
[arrival].[arrival runway]
(e.g., KCOS-TBE.DBRY2.RW35R)
Figure 5-141 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen - Arrival Inserted
Destination Airport
Loaded Arrival
Figure 5-142 Stored Flight Plan Display - Arrival Inserted
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APPROACH
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a stored flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by
designating transition waypoints.
Approach Button
Airport Button
Transition Button
Approach Waypoint Sequence
Minimums Button
Preview Button
Load Button
Remove Button
Load & Activate Button
Figure 5-143 Approach Selection Screen
Destination Runway
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Figure 5-144 Approach Display - Preview of the Selected Approach
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Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Touch a flight plan selection button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button to display the Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen.
5) Touch the Flight Plan Options Button to display the Flight Plan Options Window.
6) Touch the Load Approach Button to display the Approach Selection Screen.
7) Select the airport and approach:
a) If necessary, touch the Airport Button to display the keypad and use it to select the approach airport.
b) Touch the Enter Button to accept the approach airport.
c) If necessary, touch the Approach Button to display the Select Approach Screen with a list of available
approaches.
d) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an approach selection button to select the approach and return to the
Approach Selection Screen.
Or:
a) If the SBAS Button is available , touch the SBAS Button to display the keypad and use it to select the
SBAS channel number (The SBAS channel button is only available when an RNAV or GPS based approach
is selected, or no approach is selected).
If the SBAS Button is not available , touch the Approach Button to display the Select Approach Screen,
scroll to the bottom of the list, touch the Select by SBAS Channel Button to display the keypad, and use
it to select the SBAS channel number
b) Touch the Enter Button to accept the SBAS channel and return to the Approach Selection Screen with the
airport and approach selected.
8) Touch the Transition Button to display the Select Transition Screen with a list of available transitions.
9) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a transition selection button to select the transition and return to the
Approach Selection Screen.
10) Touch the Preview Button, then the Show on Map Button to show the preview of the approach on the
navigation map or touch the Show Chart Button to show the approach chart instead of the navigation map.
11) Touch the Load Button to insert the approach into the stored flight plan.
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Stored Flight Plan Name
Inserted Approach Header
- Approach Identifier: [destination
airport]-[runway and approach type].
(e.g., KCOS-RNAV GPS Y 35R LPV)
Figure 5-145 Edit Stored Flight Plan Screen - Approach Inserted
Loaded Approach
Figure 5-146 Stored Flight Plan Display - Approach Inserted
FLIGHT PLAN EDITING
The active flight plan, the standby flight plan, or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the
active flight plan affect navigation as soon as they are entered.
DELETING THE ACTIVE OR STANDBY FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows deleting the active or standby flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends
navigation by the system. For information on deleting stored flight plans, see the Flight Plan Storage discussion
in this section.
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Deleting the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > Flight Plan
Options.
2) Touch the Delete Flight Plan Button.
3) Touch the OK Button in response to “Delete all waypoints in flight plan?”. The flight plan is deleted. To cancel
the request, touch the Cancel Button.
REMOVING FLIGHT PLAN ITEMS
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
NOTE: When a flight plan contains multiple instances of the same waypoint, editing any occurrence may
affect the active leg. Verify all flight plan edits result in the desired active waypoint.
NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the end waypoint of
the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and activated.
Removing an individual waypoint from the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a waypoint options button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
3) Touch the Remove Waypoint Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to “Remove <waypoint name>?”. The waypoint is removed. To cancel the
request, touch the Cancel Button.
Removing an entire airway from the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an airway selection button to display the Airway Options Window.
3) Touch the Remove Airway Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to “Remove Airway -<airway name> from flight plan?”. The airway is
removed, but the starting and ending waypoints remain in the flight plan. To cancel the request, touch the
Cancel Button.
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Removing an entire procedure from the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a departure, arrival, or approach selection button to display the Departure,
Arrival, or Approach Options Window.
3) Touch the Remove Departure Button, the Remove Arrival Button, or the Remove Approach Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to “Remove <procedure> -<procedure name> from flight plan?”. The
procedure is removed. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
NOTE: The origin airport/runway remains when removing a departure; the destination airport/runway
remains if after deleting the procedure, there is no longer a procedure at the destination airport. A procedure
replaces the respective destination/runway waypoint.
Removing an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a stored flight plan button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button.
5) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a waypoint options button to display the Waypoint Options Window.
6) Touch the Remove Waypoint Button.
7) Touch the OK Button in response to “Remove <waypoint name>?”. The waypoint is removed. To cancel the
request, touch the Cancel Button.
Removing an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a stored flight plan button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button.
5) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an airway selection button to display the Airway Options Window.
6) Touch the Remove Airway Button.
7) Touch the OK Button in response to “Remove <airway name>?”. The airway is removed, but the starting and
ending waypoints remain in the flight plan. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
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Removing an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a stored flight plan button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Edit Button.
5) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a departure, arrival, or approach selection button to display the Departure,
Arrival, or Approach Options Window.
6) Touch the Remove Departure Button, the Remove Arrival Button, or the Remove Approach Button.
7) Touch the OK Button in response to “Remove <procedure> -<procedure name> from flight plan?”. The
procedure is removed. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
CHANGING FLIGHT PLAN COMMENTS (NAMES)
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification
and sorting.
Changing the active or standby flight plan comment:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > Flight Plan
Options.
2) Touch the Rename Button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad to select the comment.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the comment, and return to the Flight Plan Options Screen.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Catalog Button to display the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
3) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a stored flight plan button to display the Catalog Options Window.
4) Touch the Rename Button to display the keypad.
5) Use the keypad to select the comment.
6) Touch the Enter Button to accept the comment, and return to the Flight Plan Catalog Screen.
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ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The system allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently
used for navigation guidance).
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the waypoint options button to select the destination waypoint for the
desired leg. The Waypoint Options Window is displayed.
3) Touch the Activate Leg to Waypoint Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to “Activate Leg?”. The new active flight plan leg is activated. To cancel the
request, touch the Cancel Button.
Current
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Activate
Leg to
Waypoint
Button
Waypoint
Options
Button
Selected Leg
Destination
Waypoint
OK Button
New Active
Flight Plan
Leg
Cancel
Button
Figure 5-147 Active Flight Plan Screen - Activating a Flight Plan Leg
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ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
NOTE: The along track offset distance is calculated to the waypoint sequence point (e.g. turn anticipation arc
bisector), not along the direct course to the waypoint. This can result in the offset waypoint and constraints
being placed less than or greater than the specified offset distance along the direct course to the waypoint.
To precisely control the offset distance, a user-defined waypoint can be created at the specified distance and
bearing from the waypoint. See the Creating User Waypoints procedures.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
The along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
An altitude constraint can also be entered for the along track waypoint, and are modifiable. An along track
offset waypoint can only be used for vertical navigation, and is not available for creation of a user defined hold,
or as a direct to destination.
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Waypoint
Selected
Along
Track
Waypoint
Button
(Before) Button
(After) +
Button
Waypoint
Options
Button
Along Track Offset Waypoint
Altitude Constraint
Along Track Offset
Waypoint Options
Button
Figure 5-148 Inserting an Along Track Offset Waypoint
Inserting an along track offset waypoint into the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch a waypoint options button to display the Waypoint Options Screen.
3) Touch the Along Track Waypoint Button to bring up the Along Track Waypoint Offset Screen.
4) Use the keypad to select the distance in the range of 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Touch the (Before) - Button or the (After) - Button to select the offset waypoint direction.
6) Touch the Enter Button to insert the offset waypoint into the flight plan.
Removing an along track offset waypoint from the active or standby flight plan:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch the along track offset waypoint options button to display the Waypoint Options Screen.
3) Touch the Remove Waypoint Button.
4) Touch the OK Button to delete the waypoint from the flight plan.
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Along Track Offset Waypoint
Altitude Constraint Button
Altitude
Entry
Flight Level
Mode Button
MSL
Mode Button
Altitude
Constraint
Added
Figure 5-149 Adding an Altitude Contraint
See the Vertical Navigation section for information on the vertical navigation direct-to (VNAV ¯ ) function.
Adding an altitude constraint at an along track offset waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch an Along Track Offset Waypoint Altitude Constraint Button to display the VNAV Altitude Screen.
3) Use the keypad to select the altitude.
4) Touch the Flight Level Button or the MSL Button to select the altitude mode.
5) Touch the Enter Button to add the altitude constraint to the flight plan.
Removing an altitude constraint from an along track offset waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Along Track Offset Waypoint Altitude Constraint Button to display the VNAV Altitude Screen.
3)
Touch the Remove VNAV ALT Button. A ‘Remove VNAV altitude?’ window is displayed.
4) Touch the OK Button to remove the altitude constraint. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
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PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the current
flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel course,
and waypoint names have a lower case “-p” placed after the identifier.
While flying a parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to will cancel the parallel track and fly direct-to the selected waypoint. • Initiating a hold at the present position will cancel the parallel track and fly the holding pattern.
• Initiating a hold at a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is required to fly
to the hold waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the parallel track will be
resumed. Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be resumed upon exiting the hold.
Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a
result of the course change.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Active Flight Plan
prior to Parallel Track
Figure 5-150 Active Flight Plan Display - Prior to Activating Parallel Track
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Offset Direction
Left Button
Right Button
Activate Parallel Track Button
Parallel Track Status
Offset Distance Button
Figure 5-151 Parallel Track Screen - Selecting Parallel Track
Activating parallel track:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options > Parallel Track.
2) Touch the Left Button or the Right Button to choose the offset direction.
3) Touch the Offset Distance Button to display the keypad.
4) Use the keypad to select the distance.
5) Touch the Enter Button to accept the distance, and return to the Parallel Track Screen.
6) Touch the Activate Parallel Track Button to activate the parallel track function.
Original Track
Parallel Track
Parallel Track Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Activating Parallel Track
affects the active flight
plan from the current
position on (will not affect
an approach)
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Figure 5-152 Active Flight Plan Display - Parallel Track Active
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If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled. If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable
to activate the parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’. If the offset
direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry, the status indicates that the system is
unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route
Geometry’). If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’).
Unavailable
-Approach
Leg Active
Unavailable
- Invalid
Route
Geometry
Unavailable
- Invalid Leg
Type
Figure 5-153 Parallel Track Unavailable
Cancelling parallel track:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options > Parallel Track.
2) Touch the Cancel Parallel Track Button to cancel the parallel track function.
Cancel Parallel Track Button
Parallel Track Status
Figure 5-154 Parallel Track Screen - Cancelling Parallel Track
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CLOSEST POINT OF FLIGHT PLAN
Closest Point of Flight Plan calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a selected
waypoint, and allows creation of a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen
reference waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active or standby flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Flight Plan Options Button to display the Flight Plan Options Screen.
3) Touch the Closest Point of Flight Plan Button to display the Closest Point of Flight Plan Screen.
4) Touch the From Waypoint Button to display the keypad.
5) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the “From” waypoint.
6) Touch the Insert Point into Flight Plan Button to add the calculated waypoint into the flight plan. The name
for the new waypoint is derived from the identifier of the From waypoint.
From Waypoint Button
Calculated Bearing/Distance
and Latitude/Longitude of the
Closest Point of Flight Plan
Figure 5-155 Closest Point of Flight Plan
Inserted Flight Plan Waypoint
Figure 5-156 Closest Point of Flight Plan inserted in Active Flight Plan
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active or standby flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position,
or at a direct-to waypoint.
Creating a user-defined hold at an active or standby flight plan waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the waypoint options button to select the waypoint at which to define the
holding pattern. The Waypoint Options Window is displayed.
3) Touch the Hold at Waypoint Button. The Hold at Waypoint Screen is displayed.
4) Touch the Turn Button, and touch the Right Button or the Left Button to select the turn direction.
5) Touch the Course Direction Button, and touch the Inbound Button or the Outbound Button to select the
course direction.
6) Touch the Inbound/Outbound Course Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter Button to
select the inbound or outbound course.
7) Touch the Leg Length Mode Button, and touch the Distance Button or the Time Button to select the length
mode.
8) Touch the Leg Time Button or the Leg Distance Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter
Button to select the length of the leg.
9) Touch the Expect Further Clearance Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter Button to
select the time for a reminder.
10) Touch the Create Button to add the hold into the flight plan.
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Hold at
Waypoint
Button
Waypoint
Options
Button
Course Direction Button
(Inbound or Outbound)
Turn Button
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Hold at P.POS Button
Leg Time or Leg Distance Button
Hold Location Information
Inbound/Outbound Course Button
Expect Further Clearance Button
Cancel Hold Button
Show on Map Button
Figure 5-157 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
2) Touch the Hold at P. POS Button. The Hold at Waypoint Screen is displayed.
3) Touch the Turn Button, and touch the Right Button or the Left Button to select the turn direction.
4) Touch the Course Direction Button, and touch the Inbound Button or the Outbound Button to select the
course direction.
5) Touch the Inbound/Outbound Course Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter Button to
select the inbound or outbound course.
6) Touch the Leg Length Mode Button, and touch the Distance Button or the Time Button to select the length mode.
7) Touch the Leg Time Button or the Leg Distance Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter
Button to select the length of the leg.
8) Touch the Expect Further Clearance Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter Button to
select the time for a reminder.
9) Touch the Create Button to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft present position.
10) If desired, to enter the hold into the flight plan, touch the PPOS-H waypoint options button to display the DirectTo Screen.
11) Touch the Insert in Flight Plan Button. The Insert ¯ PPOS-H Before? Screen is displayed.
12) Touch the desired waypoint selection button, and the hold is inserted in the flight plan before the selected
waypoint.
NOTE: When a user-defined hold is created at the aircraft present position (shown as “Offroute ¯”,
“ñPPOS-H”, at the top of the Active Flight Plan Screen), the hold is the only part of the active flight
plan shown on the map display. The hold must be canceled using the ‘Removing a user-defined hold at
the aircraft present position’ procedure, which immediately removes the hold from the active flight plan,
provides guidance to the active leg, and resumes automatic waypoint sequencing. The system will not
follow the hold to the inbound course before resuming automatic waypoint sequencing. Following the steps
in the procedure to insert the hold into the active flight plan will enable the Exit Hold capability.
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Hold at P.POS Button
Course Direction Button
(Inbound or Outbound)
Turn Button
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Hold at P.POS Button
Leg Time or Leg Distance Button
Hold Location Information
Inbound/Outbound Course Button
Expect Further Clearance Button
Cancel Hold Button
Show on Map Button
PPOS Hold
Offroute
Direct-To
PPOS-H
Waypoint
Options
Button
Insert in Flight
Plan Button
Figure 5-158 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at the Aircraft Present Position
NOTE: If a user-defined hold has been created at the aircraft present position (shown as “Offroute ¯”,
“ñPPOS-H”, at the top of the Active Flight Plan Screen), and then is edited, the preview shown on the map
will reflect the new position of the holding pattern, but the PPOS-H waypoint (orange square) may not be
accurately depicted. When the edited holding pattern is created, the PPOS-H waypoint is shown correctly.
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Creating a user-defined hold at a Direct To waypoint:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Direct-To Button and set up the Direct To waypoint as desired.
3) Touch the Hold Button. The Direct To Hold Screen is displayed.
4) Touch the Turn Button, and touch the Right Button or the Left Button to select the turn direction.
5) Touch the Course Direction Button, and touch the Inbound Button or the Outbound Button to select the
course direction.
6) Touch the Inbound/Outbound Course Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter Button to
select the inbound or outbound course.
7) Touch the Leg Length Mode Button, and touch the Distance Button or the Time Button to select the length
mode.
8) Touch the Leg Time Button or the Leg Distance Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter
Button to select the length of the leg.
9) Touch the Expect Further Clearance Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter Button to
select the time for a reminder.
10) Touch the Enter Button to return to the Direct To Screen.
11) Touch the Activate ¯ Button to activate the Direct-To and add the hold into the flight plan.
Direct To
Button
Hold
Button
Course Direction Button
(Inbound or Outbound)
Turn Button
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Hold at P.POS Button
Leg Time or Leg Distance Button
Hold Location Information
Inbound/Outbound Course Button
Expect Further Clearance Button
Cancel Hold Button
Show on Map Button
Figure 5-159 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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Removing a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint or at a Direct-To waypoint (hold
not active):
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the Hold waypoint selection button. The Waypoint Options Window is
displayed.
3) Touch the Remove Hold Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to “Remove Holding Pattern?” The holding pattern is removed. To cancel the
request, touch the Cancel Button.
Remove Hold
Button
Exit Hold
Button
Holding Pattern Not Active
Holding Pattern Active
Figure 5-160 Removing a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
Exiting a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint or at a Direct-To waypoint (hold
active):
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the Hold waypoint selection button. The Waypoint Options Window is
displayed.
3) Touch the Exit Hold Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to “Exit Hold at <identifier>?” The holding pattern will be exited at the hold
waypoint. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
NOTE: The Remove Hold Button on the Active Flight Plan Waypoint Options Window, and the Cancel Hold
Button on the Direct To Hold Screen, immediately remove the holding pattern from the active flight plan,
provide guidance to the active leg, and resume automatic waypoint sequencing. Using the Exit Hold Button
on the Active Flight Plan Waypoint Options Window, or the SUSP Softkey on the PFD will follow the holding
pattern to the inbound course and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
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Removing a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the PPOS-H waypoint options button, or touch the Direct-To Button. The
Direct To Window is displayed.
3) Touch the Cancel PPOS-H Button.
4) Touch the OK Button in response to “Cancel D-> PPOS-H?”. The holding pattern is removed. To cancel the
request, touch the Cancel Button.
Cancel D-> PPOS-H Button
Figure 5-161 Removing a User Defined Holding Pattern at the Aircraft Present Position
Editing a user-defined hold:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the Hold waypoint selection button. The Waypoint Options Window is
displayed.
3) Touch the Edit Hold Button. The Hold at Waypoint Screen is displayed.
4) Touch the Turn Button, and touch the Right Button or the Left Button to select the turn direction.
5) Touch the Course Direction Button, and touch the Inbound Button or the Outbound Button to select the
course direction.
6) Touch the Inbound/Outbound Course Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter Button to
select the inbound or outbound course.
7) Touch the Leg Length Mode Button, and touch the Distance Button or the Time Button to select the length
mode.
8) Touch the Leg Time Button or the Leg Distance Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter
Button to select the length of the leg.
9) Touch the Expect Further Clearance Button to display the keypad. Use the keypad and the Enter Button to
select the time for a reminder. A system message (HOLD EXPIRED Holding EFC time expired.) will be triggered
at the selected time.
10) Touch the Save Button to add the hold into the flight plan.
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF,
CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Vertical constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The system Vertical Navigation (VNAV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and
terminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a
direct-to waypoint is provided. Vertical navigation is based on barometric altitudes, not on GPS altitude. It
includes vertical path guidance for descending paths. The guidance is provided as a linear deviation from the
desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified altitudes or as a vertical
angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the active flight plan. Both
manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
NOTE: Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNAV vertical deviation, moving
the path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the descent
path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNAV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not reestablish on the path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
NOTE: The Top of Descent (TOD) vertical track alert will not repeat unless more than 90 seconds have
elapsed since the first occurrence. If the altitude constraint or the flight path angle constraint is modified
such that the new TOD is less than 90 seconds away, the vertical track alert will not repeat.
VNAV
Enabled
Button
VNAV
Enabled
Button
-VNAV Enabled
-VNAV Disabled
Figure 5-162 VNAV Profile Screen - Enable/Disable VNAV
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Current Vertical
Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
VNAV Altitude
Contraint
Figure 5-163 Active Flight Plan Display - VNAV Enabled
Current Vertical
Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
VNAV Altitude
Contraint
Figure 5-164 Active Flight Plan Display - VNAV Disabled
Enabling/Disabling VNAV guidance:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > VNAV.
2) Touch the Profile Tab, if necessary.
3) Touch the VNAV Enabled Button to enable/disable vertical navigation.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), time to top
of descent/bottom of descent (TIME TO TOD/BOD), and time to top of climb/bottom of climb (TIME TO TOC/
BOC) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the
PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TIME TO TOD/TOC/BOD/BOC items displayed in the CURRENT
VNAV PROFILE box are dashed. VNAV remains disabled until manually enabled.
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ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database.
Altitude Constraint Examples
Displayed Text Examples
System Calculated Altitude
(White Text)
5OOOFT
Cross AT or ABOVE 5,000 ft
Edited Altitude
Constraint
(Cyan Text with
Pencil Icon)
23OOFT
Cross AT 2,300 ft
3OOOFT
Cross AT or BELOW 3,000 ft
Temperature
Auto-Designated Compensated
Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text)
5OOOFT
3OOOFT
Cross BETWEEN 3,000 ft & 5,000 ft
White Text with Altitude
Restriction Bar
Figure 5-165 Active Flight Plan Screen - Waypoint Altitude Constraints
White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
5OOOFT
Altitude calculated by the system estimating the altitude of the aircraft
as it passes over the navigation point. No white line above or below to
indicate a potential constraint.
5OOOFT
Altitude is designated for use in determining
vertical guidance. A pencil icon indicates manual
designation or manual data entry.
5OOOFT
Altitude retrieved from the navigation database. White line above or
below indicates the type of constraint, as shown in the preceding figure.
These altitudes are provided as a reference, and are not designated to be
used in determining vertical guidance.
The system cannot use this altitude in
determining vertical guidance because of an
invalid constraint condition.
Table 5-7 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
Altitudes associated with departure, arrival, and approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means
the system automatically uses the altitudes loaded with the procedure for giving vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Note that these altitudes are displayed as cyan text up to, and including, the FAF. Additionally, all
altitudes can be manually designated up to and including the FAF. Manually designated altitudes are displayed
as cyan text with a pencil icon. For all designated altitudes, the system will automatically calculate altitude
constrains prior to the designated altitude, which are displayed as white text.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated”. The altitude is now
displayed only as a reference (white text). It is not used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed altitudes
may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude to a nondesignated altitude.
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Altitude constraints are displayed and entered to the nearest foot mean sea level (MSL) or flight level to the
nearest hundred feet. An altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports.
When a database altitude restriction is displayed, the system allows entry of a different altitude, effectively
overriding the database restriction. When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or ABOVE” or “AT or
BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical profile.
NOTE: After an approach procedure has been loaded into the flight plan, any altitude constraint programmed
at the airport reference point (on the flight plan just ahead of the approach procedure) will be removed if
the approach procedure is changed or removed.
An altitude constraint is invalid or cannot be entered if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF.
VNAV ALT Button
Figure 5-166 Active Flight Plan Screen - Waypoint Altitude Designation
Manually entering, modifying or designating an altitude constraint to be used for vertical guidance:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a VNAV ALT button to display the VNAV Altitude Window. Review the
altitude constraint information. If it is correct, skip to step 5 to designate the altitude constraint for vertical
guidance.
3) If necessary, touch the Flight Level Button or the MSL Button to select the altitude mode.
4) Use the keypad to select the altitude.
5) Touch the Enter Button to designate the altitude constraint. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is
usable for vertical guidance.
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Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the system displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude can be
provided. (The predicted altitude is the crossing altitude for the waypoint, computed by the system, based upon
the next vertical constraint in the flight plan.) The system also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude
constraint that has been edited.
Removing/undesignating an altitude constraint:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a VNAV ALT button to display the VNAV Altitude Window.
3)
Touch the Remove VNAV ALT Button. A ‘Remove VNAV altitude?’ window is displayed.
4) Touch the OK Button. The altitude is now shown in white (or possibly as white dashes if there are no other
constraints in the flight plan), indicating it is not usable for vertical guidance. To cancel the request, touch the
Cancel Button.
Manually Entered Constraint
Database Constraint
Figure 5-167 Active Flight Plan Screen - Altitude Constraints
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a VNAV ALT button to display the VNAV Altitude Window.
3) Touch the Remove VNAV ALT Button. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNAV altitude of nnnnnFT?’
confirmation window is displayed.
4) Touch the Revert Button. The altitude is now the database altitude and is shown in cyan, indicating it is usable
for vertical guidance.
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VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the Navigation Map Pane. The terrain,
obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active flight plan information
consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNAV profile, BOC/TOC, TOD/BOD, and
destination runway) can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode. See the Hazard Avoidance
section for information about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on the VSD.
NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNAV PATH descents because the lateral
distance of those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNAV profile for any legs that have no vertical
path guidance.
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track mode.
When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation map indicated
range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD altitude range automatically
changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant ratio of altitude range to horizontal
range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been met. At ranges above the maximum, the
altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on the vertical
scale is close to the top for a descent phase, at the bottom for on-ground or a climb phase, and in the middle
for a cruise phase or if the phase is unknown.
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure any text,
one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint is displayed as
darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO waypoint, (2) waypoint
with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
Enabling/disabling the VSD:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Inset Window Tab
3)
Touch the VERT Situation Display Button to enable/disable display of the VSD.
VERT Situation Display
Button
VERT Situation Display
Settings Button
Inset Window
Tab
Figure 5-168 Map Settings Screen - Enabling/disabling the VSD
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Changing the VSD Mode:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Inset Window Tab
3)
Touch the VERT Situation Display Settings Button.
4) Touch the Mode Button to display the Mode Selection Screen.
5) Touch a Mode button to select the mode and return to the Vertical Situation Display Settings Screen.
VERT
Situation
Display
Settings
Button
Mode
Buttons
VSD Mode
Button
Figure 5-169 Map Settings Screen - Selecting VSD Mode
VSD Mode Displayed
Button
Mode
AUTO FPL
Auto
AUTO TRK
FPL Criteria
Available active FPL & aircraft
within FPL swath
(1) Active FPL available &
aircraft not within FPL swath,
or (2) Active FPL not available
Items available on VSD
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
selected altitude
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Flight Plan
FPL
Active FPL not available
Only shows message 'Flight Plan Not Available'
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
Track
TRK
NA
selected altitude
Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, TOD/BOD, and destination runway
Active FPL available
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Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
Destination Runway
VSD Mode (AUTO FPL)
Selected Alt. (9300ft)
Altitude Constraints
Current VNAV Profile
Obstacle
Absolute Terrain
Figure 5-170 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough for the
terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown in gray if the terrain is selected Off on the navigation map).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon the
highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution, within a
predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft present position and the end of the map range
or active flight plan. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase.
Flight Phase
Approach, Departure
Terminal
En Route, Oceanic
Width of Swath
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
VERTICAL NAVIGATION DIRECT TO
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to to any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
descent constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Initiating the vertical navigation direct-to allows the flight
plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNAV direct-to waypoint is
provided. The altitude change begins on the current leg and is spread along the flight plan from current position
to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A TOD point is computed
based on this altitude change; guidance for descent begins once the TOD is reached.
A lateral direct-to with an altitude constraint (activated by pressing the ¯ Key) also provides vertical guidance,
but would bypass flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint.
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Vertical Speed Target Button
Flight Path Angle Button
VNAV ¯ Button
Figure 5-171 VNAV Profile Screen - Vertical Navigation Profile Modification
VNAV Waypoint Selection Button
Figure 5-172 Selecting the VNAV Direct To Waypoint
Activating a vertical navigation direct to:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > VNAV.
2) Touch the VNAV ¯ Button to display the Select VNAV Direct To Screen with a list of possible Vertical
navigation direct to choices.
3) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a VNAV waypoint selection button.
4) Touch the Activate Button in response to “Activate Vertical ¯: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX” to initiate the vertical
navigation direct to. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint. To cancel the
request, touch the Cancel Button.
Or:
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1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the VNAV ALT button for the desired waypoint to display the VNAV
Altitude Window. Review the altitude constraint information. If it is correct, skip to step 5 to initiate the vertical
navigation direct to.
3) If necessary, touch the Flight Level Button or the MSL Button to select the altitude mode.
4) Use the keypad to select the altitude.
5) Touch the VNAV ¯ XXXXX Button to activate the vertical navigation direct to. Vertical guidance begins to the
altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
VNAV ¯ XXXXX Button
Figure 5-173 VNAV Altitude Window - Initiating a VNAV Direct-To
Current Vertical
Navigation Profile
- Time to TOD is 05:35
and will begin on the
leg prior to the constraint
Figure 5-174 Active Flight Plan Display - VNAV Direct To Not Active
Current Vertical
Navigation Profile
- After VNAV Direct To
Time to TOD is 00:16
and will begin on the
current active leg
Figure 5-175 Active Flight Plan Display - VNAV Direct To Active
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Cancelling a vertical navigation direct to:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan
2) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the VNAV ALT button for the VNAV Direct-To waypoint to display the VNAV
Altitude Window.
3)
Touch the Remove VNAV ALT Button. A ‘Remove VNAV altitude?’ window is displayed.
4) Touch the OK Button. The altitude is now shown in white (or possibly as white dashes if there are no other
constraints in the flight plan), indicating it is not usable for vertical guidance. To cancel the request, touch the
Cancel Button.
Remove VNAV ALT Button
Figure 5-176 VNAV Altitude Window - Cancelling a VNAV Direct-To
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering either a vertical speed target (VS Target) or
a flight path angle (FPA), on the VNAV Profile Screen.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > VNAV.
2) Touch the Vertical Speed Target Button or the Flight Path Angle Button to display the keypad.
3) Use the keypad and the Enter Button to select the vertical speed target or the flight path angle.
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using the
Touchscreen Controller.
The selected procedure for the origin or destination airport is added to the active or standby flight plan. The
steps for loading procedures into the standby flight plan are similar to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and destination airport (or runway) are
already loaded, the procedure selection screen defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the
correct airport. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “Load” and/or “Load & Activate” is given
(“Load & Activate” is only available for the active flight plan, and is the only choice available if the active flight
plan is completely empty). “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using
it for navigation guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight
plan, but keeps the procedure available for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds the procedure
to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘2000ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (2000 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ or ‘HDG’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually
initiate sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at
the Specified Altitude
Manually Sequenced
Heading Leg
Flight Plan on GDU
Flight Plan on Touchscreen Controller
Figure 5-177 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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Departure
Button
Arrival
Button
Approach
Button
Figure 5-178 Loading Procedures on the Touchscreen Controller
Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport.
2) If necessary, touch the Airport Selection Button to display the keypad and use it to select the airport.
3) Touch the Proc Tab to display the Airport Procedures Screen.
4) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a procedure selection button. The procedure selection screen is displayed
on the Touchscreen Controller for the selected procedure.
5) Touch the Preview Button, then the Show on Map Button to show the procedure on the navigation map or
touch the Show Chart Button to show the chart instead of the navigation map.
6) Touch the Back Button to return to the Airport Procedures Screen to view another procedure.
7) Repeat steps 4 through 6 as necessary.
Loading a procedure into the active flight plan from the Airport Information Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport.
2) If necessary, touch the Airport Selection Button to display the keypad and use it to select the airport.
3) Touch the Proc Tab to display the Airport Procedures Screen.
4) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a procedure selection button. The procedure selection screen is displayed
on the Touchscreen Controller for the selected procedure.
5) Touch the Preview Button, then the Show on Map Button to show the preview of the procedure on the
navigation map or touch the Show Chart Button to show the procedure chart instead of the navigation map.
6) Select a different procedure, if desired.
7) Touch the Load Button to insert the procedure into the active flight plan.
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Loading an procedure into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > Airport.
2) If necessary, scroll the list to find the airport and touch the airport selection button to display the Waypoint
Options Window for the selected airport. If the airport is not listed, touch any airport selection button to display
the Waypoint Options Window.
3) Touch the Airport Info Button to display the Airport Information Screen. If in the previous step, the airport was
not listed, touch the airport button and use the keypad to select the destination airport.
4) Touch the Proc Tab to display the Airport Procedures Screen.
5) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a procedure selection button. The procedure selection screen is displayed
on the Touchscreen Controller for the selected procedure.
6) Touch the Preview Button, then the Show on Map Button to show the preview of the procedure on the
navigation map or touch the Show Chart Button to show the procedure chart instead of the navigation map.
7) Select a different procedure, if desired.
8) Touch the Load Button to insert the procedure into the active flight plan.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the origin airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the flight plan, the
new departure replaces the previous departure. The departure sequence is defined by selection of a departure,
the transition waypoints, and a runway.
The Filter by Button on the Departure Selection Screen changes the selection order between Filter by
Departure - selecting the departure first, then showing only the transitions and runways available for that
departure; or Filter by Runway - selecting the runway first, then showing only the departures and transitions
available for that runway. Any of the buttons can still be selected in any order you choose.
LOADING A DEPARTURE INTO THE ACTIVE/STANDBY FLIGHT PLAN
Loading a departure into the active/standby flight plan using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch PROC.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > PROC.
2) Touch the Departure Button to display the Departure Selection Screen.
3) If necessary, touch the Airport Button to display the keypad and use it to select the origin airport.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the origin airport.
5) If necessary, touch the Departure Button to display the Select Departure Screen with a list of available
departures.
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6) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a departure selection button to select the departure.
7) If necessary, touch the Transition Button to display the Select Transition Screen with a list of available transitions.
8) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a transition selection button to select the transition.
9) If necessary, touch the Runway Button to display the Select Runway Screen with a list of available runways.
10) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a runway selection button to select the runway and return to the Departure
Selection Screen.
11) Touch the Preview Button, then the Show on Map Button to show the preview of the departure on the
navigation map or touch the Show Chart Button to show the departure chart instead of the navigation map.
12) Touch the Load Button to insert the departure into the active/standby flight plan.
Departure
Button
Airport
Button
Transition
Button
Runway
Button
Departure
Selection
Button
Preview
Button
Filter by
Button
Runway
Selection
Button
Transition
Selection
Button
Departure
Sequence
Departure
Header
Button
showing
Loaded
Departure
Load
Button
Remove
Button
190-01979-01 Rev. A
Figure 5-179 Loading a Departure into the Active Flight Plan
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REMOVING A DEPARTURE FROM THE ACTIVE/STANDBY FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the flight plan.
Removing a departure from the active/standby flight plan using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch PROC.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > PROC.
2) Touch the Departure Button to display the Departure Selection Screen.
3) Touch the Remove Button. A ‘Remove departure?’ window is displayed.
4) Touch the OK Button. The departure is removed from the flight plan. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel
Button.
Or:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Departure Header Button to display the Departure Options Window.
3) Touch the Remove Departure Button. A ‘Remove Departure- <departure identifier> from flight plan?’
window is displayed.
4) Touch the OK Button. The departure is removed from the flight plan. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel
Button.
ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the flight plan,
the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The arrival sequence is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
The Filter by Button on the Arrival Selection Screen changes the selection order between Filter by Arrival selecting the arrival first, then showing only the transitions and runways available for that arrival; or Filter by
Runway - selecting the runway first, then showing only the arrivals and transitions available for that runway.
Any of the buttons can still be selected in any order you choose.
LOADING AN ARRIVAL INTO THE ACTIVE/STANDBY FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an arrival into the active/standby flight plan using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch PROC.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > PROC.
2) Touch the Arrival Button to display the Arrival Selection Screen.
3) If necessary, touch the Airport Button to display the keypad and use it to select the destination airport.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the destination airport.
5) If necessary, touch the Arrival Button to display the Select Arrival Screen with a list of available arrivals.
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6) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an arrival selection button to select the arrival.
7) If necessary, touch the Transition Button to display the Select Transition Screen with a list of available transitions.
8) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a transition selection button to select the transition.
9) If necessary, touch the Runway Button to display the Select Runway Screen with a list of available runways.
10) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a runway selection button to select the runway and return to the Arrival
Selection Screen.
11) Touch the Preview Button, then the Show on Map Button to show the preview of the arrival on the navigation
map or touch the Show Chart Button to show the arrival chart instead of the navigation map.
12) Touch the Load Button to insert the arrival into the flight plan.
Arrival
Button
Airport
Button
Transition
Button
Runway
Button
Arrival
Selection
Button
Preview
Button
Filter by
Button
Transition
Selection
Button
Runway
Selection
Button
Arrival
Header
Button
showing
Loaded
Arrival
Arrival
Sequence
Load
Button
Remove
Button
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Figure 5-180 Loading an Arrival into the Active Flight Plan
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REMOVING AN ARRIVAL FROM THE ACTIVE/STANDBY FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the flight plan.
Removing an arrival from the active/standby flight plan using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch PROC.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > PROC.
2) Touch the Arrival Button to display the Arrival Selection Screen.
3) Touch the Remove Button. A ‘Remove arrival?’ window is displayed.
4) Touch the OK Button. The arrival is removed from the flight plan. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel Button.
Or:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Arrival Header Button to display the Arrival Options Window.
3) Touch the Remove Arrival Button. A ‘Remove Arrival- <arrival identifier> from flight plan?’ window is
displayed.
4) Touch the OK Button. The arrival is removed from the flight plan. To cancel the request, touch the Cancel
Button.
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APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures. If an
approach is loaded when another approach is already in the flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous
approach, unless the active leg is past the missed approach point. In this case, the second approach is loaded at
the end of the previous approach, and the previous approach remains as waypoints (no longer part of an APPR).
The approach sequence is defined by selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “Load” or “Load & Activate” is given (“Load & Activate”
is only available for the active flight plan, and is the only choice available if the active flight plan is completely
empty). “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds the procedure to the end of the
flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the approach type (e.g. RNAV) indicates the
procedure can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the
GPS receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown with the NAV receiver tuned to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
If GPS navigation becomes unavailable on an RNAV GPS approach after the FAF, the approach aborts with an
APR ABORT message. When this happens, the CDI is removed, the VDI is flagged 'NO GP', the approach service
level (LPV, LP, L/VNAV, etc.) on the HSI is amber, and the UNABLE RNP and GPS NAV LOST system messages
occur. The CDI will not be restored for missed approach guidance until the messages are acknowledged and a
position source is available (e.g. restored GPS, DME-DME, or Dead Reckoning).
The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels
according to the published chart. The '+V' designation adds advisory vertical guidance for assistance in
maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is displayed
on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. Baro VNAV guidance
is displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta pentagon. The active
approach service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
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Approach
Service Level
(as shown on HSI)
LNAV
LNAV+V
L/VNAV
Description
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV minima
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV minima.
Advisory vertical guidance
is provided
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV/VNAV
minima
LP
RNAV GPS approach using
(available only if
published LP minima
SBAS available)
RNAV GPS approach using
LP+V
published LP minima.
(available only if
Advisory vertical guidance
SBAS available)
is provided
LPV
RNAV GPS approach using
(available only if
published LPV minima
SBAS available)
LNAV/VNAV or
LNAV Database
Minima Available?
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one
minute to FAF, at one minute to FAF will
initiate a switch/downgrade to:
LNAV
N/A
LNAV
LNAV+V (Baro VNAV) 
LNAV/VNAV
LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV) 
LNAV
LNAV 
No LNAV
Approach Aborted 
LNAV
LNAV 
No LNAV
Approach Aborted 
LNAV/VNAV
LNAV Only
Neither
LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV) 
LNAV
Approach Aborted 
Approach Service Level - LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV




APR ADVISORY system message generated. Acknowledgement is required to complete the switch.
APR DWNGRADE system message generated. Downgrade will not complete until message is acknowledged.
Approach is aborted. ABORT APR system message generated.
If APR ADVISORY system message not acknowledged prior to the FAF, downgrades to LNAV. No additional message generated.
Table 5-8 Effects of SBAS Unavailability on Approaches
LNAV/VNAV DOWNGRADE
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LNAV/VNAV approach, L/VNAV
will be shown in amber, the system will switch to LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV) service level (L/VNAV shown
in magenta), and an APR ADVISORY system message will be generated (the VDI will be flagged NO GP until
the APR ADVISORY system message has been acknowledged). If the APR ADVISORY system message is not
acknowledged prior to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service level (LNAV shown in magenta),
the VDI will remain flagged ‘NO GP’, and no additional downgrade system message will be generated.
If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service level,
with no downgrade system message generated. If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, and
there is no LNAV minima, the approach will abort when past the FAF waypoint.
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LNAV+V SWITCHING
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LNAV+V approach, LNAV+V
will be shown in amber, the system will switch to LNAV+V (Baro VNAV) service level (LNAV+V shown in
magenta), and an APR ADVISORY system message will be generated (the vertical deviation will be flagged NO
GP until the APR ADVISORY system message has been acknowledged).
If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service level,
with no downgrade system message generated.
LP DOWNGRADE
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LP approach, LP will be shown
in amber, but the CDI will be continue to be shown. At one minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to
LNAV service level (LNAV shown in magenta), and an APR DWNGRADE system message will be generated
(the CDI will be removed until the APR DWNGRADE system message has been acknowledged).
If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the approach will abort.
LP+V DOWNGRADE
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LP+V approach, LP+V will be
shown in amber and the VDI will be flagged NO GP, but the CDI will be continue to be shown. At one
minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service level (LNAV shown in magenta), and an APR
DWNGRADE system message will be generated (the CDI will be removed until the APR DWNGRADE system
message has been acknowledged).
If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the approach will abort.
LPV DOWNGRADE
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LPV approach, LPV will be shown
in amber, but the VDI will be continue to be shown. At one minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to:
1) LNAV/VNAV service level (Baro VNAV) (L/VNAV shown in magenta), and an APR DWNGRADE system
message will be generated (the VDI will be flagged ‘NO GP’ until the APR DWNGRADE system message has
been acknowledged);
or
2) LNAV service level (LNAV shown in magenta), the VDI will be flagged ‘NO GP’, and an APR DWNGRADE
system message will be generated.
If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service level
when past the FAF, with no downgrade system message generated.
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VISUAL APPROACHES
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches are not
defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the system calculates
the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach waypoints based on runway
position and course as specified in the navigation database.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRAIGHT) and the Vectors-toFinal transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial fix (STRGHT), the
final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree glide path is calculated from
the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended straight-in path.
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore, the
message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches” is displayed and must be acknowledged
before the visual approach is loaded into the flight plan.
Figure 5-181 Preview of the Selected Visual Approach on Display Pane
Visual Approach
Selected
Visual
Approach
loaded into
flight plan
Transition Selected
Straight Vectors -
FAF
Waypoint
Sequence
MAP
Figure 5-182 Loading a Visual Approach on the Touchscreen Controller
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LOADING AN APPROACH INTO THE ACTIVE/STANDBY FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an approach into the active/standby flight plan using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch PROC.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > PROC.
2) Touch the Approach Button to display the Approach Selection Screen.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) If necessary, touch the Airport Button to display the keypad and use it to select the approach airport.
b) Touch the Enter Button to accept the approach airport.
c) If necessary, touch the Approach Button to display the Select Approach Screen with a list of available
approaches.
d) Scroll the list if necessary and touch an approach selection button to select the approach.
Or:
a) If the SBAS Button is available, touch the SBAS Button to display the keypad and use it to select the
SBAS channel number (The SBAS channel button is only available when an RNAV, GPS, or no approach is
selected).
If the SBAS Button is not available, touch the Approach Button to display the Select Approach Screen,
scroll to the bottom of the list, touch the Select by SBAS Channel Button to display the keypad, and use
it to select the SBAS channel number.
b) Touch the Enter Button to accept the SBAS channel and return to the Approach Selection Screen with the
airport and approach selected.
4) If necessary, touch the Transition Button to display the Select Transition Screen with a list of available transitions.
5) Scroll the list if necessary and touch a transition selection button to select the transition.
6) To set the minimums, touch the Minimums Button to display the Minimums Screen. If the minimums were Off,
then Baro is automatically selected.
a) If Baro is desired, use the keypad to select the barometric minimum altitude.
b) Touch the Enter Button to accept the barometric minimum altitude and return to the Approach Selection
Screen.
Or:
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a) If temperature compensated minimum is desired, touch the Minimums Button to display the Minimums
Source Window.
b) Touch the Temp Comp Button to select temperature compensated minimums and return to the Minimums
Screen.
c) Use the numeric keypad to select the destination temperature.
d) Touch the Enter Button to accept the destination temperature and return to the Minimums Screen.
e) Use the keypad to select the minimums altitude.
f) Touch the Enter Button to accept the temperature compensated minimums and return to the Approach
Selection Screen.
7) Touch the Preview Button, then the Show on Map Button to show the preview of the approach on the
navigation map or touch the Show Chart Button (not available for visual approach) to show the approach
chart instead of the navigation map.
8) Touch the Load Button to insert the approach into the flight plan.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?' is displayed. Touch the OK Button to continue.
If a visual approach was selected, the message 'Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. Touch the OK Button to continue.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the FMS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach, either
manually or automatically. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for details on CDI switching.
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Approach
Button
Airport
Button
Transition
Button
Minimums
Button
Approach
Selection
Button
Preview
Button
Mininums
Button
Transition
Selection
Button
Approach
Header
Button
showing
Loaded
Approach
Approach
Sequence
Load &
Activate
Button
Load
Button
Remove
Button
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Figure 5-183 Loading an Approach into the Active Flight Plan
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ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
“Activate Approach” creates a direct path to the first approach waypoint. The approach mode will not
become active until the first leg of the approach becomes active. A previously loaded approach can be
activated from the Procedures Screen, the Active Flight Plan Screen, or the Procedures Window on the PFD.
Activating a previously loaded approach using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) From MFD Home, touch PROC.
2) Touch the Activate Approach Button to activate the approach.
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Approach Header Button to display the Approach Options Window.
3) Touch the Activate Approach Button to activate the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, activate Vectors To Final, which makes the inbound course to
the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) From MFD Home, touch PROC.
2) Touch the Activate Vectors To Final Button to activate vectors to final.
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Approach Header Button to display the Approach Options Window.
3) Touch the Activate Vectors To Final Button to activate vectors to final.
Activate
Vectors To
Final Button
Figure 5-184 Activating Vectors to Final on the Touchscreen Controller
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REMOVING AN APPROACH FROM THE ACTIVE/STANDBY FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the flight plan.
Removing an approach from the active/standby flight plan using the Touchscreen Controller:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch PROC.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > PROC.
2) Touch the Approach Button to display the Approach Selection Screen.
3) Touch the Remove Button. A ‘Remove approach?’ window is displayed.
4) Touch the OK Button. The approach is removed from the active flight plan. To cancel the request, touch the
Cancel Button.
Or:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Approach Header Button to display the Approach Options Window.
3) Touch the Remove Approach Button. A ‘Remove Approach- <approach identifier> from flight plan?’ window
is displayed.
4) Touch the OK Button. The approach is removed from the active flight plan. To cancel the request, touch the
Cancel Button.
MISSED APPROACH
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
P ress the GA Button. The system begins automatic sequencing through the missed approach waypoints to the
MAHP. See the AFCS section for more details.
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch PROC.
2) Touch the Activate Missed Approach Button to activate the missed approach (only on RNAV approaches).
The system begins automatic sequencing through the missed approach waypoints to the MAHP.
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Approach Header Button to display the Approach Options Window.
3) Touch the Activate Missed Approach Button to activate the missed approach (only on RNAV approaches).
The system begins automatic sequencing through the missed approach waypoints to the MAHP.
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Activate Missed
Approach Button
Figure 5-185 Activating a Missed Approach on the Touchscreen Controller
In the missed approach procedure shown in the following figure, the altitude immediately following the
MAP (in this case ‘1430ft’) is not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg
which guides the aircraft along the runway centerline until the required altitude required to safely make the
first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude
(1,430 feet) after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an
altitude of 1,430 feet reached. After reaching 1,430 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP
(in this case LYMES). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to
is established to the published fix (LYMES) to begin the missed approach procedure.
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-186 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, the procedure dictates a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would also appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if
the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established on a
Course to Altitude leg when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied temperature
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly. Temperature compensated altitudes are displayed with a snowflake ( )
icon.
Manually inputting the temperature for compensation is explained in the following procedures. However
the system already automatically offsets the lateral position of the baro-VNAV bottom of descent accordingly
without manual input. Once calculated, the VNAV function seamlessly applies the lateral adjustment to the
baro-VNAV descent path so that a smooth transition onto the approach vertical path occurs. For example,
on a day with temperatures colder than ISA, the baro-VNAV path will typically be below the actual approach
descent path. The system will automatically adjust for this by calculating a lateral distance prior to the FAF
which is applied to ensure the baro-VNAV path intersects the approach descent path.
NOTE: Manually specifying temperature compensation for an approach will disrupt the system from
automatically creating a lateral offset of the VNAV function in use.
NOTE: Initiating a VNAV direct-to function or manually specifying an FPA at the FAF will disrupt the system
VNAV function from automatically creating a lateral offset. Thus, temperature is not compensated for and
the baro-VNAV path may not intersect the approach descent path.
Manually enabling/disabling temperature compensation for approach waypoint altitudes:
1) For the active flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Flight Plan Options.
For the standby flight plan: From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan > Standby Flight Plan > Flight Plan
Options.
2) Touch the APPR WPT TEMP COMP Button to display the Temp Compensation Screen.
3) Touch the Temp Compensation Annunciator Button to enable/disable temperature compensation.
4) Once temperature compensation is enabled, the Destination Temp Screen is displayed. Use the keypad and
the Enter Button to select the temperature at the <airport>. Touch the Back Button to return to the Temp
Compensation Screen.
5) To edit the airport temperature, touch the Temp at Dest Button and use the keypad and the Enter Button to
select the temperature at the <airport>.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered on the Temp Compensation Screen or the Minimums
Screen on the Touchscreen Controller. There is only one compensation temperature for the system, therefore,
changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums. Refer to the
Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation to the MDA/DH.
NOTE: Enabling/disabling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not enable/
disable temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does enabling/disabling temperature
compensated minimums enable/disable temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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Temp
Compensation
Annunciator
Button
Temp at Dest
Button
APPR WPT
TEMP COMP
Button
FAF Altitude
and
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensated
Altitude
Figure 5-187 Temperature Compensation for Approach Waypoints
A temperature compensated minimum descent altitude can be entered for the approach. Once this is
entered on the touchscreen controller, the altitude is also displayed on the PFD.
Entering a temperature compensated minimum descent altitude:
1) From MFD Home, touch PROC.
2) Touch the Approach Button to display the Approach Selection Screen.
3) Touch the Minimums Button to display the Minimums Screen.
4) Touch the Minimums Button to display the Minimums Source Window.
5) Touch the Temp Comp Button. The Destination Temp Screen is displayed. Use the keypad to enter the
destination temperature.
6) Touch the Enter Button to accept the destination temperature and return to the Minimums Screen.
7) To edit the airport temperature, touch the Temp at Dest Button on the Minimums Screen and use the keypad
to enter the temperature. Touch the Enter Button to return to the Minimums Screen.
8) If not already entered, use the keypad to select the minimums altitude.
9) Touch the Enter Button to return to the Approach Selection Screen.
Or:
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1) From MFD Home, touch Flight Plan.
2) Touch the Approach Header Button to display the Approach Options Window.
3) Touch the Edit Approach Button to display the Approach Selection Screen.
4) Touch the Minimums Button to display the Minimums Screen.
5) Touch the Minimums Button to display the Minimums Source Window.
6) Touch the Temp Comp Button. The Destination Temp Screen is displayed. Use the keypad to enter the
destination temperature.
7) Touch the Enter Button to accept the destination temperature and return to the Minimums Screen.
8) To edit the airport temperature, touch the Temp at Dest Button on the Minimums Screen and use the keypad
to enter the temperature. Touch the Enter Button to return to the Minimums Screen.
9) If not already entered, use the keypad to select the minimums altitude.
10) Touch the Enter Button to return to the Approach Selection Screen.
Minimums
Button
Touchscreen Controller - Approach Selection Screen
TEMP COMP
Minimum
PFD - COMP MIN Shown
Figure 5-188 Entering Temp Comp Minimums on the Touchscreen Controller
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5.9 TRIP PLANNING
The trip planning function allows the pilot to view trip statistics, fuel statistics, and other statistics for a specified
flight plan or for a flight plan leg. The statistics can be based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data.
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Screen
on the Touchscreen Controller.
Trip Route Button
Selected Route Segment
Input Data (sensor/pilot)
Manual Entry Button
Figure 5-189 Trip Planning Screen - Automatic Mode
- Departure Time
- Ground Speed
- Fuel On Board
- Fuel Flow
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Selected Route Segment
Fuel Statistics
Trip Statistics
- Efficiency
- Total Endurance
- Remaining Fuel
- Remaining Endurance
- Fuel Required
- Total Range
Desired Track Distance Estimated Time Enroute Estimated Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time Sunset Time -
Other Statistics
Figure 5-190 Trip Planning Display
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic mode) or on pilot inputs (manual entry mode).
Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure time (Depart Time) - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations
are from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing. If the time is denoted as LCL, then
the time is shown based on the time zone of the aircraft present position
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• Calibrated airspeed (Cal Airspeed) - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source
of information is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated altitude (Indicated Alt) - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of
information is GPS altitude.
TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the trip route selected and the trip planning inputs.
Trip Route Mode
Trip Route Button
Description
Stored Flight Plan Cumulative Mode
Waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight
plan.
Stored Flight Plan Leg Mode
Waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
Active Flight Plan Remaining Mode
The ‘from’ waypoint is the aircraft present position, and the ‘to’
waypoint is the endpoint of the active flight plan.
Active Flight Plan Leg Mode
The ‘from’ waypoint is the aircraft present position or a selected
waypoint, and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg. In
automatic mode, the ‘from’ waypoint is always present position.
Waypoint Mode
Manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints. It is
dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance (DIS) - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999. • Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown as
minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes. If the time is denoted as LCL, then the time
is shown based on the time zone of the destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a stored flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure time all of the ETEs of the legs
up to the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the
flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current leg being
flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to and including
the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight
plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes. If the
time is denoted as LCL, then the time is shown based on the time zone of the aircraft present position.
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FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (EFFCY) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (TOTAL END) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained by
dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (RMNG Fuel) - This value is calculated by taking the amount
of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (RMNG END) - This value is calculated by taking the time
of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (Fuel RQRD) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow (Total Range) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density altitude (Density ALT)
• True airspeed (True Airspeed)
Selecting the Stored Flight Plan - Cumulative trip route mode:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Planning.
2) Touch the Trip Route Button to display the Input Selection Window.
3) Touch the Select from Flight Plan Button to display the Select Flight Plan Screen.
4) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a stored flight plan button to display the Select Flight Plan Leg Screen.
5) Touch the Cumulative Flight Plan Button to select the mode and return to the Trip Planning Screen.
Selecting the Stored Flight Plan - Leg trip route mode:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Planning.
2) Touch the Trip Route Button to display the Input Selection Window.
3) Touch the Select from Flight Plan Button to display the Select Flight Plan Screen.
4) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a stored flight plan button to display the Select Flight Plan Leg Screen.
5) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a flight plan leg selection button to select the mode and return to the Trip
Planning Screen.
Selecting the Active Flight Plan - Remaining trip route mode:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Planning.
2) Touch the Trip Route Button to display the Input Selection Window.
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3) Touch the Select from Flight Plan Button to display the Select Flight Plan Screen.
4) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the active flight plan button to display the Select Flight Plan Leg Screen.
5) Touch the Remaining Flight Plan Button to select the mode and return to the Trip Planning Screen.
Selecting the Active Flight Plan - Leg trip route mode:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Planning.
2) Touch the Trip Route Button to display the Input Selection Window.
3) Touch the Select from Flight Plan Button to display the Select Flight Plan Screen.
4) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch the active flight plan button to display the Select Flight Plan Leg Screen.
5) Scroll the list, if necessary, and touch a flight plan leg selection button (P. POS ñ Waypoint or Waypoint ñ
Waypoint) to select the mode and return to the Trip Planning Screen.
Selecting the waypoints trip route mode:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Planning.
2) Touch the Trip Route Button to display the Input Selection Window.
3) Touch the Select Starting and Ending Waypoints Button to display the Select Starting and Ending Locations
Window.
4) Touch the starting waypoint button to display the Select Starting Location Window.
5) Select the starting waypoint:
Touch the Present Position Button to use the present position of the aircraft and return to the Select
Starting and Ending Locations Window.
Or:
Touch the Waypoint Button to select a waypoint using the keypad and return to the Select Starting and
Ending Locations Window.
6) Touch the ending waypoint button to select a waypoint using the keypad and return to the Select Starting and
Ending Locations Window.
7) Touch the Accept Button to select the mode and return to the Trip Planning Screen.
When the manual entry mode is selected, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot,
in addition to flight plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Trip Planning.
2) Touch the Manual Entry Button to enable the manual entry data field buttons.
3) Touch an input data field button and use the keypad to select the value.
4) Touch the Enter Button to accept the value and return to the Trip Planning Screen. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for
each of the data fields.
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5.10 WEIGHT AND BALANCE PLANNING
The system includes a weight and balance planning function. The weight and balance planning function
allows the pilot to enter aircraft weight, aircraft loading, and fuel data, which is used with the active flight plan to
estimate takeoff and landing weights, landing fuel, and excess fuel. Furthermore, the system provides a graphical
representation of weight and balance data on the MFD.
The ‘Station vs Weight’ Box displays a visual representation of the aircraft’s center of gravity (CG) from takeoff
to landing for a given flight plan, plus the remaining fuel burn. The takeoff CG icon is represented as a triangle,
current CG as a diamond, landing CG as a square, and fuel burn as a graphical line. All that lie within the white
bordered polygon, are considered to be within the weight balance parameters and, therefore, are colored green.
Weight and balance data may be retained across power cycles when defined within a crew profile. For more
information on crew profiles, see the System Overview section.
NOTE: If Surface Watch is not configured, there will be no PERF Button. The Weight and Balance Button will
be found under the Utilities Button. Utilities will replace PERF in all weight and balance procedures.
Normal CG Envelope
Takeoff Longitudinal CG
Current Longitudinal CG
Aircraft Load Values
for the default aircraft
positions (only enabled
items are shown)
Landing LongitudinalCG
Predicted CG Movement
due to Fuel Burn
Weight & Balance Calculator
Basic Empty Weight Zero Fuel Weight Calculation Fuel On Board Entry Ramp Weight Calculation Taxi Fuel Entry Takeoff Weight Calculation Current Weight Calculation Longitudinal Station CG Calculation -
Estimated Weight Calculator
- Est. Landing Weight Calculation
- Est. Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserves Entry
- Hold Fuel Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Figure 5-191 Weight & Balance Display in Full Mode
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Selecting the Weight and Balance Display Type.
1) From MFD Home, touch PERF > Weight and Balance.
2) Touch the Display Button to display the Select Display Type Window.
3) Touch the button corresponding to the desired display type.
Figure 5-192 Weight and Balance Pane - Display Types in Half Mode
Empty Weight Tab
Aircraft Loading Tab
Basic Empty Weight
Basic Empty Longitudinal Station
Fuel Tab
Display Button
(When in Half Mode, allows selection
of either Weight and Balance,
Aircraft Loading, or Summary
on the active display pane.)
Set Empty Weight and Balance
Button
Active Envelope Selection Button
Figure 5-193 Weight and Balance Screen - Empty Weight Tab
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The Weight and Balance Configuration item weights on the Weight and Balance Configuration Screen are
included in the zero fuel weight, but do not change the similar aircraft loading weights (entered on the Aircraft
Loading Tab on the Weight and Balance Screen, and shown on the Weight and Balance Display). The Weight
and Balance Configuration items correspond to actual installed hardware (e.g. Seat, Cargo Bin, etc.) The aircraft
loading entries indicate the crew, passengers, or baggage occupying those locations.
Configuration Item Enable/Disable
Buttons
Basic Empty Weight
(Calculated based on items enabled
Basic Empty Longitudinal Station
(Calculated based on items enabled
(Enable/disable status of diminished
items can not be changed)
Configuration Item Settings Button
- Description
- Empty Weight
- Arm
Figure 5-194 Weight and Balance Configuration Screen
Modifying basic empty weight:
1) From MFD Home, touch PERF > Weight and Balance.
2) If necessary, touch the Empty Weight Tab. Touch the Set Empty Weight and Balance Button to display the
Weight and Balance Configuration Screen.
3) Touch a configuration item enable/disable button to enable/disable the item.
4) Touch a configuration item Settings Button to display the item settings screen.
5) Touch the Empty Weight Button to display the keypad.
6) Use the keypad to enter the item empty weight.
7) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the item settings screen.
8) Touch the Back Button to return to the Weight and Balance Configuration Screen.
9) Repeat steps 3 - 8 as necessary.
The Basic Empty Weight is calculated by summing the weights of all enabled items. The Basic Empty STA is
calculated by applying the weights and moment arms of all enabled items. A diminished enable/disable button
indicates an item that cannot be enabled or disabled. The two additional cargo items allow entry of a custom
description and moment arm, but do not allow entry of an empty weight.
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Aircraft Loading Tab
Aircraft Load Weight Buttons
Figure 5-195 Weight and Balance Screen - Aircraft Loading Tab
Entering the aircraft load weights:
1) From MFD Home, touch PERF > Weight and Balance.
2) Touch the Aircraft Loading Tab to display the aircraft load weight buttons.
3) Touch an aircraft load weight button to display the keypad.
4) Use the keypad to enter the item weight.
5) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the Weight and Balance Screen.
6) Repeat steps 3 - 5 as necessary.
The Zero Fuel Weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the aircraft load weights.
Fuel Init Button
Fuel On Board Weight
Taxi Fuel Button
Fuel Tab
Fuel Reserves Button
Hold Time Button
Hold Fuel Weight
Figure 5-196 Weight and Balance Screen - Fuel Tab
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Initial Fuel Button
Fuel Used
FOB SYNC Button
Remaining Fuel
Confirm Button
Fuel Added since
last fuel entry
Figure 5-197 Initial Fuel Screen
Entering the fuel on board weight:
1) From MFD Home, touch PERF > Weight and Balance.
2) Touch the Fuel Tab to display the fuel entry buttons.
3) Touch the Fuel Init Button to display the Initial Fuel Screen.
4) Touch the Initial Fuel Button to display the Set Initial Gallons Screen.
5) Use the keypad to enter the item weight.
6) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the Initial Fuel Screen.
7) Touch the Confirm Button to use the value for fuel calculations.
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch PERF > Weight and Balance.
2) Touch the Fuel Tab to display the fuel entry buttons.
3) Touch the Fuel Init Button to display the Initial Fuel Screen.
4) Press the FOB SYNC Button. The fuel on board weight is set to the current measured fuel weight.
5) Touch the Confirm Button to use the value for fuel calculations.
The Ramp Weight is calculated by adding the zero fuel weight and the fuel on board weight. Both the fuel on
board and current weight decrease as fuel is burned, providing the current value for each.
The Takeoff Weight is calculated by subtracting the taxi fuel weight from the ramp weight.
Entering taxi fuel weight, fuel reserves weight, and estimated holding time:
1) From MFD Home, touch PERF > Weight and Balance.
2) Touch the Fuel Tab to display the fuel entry buttons.
3) Touch the Taxi Fuel Button to display the keypad.
4) Use the keypad to enter the taxi fuel weight.
5) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the Weight and Balance Screen.
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6) Touch the Fuel Reserves Button to display the keypad.
7) Use the keypad to enter the fuel reserves weight.
8) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the Weight and Balance Screen.
9) Touch the Hold Time Button to display the keypad.
10) Use the keypad to enter the estimated holding time.
11) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the Weight and Balance Screen.
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, Est. Landing Weight, Est.
Landing Fuel, Holding Fuel Weight, and Excess Fuel display invalid values consisting of five dashes.
When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated Landing Weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight.
• Estimated Landing Fuel = fuel on board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess Fuel = estimated landing fuel weight - fuel reserves weight
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of four dashes:
• Est Landing Weight
• Est Landing Fuel
• Excess Fuel
WEIGHT AND BALANCE CAUTION AND WARNING CONDITIONS
If the Zero Fuel Weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
If the Ramp Weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the ramp weight is displayed
in amber.
If the Estimated Landing Weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing fuel weight is displayed in amber.
If the Estimated Landing Fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the
following values are displayed in amber:
• Est Landing Fuel weight
• Excess Fuel weight
If the Estimated Landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in red:
• Est Landing Fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the Station value is outside the specified envelope, then the value is displayed in amber.
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5.11 TAKEOFF AND LANDING DATA
The Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD) functions allow the pilot to manually enter the airport, runway, and
required takeoff/landing distances to support SurfaceWatch, if available. TOLD can calculate takeoff and landing
data for various operating configurations and atmospheric conditions.
Takeoff
Data Button
Landing
Data Button
Figure 5-198 PERF Screen (only available if SurfaceWatch is installed)
TAKEOFF DATA
The Takeoff Data Screen allow entry of the origin airport, origin runway, and required takeoff distance.
Origin Tab
Origin Airport Button
Runway Tab
Runway Button
Required Takeoff DIS
Button
Figure 5-199 Takeoff Data Screen - Origin Tab
The origin airport and runway default to the active flight plan selections, if available. If there is not an origin
airport in the active flight plan, the system will attempt to default to a nearest airport.
Selecting an origin airport, runway, and required takeoff distance on the Takeoff Data Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch PERF > Takeoff Data.
2) Touch the Origin Tab, if necessary, to display the origin airport and runway data.
3) If adding or changing the origin airport is necessary, touch the origin airport button to display the keypad.
4) Use the keypad to enter the origin airport.
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5) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the Takeoff Data Screen.
6) Touch the Runway Button to display the Select Runway Window.
7) Touch the desired runway selection button, and return to the Takeoff Data Screen.
8) Touch the Required Takeoff DIS Button to display the keypad.
9) Use the keypad to enter the required takeoff distance.
10) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the Takeoff Data Screen
Origin Airport Information
- METAR Status
- Takeoff Runway
- Runway Length
Takeoff Run Available from Database
Runway Elevation from Database
Runway Tab
Runway Heading from Database
Runway Gradient from Database
Figure 5-200 Takeoff Data Screen - Runway Tab
LANDING DATA
The Landing Data Screen allow entry of the destination airport, destination runway, and required landing
distance.
DEST Tab
Destination Airport Button
Runway Tab
Runway Button
Required Landing DIS
Button
Figure 5-201 Landing Data Screen - DEST Tab
The destination airport and runway default to the arrival or origin airport, if available. It will be the origin
airport if the aircraft is within 30 nm of the origin airport and no runway has been set for the destination. It
will be the arrival airport and runway if one is available in the active flight plan. If neither is available, the
destination airport and runway are shown as dashes, allowing manual entry.
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Selecting a destination airport, runway, and required landing distance on the Landing Data Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch PERF > Landing Data.
2) Touch the DEST Tab, if necessary, to display the destination airport and runway data.
3) Touch the destination airport button to display the keypad.
4) Use the keypad to enter the origin airport.
5) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the Landing Data Screen.
6) Touch the Runway Button to display the Select Runway Window.
7) Touch the desired runway selection button, and return to the Landing Data Screen.
8) Touch the Required Landing DIS Button to display the keypad.
9) Use the keypad to enter the required landing distance.
10) Touch the Enter Button to accept the entry, and return to the Landing Data Screen.
The destination airport on the Runway Tab is the same as the one selected on the DEST Tab.
Origin Airport Information
- METAR Status
- Takeoff Runway
- Runway Length
Landing Distance Available from
Database
Runway Elevation from Database
Runway Tab
Runway Heading from Database
Runway Gradient from Database
Figure 5-202 Landing Data Screen - Runway Tab
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5.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FMS DEGRADATION
The Flight Management System operates in different modes, depending on the available sensors (GPS or
DME).
Available Position Sensors
GPS
Yes
No
FMS Navigation Mode
GPS
DR
Loss of GPS position is indicated on the system by the message ‘Loss of GPS Navigation’ and by the GPS Loss
of Integrity annunciation on the PFD: ‘GPS LOI’, displayed in amber to the left of the HSI as shown in following
figure. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is
restored.
DEAD RECKONING NAVIGATION
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning (DR) mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO FMS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the system
stops using GPS.
In DR mode, the system uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and
heading data (when available) to calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR mode may become
increasingly unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR mode airspeed
and/or heading data is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking
estimated position and, consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement
of the aircraft. Estimated position information displayed by the system through DR while there is no heading
and/or airspeed data available should not be used for navigation.
DR mode is inherently less accurate than the other modes due to the lack of satellite measurements or DME
inputs needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative
inaccuracy of DR mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon
for position awareness until other position data is restored.
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DR mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ displayed in amber on the HSI
below and to the left of the aircraft symbol on the CDI, and on top of the aircraft symbol on navigation maps,
as shown in following figure. The CDI deviation bar remains, shown in amber, but is removed from the
display after 20 minutes in DR mode. The autopilot will remain coupled in DR mode as long as the deviation
is available (20 min).
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position
and is displayed in amber to denote degraded navigation source information. If the VSD Inset is selected on
the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be displayed.
NOTE: GPS derived information will remain displayed in magenta (not amber) on the Flight Plan Text inset
and on the Flight Plan Progress inset when operating in Dead Reckoning mode. However, this information
shall still be considered as degraded navigation source information.
As a result of operating in DR mode, all GPS-derived data on the PFD and MFD is computed based upon
an estimated position, and is displayed as amber text to denote degraded navigation source information.
The accuracy of all bearing and distance information on nearest screens (airports, airspaces, and waypoints),
and on waypoint information screens is questionable, and is displayed in amber. Airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy. Lastly, while the system is in DR mode, TAWS is disabled.
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GTC Message
Annunciator
Current Track
Indicator
GPS Loss of Integrity
annunciation
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Distance & ETE
Ground Speed
Bearing Pointer
Navigation Mode
Course Deviation
Indicator
Bearing Pointer/
Distance Info
Navigation Data Bar
Destination Data Bar
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
GPS
Navigation
Lost
Message
All Bearing/
Distance
Info on
Nearest
Screens in
Amber
All Bearing/Distance Info
on Airport Information
Screens in Amber
Figure 5-203 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard avoidance features available for the Cirrus Perspective Touch are designed to aid situational awareness
and provide advisory information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain,
and air traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Optional)
• GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
• GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
• Flight Information Services-Broadcast (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain SVT
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Traffic
• GTS 855 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) (Optional)
• GDL 88 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Traffic (Optional)
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6.1 SIRIUSXM WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
The optional GDL 69A SXM is a remote-mounted SiriusXM satellite data link receiver. The displays show
graphical weather information and its associated text, and provide SiriusXM Satellite Radio audio entertainment
services. Both weather data and audio entertainment programming operate in the S-band frequency range to
provide continuous reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America.
SiriusXM services require subscriptions. For more information on specific subscription packages, visit www.
siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SERVICES
Before SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio can be used, the services must be activated by providing
SiriusXM’s customer service the coded IDs unique to the installed data link receiver. SiriusXM Satellite Radio
(audio) and SiriusXM Weather (data) services each have coded IDs, which may be identical. The Data and
Audio Radio IDs must be provided to activate the weather and entertainment subscriptions, respectively. These
IDs are in the following locations:
• The SiriusXM Info Screen on Touchscreen Controllers (Figure 6-1)
• The XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit
• The label on the front of the data link receiver
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal to enable the system to receive weather data and/or
audio entertainment programming.
Establishing a SiriusXM Weather Data account:
1) From Home, touch Utilities > Setup > SiriusXM Info.
2) Note the ID shown in the Data Radio Window as seen in Figure 6-1.
3) Contact SiriusXM customer service. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM customer service.
Verifying SiriusXM Weather services:
1) Ensure the aircraft is outside, and the SiriusXM antenna away from obstructions such as buildings.
2) From Home, touch Utilities > Setup > SiriusXM Info.
3) View the Service Class window and verify the displayed Service Class corresponds to the chosen SiriusXM
subscription type.
4) View the Weather Products window, scrolling as needed to see all supported products. Available weather
product names appear in white text; unavailable weather products appear with subdued text. When all weather
products in the selected Service Class are available, activation is successful.
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Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather)
Weather Products
(Available Products
for Service Class
Indicated in white,
not available are
subdued)
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Entertainment)
Service Class of
SiriusXM Weather
Subscription
Figure 6-1 SiriusXM Info Screen After Activation
ACCESSING SIRIUSXM WEATHER PRODUCTS
The SiriusXM Weather Pane is the principal map pane for viewing SiriusXM Weather information. This is the
only map pane capable of showing information for all available SiriusXM Weather products, with the exception
of Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAFs), which appear only on the Touchscreen Controller.
MFD (SiriusXM Weather Pane in Full Mode)
SiriusXM
Lightning
Weather
Product Icon
Weather
Product Age in
Minutes
Dashes Indicate
Weather Product
Expired
Figure 6-2 SiriusXM Weather Pane with Product Icons and Age Information
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Viewing the SiriusXM Weather Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch the Weather Button. Button is highlighted and becomes Weather Selection Button.
Selected display pane shows a weather pane. If a weather pane other than ‘SiriusXM Weather’ is shown (such
as ‘Weather Radar’ in the pane title), continue with the procedure to view the SiriusXM Weather Pane.
2) Touch the Weather Selection Button. The Weather Selection Screen appears (Figure 6-3).
3) Touch the SiriusXM Weather Button. Button is highlighted and becomes SiriusXM Settings Button. The
system shows the SiriusXM Weather Pane.
4) If necessary, touch the SiriusXM Settings Button to access controls for the SiriusXM Weather Pane (Figure
6-4).
Figure 6-3 Weather Selection Screen
For each enabled SiriusXM Weather product shown on a map, the system displays a weather product icon or
name and the product age. The product age is the elapsed time (in minutes) since the weather data provider
compiled the weather product. The product age display does not indicate the age of the information contained
within the weather product, which can be significantly older than the displayed weather product age. This
information appears automatically when a weather product is enabled on the SiriusXM Weather Pane or
Navigation Map Pane. The pilot can optionally enable or disable this information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
Enabling/disabling weather product information on the Inset Navigation Map and HSI Map:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch either the HSI Map or Inset Map Buttons in order to allow selection of the buttons in the
Overlays Tab.
3) Touch the Weather Legend Button.
The SiriusXM Weather service broadcasts weather products at intervals which may vary from product to
product. If for any reason, a product is not broadcast within the Expiration Time intervals (see Table 6-1), the
system removes the expired data from the display, and shows dashes instead of the product age. This ensures
the displayed information is consistent with what is currently being transmitted by the SiriusXM Weather
service. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age changes to amber. If
data for a weather product is not available, the system displays ‘N/A’ next to the weather product symbol instead
of the product age.
Table 6-1 shows the weather product symbols and the expiration times. SiriusXM and its weather data
suppliers define and control the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
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SiriusXM Weather Product
Product Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Next-generation Radar (NEXRAD)
30
Cloud Tops
60
Echo Tops
30
SiriusXM Lightning
30
Storm Cell Movement
30
SIGMETs
60
AIRMETs
60
METARs
90
City Forecast
90
Surface Analysis
60
Freezing Levels
120
Winds Aloft
90
County Warnings
60
Cyclone (Hurricane) Warnings
60
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
Pilot Weather Report (PIREPs)
90
Air Report (AIREPs)
90
Turbulence
180
No Radar Coverage
Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports (TAFs)
no product symbol
no product symbol
30
60
60
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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SiriusXM Weather Pane
NEXRAD
+
+
No Radar Coverage (Displayed
with NEXRAD)
+
+
SiriusXM Weather Product
Cloud Tops
+
Echo Tops
+
SiriusXM Lightning
+
+
Storm Cell Movement
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
METARs
+
+
+
City Forecast
+
Surface Analysis
+
Freezing Levels
+
Winds Aloft
+
+
County Warnings
+
Cyclone Warnings
+
Current Icing Potential
+
PIREPs
+
AIREPs
+
Turbulence
+
TFRs
VSD Inset Window
Navigation Maps
Table 6-2 shows which SiriusXM Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
maps.
+
+
+
Table 6-2 Weather Product Display Maps
The Touchscreen Controller, when operating in MFD Mode, controls the display of weather information on
display panes.
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Touchscreen Controller (SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen)
Enable/Disable a
Background
Weather
Product
Enable/Disable
Weather
Product
Overlay(s)
View the Legends
for Enabled
Weather Products
Figure 6-4 SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen
The SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen controls the enabling/disabling of weather products on the SiriusXM
Weather Pane. The Map Settings Screen controls the enabling/disabling of weather products on navigation
maps.
The Map Settings Screen on the Touchscreen Controller controls the maximum map range at which the
system displays a weather product on a map; selecting a map range higher than this range will declutter
(remove) the weather product from the map.
Setting up and customizing the SiriusXM Weather Products on navigation maps:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll through the list to view the available weather products.
4) Touch a weather product annunciator button to enable/disable the selected weather product. Button annunciator
is green when a weather product is enabled, or gray when disabled.
5) If necessary, touch a range button next to the corresponding weather product, then touch to select the maximum
map range at which the system will display the selected weather product.
Weather Product
Map Range
Settings
Figure 6-5 Map Settings Screen (Sensor Tab Selected)
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The system provides the ability to select a map orientation for the SiriusXM Weather Pane for the selected
display pane location. In addition to the Heading Up, Track Up, and North Up display options, the system can
also synchronize the SiriusXM Weather Pane orientation to the Navigation Map Pane orientation.
Selecting a map orientation for the SiriusXM Weather Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Weather
Settings.
2) Touch the Orientation Button to change the selected map orientation (displayed in cyan)
3) Touch the desired map orientation button (Heading Up, Track Up, North Up, Sync to Nav Map).
Button
selects map
orientation
for the
selected
SiriusXM
Weather
Pane
Figure 6-6 Selecting a Map Orientation for the SiriusXM Weather Pane
If more than one weather data link weather source has been installed (such as Garmin Connext Weather or
FIS-B), the system provides the option to select a source of weather information for each Navigation Map Pane.
Selecting a Data Link Weather Source for Navigation Map Panes:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll if necessary to view the WX Source Button. Cyan text on the button indicates currently selected weather
data link weather source.
4) Touch the WX Source Button.
5) Touch the button for the data link weather source to be used (such as SiriusXM, FIS-B, or Connext, if
installed).
Selecting a Data Link Weather Source for PFD Maps (Inset Map, HSI Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch the PFD Map Settings Button.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Tab and touch the WX Source Button.
3) Touch a button for the desired data link weather source (SiriusXM, FIS-B, or Connext).
Navigation Maps displaying data link weather products show the name of the selected source (‘Connext WX’ ‘FIS-B’, or ‘SiriusXM’) in a window on the map while data link weather products are enabled for display.
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The SiriusXM Settings Screen can display a legend for each weather product currently enabled on the SiriusXM
Weather Pane.
Viewing legends for weather products enabled on the SiriusXM Weather Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings
2) Touch the Legend Button. The Weather Legends Window appears on the Touchscreen Controller.
3) Scroll as needed to view the weather legends in the Weather Legends window.
4) To remove the Weather Legends Window, touch Back or Home.
Scroll to view
legends for enabled
SiriusXM Weather
products
Figure 6-7 Weather Legends Window (SiriusXM)
The system displays additional information about the following weather products by panning over the product
on the map with the Map Pointer.
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Storm Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• PIREPSs
• AIRMETs
• AIREPs
• METARs
The lower knob adjusts the map range. Pushing the lower knob enables map panning. Once panning is
enabled, pushing either the upper knobs or lower knob disables map panning. To move the Map Pointer while
panning is enabled, turn the large and small upper knobs or use the Touchpad. If the map range is adjusted
while panning is enabled, the map is re-positioned on the Map Pointer.
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Figure 6-8 Panning on the SiriusXM Weather Pane
NEXRAD
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, turbulence,
or icing data.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 160 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each site may arrive
at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
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Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-9 NEXRAD Data on the SiriusXM Weather Pane
Displaying NEXRAD weather information (SiriusXM Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Touch the NEXRAD Button in the Background Window to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
Changing the NEXRAD coverage area (SiriusXM Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Touch the NEXRAD Settings Button. The NEXRAD Options window appears.
3) Touch the NEXRAD Button.
4) Touch the USA or Canada Button, or touch Back or Home to exit without changing the coverage area.
Displaying NEXRAD weather information (Navigation Map Pane)
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll as needed and touch the NEXRAD Data Button in the Overlays window to enable/disable the display of
the NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Pane.
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Changing the NEXRAD coverage area (Navigation Map Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll as needed and touch the NEXRAD Data Settings Button in the Overlays Tab.
4) Touch the NEXRAD Data coverage Button (displaying either ‘USA’ or ‘Canada’ in cyan).
5) Touch the USA or Canada Button, or touch Back or Home to exit without changing the coverage area.
Displaying NEXRAD weather information (PFD Inset Map or HSI Map):
1) If necessary, enable the Inset Map or HSI Map.
2) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
3) Scroll and touch the NEXRAD Data Button to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD Data.
Changing the NEXRAD coverage area (PFD Inset Map or HSI Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch the PFD Map Settings Button.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Tab, and touch the NEXRAD Data Settings Button.
3) Touch the NEXRAD Data Button.
4) Touch the USA or Canada Button.
The display shows composite data from all available NEXRAD radar sites in the selected coverage area
(either United States or Canada.) This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual
radar sweeps. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the strength of the radar returns. All
weather product legends can be viewed on the Touchscreen Controllers. For the NEXRAD legend, touch the
Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen when NEXRAD is enabled for display.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Legend
The system can animate a loop of NEXRAD information on the SiriusXM Weather Pane, navigation maps,
and Inset Map. Animation begins after the system has received at least two NEXRAD images. When animation
is enabled, a timeline appears to the left of the NEXRAD weather product age display. The large square on the
timeline indicates the relative position of the displayed frame of animation, from oldest to newest.
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The NEXRAD weather product age corresponds to the displayed frame. The system can show up to six
frames of NEXRAD animation when the USA coverage option is selected, and up to three frames of animation
when Canada is selected.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on the SiriusXM Weather Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the NEXRAD Button in the Background Window to enable the display of NEXRAD.
3) Touch the NEXRAD Settings Button.
4) Touch the Animation Button to enable/disable the animation.
5) When finished, touch Back or Home.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on the Navigation Map Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll if necessary and touch the NEXRAD Data Settings Button.
4) Touch the NEXRAD Animation Button to enable/disable the animated NEXRAD information.
5) When finished, touch Back or Home.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on the PFD Inset Map:
1) If necessary, enable the Inset Map.
2) From PFD Home, touch the PFD Map Settings Button.
3) Scroll and touch the NEXRAD Data Settings Button.
4) Touch the NEXRAD Animation Button to enable/disable the animated NEXRAD information on the Inset Map
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either the NEXRAD or Echo Tops weather products
are enabled for display. Areas where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently
available, or outside of the selected coverage area, or is not being collected are indicated in a gray shade of
purple.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
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The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• NEXRAD base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• NEXRAD base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual NEXRAD
site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over
the site.
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of NEXRAD data
sampled within the area.
• Colors displayed from NEXRAD and airborne weather radar systems are not interchangeable. Refer to the
applicable legends based on the weather source.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed regardless of actual precipitation
type.
ECHO TOPS
NOTE: When the Echo Tops weather product is enabled on the SiriusXM Weather Pane, the system disables
the NEXRAD and Cloud Tops weather products.
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location and elevation of the highest radar echo. The highest
radar echo does not indicate the actual top of a storm or clouds. It indicates the highest altitude at a which
NEXRAD radar was able to detect precipitation. Note this Echo Tops altitude may be significantly higher than
the highest altitude airborne weather radar was able to detect precipitation, particularly at longer ranges from
the airborne weather radar antenna. See the Airborne Color Weather Radar discussion later in this section
for more information on airborne weather radar. The Echo Tops weather product, like all data link weather
products, does not provide real-time weather information.
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No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-11 Echo Tops Weather Product
Enabling/Disabling Echo Tops information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Touch the Echo Tops Button in the Background window.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display the Echo Tops legend when Echo Tops is enabled. Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, only
one of these products may be displayed at a time. When Echo Tops is enabled, the system disables NEXRAD
and Cloud Tops information.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-12 Echo Tops Legend
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either Echo Tops or NEXRAD is enabled. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not available, or is not being collected are
indicated in gray shade of purple.
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CLOUD TOPS
NOTE: When the Cloud Tops weather product is enabled on the SiriusXM Weather Pane, the system disables
the Echo Tops weather product.
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery. When
the Cloud Tops weather product is enabled, the system removes the Echo Tops weather product. When the
Map Pointer is activated, the system displays the altitude of the selected Cloud Top.
Cloud Top
Information
Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-13 Cloud Tops Weather Product
Enabling/Disabling Cloud Tops information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Touch the Cloud Tops Button in the Background Window.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-14 Cloud Tops Legend
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SIRIUSXM LIGHTNING
The Lightning weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. A
strike icon represents a strike has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact location of the lightning
strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-15 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product
Enabling/Disabling SiriusXM Lightning information (SiriusXM Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Touch the Lightning Button in the Overlays Window.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-16 SiriusXM Lightning Legend
Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information (Navigation Map Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll as needed and touch the SiriusXM Lightning Button.
Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information (PFD Inset Map or HSI Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch either the HSI Map or PFD Inset Map Button to access overlays buttons.
3) Scroll if necessary in the Overlays Tab, and touch the SiriusXM Lightning Button.
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STORM CELL MOVEMENT
The Cell Movement weather product, also known as SCIT (Storm Cell Idenification and Tracking), shows
the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the ground-based system. Orange squares represent
cells, with arrows indicating the direction of cell movement. When the Map Pointer is panned over a Storm
Cell, the system displays the path, speed, and altitude range of the Storm Cell, as determined by the NEXRAD
system.
Additional information for selected
Storm Cell
Storm Cells
Storm Cell
highlighted
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-17 Storm Cell Movement Weather Product
Enabling/Disabling Storm Cell Movement Information (SiriusXM Weather Pane)
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Touch the Storm Cell Movement Button in the Overlays Window.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch the Back Button or the Home
Button.
Figure 6-18 Cell Movement Legend
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Displaying Storm Cell Movement Information (Navigation Map Panes)
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll as needed and touch the NEXRAD Data Settings Button.
4) Touch the Storm Cell Movement Button. When button annunciator is green, the system shows Storm Cell
Movement with the NEXRAD weather product on navigation map panes. When button annunciator is gray,
system will not show the Storm Cell Movement weather product on navigation map panes.
Displaying Storm Cell Movement with NEXRAD information (PFD Inset and HSI Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch either the HSI Map or Inset Map Button to access overlays buttons.
3) Touch the NEXRAD Data Settings Button.
4) Touch the Storm Cell Movement Button.
5) When finished, touch Back or Home.
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
The National Weather Service issues SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs
(AIRmen’s METeorological Information) for potentially hazardous weather. Convective SIGMETs are issued
for hazardous convective weather.
SIGMETs and AIRMETs are represented on the SiriusXM Weather Pane by dashed lines when they are issued
for a wide geographic area, or a diamond shape when conditions are confined to a localized area. The color
of the line or diamond correlates to the conditions shown in the SIGMET or AIRMET legend, as applicable.
Convective
SIGMET highlighted
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-19 SIGMET Weather Products
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Enabling/disabling AIRMET and SIGMET information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll as needed and touch the AIRMETs and/or SIGMETs Buttons in the Overlays Window.
3) To view the text of an AIRMET or SIGMET, press the lower knob and move the map pointer with the large and
small upper knobs or Touchpad over the SIGMET or AIRMET until it is highlighted.
4) Touch the Info Button to show the AIRMET / SIGMET Information Screen for the selected AIRMET or SIGMET.
5) Scroll as needed to view full text of the report, then touch the Back Button or the Home Button.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch the Back Button or the Home
Button.
View
Selected
AIRMET
or SIGMET
Text
Figure 6-20 Map Pointer Control Screen
Figure 6-21 AIRMET/SIGMET Screen
Figure 6-22 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
METARS AND TAFS
METARs typically contain information about the temperature, dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover,
cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or observation station. They can also
contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical data. METARs reflect hourly
observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report. METARs are shown as colored
flags at airports which have a requested METAR available.
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
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Original METAR Text
Airport with
METAR Flag
Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-23 Displaying METARS on the SiriusXM Weather Pane
Showing METAR text (SiriusXM Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Touch the METARs Button in the Overlays Window. The system displays graphical METAR flags at available
reporting stations when METARs are enabled (button annunciator is green).
3) To view METAR text, press the lower knob and move the map pointer with the large and small upper knobs or
Touchpad over a METAR flag. The system displays the original METAR text near the METAR flag. If the display
has not yet received the METAR text associated with the selected flag, it displays “Waiting for METAR text.”
until it receives this information.
The graphical METAR flag color shown on the maps is determined by the information within the METAR. The system displays a gray METAR flag when the system does not have enough information to categorize the
METAR.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch the Back Button or the Home
Button.
Figure 6-24 METAR Legend
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Showing METAR information (Navigation Map Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the Graphical METARs Button. The system displays METAR flags at available reporting stations when
METARs are enabled (button annunciator is green).
4) To view METAR text, press the lower knob and move the map pointer with the large and small upper knobs or
Touchpad over a METAR flag. The system displays the original METAR text near the METAR flag. If the display
has not yet received the METAR text associated with the selected flag, it displays “Waiting for METAR text.”
until it receives this information.
Original METAR text can be viewed on the Inset Map by panning the Map Pointer over a graphical METAR
flag. The HSI Map also shows the graphical METAR flags, but cannot display the text contained within the
METAR.
Showing METAR information (PFD maps):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Graphical METARs Button.
Textual METAR/TAF information is available on the Airport Information Screen on the Touchscreen
Controller for airports with a requested METAR/TAF available. This textual METAR/TAF information may
come from any data link weather source available to the system (such as SiriusXM, FIS-B, or Garmin Connext),
if more than one source is installed. In this case, the system automatically displays the newest available
METAR. If the METAR age is identical from all available data link sources, the system selects one METAR to
display in the following order of source priority: SiriusXM, FIS-B, Garmin Connext.
The pilot can select to view the raw, original METAR or TAF text, or decoded text. The system displays the
data link weather source of the displayed METAR/TAF at the end of the report.
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Viewing textual METAR/TAF information on the Airport Information Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport.
2) If the desired airport identifier and name already appears in the airport button near the top of the screen, go to
step 5.
3) Touch the airport button.
4) Enter the airport identifier using the keypad or the large and small upper knobs, then touch the Enter Button
or push the upper knob.
5) Touch the Weather Tab.
6) Touch a button for an available weather product (METAR Raw, METAR Decoded, TAF Raw, TAF Decoded).
If a button is subdued, that weather product is currently unavailable for the selected airport.
7) Scroll as necessary to view the weather text. Note raw weather products may provide additional information
not present in the decoded version.
Figure 6-25 Decoded METAR information on
the Airport Weather Screen
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SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST
The Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather products are available for current and forecast weather
conditions. Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-26 Current Surface Analysis Weather Product
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll as needed in the Overlays Window and touch the Surface Conditions Button.
3) If needed, touch the Surface Conditions forecast period button (to the right of the Surface Conditions Button)
and select from Current, 12 Hours, 24 Hours, 36 hours, or 48 Hours forecast periods from the selection
window.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-27 Surface Analysis and City Forecast Legend
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FREEZING LEVELS
Freezing Level data shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at which the first
isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude has not been
received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display.
Figure 6-28 Freezing Level Weather Product
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll as needed in the Overlays Window and touch the Freezing Level Button.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-29 Freezing Level Legend
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WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the predicted wind speed and direction at the surface and at
selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to 42,000 feet
MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll as needed in the Overlays Window and touch the Winds Aloft Button.
3) To change the selected winds aloft altitude, touch the Winds Aloft altitude button and select the desired winds
aloft altitude from Surface to 42,000 feet MSL.
Winds Aloft Overlay at 30,000 Feet
Data Age
(US and
Canada)
Selected Winds
Aloft Altitude
Selects Winds
Aloft Altitude
Enables/
Disables
Winds Aloft
Weather
Product
Display
Figure 6-30 Selecting a Winds Aloft Altitude on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen
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Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-31 Winds Aloft Data Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset
Window on the Navigation Map Pane. The displayed wind components are relative to current aircraft altitude
and track or flight plan, depending on the selected VSD Mode, but not relative to aircraft speed.
VSD
Mode
Winds Aloft Product Age
Altitude
Scale
Wind Component Velocity
and Direction Arrows
Distance Scale
Figure 6-32 VSD Inset Window with Winds Aloft Information
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-3 Profile View Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Enabling/Disabling VSD (containing winds aloft data)
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Inset Window Tab.
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3) Touch the VERT Situation Display Button to enable/disable the VSD Inset Window. If the winds aloft
weather product icon does not appear in the inset window, continue with this procedure to enable winds aloft
information.
4) Touch the VERT Situation Display Settings Button.
5) Touch the Winds Button. When enabled, the system displays the winds aloft weather product inside the
Vertical Situation Display.
Enables/
Disables
Vertical
Situation
Display Inset
Window
Enables/
Disables
Winds Aloft
Product
when Vertical
Situation
Display is
shown
Figure 6-33 Controlling the display of Winds Aloft information for VSD Inset Window
COUNTY WARNINGS
County data provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings from the National Weather
Service (NWS). This can include information on severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, and flood conditions.
Thunderstorm
Warning Selected
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-34 County Warnings Weather Product
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Displaying County Warning information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll as needed in the Overlays Window and touch the County Warnings Button.
3) To view additional information (such as county name), press the lower knob to activate the map pointer and
turn the large and small upper knobs or use the Touchpad to select a County Warning. County Warning
information appears in a box near the map pointer.
4) When finished, press either knob to deactivate the map pointer.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-35 County Warnings Legend
CYCLONE WARNINGS
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms, and
their projected tracks. The track consists of a two digit date, followed by the estimated time of arrival.
Figure 6-36 Cyclone (Hurricane) Weather Product with Track Information
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Enabling/Disabling cyclone (hurricane) weather product:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll as needed in the Overlays Window and touch the Cyclone Warnings Button.
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-37 Cyclone Legend
ICING (CIP & SLD)
NOTE: Icing data cannot be displayed at the same time as NEXRAD data.
The Current Icing Potential (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the icing environment. Icing
severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft type). The
CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll as needed in the Overlays Window and touch the Current Icing Potential Button to enable/disable
icing information.
3) Touch the altitude button (to the right of the Current Icing Potential annunciator Button) and scroll to and
touch the desired altitude Button (from 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet.)
Current
Icing
Potential
Selected Current
Icing Potential
Altitude
SLD Threat
Area
Figure 6-38 Current Icing Potential Overlay at 15,000 Feet
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Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-39 Icing Legend
TURBULENCE
NOTE: The Turbulence weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as NEXRAD weather product.
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet. Turbulence data is intended to supplement AIRMETs and SIGMETs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Window and touch the Turbulence Button.
3) Touch the Turbulence altitude button (to the right of the Turbulence annunciator button) and touch to select
an altitude from which to display turbulence data (from 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet).
Selected
Turbulence
Altitude
Figure 6-40 Turbulence Weather Product at 21,000 Feet
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Selects Turbulence
Altitude
Enables/
Disables
Turbulence
Weather
Product
Display
Figure 6-41 Selecting a Turbulence Altitude on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-42 Turbulence Legend
PIREPS AND AIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) provide weather observations collected from pilots. When significant
weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit PIREPs. A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear,
and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
AIREP
Urgent PIREP
Selected with
Map Pointer
PIREP
Figure 6-43 AIREPs and PIREPs on the SiriusXM Weather Pane
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Displaying PIREP or AIREP information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Window as needed and touch the AIREPs or PIREPs Buttons.
3) To view PIREP/AIREP text, push the lower knob to activate the map pointer and use the large and small upper
knobs or Touchpad to highlight a PIREP or AIREP symbol, then touch the Info Button.
4) Scroll as needed through the report text, then touch the Back Button or the Home Button.
PIREP
Location
Age of
PIREP in
HH:MM
PIREP Text
‘PIREP Info’ Screen
Touch to Display
Information for Selected
AIREP/PIREP
Figure 6-44 Displaying PIREPS/AIREPS on the Touchscreen Controller
Touch the Legend Button on the SiriusXM Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-45 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS (TFRS)
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues TFRs to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are
issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement, fire suppression
efforts, airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on
the system is only intended to supplement TFR information obtained from official sources including Flight
Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
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If the TFR product is not available or has expired, the system displays ‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-right corner
of maps on which the display of TFRs is enabled.
TFR Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-46 TFR Text for TFR Selected with Map Pointer
Enabling/disabling TFR information (SiriusXM Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > SiriusXM Weather > SiriusXM Settings.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Window as needed and touch the TFRs Button.
3) To view TFR text, push the lower knob to activate the map pointer and move the pointer with the large and small
upper knobs or Touchpad until the selected TFR is highlighted. The TFR text appears near the map pointer for
the selected TFR.
4) When finished, push either knob, or touch the Back Button or the Home Button.
Enabling/disabling TFR information (Navigation Map Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll and touch the TFR Button.
The Map Settings Screen provides controls for enabling/disabling the display of TFR information on
navigation maps, in addition to selecting the maximum map range for the system to display TFR information. If the crew selects a map range above this setting, the system declutters TFR information from the selected
pane.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Pane use settings based on those selected on the Map Settings Screen.
Enabling/disabling TFR information (Navigation Maps)
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll to find the TFR Button, and touch to enable/disable TFR information.
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Selecting the maximum map range to display TFR information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the TFR Range Button.
4) Scroll as necessary and touch the maximum navigation map range to display TFR information.
Select the
Maximum map
range for system
to show TFRs on
Navigation Maps
Enables/
disables TFR
information
on Navigation
Maps
Figure 6-47 Customizing TFR display settings for Navigation Maps
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6.2 GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext Weather products varies by region and by subscription
type. For Garmin Connext weather product coverage information, refer to www.flygarmin.com.
The optional Garmin GSR 56 Iridium Satellite data link provides the system with Garmin Connext® Weather
information. Graphical weather information and associated text are available on the map displays, with additional
information and controls on the Touchscreen Controllers.
The system retrieves weather data after the flight crew selects either an immediate or automatically recurring
weather data request to the Garmin Connext Weather service using the Touchscreen Controllers.
In order to receive Connext Weather data, an account must first be established. Refer to the Additional Features
section, for more information.
REGISTERING THE SYSTEM FOR GARMIN CONNEXT SERVICES
When an account is established, Garmin Aviation Product Support provides an Access Code which must be
entered and transmitted to Garmin in order to receive Garmin Connext weather data.
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) Ensure the aircraft is outside and has a clear view of the sky (if connecting via the Iridium network).
2) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Connext Registration. If the Registration Information Window
indicates ‘Not Registered’, continue with this procedure.
3) Touch the Register Button.
4) Use the keypad or large and small upper knobs to supply the access code provided from Garmin Connext
customer service.
5) Touch the Enter Button or press the upper knob. The system contacts the Garmin Connext Weather service.
Registration is complete when the Registration Information Window displays the name of the airframe, tail
number, and the serial numbers for the airframe and Iridium unit.
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Figure 6-48 Connext Registration Screen Prior to Registration
Figure 6-49 Enter Access Code Provided by Garmin
Aviation Product Support
ACCESSING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
The Connext Weather Pane is the principal map display for viewing Connext Weather information. This is
the only map display capable of showing information for all available Connext Weather products.
Viewing the Connext Weather Pane:
From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather.
In order for the system to display Garmin Connext weather information, the flight crew must first send a
Connext Weather Data Request using the Connext Weather Settings Screen on the Touchscreen Controller.
TFR information
enabled but not
available
Weather
Product Icon
Weather
Product
Age
Figure 6-50 Connext Weather Pane with METARs and Winds Aloft Enabled
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Data Request
Window
Provides Status
and Controls
for Connext
Weather Data
Requests
Touch to
manage
Connext Data
Requests
and to select
Connext
Weather
products for
display
View Legends
for Enabled
Connext
Weather
Products
Figure 6-51 Weather Selection Screen
Figure 6-52 Connext Weather Settings Screen
When a weather product is enabled on the Connext Weather Pane, a box containing the icon or name for the
product and its age (in minutes) appears in the upper right of the pane. If weather data has not been requested
or is not currently available from Garmin Connext, ‘N/A’ is shown next to the product symbol instead of an age. The age of the weather product is based on the time difference between when the data was assembled on the
ground and the current GPS time. Weather products are updated continuously or refreshed at specific intervals
(defined in the Refresh Rate column in Table 6-4). This information appears automatically when a weather
product is enabled on the Connext Weather Pane or Navigation Map Pane. The pilot can optionally enable or
disable this information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
Enabling/disabling weather product information on the Inset Navigation Map and HSI Map:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch either the HSI Map or Inset Map buttons in order to allow selection of the buttons in the
Overlays Tab.
3) Touch the Weather Legend Button.
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the defined Expiration Time intervals (see Table
6-4), the data is considered expired and is removed from the display. The age of the expired product is replaced
by dashes. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age changes to amber.
Table 6-4 shows the Garmin Connext Weather product symbols, the expiration time and the refresh rates. The refresh rate represents the interval at which Garmin Connext weather services makes available the most
current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rate at which new content is received from
various weather sources.
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext Weather products varies by region and by subscription
type. For Garmin Connext weather product coverage information, refer to www.flygarmin.com.
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Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
Connext Radar
30
Cloud Tops
60
30
Connext Lightning
30
Continuous
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
Continuous
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
90
Continuous
Winds Aloft
90
Continuous
90
Continuous
60
Continuous
60
Continuous
Pilot Weather Reports
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
(TAFs)
no product image
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take
between 3 and 10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australia Bureau of Meteorology
Table 6-4 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Garmin Connext
Weather Pane
Garmin Connext Radar
+
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Cloud Tops
VSD Inset Window
Navigation Maps
Table 6-5 shows which Garmin Connext Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on
specific maps.
+
Lightning
+
+
SIGMETs
+
AIRMETs
+
METARs
+
+
Winds Aloft
+
PIREPs
+
TFRs
+
+
+
Table 6-5 Garmin Connext Weather Product Display Maps
The Touchscreen Controller in MFD Mode controls the display of weather information on display panes.
Enable/Disable
Weather
Product
Overlay(s)
View the Legends
for Enabled
Weather Products
Figure 6-53 Connext Weather Settings Screen
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The Map Settings Screen control of Garmin Connext Weather information on Navigation Map Panes.
Figure 6-54 Map Settings Screen
The Touchscreen Controller in PFD Mode controls the display of Garmin Connext Weather on the PFD Inset
Map and HSI Map.
For navigation maps, the flight crew can select the maximum map range to display each Garmin Connext
Weather product. If the flight crew increases the map range beyond the selected maximum map range for a
given weather product, the system removes the product from the map. The maximum map range settings are
accessible using the Map Settings Screen.
Selecting Maximum Navigation Map Range for Garmin Connext Weather Products:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll through the list to view the available weather products.
4) Touch a range button next to the corresponding weather product, then touch to select the maximum navigation
map range at which the system will display the selected weather product.
Weather Product
Map Range
Settings
Figure 6-55 Map Settings Screen
(Sensor Tab Selected)
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The system provides the ability to select a map orientation for the Connext Weather Pane for the selected
display pane location. In addition to the Heading Up, Track Up, and North Up display options, the system can
also synchronize the Connext Weather Pane orientation to the Navigation Map Pane orientation.
Selecting a map orientation for the Connext Weather Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Touch the Orientation Button to change the selected map orientation (displayed in cyan)
3) Touch the desired map orientation button (Heading Up, Track Up, North Up, Sync to Nav Map).
Button selects map
orientation for the
selected Connext
Weather Pane
Figure 6-56 Selecting a Map Orientation for the Connext Weather Pane
If more than one weather data link weather service has been installed (such as SiriusXM Weather or FIS-B),
the system provides the option to select a source of weather information for each Navigation Map Pane.
Selecting a Weather Data Link Source for Navigation Map Panes:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll if necessary to view the WX Source Button. Cyan text on the button indicates currently selected weather
data link weather source.
4) Touch the WX Source Button.
5) Touch the button for the data link weather service to be used (such as Connext or SiriusXM or FIS-B).
Selecting a Weather Data Link Source for PFD Maps (HSI Map and PFD Inset Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the HSI Map or Inset Map Button to make overlays buttons available.
3) Scroll in the Overlays Tab to view the WX Source Button. Cyan text on the button indicates currently selected
weather data link weather source.
4) Touch the WX Source Button.
5) Touch the button for the data link weather service to be used (such as Connext or SiriusXM or FIS-B).
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Navigation Maps displaying data link weather products show the name of the selected source (‘Connext WX’, ‘FIS-B’, or ‘SiriusXM’) in the upper-right corner of the map while data link weather products are enabled for
display.
The Connext Weather Settings Screen on the Touchscreen Controller can display a legend for each weather
product currently enabled on the Connext Weather Pane.
Viewing legends for weather products enabled on the Connext Weather Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings
2) Touch the Legend Button. The Weather Legends Window appears on the Touchscreen Controller.
3) Scroll as needed to view the weather legends in the Weather Legends Window.
4) To remove the Weather Legends Window, touch Back or Home.
The system provides additional information about the following weather products by panning over the
product on the map:
• Cloud Tops
• METARs
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPSs
The lower knob adjusts the map range. Pushing the lower knob enables map panning. Once panning is
enabled, pushing either the upper knobs or lower knob disables map panning. To move the Map Pointer while
panning is enabled, turn the large and small upper knobs or use the Touchpad. If the map range is adjusted
while panning is enabled, the map is re-positioned on the Map Pointer.
Original Text for Selected
METAR
METAR Flag
Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-57 Panning with the Map Pointer for Additional Information
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CONNEXT WEATHER DATA REQUESTS
The Data Request Window on the Connext Weather Settings Screen provides the flight crew with the options
to define weather data request coverage areas, select automatic weather data request intervals, and provides the
ability to send an manual data request immediately. The Data Request Window also displays the status of the
Connext Data Request process.
Before the system can retrieve weather information, a valid coverage area must be defined from which all
available Garmin Connext Weather products will be retrieved (regardless of which weather products are
currently enabled for display). The flight crew may define the coverage area by enabling/disabling one or more
of the following buttons at any time:
• P.POS (Present Position)
• Destination (as part of the active flight plan)
• Flight Plan (active)
• Waypoint
It is not necessary to provide the system with the destination, flight plan, or waypoint prior to enabling these
buttons. However, if none of this information is supplied, the present position must be included in the Connext
Data Request. Otherwise, the Data Request Window indicates ‘INVALID COVERAGE AREA’ when performing
a data request, because the system has insufficient information to define the coverage area.
Defining Weather Data Request Coverage Area:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Touch the Define Coverage Button.
3) To change the diameter and route width of the weather data request coverage area, touch the Diameter/
Width Button. Scroll as needed and touch the desired distance button in the selection window.
4) To include/remove the present position in the weather data request, touch the P.POS Button.
5) To include/remove the destination of the active flight plan in the weather data request, touch the Destination
Button.
6) To include/remove any portion of the active flight plan route in the weather data request, touch the Flight Plan
Button.
7) To change distance of the flight plan to be used in the data request, touch the Flight Plan Distance Button. Scroll
as needed and touch the desired distance of the flight plan to be used (‘Remaining FPL’ uses the remainder of
the flight plan, or select a specified look-ahead distance from the list.)
8) To include/remove a specific waypoint to be used in the weather data request, touch the Waypoint Button.
a) Touch the waypoint entry Button (to the right of the Waypoint Button.)
b) Use Touchscreen Controller keypad or large and small upper knobs to enter a waypoint to include in the
weather data request, then touch the Enter Button or press the small upper knob.
9) When finished, touch the Back Button to return to the Connext Weather Settings Screen, or touch the Home
Button.
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Sending/Cancelling an Immediate Weather Data Request:.
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Touch the Send Immediate Request Button. The system contacts Garmin Connext services and displays the
status in the Data Request Window. System displays ‘Completed’ when finished.
3) If desired, touch the Cancel Immediate Request Button while a request is occurring. Data Request Window
displays ‘Cancelled’.
Data Request
Window
Figure 6-58 Connext Weather Settings Screen
Figure 6-59 Selecting coverage area for Connext
Data Request
During a weather data request, the Data Request Window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”. Once a
connection is established, the Data Request Window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time Remaining:” with an
estimated data transfer time (either minutes or seconds). Connext Data Requests typically take between one to
four minutes to complete depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area and the data link signal
strength. If the system cannot complete the data request, the Data Request Window displays an error; see the
Abnormal Operations discussion later in this section for more information.
The system retrieves all available Connext Weather products within the selected coverage area during an initial
weather data request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for display. On subsequent
weather data requests, previously retrieved textual products (such as METARs and TAFS) are retained if not
expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and all graphical weather data is
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Present Position Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter Requested
Figure 6-60 Connext Weather Coverage Options for Present Position and Destination
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Next 80 nm of Flight Plan Selected, 200 nm
Route Width Requested
Waypoint Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-61 Connext Weather Coverage Options based on Flight Plan and Waypoint Selections
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Automatic requests remain
enabled until the flight crew disables them, or the system power is cycled. The Data Request Window will
indicate a countdown timer until the next automatic Connext Data Request occurs. Performing an immediate
data request resets the timer until the next Automatic data request occurs.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Touch the Auto Request Button.
3) From the selection window, touch an Auto Update Request Rate Button to select the desired weather request
update interval in minutes or touch the Off Button to disable automatic Connext Data Requests.
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GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
RADAR
The Garmin Connext Radar weather product, where available, shows a mosaic of weather radar images
compiled from individual radar sites. Images may arrive at ground-based collection systems at different rates
and times.
Periodically, the Garmin Connext Weather service collects these images, and assigns a single time to indicate
when it created the image. This composite image becomes the Garmin Connext Radar product. Images from
individual radar sites differ in age, and are always older than the displayed Precipitation weather product age.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute this weather product, the displayed weather
information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis and may
not depict the current weather conditions. Information from the Garmin Connext Radar weather product
should never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of
the information it contains.
Boundary of
weather data
request
Figure 6-62 Connext Weather Pane with Connext Radar Enabled
Displaying Garmin Connext Radar information (Connext Weather Pane)
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Touch the Radar Button in the Overlays Window.
Connext Weather Radar data shown represents lowest level, base reflectivity, of radar returns. The display
of the information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can
be viewed on the Connext Weather Pane. For the Connext Radar legend, touch the Legend Button on the
Connext Weather Settings Screen when Connext Weather is enabled for display.
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No Radar coverage
within boundary
of weather data
request
Figure 6-63 Connext Weather Radar Legend
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when Garmin Connext Radar is enabled for display. Areas
where radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in a gray shade of
purple. A white boundary line with white tick marks depicts the selected coverage area of the Connext Data
Request (as defined in the Data Request Window). This boundary encloses the precipitation data when
this weather product is displayed. This boundary assists the flight crew in differentiating an area without
precipitation from an area outside of the Connext Data Request coverage area.
Displaying Garmin Connext Radar information (Navigation Map Pane):
1) From MFD Home, Touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor tab.
3) Scroll if needed and touch the Connext Radar Button
Displaying Garmin Connext Radar information (PFD Inset Map or HSI Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Tab, and touch the Connext Radar Button.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
Radar Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
• Radar base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
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• Radar base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual radar site
cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over the
site.
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 nm, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers.
• Colors displayed from NEXRAD and airborne weather radar systems are not interchangeable. Refer to the
applicable legends based on the weather source.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
INFRARED SATELLITE
The Infrared (IR) Satellite weather product depicts cloud top temperatures, as determined from infrared
satellite imagery. Darker colors indicate warmer cloud tops typically associated with lower altitudes; lighter
colors indicate cooler cloud tops typically associated with higher altitudes. When panning over a Cloud Top
with the Map Pointer, the system displays an estimated temperature range for the selected Cloud Top.
Temperature range for selected Cloud Top
Figure 6-64 Infrared Satellite Weather Product on Connext Weather Pane
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Displaying Cloud Tops information (Connext Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Touch the IR Satellite Button in the Overlays Window.
To display the Cloud Tops legend, touch the Legend Button on the Connext Weather Settings Settings
Screen when the Infrared Satellite weather product is enabled for display.
Figure 6-65 Infrared Satellite Legend
GARMIN CONNEXT LIGHTNING
The Garmin Connext Lightning weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground
lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. Neither
cloud-to-cloud nor the exact location of the lightning strike is displayed.
Lightning Strikes
Figure 6-66 Lightning Strikes on Connext Weather Pane
Displaying Connext Lightning information (Connext Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Touch the Lightning Button in the Overlays Window.
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To display the Lightning legend on the Touchscreen Controller, touch the Legend Button on the Connext
Weather Settings Screen when the Connext Lightning weather product is enabled for display.
Figure 6-67 Connext Lightning Legend
Displaying Connext Lightning information (Navigation Map Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll as needed in the Overlays Window and touch the Connext Lightning Button.
Displaying Connext Lightning information (PFD Inset Map or HSI Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Tab, and touch the Connext Lightning Button.
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is displayed as long as any portion of it occurs within the boundaries
defined during the weather data request.
AIRMET Selected
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-68 SIGMETs and AIRMETs on the Connext Weather Pane
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Enabling/Disabling SIGMETs and AIRMETs (Connext Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Scroll as needed and touch the AIRMETs and/or SIGMETs Buttons in the Overlays Window.
3) To view the text of an AIRMET or SIGMET, press the lower knob and move the map pointer with the large and
small upper knobs or Touchpad over the SIGMET or AIRMET until it is highlighted.
4) Touch the Info Button to show the AIRMET / SIGMET Information Screen for the selected AIRMET or SIGMET.
5) Scroll as needed to view full text of the report, then touch the Back Button or the Home Button.
To display the SIGMET / AIRMET legend, touch the Legend Button on the Connext Weather Settings
Screen when either product is enabled for display. Scroll as needed to view the legend, then touch Back or
Home.
View
Selected
AIRMET
or SIGMET
Text
Figure 6-69 Map Pointer Control Screen
Figure 6-70 AIRMET/SIGMET Information Screen
METARS AND TAFS
METARs typically contain information about the temperature, dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover,
cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or observation station. They can also
contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical data. METARs reflect hourly
observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report. METARs are shown as colored
flags at airports which have a requested METAR available.
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
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Original METAR Text
Airport with
METAR Flag
Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-71 Displaying METARS on the Connext Weather Pane
Showing METAR text (Connext Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Touch the METARs Button in the Overlays Window. The system displays graphical METAR flags at available
reporting stations when METARs are enabled (button annunciator is green).
3) To view METAR text, press the lower knob and move the Map Pointer with the large and small upper knobs or
Touchpad over a METAR flag. The system displays the original METAR text near the METAR flag. If the display
has not yet received the METAR text associated with the selected flag, it displays “Waiting for METAR text,”
until it receives this information.
The graphical METAR flag color shown on the maps is determined by the information within the METAR. The system displays a gray METAR flag when the system does not have enough information to categorize the
METAR.
Figure 6-72 METAR Legend
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Showing METAR information (Navigation Map Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Selection > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the Graphical METARs Button. The system displays METAR flags at available reporting stations when
METARs are enabled (button annunciator is green).
4) To view METAR text, press the lower knob and move the map pointer with the large and small upper knobs or
Touchpad over a METAR flag. The system displays the original METAR text near the METAR flag. If the display
has not yet received the METAR text associated with the selected flag, it displays “Waiting for METAR text.”
until it receives this information.
Original METAR text can be viewed on the Inset Map by panning the Map Pointer over a graphical METAR
flag. The HSI Map also shows the graphical METAR flags, but cannot display the text contained within the
METAR.
Showing METAR information (PFD maps):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Graphical METARs Button.
Textual METAR/TAF information is available on the Airport Information Screen on the Touchscreen
Controller for airports with a requested METAR/TAF available. This textual METAR/TAF information may
come from any data link weather source available to the system (such as SiriusXM, FIS-B, or Garmin Connext),
if more than one source is installed. In this case, the system automatically displays the newest available
METAR. If the METAR age is identical from all available data link sources, the system selects one METAR to
display in the following order of source priority: SiriusXM, FIS-B, Garmin Connext.
The pilot can select to view the raw, original METAR or TAF text, or decoded text. The system displays the
data link weather source of the displayed METAR/TAF at the end of the report.
Viewing textual METAR/TAF information on the Airport Information Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport.
2) If the desired airport identifier and name already appears in the airport button near the top of the screen, go to
step 5.
3) Touch the airport button.
4) Input the airport identifier using the keypad or the large and small right knobs, then touch Enter or push the
right knob.
5) Touch the Weather Tab.
6) Touch a button for an available weather product (METAR Raw, METAR Decoded, TAF Raw, TAF Decoded).
If a button is subdued, that weather product is currently unavailable for the selected airport.
7) Scroll as necessary to view the weather text. Note raw weather products may provide additional information
not present in the decoded version.
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Figure 6-73 Decoded METAR information on the Airport Weather Screen
WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the predicted wind speed and direction at the surface and at
selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to 42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Scroll if needed in the Overlays Window and touch the Winds Aloft Button.
3) Touch the Winds Aloft altitude button (to the right of the Winds Aloft Button) and touch the desired winds
aloft altitude from Surface to 42,000 feet MSL in the pop-up window.
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Winds Aloft Overlay at 12,000 Feet
Selected Winds
Aloft Altitude
Connext Weather Settings Screen
Touch to Enable/
Disable Winds
Aloft Overlay
Selected Winds
Aloft Altitude
Figure 6-74 Displaying Winds Aloft Forecast
To display the Winds Aloft legend, touch the Legend Button on the Connext Weather Settings Screen when
the Winds Aloft weather product is enabled. Scroll as needed to view the legend information, then touch
Back Button or the Home Button.
Figure 6-75 Winds Aloft Legend
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Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset
Window on the Navigation Map Pane. The displayed wind components are relative to current aircraft altitude
and track or flight plan, depending on the selected VSD Mode, but not relative to aircraft speed.
VSD
Mode
Winds Aloft Product Age
Altitude
Scale
Wind Component Velocity
and Direction Arrows
Distance Scale
Figure 6-76 VSD Inset Window with Winds Aloft Information
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-6.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-6 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Enabling/Disabling VSD (containing winds aloft data)
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Inset Window Tab.
3) Touch the VERT Situation Display Button to enable/disable the VSD Inset Window. If the winds aloft
weather product icon does not appear in the inset window, continue with this procedure to enable winds aloft
information.
4) Touch the VERT Situation Display Settings Button.
5) Touch the Winds Button. When enabled, the system displays the winds aloft weather product inside the
Vertical Situation Display.
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Enables/
Disables
Vertical
Situation
Display Inset
Window
Enables/
Disables
Winds Aloft
Product
when Vertical
Situation
Display is
shown
Figure 6-77 Controlling the display of Winds Aloft information for VSD Inset Window
PIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather collected from pilots. A PIREP may contain
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
AIREP
Urgent PIREP
Selected with
Map Pointer
PIREP
Figure 6-78 AIREPs and PIREPs on the Connext Weather Pane
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Displaying PIREP information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Window as needed and touch the PIREPs Button.
3) To view PIREP text, push the lower knob to activate the map pointer and move the pointer with the knobs or
Touchpad until the selected report is highlighted, then touch the PIREP Info Button.
4) Scroll as needed through the report text, then touch Back or Home.
PIREP
Location
Age of
PIREP in
HH:MM
PIREP Text
‘PIREP Info’ Screen
Touch to Display
Information for Selected
AIREP/PIREP
Figure 6-79 Displaying PIREPS/AIREPS on the Touchscreen Controller
To display the PIREPs legend, touch the Legend Button on the Connext Weather Settings Screen when
the PIREPs weather product is enabled on the Connext Weather Pane. Scroll as needed to view the legend
information, then touch either the Back or Home Buttons..
Figure 6-80 PIREPs Legend
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS (TFRS)
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues TFRs to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are
issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement, fire suppression
efforts, airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on
the system is only intended to supplement TFR information obtained from official sources including Flight
Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
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TFR
Selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-81 TFR Text for TFR Selected with Map Pointer
Enabling/disabling TFR information (Connext Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > Connext Weather > Connext Settings.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Window as needed and touch the TFRs Button.
3) To view TFR text, push the lower knob to activate the map pointer and move the pointer with the knobs or
Touchpad until the selected TFR is highlighted. The TFR text appears near the map pointer for the selected TFR.
4) When finished, push either knob, or touch Back or Home.
The Map Settings Screen provides controls for enabling/disabling the display of TFR information on
navigation maps, in addition to selecting the maximum map range for the system to display TFR information. If the crew selects a map range above this setting, the system declutters TFR information from the selected
pane.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Pane use settings based on those selected on the Map Settings Screen.
Enabling/disabling TFR information (Navigation Maps):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll to find the TFR Button, and touch to enable/disable TFR information.
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Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor tab.
3) Touch the TFR Range Button.
4) Scroll as necessary and touch the maximum navigation map range to display TFR information.
Select the
Maximum map
range for system
to show TFRs on
Navigation Maps
Enables/
disables TFR
information
on Navigation
Maps
Figure 6-82 Customizing TFR display settings for Navigation Maps
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
If the system cannot complete a weather data request, one or more messages will appear in the Data Request
Window.
Weather Request Status
Message
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to reset.
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors.
Automatic weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to
resume automatic updates.
Auto update retry: ## Seconds The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred
during the previous request. Timer counts down until the next automatic request occurs.
Connext Comm Error [2]
A communications error has occurred with the GIA. The system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [4]
This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or the GIA is
off-line.
Connext Comm Error [5]
The Iridium or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal strength.
If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6]
A communications error has occurred. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [7]
Connext Comm Error [8]
Connext Login Invalid
Connext Server Temporarily
Inop
Connext Server Inop
Invalid Coverage Area
No Connext Subscription
Reduce Request Area
Request Cancelled
Request Failed - Try Again
Transfer Preempted
A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal strength and re-send the
Connext Data Request.
A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. Contact Garmin Aviation
Product Support using the information at www.flygarmin.com.
The Garmin Connext weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to
return to service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
The Connext Data Request does not sufficiently define a coverage area on which to
retrieve weather data. Verify the selections in the Connext Weather Coverage Window,
then issue another Connext Data Request.
The system is not currently subscribed to the Garmin Connext Weather service, or the
access code is incorrect. Verify the access code. Contact Garmin Aviation Product Support
using the information at www.flygarmin.com.
The weather data request area exceeds size limits. Reduce weather coverage area and
re-send data request.
The user has cancelled a weather data request.
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
The data link is busy. Retry request later.
Table 6-7 Abnormal Weather Data Request Status Messages
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6.3 FIS-B WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
The FIS-B Weather service, available when equipped with a capable transponder which can receive 978
MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data, delivers subscription-free weather information periodically and
automatically to the aircraft. FIS-B uses a network of FAA-operated Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) to transmit
the information to the aircraft’s receiver. Reception is limited to line-of-sight, and is available below 24,000 feet
MSL in the United States.
FIS-B broadcasts provide weather data in a repeating cycle which may take approximately ten minutes to
transmit all available weather data. Therefore, not all weather data may be present immediately upon initial FIS-B
signal acquisition.
FIS-B is a component of the Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS-B) system, which offers both weather and
traffic data; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later in this section for a more detailed discussion of the ADS-B
system and its capabilities.
ACCESSING FIS-B WEATHER INFORMATION
The FIS-B Weather Pane is the principal map display for viewing FIS-B Weather information. This is the only
map display capable of showing information for all available FIS-B Weather products, with the exception of
Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts (TAFs), discussed later in this section.
Viewing the FIS-B Weather Pane:
From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather.
On the FIS-B Weather Settings Screen, the pilot can enable/disable FIS-B weather data reception of the service. If FIS-B weather service reception is disabled, the overlays buttons for FIS-B weather products for navigation
maps will be subdued and cannot be selected until FIS-B weather is enabled; however, the overlays enable/
disable buttons are not subdued on the FIS-B Weather Settings Screen. While the pilot can still enable/disable
the overlays on the FIS-B Weather Settings Screen, the FIS-B weather data will not be shown until the pilot
enables FIS-B weather data reception.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather data reception:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather > FIS-B Settings.
2) Touch the Enable FIS-B or Disable FIS-B Button.
The FIS-B Data Status window on the FIS-B Weather Settings Screen provides the number of minutes
since the last successful ground uplink of FIS-B Weather data, or dashes if no completed uplink has been
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received. The window also displays the names of FIS-B weather products currently experiencing a data outage
as determined by the FIS-B weather service, or ‘None’ if there are no known outages, or ‘Data not available’ if
outage information is currently unavailable or has not been received.
PIREP overlay
enabled, data not
available
Weather
Product Icon
Weather
Product Age
Figure 6-83 FIS-B Weather Pane with PIREPs and Regional NEXRAD Enabled
Shows status
of FIS-B
Weather data
reception
View legends
for enabled
FIS-B weather
products
Figure 6-84 Weather Selection Screen
Figure 6-85 FIS-B Weather Settings Screen
When a FIS-B weather product is active on a map, the age of the data is displayed in a box with the weather
product symbol. The age of the product is based on the time difference between when the data was assembled
on the ground and the current GPS time. Weather products are transmitted at specific intervals (defined in the
Broadcast Rate column in Table 6-8).
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the Expiration Time intervals (see Table 6-8), the
data is considered expired and is removed from the display. This ensures that the displayed data is consistent
with FIS-B broadcast data. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
displayed changes to amber. The system displays dashes instead of a product age when a product has expired. If a weather product is not available or has not been received, the system displays ‘N/A’ instead of a product age.
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Table 6-8 shows the FIS-B weather product symbols, the expiration times, and broadcast rates. The broadcast
rate represents the interval at which FIS-B GBTs broadcast new signals that may or may not contain new weather
data. It does not represent the rate at which weather data is updated or new content is received on the aircraft.
FIS-B Weather Product
Expiration Time Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
(Minutes)
Symbol
CONUS NEXRAD (US)
30
15
Regional NEXRAD
30
2.5
90
5
90
10
90
10
60
5
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
No Radar Coverage
no product image
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
no product image
60
10
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
Table 6-8 Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
Garmin Connext
Weather Pane
NEXRAD (CONUS and Regional)
+
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
SIGMETs
+
AIRMETs
+
METARs
+
+
Winds Aloft
+
PIREPs
+
TFRs
+
VSD Inset Window
FIS-B Weather Product
Navigation Map
The following table shows which FIS-B Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on
specific maps.
+
+
Table 6-9 FIS-B Weather Product Display Maps
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The Touchscreen Controller controls the display of weather information on display panes.
Enables/disables
weather product
overlays
View the legend for
enabled weather
products
Figure 6-86 FIS-B Weather Settings Screen
The Map Settings Screen controls the enabling/disabling of FIS-B Weather information on Navigation Map
Panes.
Figure 6-87 Map Settings Screen
For navigation maps, the flight crew can select the maximum map range to display each Garmin Connext
Weather product. If the flight crew increases the map range beyond the selected maximum map range for a
given weather product, the system removes the product from the map. The maximum map range settings are
accessible using the Map Settings Screen.
Selecting Maximum Navigation Map Range for Garmin Connext Weather Products:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll through the list to view the available weather products.
4) Touch a range button next to the corresponding weather product, then touch to select the maximum navigation
map range at which the system will display the selected weather product.
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Weather Product
Map Range
Settings
Figure 6-88 Map Settings Screen
The system provides the ability to select a map orientation for the FIS-B Weather Pane for the selected display
pane location. In addition to the Heading Up, Track Up, and North Up display options, the system can also
synchronize the FIS-B Weather Pane orientation to the Navigation Map Pane orientation.
Selecting a map orientation for the FIS-B Weather Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather > FIS-B Settings.
2) Touch the Orientation Button to change the selected map orientation (displayed in cyan)
3) Touch the desired map orientation button (Heading Up, Track Up, North Up, Sync to Nav Map).
Button selects
map orientation
for the selected
FIS-B Weather
Pane
Figure 6-89 Selecting a Map Orientation for the FIS-B Weather Pane
If more than one weather data link weather service has been installed (such as SiriusXM Weather), the system
provides the option to select a source of weather information for each Navigation Map Pane and PFD Map.
Selecting a Data Link Weather source for Navigation Map Panes:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor tab.
3) Scroll if necessary to view the WX Source Button. Cyan text on the button indicates currently selected weather
data link weather source.
4) Touch the WX Source Button.
5) Touch the button for the data link weather service to be used (such as FIS-B, Connext, or SiriusXM).
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Selecting a Data Link Weather source for PFD Maps:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Scroll if necessary to view the WX Source Button. Cyan text on the button indicates currently selected weather
data link weather source.
3) Touch the WX Source Button.
4) Touch the button for the data link weather service to be used (such as FIS-B, Connext, or SiriusXM).
Navigation Maps displaying data link weather products show the name of the selected source (‘Connext WX’ or ‘SiriusXM’) in a box on the map while data link weather products are enabled for display.
The FIS-B Weather Settings Screen on the Touchscreen Controller can display a legend for each weather
product currently enabled on the FIS-B Weather Pane.
Viewing legends for enabled weather products:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather > FIS-B Settings
2) Touch the Legend Button. The Weather Legends Window appears on the Touchscreen Controller.
3) Scroll as needed to view the weather legends in the Weather Legends Window.
4) To remove the Weather Legends Window, touch the Back Button or the Home Button.
The system provides additional information about the following weather products by panning over the
product on the map:
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPSs
• METARs
The lower knob adjusts the map range. Pushing the lower knob enables map panning. Once panning is
enabled, pushing either the upper knobs or lower knob disables map panning. To move the Map Pointer while
panning is enabled, turn the large and small upper knobs or use the Touchpad. If the map range is adjusted
while panning is enabled, the map is re-positioned on the Map Pointer.
Original Text for Selected METAR
METAR Flag
Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-90 Panning with the Map Pointer for Additional Information
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FIS-B WEATHER PRODUCTS
NEXRAD
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to FIS-B compiles
the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time
to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual
images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD
weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for
maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
Figure 6-91 CONUS NEXRAD Weather Product on the FIS-B Weather Pane
The Regional NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher resolution,
updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution, updated less
frequently). The pilot can choose which type of NEXRAD weather product is displayed. Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the FIS-B Weather Pane (CONUS or Regional):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather > FIS-B Settings.
2) Touch the CONUS NEXRAD or Regional NEXRAD Buttons in the Overlays Window.
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The Regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received from
ground-based sources. When the Regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white hatched boundary encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the Regional NEXRAD coverage being displayed. The
system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this boundary area.
Both types of NEXRAD may be enabled on the map simultaneously. When this occurs, the Regional
NEXRAD display takes precedence when the CONUS and Regional NEXRAD coverage overlaps.
Boundary of
Regional NEXRAD
Weather Product
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-92 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the FIS-B Weather Pane
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the
information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level.
No Radar Coverage
(Inside Coverage
Boundary)
Figure 6-93 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
When NEXRAD is enabled, areas where radar data is not currently available, has not yet been received, or
is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of purple.
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during initial FIS-B signal
acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system may display areas of no radar
coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is received. It may take up to approximately ten
minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when adequate reception is available.
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Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• At a map range of 30 nm or less, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the
regional version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm tall. For the
continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5 nm wide by 5 nm
wide.
• The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of latitude.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: The system will begin to display METAR flags as it receives reports; however it may take approximately
ten minutes for all available METAR and TAF data to be received over a FIS-B broadcast.
METARs typically contain information about the temperature, dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover,
cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or observation station. They can also
contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical data. METARs reflect hourly
observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report. METARs are shown as colored
flags at airports which have a requested METAR available.
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
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Original Text for Selected METAR
METAR Flag
Selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-94 Panning with the Map Pointer for Additional Information
Showing METAR text (FIS-B Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather > FIS-B Settings.
2) Touch the METARs Button in the Overlays Window. The system displays graphical METAR flags at available
reporting stations when METARs are enabled (button annunciator is green).
3) To view METAR text, press the lower knob and move the map pointer with the large and small upper knobs or
Touchpad over a METAR flag. The system displays the original METAR text near the METAR flag. If the display
has not yet received the METAR text associated with the selected flag, it displays “Waiting for METAR text.”
until it receives this information.
The graphical METAR flag color shown on the maps is determined by the information within the METAR. The system displays a gray METAR flag when the system does not have enough information to categorize the
METAR.
Figure 6-95 METAR Legend
Showing METAR information (Navigation Map Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Selection > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the Graphical METARs Button. The system displays METAR flags at available reporting stations when
METARs are enabled (button annunciator is green).
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4) To view METAR text, press the lower knob and move the map pointer with the large and small upper knobs or
Touchpad over a METAR flag. The system displays the original METAR text near the METAR flag. If the display
has not yet received the METAR text associated with the selected flag, it displays “Waiting for METAR text.”
until it receives this information.
Original METAR text can be viewed on the Inset Map by panning the Map Pointer over a graphical METAR
flag. The HSI Map also shows the graphical METAR flags, but cannot display the text contained within the
METAR.
Showing METAR information (PFD maps):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Graphical METARs Button.
Textual METAR/TAF information is available on the Airport Information Screen on the Touchscreen
Controller for airports with a requested METAR/TAF available. This textual METAR/TAF information may
come from any data link weather source available to the system (such as SiriusXM, FIS-B, or Garmin Connext),
if more than one source is installed. In this case, the system automatically displays the newest available
METAR. If the METAR age is identical from all available data link sources, the system selects one METAR to
display in the following order of source priority: SiriusXM, FIS-B, Garmin Connext.
The pilot can select to view the raw, original METAR or TAF text, or decoded text. The system displays the
data link weather source of the displayed METAR/TAF at the end of the report.
Viewing textual METAR/TAF information on the Airport Information Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Waypoint Info > Airport.
2) If the desired airport identifier and name already appears in the airport button near the top of the screen, go to
step 5.
3) Touch the airport button.
4) Enter the airport identifier using the keypad or the large and small upper knobs, then touch the Enter Button
or push the upper knob.
5) Touch the Weather Tab.
6) Touch a button for an available weather product (METAR Raw, METAR Decoded, TAF Raw, TAF Decoded).
If a button is subdued, that weather product is currently unavailable for the selected airport.
7) Scroll as necessary to view the weather text. Note raw weather products may provide additional information
not present in the decoded version.
Figure 6-96 Decoded METAR information on the Airport Weather Screen
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WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT
NOTE: The FIS-B Winds Aloft weather product is not available on the Vertical Situation Display (VSD).
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the predicted wind speed and direction at selected altitudes. Predicated temperatures aloft also appear, when available.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather > FIS-B Settings.
2) Scroll if needed in the Overlays Window and touch the Winds Aloft Button.
3) Touch the Winds Aloft altitude button (to the right of the Winds Aloft Button) and touch the desired winds
aloft altitude from 1,000 feet to 53,000 feet MSL.
Winds Aloft Overlay at 18,000 Feet
Forecast Period
Date and time
forecast was
issued
Selected Winds
Aloft Altitude
Touch to Enable/
Disable Winds
Aloft Overlay
Selected Winds
Aloft Altitude
FIS-B Weather Settings Screen
Figure 6-97 Displaying Winds Aloft Forecast
To display the Winds Aloft legend, touch the Legend Button on the Connext Weather Settings Screen when
the Winds Aloft weather product is enabled. Scroll as needed to view the legend information, then touch
Back or Home.
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Figure 6-98 Winds Aloft Legend
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
The National Weather Service issues SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs
(AIRmen’s METeorological Information) for potentially hazardous weather. Convective SIGMETs are issued
for hazardous convective weather.
AIRMET highlighted
with Map Pointer
Figure 6-99 SIGMET and AIRMET Weather Products Enabled
Enabling/Disabling AIRMET and SIGMET information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather > FIS-B Settings.
2) Scroll as needed and touch the AIRMETs and/or SIGMETs Buttons in the Overlays Window.
3) To view the text of an AIRMET or SIGMET, press the lower knob and move the map pointer with the large and
small upper knobs or Touchpad over the SIGMET or AIRMET until it is highlighted.
4) Touch the Info Button to show the AIRMET / SIGMET Information Screen for the selected AIRMET or SIGMET.
5) Scroll as needed to view full text of the report, then touch the Back Button or the Home Button.
Dashed lines enclose a SIGMET or AIRMET occurring over a large geographic area. If a SIGMET or AIRMET
exists only for a small geographic area, a diamond shape may appear; both are shown in the legend.
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Touch the Legend Button on the FIS-B Weather Settings Screen to display weather legend(s) for enabled
weather product(s). Scroll as necessary to view the information, then touch Back or Home.
View
Selected
AIRMET
or SIGMET
Text
Figure 6-100 Map Pointer Control Screen
Figure 6-101 AIRMET/SIGMET Information
Screen
Figure 6-102 SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
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PIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather collected from pilots. A PIREP may contain
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Urgent PIREP
PIREP selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-103 PIREPs on the FIS-B Weather Pane
Displaying PIREP information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather > FIS-B Settings.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Window as needed and touch the PIREPs Button.
3) To view PIREP text, push the lower knob to activate the map pointer and move the pointer with the large and
small upper knobs or Touchpad until the selected report is highlighted, then touch the Info Button.
4) Scroll as needed through the report text, then push either knob or touch Back or Home.
PIREP
Location
Age of
PIREP in
HH:MM
PIREP Text
Touch to display information for
selected PIREP
PIREP Info Screen
Figure 6-104 Displaying PIREPS on the Touchscreen Controller
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To display the PIREPs legend, touch the Legend Button on the FIS-B Weather Settings Screen when
the PIREPs weather product is enabled on the FIS-B Weather Pane. Scroll as needed to view the legend
information, then touch Back or Home.
Figure 6-105 PIREPs Legend
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS (TFRS)
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues TFRs to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are
issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement, fire suppression
efforts, airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on
the system is only intended to supplement TFR information obtained from official sources including Flight
Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
TFR Selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-106 Selecting a TFR to View Full Text
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Enabling/disabling TFR information (FIS-B Weather Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > FIS-B Weather > FIS-B Settings.
2) Scroll in the Overlays Window as needed and touch the TFRs Button.
3) To view the TFR full text, push the lower knob to activate the map pointer and move the pointer with the large
and small upper knobs or Touchpad until the selected report is highlighted, then touch the Info Button.
4) Scroll as needed through the report text, then push either knob or touch Back or Home.
The Map Settings Screen provides controls for enabling/disabling the display of TFR information on
navigation maps, in addition to selecting the maximum map range for the system to display TFR information. If the crew selects a map range above this setting, the system declutters TFR information from the selected
pane.
Enabling/disabling TFR information (Navigation Maps):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Scroll to find the TFR Button, and touch to enable/disable TFR information.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor tab.
3) Touch the TFR Range Button.
4) Scroll as necessary and touch the maximum navigation map range to display TFR information.
Select the
Maximum map
range for system
to show TFRs on
Navigation Maps
Enables/
disables TFR
information
on Navigation
Maps
Figure 6-107 Customizing TFR display settings for Navigation Maps
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6.4 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed radar. It combines excellent
range, sensitivity, and adjustable scanning profiles with high-definition, real-time precipitation information. The system optimizes the pulse length to maximize resolution at each range setting. This reduces the weather
cells smearing together on the maps for better definition at close range.
The Vision SF50 uses a 12-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of pitch
and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers crew-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, 90º, or 120º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup
activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Independent weather radar settings for each map.
®
• WATCH (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps to identify possible shadowing effects of short-range
cell activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation
(or large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully indicate the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges beyond
the currently selected map range.
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• Altitude-Compensated Tilt (ACT) management, which automatically adjusts the antenna tilt angle during
climbs and descents.
PRINCIPLES OF AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates precipitation or
ground features by transmitting a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering an object, is reflected back
to the radar receiver as a return echo. The antenna focuses and radiates the microwave pulses, with the most
intense energy in the center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. With a 12” antenna, the beam
width is 8º. Approximately 90% of the energy transmitted from the antenna is within this width. The same
antenna is used for both transmitting and receiving.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel
out and back for each nautical mile of range to the object. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the
round trip if an object is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar information should be used to avoid areas of severe weather. The decision to fly into
an area of radar echoes depends on echo intensity, spacing between the echoes, aircraft capabilities, and crew
experience. Airborne weather radar detects rain and hail, not clouds or mist. The display may indicate clear
areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly between them.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
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ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes. The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The figure below depicts a radar
beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the same holds
true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that it is possible to
miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the antenna tilt set to
zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at approximately 10 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
8°
0
0
15
Half Power at
s
Beam Sidelobe
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-108 Radar Beam from a 12 inch Antenna
The curvature of the earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings of
150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
320 nm
Figure 6-109 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Distance attenuation occurs because radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely proportional to the square
of the distance. The reflected radar energy from an object 40 miles away that fills the radar beam is one fourth
the energy reflected from an equivalent object 20 miles away. This would appear to the pilot that the storm
is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within the system compensates for
much of this type of distance attenuation. Radar echoes from precipitation occurring at greater distances from
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the airborne weather, particularly of lower intensity (such as stratus rain), may not be displayed at all because
the returned energy may have attenuated below the minimum display threshold.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As
the radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However, the moisture also absorbs much of this energy. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large
area, the radar signal may not reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system
cannot distinguish between an attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully
attenuated, the radar displays a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the
heavy rain may extend much further than shown. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another
cell located behind the first, preventing it from being displayed. Never fly into these shadowed areas and
never assume that all of the heavy precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground return can
be seen beyond the heavy cell. The WATCH® feature can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas
in question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also
help detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
The weather radar detects precipitation and objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the
earth or solid structures. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence directly.
It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar signal
reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in
a small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a
strong return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the following illustration, and are often not displayed. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as
fog or drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable echo return.
Figure 6-110 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
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Ground Returns
The intensity of ground returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the ground object
(Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that object. The gain can be adjusted so shorelines,
rivers, lakes, and cities are well defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill in between
objects, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be obscured from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches and
shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and edges
of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind the mountains. However, over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected multiple times within the mountain
passes or off canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received
from this area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes an object is called the Angle of Incidence. The following figure
illustrates the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the
intensity of the displayed returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range
and lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
Figure 6-111 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the radar display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
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SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The recommended minimum safe distance between personnel and an operating weather radar antenna is 12
feet from the 12-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. With a scanning or rotating
beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced. This recommendation
slightly exceeds the calculation methods defined in Advisory Circular 20-68B.
MPEL
Boundary
12’ for 12”
antenna
Figure 6-112 MPEL Boundary
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the closest edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting. Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed radar return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed echo advances on the display to
within 5 nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000
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feet or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help separate ground returns from
weather returns in relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground.
Return the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any radar return that gets to within 30 nautical miles. This
is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful. Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-113 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with the
ground, a return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet; at 50 nm,
20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being displayed at
10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. A ground return being displayed
at 5 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 2,000 feet. This setup provides a good starting
point for practical use of the airborne weather radar. There are many other factors to consider in order to
become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT
After the pilot has identified an area of precipitation using manual antenna tilt controls, the Altitude
Compensated Tilt (ACT) feature can help maintain the display of the identified precipitation during climbs
or descents. ACT automatically adjusts the antenna tilt angle setting as the aircraft altitude changes. It keeps
the center of the radar beam at a constant altitude at 75% of the map range.
For example, if the ACT feature is enabled and the aircraft climbs, the system compensates by adjusting
the tilt downward. As the aircraft descends with ACT enabled, the system adjusts the antenna tilt upward. The system uses the ground as a reference for adjusting the antenna tilt setting with ACT enabled. The ACT
feature is not typically used for an extended period during level flight.
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WEATHER DISPLAY AND INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various radar returns on the weather radar displays, the colors denote precipitation intensity
and rates shown in the table.
Weather Mode Color
Intensity (in dBZ)
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 33 dBZ
33 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ and greater
Approximate
Precipitation Rate (in/hr.)
< .01
.01 - 0.1
0.1 - 0.5
greater than 0.5
Table 6-10 Precipitation Intensity Levels
THUNDERSTORMS
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations can
be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed echo intensity is red (indicating large amounts of precipitation), the
turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation. Vertical
scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense echoes may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Echoes showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the radar return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow or red areas and should be treated
as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-114 Cell Irregularities
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Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can help
prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-115 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to examine
the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind cells.
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-116 The Blind Alley
TORNADOES
There are no conclusive radar return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes may be
present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 in the southern hemisphere),
especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern
hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
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These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
HAIL AND RADAR TOPS
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the radar return can give
the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes in clear
air and may be much higher than the radar top. Neither the radar top nor the actual top necessarily indicate
the top of the hazardous area, which may be much higher.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on its
surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of water,
and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts of wet hail
return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards or less) and
therefore reflect poorly. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid coating), radar
returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud edges
three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These radar returns appear suddenly along any edge of
the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant monitoring
essential.
STRATUS PRECIPITATION
Detecting areas of low altitude, stratus precipitation while the aircraft altitude is significantly above the
precipitation is difficult to accomplish with airborne weather radar. This is because as the radar beam
detects the low altitude precipitation, it also receives significant ground returns which are displayed with the
precipitation. Raising the antenna tilt angle may reduce the ground returns, however the radar beam is likely
to overshoot the low-altitude precipitation when the aircraft is at a high altitude above the precipitation.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
8°
0
0
15
18,000 ft.
30
45
Stratus Rain at Low Altitude
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-117 Stratus Rain Combines with Ground Returns when Aircraft is at Higher Altitudes
As the aircraft descends to a lower altitude, increasing the antenna tilt angle may help to reduce unwanted
ground returns and make the display of stratus precipitation more apparent.
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AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR AND NEXRAD
Airborne weather radar and NEXRAD are prominent tools for hazardous weather avoidance. Each
technology has distinct characteristics to consider when evaluating potentially hazardous weather conditions.
Refer to Section 6.1 for a general description of NEXRAD.
Convective weather activity is known to develop rapidly, with cell growth capable of exceeding several
thousand feet per minute. Airborne weather radar provides the flight crew with real-time weather avoidance
information for precipitation detected within the airborne weather radar’s beam.
NEXRAD information is not real-time. It is intended to assist the flight crew with hazardous weather
avoidance planning. NEXRAD images are comprised of individual radar scans arriving at a network at
different rates and times, which are periodically compiled into a mosaic (the NEXRAD weather product) and
transmitted via data link. Due to inherent delays in this process, it is common for the displayed NEXRAD
images to be significantly older than the current weather situation, and may also differ from information the
airborne weather radar presents.
Both airborne weather radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne weather radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio. Although both radar systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, the
thresholds and colors are not interchangeable. For example, NEXRAD may display light precipitation
as green, while airborne weather radar may not show the same precipitation at all if it is below the display
threshold unique to airborne weather radar. Refer to Table 6-10 for precipitation intensity levels and colors
for airborne weather radar, and to the NEXRAD reflectivity legend shown in the SiriusXM Weather section.
Because NEXRAD operates from an extensive network of ground-based radar antennas performing 360º
scans, it is capable of providing information on large-scale weather patterns such as precipitation associated
with significant frontal activity from multiple radar locations. Airborne weather radar can perform up to
120º scan, but is more affected by distance and precipitation attenuation discussed earlier in this section.
Other factors including curvature of the earth (particularly at map ranges greater than 150 miles), antenna
tilt setting, and aircraft altitude may also cause the airborne weather radar’s antenna beam to miss areas of
precipitation which are detected by NEXRAD. In addition, since the airborne weather radar’s beam often
produces ground returns, it may be difficult to distinguish precipitation from ground returns, especially
stratus rain when the aircraft is above the precipitation.
Both airborne weather radar and the NEXRAD system can detect a radar top of a storm cell. Airborne weather
radar can display this information in vertical scan mode, while NEXRAD radar top information appears in the
Echo Tops SiriusXM Weather Product (Refer to Section 6.1 for more information about SiriusXM Weather). Because airborne weather radar and NEXRAD use different detection thresholds, a radar top from airborne
weather radar may appear 5,000 feet or more below the NEXRAD-derived Echo Top. Furthermore, radar top
information provided from either source is not the actual or true top of the storm, which is only observable
with the eyes in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top detected by either system.
Because airborne weather radar and NEXRAD present information using similar (but not interchangeable
colors), only one radar source may be shown on a map Display Pane at a time. Pilots should carefully
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consider information from airborne and data link weather sources, in addition to other available resources to
avoid flight into hazardous weather conditions.
WEATHER RADAR OPERATION
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 12 feet of the antenna.
CAUTION: When the weather radar is in Standby Mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always
a good idea to put the radar in Standby Mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from
bouncing on the bottom stop and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
The airborne weather radar allows the flight crew to display weather radar information on multiple map
displays, and to customize each radar display independently. For example, if three radar map displays are
shown (including map overlays or Weather Radar Panes), the flight crew can select different map ranges and
modes (e.g. Horizontal or Vertical Scan) on each map. The weather radar updates each map display as it
performs a scan with the given parameters for that map display. If more than one map display has identical
scan parameters, the system uses information from the same antenna sweep to update the applicable maps
simultaneously. Otherwise, the antenna performs multiple scans, one at a time, in a repeating cycle. This
results in longer duration between scans for a given map until the next available scan refreshes that map.
For discussion purposes, it may be helpful to think of the weather radar system as having up to four
separate radars. Each radar has many independent display and controls, therefore, operating independently
of one another. Radar functions and operations may be performed on any, or all radar displays. As stated
previously, since scanning is “shared” between radar displays, the greater the number of radars displayed, the
slower the scan update for each display. The remaining discussions regarding the GWX 70 Airborne Weather
Radar System apply to each of the possible radar displays.
When the pilot enables (green annunciator) the Radar On Button, each weather radar display pane or
weather radar map overlay shows a radar scan. When the Standby Button is selected, all display panes or
map overlays showing weather radar information are placed in Standby Mode.
The system automatically places the radar in Standby mode on landing.
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Radar Mode
Annunciation
Radar Feature Status
Annunciations
Bearing Line
Scan Line
Radar Legend
Tilt and Bearing
Control Legend
Tilt, Bearing,
and Gain
Settings
Figure 6-118 Weather Radar Pane with a Horizontal Scan
Showing Weather Radar Information on the Weather Radar Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > WX RADAR > WX RADAR Settings.
2) Touch the Radar On Button. Radar options are enabled when button annunciator is green, off when gray.
3) Touch the Display Mode Button.
4) Touch the Weather Button. If the aircraft is airborne, the radar begins transmitting, and the Radar Mode
indicates ‘WEATHER’.
5) If the aircraft is on the ground, the Touchscreen Controller displays a prompt shown in the figure below to
confirm radar activation. Touch the OK Button to begin transmitting, or touch the Cancel Button to return to
the Weather Radar Settings screen, and the radar remains in Standby Mode.
6) Turn the lower knob to select the desired map range.
7) The system displays a horizontal scan. To change to a vertical scan, refer to the following procedure, “Vertically
scanning a storm cell.”
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Figure 6-119 Confirming Activating Radar
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > WX RADAR > WX RADAR Settings.
2) While on a Horizontal Scan view, touch the Bearing Line Button if necessary to show the Bearing Line on the
Weather Radar Pane.
3) Press the upper knob. This enables the large upper knob to set the Bearing Line position and displays a bearing
and tilt legend.
4) Turn the large upper knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
5) Touch the Scan Button.
6) Touch the Vertical Button. The Weather Radar Pane shows a vertical scan.
7) Turn the large upper knob to move the bearing line a few degrees left or right. When finished, push the knob
to disable bearing line adjustment.
8) Turn the lower knob to adjust the map range as needed.
9) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, return to the Horizontal scan mode.
a) Touch the Scan Button.
b) Touch the Horizontal Button.
c) Return to Step 2 of this procedure.
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Figure 6-120 Weather Radar Display with Vertical Scan Mode Selected
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the radar return in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Weather Radar Pane:
1) Push the upper knob to activate the tilt adjustment function. The Weather Radar displays a bearing and tilt knob
legend.
2) Turn the small upper knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle.
3) When finished, push the upper knob to disable the tilt adjustment function and remove the legend.
Altitude Compensated Tilt (ACT) Angle Adjustment
The Attitude Compensated Tilt feature enables automatic management of the antenna tilt angle as the
aircraft altitude changes. With ACT enabled, the antenna beam position remains centered at the set position
for the current map range. The system automatically decreases the tilt angle as the aircraft climbs, and
increases the tilt angle as the aircraft descends. The ACT feature is available in the Horizontal Scan Mode
when the system is operating in Weather Mode, and requires the system to be operating with the GPSderived altitude.
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Enabling/Disabling Altitude Compensated Tilt (ACT):
1) If necessary, refer to the previous procedures to initially set the antenna tilt angle to the desired setting.
2) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > WX RADAR > WX RADAR Settings.
3) Touch the Altitude Comp Tilt Button. The Radar Status indicator shows ‘ALTITUDE COMP TILT ON’.
Altitude Compensated
Tilt Enabled
Figure 6-121 Enabling Altitude Compensated Tilt
Adjusting Gain
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
The Weather Radar Gain is set to calibrated gain setting when the Weather Radar is powered on.
Adjusting gain on the Weather Radar Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > WX RADAR > WX RADAR Settings.
2) If the Calibrated Gain button annunciator is green (enabled), touch the Calibrated Gain Button to disable
Calibrated Gain. Calibrated Gain Button annunciator is gray when disabled.
3) Touch and slide the Gain slider as shown in Figure 6-123.
Or:
Touch the + pointer to increase gain, or - pointer to decrease gain. Each touch increases or decreases the gain
by one increment. A gray bar across the slider bar serves as a reference to the calibrated gain setting position.
4) To return to the calibrated gain setting, touch the Calibrated Gain Button (Figure 6-122).
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Weather Radar Pane with Calibrated Gain Setting
Calibrated Gain
Enabled
Manual Gain Adjustment subdued when
Calibrated Gain is enabled
Figure 6-122 Calibrated Gain
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Weather Radar Pane set Above Calibrated Gain Setting
Calibrated Gain
Disabled
Current Manual
Gain Setting
Figure 6-123 Manual Gain
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Sector Scan
Enabling Sector Scanning:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > WX RADAR > WX RADAR Settings.
2) While in Horizontal Scan Mode, touch the Bearing Line Button if necessary to show the Bearing Line on the
Weather Radar Pane.
3) Press the upper knob to enable bearing pointer adjustment.
4) Turn the large upper knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line will
become the center point of the Sector Scan.
5) Touch the Sector Scan Button.
6) Touch a button to select a 20˚, 40˚, 60˚, 90˚, or touch the FULL Button to resume a 120˚ degree scan.
7) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
8) Press the upper knob again to remove the bearing selection function.
Figure 6-124 Weather Radar Pane on a 40 Degree Sector Scan
Antenna Stabilization
The antenna stabilization feature uses pitch and roll information to keep the antenna tilt angle setting
level with the horizon as the aircraft maneuvers. The system can stabilize the antenna for up to 30º of pitch
and roll.
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Enabling/disabling Antenna Stabilization:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > WX RADAR > WX RADAR Settings.
2) To activate or deactivate the antenna stabilization, touch the Stabilizer Button. Antenna stabilization is
enabled when button annunciator is green; stabilization is disabled when button annunciator is gray. The
system indicates the current stabilization condition in the upper right of the Weather Radar Pane.
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH®)
WATCH® identifies deceptively strong or unknown intensity parts of a storm. While in horizontal scan
mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies in displayed intensity due
to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The radar energy weakens as
it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation, and distance. Issues with
the radome attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the return intensity. The more
energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy of the displayed intensity
of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions with this information in
mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the extent of attenuation in
a shaded area.
NOTE: The WATCH feature is unavailable on the Navigation Map Pane.
Enabling/Disabling WATCH display feature:
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > WX RADAR > WX RADAR Settings.
2) To activate or deactivate the WATCH feature, touch the WX Watch Button.
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
Shown in Gray
Figure 6-125 Horizontal Scan with WATCH® Enabled
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Weather Alert Indication and System Message
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert appear as red arcs along the outer range ring
at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns on the Weather Radar Pane.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX Alert Button is enabled
on the Weather Radar Settings Screen, a System Message appears on the Touchscreen Controllers. The red
Weather Alert arc appears on the Weather Radar Pane regardless of whether the WX Alert Button is enabled
or disabled. The arcs do not appear on navigation maps overlays.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, ground returns may also trigger a Weather Alert System Message. To avoid unwanted Weather Alert System Messages, ensure the WX Alert Button is disabled (button
annunciator is gray.)
Figure 6-126 WX Alert System Message on the
Notifications Screen
Weather Alert Band
indicates possible severe
weather ahead beyond
selected map range
Figure 6-127 Horizontal Scan with WATCH® Enabled
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Enabling/disabling WX Alert System Message:
1) From Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > WX RADAR > WX RADAR Settings.
2) To enable or disable the WX Alert system message, touch the WX Alert Button. WX Alert system messages are
enabled when button annunciator is green, and disabled when annunciator is gray.
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can
supplement terrain information shown on a navigation map.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors represent the intensity
levels. The displayed intensity of ground returns are defined in the table below. Use of the Gain and Tilt
controls help improve contrast so that specific ground returns can be recognized more easily. As previously
discussed, the type and orientation of the radar return in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Map
Mode Color
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 13 dB
at least 13 dB to less than 21 dB
at least 21 dB to less than 29 dB
29 dB and greater
Table 6-11 Ground Radar Return Intensity Levels
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Figure 6-128 Weather Radar Pane with Ground Map Mode Enabled
Operation in Ground Map Mode
1) From MFD Home, touch Weather > Weather Selection > WX RADAR > WX RADAR Settings.
2) Touch the Display Mode Button.
3) Touch the Ground Button to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
4) Press the upper knob to activate the antenna tilt selection function.
5) Turn the small upper knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
6) When ground returns are shown at the desired distance, press the upper knob to disable the tilt adjustment
function.
ADDITIONAL RADAR DISPLAYS
The Weather Radar Pane is the principal map for viewing weather radar information. It is the only map
display pane capable of showing information for all weather radar features. Airborne weather radar information
is also available on the navigation maps (with the exception of the Inset Map) as an additional reference to the
Weather Radar Pane. The weather radar display mode (‘Standby’ , ‘Weather’, or ‘Ground’) appears in the upper
right of the selected Navigation Map Pane, in addition to the antenna tilt direction, tilt angle, and radar range. The radar range increases or decreases as the Navigation Map Pane’s range is adjusted.
The pilot may enable Weather Radar information with other map overlays on navigation maps (such as
traffic, absolute terrain information, navaids, etc.). However, relative terrain information cannot be displayed
simultaneously with airborne weather radar information, since both features use the identical colors to depict
certain terrain and weather conditions. Enabling either the airborne weather radar or relative terrain overlays
on the Navigation Map Pane disables the other feature on the same display pane. In addition, NEXRAD cannot
be shown on the same pane at the same time as airborne weather radar information.
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Weather Radar information shown on the Navigation Map Pane
Map Settings Screen with Weather Radar on
Navigation Maps Enabled
Weather Radar Settings for the Navigation
Maps
Figure 6-129 Displaying Weather Radar Information on the Navigation Map Pane
Controlling the display of Weather Radar information on Navigation Map Panes:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the Weather Radar Button to enable or disable the display of weather radar information on the selected
navigation map pane.
4) To access controls for weather radar information on the Navigation Map Pane, touch the Weather Radar
Settings Button.
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Adjusting antenna tilt angle or radar bearing on the Navigation Map Pane:
1) With the airborne weather overlay enabled on the Navigation Map Pane, push the upper knob. The tilt and
bearing legend appears in the lower-left corner of the maps. The Touchscreen Controller displays the Weather
Radar Settings Screen.
2) To adjust radar bearing, turn the large upper knob. A dashed white bearing line appears during adjustment and
momentarily after adjustment.
3) To increase antenna tilt angle, turn the small upper knob clockwise. To decrease antenna tilt angle, turn the
small upper knob counter-clockwise.
4) When finished with these adjustments, push the upper knob. The Touchscreen Controller returns to the Map
Settings Screen.
Controlling the display of Weather Radar information on the HSI Map:
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
2) From PFD Home, touch the PFD Map Settings Button.
3) In the Overlays Window, touch the Weather Radar Button to enable/disable the display of weather radar
information on the Inset Map.
4) To access controls for weather radar information on the HSI Map, touch the Weather Radar Settings Button.
Adjusting radar range on the HSI Map:
Turn the lower knob clockwise to increase range, or counter-clockwise to decrease range. Note the radar range
increases or decreases in proportion to the HSI Map range.
Adjusting antenna tilt angle or radar bearing on the HSI Map:
1) If the Weather Radar Settings Screen is not displayed on the Touchscreen Controller, push the lower knob.
2) To adjust radar bearing, turn the large upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller. A dashed white bearing line
appears during adjustment and momentarily after adjustment.
3) To increase antenna tilt angle, turn the small upper knob clockwise. To decrease antenna tilt angle, turn the
small upper knob counter-clockwise.
4) When finished with these adjustments, push the upper knob.
The weather radar mode, range, antenna tilt angle setting, and gain setting appear momentarily on the HSI
map during radar adjustments performed with the knobs on the Touchscreen Controller. If preferred, the
pilot can also show this information on the HSI Map whenever the Weather Legend Button is enabled and the
weather radar information is within maximum display range setting limits.
Displaying the weather radar status window on the HSI Map:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Weather Legend Button.
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Adjusting bearing and antenna tilt angle on the HSI Map:
1) Push the lower knob.
2) Push the upper knob twice to display the Weather Radar Settings Screen.
3) Turn the large upper knob to adjust the bearing line on the Navigation Map Pane.
4) Turn the small upper knob to adjust the tilt angle on the Navigation Map Pane.
5) When finished, push the upper or lower knob or touch the Back Button to remove the weather radar controls.
SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Pane. Additional
information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Pane as a center banner annunciation. Refer
to the following tables for a list of annunciations and their locations for airborne weather radar.
Radar Mode
Annunciation
Radar Feature
Status
Annunciation
Center Banner
Annunciation
Figure 6-130 Radar System Status Indications on Weather Radar Pane
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
Standby
STANDBY
Weather
Weather
None
Ground Mapping
Radar Failed*
Ground Mapping
FAIL
None
RADAR FAIL
* See Table 6-14 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-12 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Pane
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The system displays the status of the weather radar features in the upper-right corner of the Weather Radar
Pane.
Radar Feature Status
STAB On
STAB Off
STAB INOP
Altitude Comp Tilt On
Altitude Comp Tilt Off
Description
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The antenna stabilization feature is
inoperative.
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected on.
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected off.
Table 6-13 Radar Feature Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Pane
If the radar unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center of the
Weather Radar Pane.
Weather Radar Pane Center
Description
Banner Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
RADAR FAIL
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system should be serviced.
Table 6-14 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Pane
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6.5 VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY TERRAIN
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles in an inset
window. Although the VSD does not display Terrain SVT or TAWS alerts and potential impact areas, the VSD does
use many of the same colors and symbols as TAWS to depict relative terrain and obstacles within the VSD. Refer
to the Terrain SVT or TAWS discussions for more information about relative terrain and obstacle color correlation
and symbols.
VSD INSET WINDOW
The VSD Inset Window appears along the bottom of the Navigation Map Pane. Aircraft altitude appears along
a vertical scale, with an aircraft icon positioned at the current altitude. Distance is represented horizontally
along the bottom of the VSD Inset Window, and increases from left (present position) to right.
The VSD horizontal distance is the same as the Navigation Map Pane Range distance displayed on the map
range arc or circle, down to one nautical mile. At Navigation Map Pane ranges below this distance, the VSD
horizontal distance remains at one nautical mile. Adjusting the Navigation Map Pane range also adjusts the
VSD horizontal and vertical distance in proportionally. If the GPS position is unavailable, the system displays
“VSD Not Available” inside the VSD Inset Window.
Track Mode Boundary
enabled
Selected VSD
Mode
Relative Terrain
Legend
VSD Inset Window
Figure 6-131 Navigation Map Pane with VSD Inset Window and Relative Terrain Enabled
Note the VSD Inset Window uses the color gray to depict relative terrain more than 2000’ below the current
aircraft altitude when relative terrain is enabled. When terrain is selected ‘Off’ for the Navigation Map Pane, the
VSD Inset Window uses the color gray to depicts absolute terrain.
NOTE: Only one inset window may be shown per display pane. If another inset window is selected, it
replaces the previously selected inset window.
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Enabling/Disabling VSD Inset Window:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Inset Window Tab.
3) Touch the VERT Situation Display Button to enable/disable the VSD Inset Window.
Figure 6-132 Enabling Vertical Situation Display Inset Window on the Map Settings Screen
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the Navigation Map
Pane also control the display of this information in the VSD.
Enabling/disabling Relative Terrain information in the VSD and Navigation Map Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the Terrain Button.
4) Touch the Relative Button to enable the display of Relative Terrain information on the Navigation Map Pane
and VSD, or touch the Off Button to remove this information.
Figure 6-133 Enabling Relative Terrain for the Profile View Inset Window and Navigation Map Pane
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Enabling/disabling Point Obstacle information in the VSD and Navigation Map Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Land Tab.
3) Touch the Point Obstacle Button to enable the display of Point Obstacle information on the Navigation Map
Pane and VSD, or touch the Off Button to remove this information.
Figure 6-134 Enabling Obstacle information for the VSD and Navigation Map Pane
When enabled, terrain and obstacles on the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough or the
VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain will be shown in gray if the
terrain is selected ‘Off’ on the Navigation Map Pane). The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate
forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals
defined by the terrain database resolution, within a predefined width along the active flight plan or aircraft track
(depending on the mode selected by the flight crew) between the aircraft present position and the end of the
map range or active flight plan. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase.
Flight Phase
Approach, Departure
Terminal
En Route, Oceanic
Width of Swath
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the top-left corner of
the VSD. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan, and if no active flight plan is present,
the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In Track Mode, the contour is based on the aircraft
ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based on the active flight plan, when available, otherwise, it is
based on the ground track.
VSD Mode Selected
Flight Plan
Track
Auto
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FPL
TRK
AUTO FPL or AUTO TRK
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Changing the Vertical Situation Display Mode:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) Touch the Inset Window Tab
3)
Touch the VERT Situation Display Settings Button.
4) Touch the Mode Button.
5) Touch one of the following buttons to select a mode:
•
Auto: VSD shows terrain along the active flight plan route, or current track if there is no active flight plan.
•
Flight Plan: VSD shows terrain along the active flight plan route. VSD is unavailable if there is no active
flight plan.
•
Track: VSD shows terrain along the current track.
6) When finished, touch the Back Button or the Home Button.
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale. The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL is
higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself, a vertical line appears below the obstacle symbol
in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 6-135 Lines raise obstacle symbols to their heights AGL along the altitude scale, if necessary
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6.6 TERRAIN SVT
WARNING: Do not use Terrain SVT information for primary terrain avoidance. Terrain SVT is intended only to
enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not available when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
NOTE: The terrain system is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South latitude.
NOTE: If the TAWS-B option is installed, it will take precedence over Terrain SVT.
Terrain SVT is a terrain awareness system included with the Garmin Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) system
option. It provides visual annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence of threatening terrain and
obstacles relevant to the projected flight path. For detailed information regarding Garmin SVT, refer to the Flight
Instruments section of this Pilot’s Guide.
Terrain SVT does not comply with TSO-C151b certification standards. It increases situational awareness and
aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and obstacles. Do not confuse Terrain SVT with a Terrain
Awareness and Warning System (TAWS). TAWS is more sophisticated and robust, and it is TSO-C151b certified. Although the terrain and obstacle color map displays are the same, TAWS uses more sophisticated algorithms to
assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles and provides additional alerts.
Terrain SVT requires the following components to operate properly:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain database
• Valid obstacle database
Terrain SVT uses terrain and obstacle information from government sources. Terrain information is based on
terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be shown if
available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b. However,
the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may be inaccurate.
Terrain SVT uses information from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude
is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea level
(GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. Terrain SVT uses GSL altitude to
calculate alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure
and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter
settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a
highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
Terrain SVT terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and GSL altitude,
Terrain SVT displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and altitude
of the aircraft. Furthermore, the system uses GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and project the aircraft’s
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flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, Terrain SVT can provide advanced
alerts for predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude.
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
Terrain SVT uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200 feet
above ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically adjusts
these colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the OnGround Legend shown in the following figure. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain
information using red, yellow, green, and black, as shown on the In-Air Legend shown in the following figure. As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain
momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. If any type of terrain alert occurs, the relative terrain colors
will transition to the In-Air Legend if in the On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the flight crew
with the most information possible.
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Figure 6-136 Terrain SVT Relative Terrain Legends
During an alert, the system shows potential impact areas over terrain or obstacles using bright yellow (caution)
or bright red (warning) on navigation maps and on the Terrain SVT Pane.
The colors and symbols in the following figure and tables represent terrain, point obstacles, and potential
impact areas.
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Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-137 In-Air Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain SVT
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
Table 6-15 Terrain SVT Relative Point Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
or
Caution
or
Table 6-16 Terrain SVT Potential Impact Point Areas with Annunciations
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Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft
altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-17 Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
DISPLAYING RELATIVE TERRAIN INFORMATION
The Terrain SVT Pane is the principal map pane for viewing relative terrain information. Relative terrain
information is also available for display on navigation maps.
TERRAIN SVT PANE
The Terrain SVT Pane shows terrain, obstacle, and potential impact area information in relation to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. If terrain or obstacles and the projected flight
path of the aircraft intersect, the system automatically adjusts the map range if necessary to emphasize the
display of the potential impact area(s).
Aircraft orientation on the Terrain SVT Pane is heading up unless there is no valid heading, in which
orientation will be track up. A box on the map range arc indicates the selected map range. Turn the lower
knob clockwise to increase the map range, or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
The Terrain SVT Pane also displays annunciations in the lower-left corner of the pane, in addition to banner
annunciations in the center of the pane.
Showing the Terrain SVT Pane:
From MFD Home, touch the Terrain SVT Button.
The Terrain SVT Pane can also show airports, VORs, NDBs, and intersections for additional reference, using
the map settings chosen for the Navigation Map Pane.
Enabling/disabling aviation data on the Terrain SVT Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Terrain SVT > Terrain SVT Settings.
2) Touch the Show Aviation Data Button to display/remove aviation data (airports, VORs, NDBs, Intersections)
on the Terrain SVT Pane.
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Yellow Lighted Obstacles (Between 100’
and 1000’ Below Aircraft Altitude)
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Black Terrain
(More than 2000’
Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Map Orientation
Selected Map
Range
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
White Lighted
Obstacle more than
1000’ below Aircraft
Altitude
Red Lighted Obstacles
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain SVT
Annunciation
Terrain Legend (In
Air)
Figure 6-138 Terrain SVT Pane with Aircraft in the Air
Figure 6-139 Terrain SVT Settings Screen
RELATIVE TERRAIN ON THE NAVIGATION MAPS
Terrain SVT provides relative terrain information for the navigation maps. This includes the display of
relative terrain, point obstacles, and potential impact areas. When relative terrain information is enabled on
a navigation map, the system displays a relative terrain icon and legend. If Terrain SVT is not available or
has failed, a white ‘X’ appears over the relative terrain icon. If the system calculates a potential impact area,
it appears on any navigation map, independent of whether relative terrain information is enabled/disabled.
Controlling Relative Terrain Information (Navigation Map Panes):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the Terrain Button.
4) Touch the Relative Button to enable Relative Terrain, or Off to remove terrain information.
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Controlling Relative Terrain Information (Inset and HSI Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) If the Inset Map or HSI Map is not presently shown on the PFD, do the following:
a) Touch the Layout Button.
b) Touch the Inset Map Button to display the Inset Map, or touch the HSI Map Button to display the HSI
Map.
3) Touch the Terrain Button.
4) Touch the Relative Button to enable Relative Terrain, or Off to remove terrain information.
Controlling Obstacle Information on Navigation Maps:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Land Tab.
3) Touch the Point Obstacle Button to enable/disable the display of relative point obstacle information.
4) To change the maximum map range to display obstacle information, touch the Point Obstacle range button,
then scroll and select a maximum map range from the list.
The system issues alerts when flight conditions meet parameters set within Terrain SVT software algorithms. Terrain SVT alerts employ a caution or a warning alert severity level, or both. When the system issues an
alert, visual annunciations and voice alerts occur simultaneously. Table 6-18 shows Terrain SVT alert types
with corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When the system issues an alert, annunciations appear on the PFD, the Terrain SVT Pane, and on the
Touchscreen Controllers. The Terrain SVT Alert Annunciation is shown above the Roll Scale on the PFD
and on the lower left of the Terrain SVT Pane. A pop-up alert appears on the Touchscreen Controllers. To
acknowledge the pop-up alert, do one of the following:
• Touch the Terrain SVT Button (accesses the Terrain SVT Pane), or
• Touch the Inhibit Terrain Button to inhibit Terrain SVT alerting, or
• Touch the OK Button remove the pop-up alert from the Touchscreen Controller.
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PFD Alert Annunciation
Potential Impact
Area Caution
Terrain SVT Pane Alert
Annunciation
Touchscreen
Controller Pop-Up
Alert Annunciation
View the Terrain
SVT Pane
Inhibits Terrain SVT
alerting
Acknowledges popup alert and return
to previous screen
Figure 6-140 Terrain SVT Alert Annunciations
Alert Type
PFD/TerrainSVT Pane Alert
Touchscreen Controller
Pop-Up Alert
Voice Alert
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Table 6-18 Terrain SVT Alerts Summary
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FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVT compares the projected flight path
as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the databases. The system issues FLTA
alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of the
projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the ground
speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest usable
runway along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes
narrower until the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the flight crew manually inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
The system issues Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
(ROC) alerts when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in the following figure. When an RTC alert is issued, the system displays a potential impact
area on navigation maps and the Terrain SVT Pane.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts occur when the aircraft is below
the elevation of a terrain or obstacle in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are accompanied by
a potential impact area on navigation maps and the Terrain SVT Pane. The alert occurs when the projected
vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in the following figure.
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-141 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically inhibits FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination
runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends. When
Terrain SVT alerting is manually inhibited, the system displays the status annunciation ‘TER INH’ on the PFD
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Terrain SVT Alerting
Inhibited Annunciation
Terrain SVT Alerting
Inhibited (Alerting
Disabled)
Figure 6-142 Inhibiting Terrain SVT Alerting
Inhibiting/enabling Terrain SVT alerting:
1) From MFD Home, touch Terrain SVT > Terrain SVT Settings.
Or:
a) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
b) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
c) Touch the Terrain Settings Button.
Or:
a) From PFD Home, touch Inset Map Settings.
b) If necessary, touch the HSI Map or Inset Map button to enable the Overlays buttons.
c) Touch the Terrain Settings Button.
2) Touch the Terrain Inhibit Button. When the annunciator on the button is green, Terrain SVT alerting is
inhibited. When the annunciator is gray, Terrain SVT alerting is enabled.
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Inhibiting Terrain SVT alerting while an alert is occurring:
Touch the Inhibit Terrain Button on the Terrain SVT pop-up window.
If Terrain SVT alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS
approach, the system may show a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current
aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight
Instruments Section for details.
SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, Terrain SVT conducts a system test. The system issues a voice alert when the test is
finished.
Terrain SVT continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the system generates the voice alert “Terrain
System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
Terrain SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the system
generates the aural message “Terrain System Not Available” along with the visual ‘TER N/A’ annunciation. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the terrain/obstacle database coverage area, the
system generates the voice alert “Terrain System Available”.
PFD/Terrain
SVT Display
Annunciation
Alert Type
Terrain SVT Display Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
None
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
None
None
No FMS position
“Terrain System Not Available”*
Excessively degraded GPS
signal; or Out of database
coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid; Invalid
software configuration; or
System audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid, and Terrain SVT
operating with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
None
“Terrain System Not Available”*
“Terrain System Failure”
None
None
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-19 Terrain SVT System Status Annunciations
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6.7 TAWS-B
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Government agencies provide data for the TAWS databases. Garmin accurately processes and cross-
validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
NOTE: Terrain or obstacle information is not available if the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain or
obstacle database coverage area.
NOTE: The terrain system is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South latitude.
TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) is an optional feature that provides increased
situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and obstacles. TAWS-B provides
visual annunciations and voice alerts when terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the
aircraft.
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
TAWS-B requires information from the following sources:
• A valid terrain and obstacle database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data, per TSO-C151b. However, the displayed information
should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may be inaccurate.
TAWS-B uses information from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS altitude is
derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to a height above geodetic sea level (GSL),
which is the height above mean seal level (MSL) calculated geometrically. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by
factors such as satellite geometry, but it is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally
affect pressure altitude devices. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable altitude to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases are referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS position and GSL
altitude, the system displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and
altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the system uses GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and project the
aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-B can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain and obstacle conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
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seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the displayed GPS-GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s true
altitude differing from the baro-corrected altitude.
TAWS-B provides the following types of alerts:
• Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) Alerting, which consists of:
• Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) / Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC) Alerting
• Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) / Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) Alerting
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) Alerting
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR) after takeoff Alerting
• Altitude Voice Call Out (VCO) Alerting
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
TAWS-B uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200 feet above
ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically adjusts these
colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the TAWS
On-Ground Legend shown in the following figure. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative
terrain information using red, yellow, green, and black, as shown on the TAWS In-Air Legend shown in the
following figure. As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or from in-air to on-ground, the display of
relative terrain momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. If any type of TAWS alert occurs, the relative
terrain colors will transition to the TAWS In-Air Legend if in the TAWS On-Ground Legend was shown in order
to provide the flight crew with the most information possible.
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Figure 6-143 TAWS-B Relative Terrain Legends
During an alert, the system shows potential impact areas over terrain or obstacles using bright yellow (caution)
or bright red (warning) on navigation maps and on the TAWS Pane.
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The colors and symbols in the following figure and tables represent terrain, obstacles, and potential impact
areas.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-144 In-Air Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude
Table 6-20 TAWS Relative Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
or
Caution
or
Table 6-21 TAWS-B Potential Impact Point Areas with Annunciations
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Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft
altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-22 Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
DISPLAYING RELATIVE TERRAIN INFORMATION
The TAWS Pane is the principal map pane for viewing relative terrain information. Relative terrain information
is also available for display on navigation maps.
TAWS PANE
The TAWS Pane shows terrain, obstacle, and potential impact area information in relation to the aircraft’s
current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. If terrain or obstacles and the projected flight path of the
aircraft intersect, the system automatically adjusts the map range if necessary to emphasize the display of the
potential impact area(s).
Aircraft orientation on the TAWS Pane is heading up unless there is no valid heading. A box on the map
range arc indicates the selected map range. Turn the lower knob clockwise to increase the map range, or
counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
The TAWS Pane also displays annunciations in the lower-left corner of the pane, in addition to banner
annunciations in the center of the pane for certain conditions.
Showing the TAWS Pane:
From MFD Home, touch the TAWS Button.
The TAWS Pane can also show airports, VORs, NDBs, and intersections for additional reference, using the
map settings chosen for the Navigation Map Pane.
Enabling/disabling aviation data on the TAWS Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch TAWS > TAWS Settings.
2) Touch the Show Aviation Data Button to display/remove aviation data (airports, VORs, NDBs, Intersections)
on the TAWS Pane.
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Yellow Lighted Obstacles (Between 100’
and 1000’ Below Aircraft Altitude)
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Orientation
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Black Terrain
(More than 2000’
Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Selected Map
Range
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
White Lighted
Obstacle more than
1000’ below Aircraft
Altitude
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
TAWS
Annunciation
Figure 6-145 TAWS Pane with Aircraft in the Air
Terrain Legend (In
Air)
Figure 6-146 TAWS Settings Screen
RELATIVE TERRAIN ON THE NAVIGATION MAPS
TAWS provides relative terrain information for the Navigation Maps. This includes the display of relative
terrain, obstacles, and potential impact areas. When relative terrain information is enabled on a navigation
map, the system displays a relative terrain icon and legend. If TAWS is not available or has failed, a white
‘X’ appears over the relative terrain icon. If the system calculates a potential impact area, it appears on any
navigation map, independent of whether relative terrain information is enabled/disabled.
Controlling Relative Terrain Information (Navigation Map Panes):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the Terrain Button.
4) Touch the Relative Button to enable Relative Terrain, or Off to remove terrain information.
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Controlling Relative Terrain Information (Inset and HSI Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) If the Inset Map or HSI Map is not presently shown on the PFD, do the following:
a) Touch the Layout Button.
b) Touch the Inset Map Button to display the Inset Map, or touch the HSI Map Button to display the HSI
Map.
3) Touch the Terrain Button.
4) Touch the Relative Button to enable Relative Terrain, or Off to remove terrain information.
Controlling Obstacle Information on Navigation Maps:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Land Tab.
3) Touch the Point Obstacle Button to enable/disable the display of relative point obstacle information.
4) To change the maximum map range to display obstacle information, touch the Point Obstacle range button,
then scroll and select a maximum map range from the list.
TAWS-B TERRAIN AND OBSTACLE ALERTS
The system issues alerts when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software
algorithms. The system issues TAWS-B terrain/obstacle alerts as a caution or warning severity level. Alerts
include visual annunciations and voice alerts (Table 6-23).
When the system issues an alert, annunciations appear on the PFD, the TAWS Pane, and on the Touchscreen
Controllers. The PFD shows the annunciation above the Roll Scale. The TAWS Pane shows the annunciation
in the lower-left corner of the pane. In addition, a pop-up alert appears on each Touchscreen Controller. To
respond to the pop-up alert, do one of the following on either Touchscreen Controller:
• Touch the TAWS Button to show the TAWS Pane in the selected Display Pane and show the TAWS Settings
Screen.
• Touch the OK Button to remove the pop-up alert.
• Touch the Inhibit TAWS Button to inhibit the TAWS system from issuing alerts.
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PFD Alert Annunciation
TAWS Pane Alert
Annunciation
Potential Impact
Area Caution
Touchscreen
Controller Pop-Up
Alert Annunciation
View the TAWS
Pane
Inhibits TAWS FLTA
alerting
Acknowledges popup alert and return
to previous screen
Figure 6-147 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
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PFD/TAWS Pane Touchscreen Controller
Annunciation
Pop-Up Alert
Alert Type
Voice Alerts
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
“Pull Up”
*
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
or
*
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”*
*
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
*
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
or
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”*
*
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Callout “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
or
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
*
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”*
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”*
*
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
*
or
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration when more than one option is available are indicated with asterisks.
Table 6-23 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE (FLTA)
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of TAWS-B compares the projected flight path as
derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the databases. The system issues FLTA alerts
when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of the
projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the ground
speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest usable
runway along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes
narrower until the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the flight crew manually inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
The system issues Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
(ROC) alerts when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in the following figure. When an RTC alert is issued, the system displays a potential impact
area on navigation maps and the TAWS Pane.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts occur when the aircraft is below
the elevation of a terrain or obstacle in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are accompanied by a
potential impact area on navigation maps and the TAWS Pane. The alert occurs when the projected vertical
flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in the following figure.
Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
Required
Terrain Clearance
(FT)
Required
Terrain
Clearance
(FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance
From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-148 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination
runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway, or the aircraft is between runway ends.
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PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) occurs when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly below the
normal approach path to a runway. PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15
nm of the destination airport and ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-149 PDA Alerting Threshold
INHIBITING FLTA AND PDA ALERTS
The flight crew can manually inhibit FLTA and PDA visual annunciations and voice alerts. Discretion
should be used when inhibiting alerts and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When PDA and
FLTA alerts are inhibited, the system status annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ appears on the TAWS Pane and on the
PFD.
NOTE: Inhibiting TAWS alerts inhibits FLTA and PDA alerts only. EDR and VCO alerts remain enabled even
when TAWS is inhibited.
Figure 6-150 TAWS Alerting Disabled (TAWS Inhibited) Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B FLTA and PDA alerting:
1) From MFD Home, touch TAWS > TAWS Settings.
2) Touch the TAWS Inhibit Button. When the annunciator on the button is green, TAWS-B alerting is inhibited.
When the button annunciator is gray, TAWS-B alerting is enabled.
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
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3) Touch the Terrain Settings Button.
4) Touch the TAWS Inhibit Button. TAWS-B alerting is inhibited when the button annunciator is green, enabled
when gray.
Or:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Terrain Settings Button in the Overlays Window.
3) Touch the TAWS Inhibit Button.
Inhibiting TAWS-B alerting while an alert is occurring:
1) Touch the Inhibit TAWS Button on the Terrain Alert pop-up window on the Touchscreen Controller.
2) Touch the OK Button to confirm and inhibit TAWS or touch the Cancel Button to return to the previous screen
or Terrain Alert pop-up window.
While TAWS alerting is manually inhibited (or the TAWS system is not available or has failed), the system
may display a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation on the PFD next to the altitude tape if the following conditions are
met:
• The aircraft is on an SBAS approach.
• The Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint.
• The aircraft is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix.
See the Flight Instruments Section for more details about the ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation.
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EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert occurs when the system determines the aircraft is closing
(descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. The following figure shows the parameters for the alert as
defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Descent Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-151 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff. The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the Touchscreen Controllers. NCR alerting for TAWS-B is only active when departing from an airport
and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
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1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
400
“DON’T SINK”
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-152 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
400
“DON’T SINK”
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-153 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT (VCO)
TAWS-B provides a “Five Hundred” voice alert as the aircraft descends. If the aircraft is more than five
nautical miles away from the nearest runway threshold, this alert occurs when the aircraft is 500 feet above
the terrain, as determined by the GPS altitude and the terrain database. If the aircraft is less than five nautical
miles away from the nearest runway threshold, this alert occurs when the aircraft is 500 feet above the nearest
runway threshold elevation, as determined by the GPS altitude and the terrain database.
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the VCO alert. This voice alert cannot
be inhibited.
SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, TAWS conducts an automatic system test of its alerting capabilities. A voice alert occurs at
test completion. TAWS-B System Testing is disabled when ground speed exceeds 30 knots. TAWS terrain and
obstacle alerts will not be issued while a test is in progress.
Alert Type
TAWS Pane
Annunciation
TAWS System Fail
TAWS Not Available
TAWS Available
None
System Test in progress
TAWS System Test pass
TAWS PDA/FLTA Alerting
Inhibited
None
TAWS Pane
Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
NO GPS POSITION
(if GPS position lost)
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Available”
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
None
None
Table 6-24 TAWS-B System Test Status Annunciations
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TAWS-B ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity and GPS status.
If no PFD or MFD contains Terrain, Airport Terrain, and Obstacle databases (or the databases are invalid), the
voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ appears on the TAWS Pane and the PFD. The voice alert “TAWS Not Available” is also generated
if airborne. When the GPS signal is re-established and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the
system issues a “TAWS Available” voice alert.
Alert Cause
TAWS Pane Annunciation(s)
TAWS Alert Types
Not Available
TAWS System Test Fail; Terrain, Airport Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid on all displays; software
mismatch among displays; TAWS audio fault
and
FLTA, PDA
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD Terrain or Obstacle databases
TAWS FAIL
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
and
No GPS position
FLTA, PDA, VCO*
NO FMS POSITION
Excessively degraded GPS signal, or out of database
coverage area
FLTA, PDA
Table 6-25 TAWS-B Abnormal Status Alerts
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6.8 TCAS I TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of traffic system limitations. Traffic systems require transponders of other
aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due
to phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: Refer to the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) traffic discussion for more
information about ADS-B traffic displays.
The optional Garmin GTS 855 is a Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I). It enhances
flight crew situational awareness by monitoring the airspace for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also
provides visual annunciations and voice alerts to assist the flight crew with the visual acquisition of traffic.
The TCAS I system is capable of tracking up to 75 intruding aircraft equipped with transponders. The system
can display a maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest threat potential simultaneously. The system provides no
surveillance information for aircraft without operating transponders.
THEORY OF OPERATION
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system interrogates the transponders of other aircraft while
monitoring for transponder replies. The system uses this information to derive the distance, relative bearing,
and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range.
The system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach
(CPA). If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the system provides visual and
voice alerting.
TRAFFIC SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
The TCAS I system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude, and up to 40 nm in the
forward direction. Traffic system range is somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the
directional interrogation signal patterns. The symbols in the following table depict TCAS I traffic, and include
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) traffic symbols. Refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion
later in this section for more information about ADS-B.
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Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information is beyond the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing.
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground
traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or
own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic with ADS-B directional information. Pointed end indicates direction of travel. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface
(SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-26 Traffic Symbols with TCAS I and ADS-B
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as an amber circle, or an amber circle with a directional arrow inside of
it, alerts the flight crew to a potentially hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical
separation meet TA criteria. A TA occurring beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half
TA symbol at the edge of the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or white arrow, indicates the intruding
aircraft is within ±1200 feet and is within a six nautical mile range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
Other, Non-Threat traffic, shown as an open white diamond or open white arrow, is displayed for traffic
beyond six nautical miles that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is labeled above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in hundreds
of feet. When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus sign ‘-’ indicates traffic
is below own aircraft.
A vertical trend arrow to the right of the intruder symbol indicates traffic is climbing or descending at least
500 feet per minute with an upward or downward-pointing arrow respectively.
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Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow for a
climbing aircraft
Figure 6-154 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
The traffic system automatically suppresses the display of other altitude-reporting aircraft on the ground
under either of the following conditions:
• On-ground aircraft is equipped with a Mode S transponder.
• On-ground aircraft is equipped with a Mode C transponder, and own aircraft’s radar altimeter (if installed)
is displaying 1700’ AGL or less.
TAS TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. Level A (less) TA sensitivity is used when own aircraft’s
height AGL is below 400 feet. Above this height, Level B (higher) sensitivity evaluates TA threats.
Sensitivity Level Intruder Altitude Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within 600
feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation or
intruder range is within 0.2 NM.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within 800
feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation or
intruder range is less than 0.55 NM.
Table 6-27 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
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TRAFFIC ALERTS
When the traffic system detects a new TA, the following occur:
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that caused the TA. The voice alert “Traffic!
12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude, and
approximately four nautical miles away.
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-28 TA Descriptive Voice Alert
NOTE: If a GDL 88D is installed, and TA occurs within 0.25 nautical miles from own aircraft, or multiple TAs
occur simultaneously, then relative altitude is omitted from the voice alert(s).
NOTE: The system mutes TA voice alerts below 400 feet AGL.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the right of the Airspeed Indicator on the PFD, flashes for five seconds
and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
HSI Map with TA
Traffic
Figure 6-155 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
• If the PFD is in Full Mode, and an Inset Navigation Map or HSI Map was already displayed, the traffic appears
on the map with its overlay setting enabled. If the PFD is in Full Mode, and an Inset Map or HSI map was not
already displayed, the Traffic Inset Map appears. If the PFD is in Split Mode, no map automatically appears.
If the system cannot determine the bearing of TA traffic, an amber text banner appears in the center of the
Traffic Map instead of a TA symbol. The text indicates ‘TA’ followed by the distance, relative altitude, and
vertical trend of ‘<UP>’ or ‘<DN>’, if a vertical trend of at least 500 fpm is detected.
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The system displays a TA traffic symbol and traffic annunciation for at least eight seconds, even if the alerting
condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no longer present.
TRAFFIC MAP PANE
The Traffic Map Pane shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. It is the principal map pane for viewing traffic information. Aircraft orientation is
always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Range rings indicate map ranges. Turn the lower knob
on the Touchscreen Controller clockwise to increase the range and counter-clockwise to decrease the range.
The traffic operating mode and altitude display mode appear in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map
Pane.
TCAS I Operating Mode
Altitude
Range
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, Directional
500’ Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
Directional, 1200’
Above, Climbing
Proximity
Advisory,
1200’ Above,
Climbing
No Bearing TA, 2.0
NM away, 600’
Above, Descending
Non-Threat
Traffic,
Directional, 9900’
Above, Climbing
Proximity
Advisory,
2600’ Below,
Descending
Figure 6-156 Traffic Map Pane with TAS and ADS-B Traffic Display Enabled
OPERATIONS
Displaying the Traffic Map Pane:
From MFD Home on the Touchscreen Controller, touch the Traffic Button.
Or:
If the PFD is in Split Mode, touch the Traffic Map Button from PFD Home.
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ALTITUDE RANGE
The flight crew can select the volume of airspace in which non-threat and proximity traffic is displayed. Note the system will still show TAs occurring outside of these limits regardless of the altitude mode chosen.
Changing the altitude range:
1) From MFD Home, touch Traffic > Traffic Settings.
Or:
From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Selection > Map Settings > Traffic Settings Button.
Or:
a) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
b) Touch the Traffic Settings Button.
2) Touch the Altitude Range Button:
3) Touch one of the following buttons from the list:
•
Unrestricted: All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
• Above: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays non-threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900 feet below the
aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
Available Altitude
Range Options
Figure 6-157 Selecting an Altitude Mode on the Traffic Settings Screen
NOTE: Refer to the ADS-B Traffic Section for more information for controlling the display of ADS-B traffic
information.
The pilot can test the traffic system on the System Tests screen when the aircraft is on the ground. If ADS-B
In traffic is installed, the pilot will first need to disable the ADS-B Display Button on the Traffic Settings Screen
before the test mode is available.
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Testing the Traffic System:
1) From MFD Home, touch Traffic > Traffic Settings.
2) If the ADS-B Display Button is present, and the button is enabled, touch the ADS-B Button to disable the
display of ADS-B traffic.
3) Turn the lower knob if necessary to adjust the Traffic Map Pane range so the outer range ring is set to 6 NM.
4) Touch the Home Button.
5) Touch the Aircraft Systems Button.
6) Touch the System Tests Button.
7) Touch the Traffic Button to test only the traffic systems.
Or:
Touch the Preflight Test Button to test all systems shown on the System Tests Screen.
The system displays a pattern of traffic symbols on the traffic maps during the test.
If ADS-B In traffic is installed, the test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing TA is
shown to the west. Other Non-Threat traffic is shown to the northwest, and a descending Proximity Advisory
is in the northeast, relative to own aircraft.
If ADS-B In traffic is not installed, the test pattern has the same orientation regardless of aircraft heading.
Figure 6-158 Example Traffic Test Pattern with ADS-B In Traffic Installed, Own Aircraft Heading is 360º
If a TCAS I system is installed, but a GDL 88D is not installed, the voice alert “TCAS One System Test
Passed” or “TCAS One System Test Failed” occurs. If a GDL 88D is installed (either with or without a TCAS
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I system, the voice alert “Traffic System Test” occurs. If the traffic system test fails, failure annunciation(s)
appear on traffic maps, or as a banner annunciation on navigation maps with a traffic overlay enabled.
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
The system can overlay traffic information on the Navigation Map Pane. Traffic information is also available
on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) terrain display is enabled. See the Flight Instruments
section for details about SVT traffic.
Enabling/disabling display of traffic information (Navigation Map Pane):
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the Traffic Button.
Enabling/disabling the display of traffic information (HSI Map or Inset Map):
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the HSI Map Button or Inset Map Button to access the Overlays settings.
3) Touch the Traffic Button in the Overlays Window to enable/disable the display of traffic on the HSI Map or Inset
Map.
When the display of traffic is enabled on navigation maps, the system shows a traffic status icon and altitude
mode in the lower right corner of the map. The HSI Map shows the traffic status icon without the altitude
mode.
Non-Threat
Traffic
Proximity Advisory,
500’ Above,
Descending
Traffic
Advisory,
1200’ Above
Climbing
Proximity
Advisory
TA Off Scale Banner
Annunciation
No Bearing Traffic
Advisory Banner
Annunciation
Traffic
Enabled Icon
Figure 6-159 Traffic on the Navigation Map Pane
The system provides controls to customize the display of traffic information on navigation maps. Traffic
symbols and labels (such as climbing or descending arrows and relative altitudes) can be decluttered from the
display when the map range exceeds a specified distance. In addition, traffic labels may also be enabled or
disabled, regardless of map range.
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Customizing the display of traffic on the navigation maps:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If necessary, touch the Sensor Tab.
3) Touch the Traffic Settings Button.
4) Touch the Map Settings Button.
5) Touch the Labels Button to enable/disable the display of labels on traffic (such as relative altitude).
6) To change the map range above which the system removes traffic symbols from the display, touch the Symbols
Button, then scroll to and touch to select a map range above which the system will remove the traffic symbols..
7) To change the map range at which the system removes traffic labels from the display (such as, touch the Labels
range button, then scroll to and touch to select a map range above which the system removes traffic labels from
the display.
8) When finished, touch the Back Button or the Home Button.
When the PFD is operating in Full Mode, a Traffic Inset Map is available for display on the PFD.
Enabling/disabling the Traffic Inset Map on the PFD:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Traffic Inset Button.
The HSI can also present a version of the Traffic Map. Traffic operating mode information is not present on
this map. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information about displaying maps on the HSI.
Showing the HSI Traffic Map:
1) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
2) Touch the Layout Button.
3) Touch the HSI Traffic Button.
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic system mode appears in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Pane.
Traffic System Mode
Operating
Traffic Map Mode Annunciation
Traffic Overlay Status
Icon
OPERATING
Standby
STANDBY
(‘TAS STANDBY’ shown in center of Traffic Maps)
Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-30 for additional failure annunciations.
Table 6-29 TCAS I Modes
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If the traffic unit fails, the system shows an annunciation as to the cause of the failure in the center of the
Traffic Map Pane. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode is not available.
Traffic Map Pane Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
System is not receiving any data from the traffic unit.
DATA FAILED
System is receiving data from the traffic unit, but the unit is reporting a failure.
FAILED
The traffic unit is sending invalid data to the system.
Table 6-30 TCAS I Failure Annunciations
Traffic Status annunciations appear in banners at the lower left corner of navigation map panes.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX <UP> or <DN>
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet,
and an altitude trend (‘<UP>’ indicates climbing, ‘<DN>’ indicates descending),
if a trend of at least 500 fpm is detected.
The traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly
formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Pane
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Pane
Table 6-31 TCAS I Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.9 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic
control system. It offers improved surveillance services, both air-to-air and air-to-ground, especially in areas
where radar coverage is ineffective due to terrain, or where it is impractical or cost prohibitive. ADS-B is
comprised of three segments for the purposes of providing traffic information: ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R
(Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).
ADS-B includes the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on
fixed objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail
Number, ICAO registration number, etc.), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status. 1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Figure 6-160 ADS-B System
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
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The ADS-B system operates on two frequencies: 1090 MHz and 978 MHz. Both frequencies provide the same
traffic information. An aircraft may be ADS-B In, Out, or participating on one or both frequencies, depending
on the installed equipment. The 1090 MHz frequency portion of ADS-B is known as 1090 Extended Squitter
(1090 ES). The 978 MHz portion of ADS-B is known as Universal Access Transceiver (UAT).
The optional Garmin GTX 33D transponder provides ADS-B Out functions using the 1090 ES data link. When the GTS 820 TAS is installed with a GTX 33D, the GTS 820 receives ADS-B In traffic data from the 1090
ES data link.
The optional Garmin GDL 88 is a dual-link Universal Access Transceiver (UAT). It sends and receives
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) traffic information on the 978 MHz UAT frequency. It
also receives data link weather information on the UAT frequency. As a dual-link transceiver, the GDL 88 also
receives ADS-B traffic information with its 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) receiver.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking traffic data from one
link and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, if two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground
station, and one is transmitting on the 1090 MHz frequency and the other is transmitting on the 978 MHz
frequency, the ground station retransmits the data from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two
aircraft can “see” each other as traffic.
The optional GDL 88 is capable of receiving ADS-B traffic reports directly on the 1090 MHz ES data link in
addition to the 978 MHz UAT data link. This allows the GDL 88 to receive ADS-B position reports on both
frequencies from aircraft in the vicinity, without relying on ADS-R ground station traffic coverage.
If another aircraft can only receive 978 MHz UAT information, it cannot directly detect another aircraft
sending only 1090 ES information aircraft unless an ADS-R ground station in the vicinity rebroadcasts the
1090 ES data over the 978 MHz UAT frequency. This is also true for an aircraft which can only receive 1090
ES data; it would need an ADS-R ground station to detect another aircraft operating on the UAT frequency.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
TIS-B provides a link between the secondary surveillance radar (SSR)-based system ATC uses and the ADSB-based system. When an ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B
ground station, the ground station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is
then included in the list of aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station and SSR coverage, and the other
aircraft is also in SSR coverage, and is transmitting its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
The following table provides examples of when own aircraft may be able to detect traffic based on equipment
installed in other aircraft.
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Other Aircraft Equipment
1090ES Out Equipped
UAT Receive Only Equipped
UAT Transmit Only Equipped
No Transponder, No ADS-B
Non ADS-B Equipped, but has a
Mode C or S Transponder
Viewable by a GTX 33D
Viewable by GDL 88D
Equipped Aircraft
UAT Equipped Aircraft
Yes
Yes
No
No
No, unless ATC is providing
Yes
the traffic via a TIS-B ground
uplink
No
No
May be viewable if a TAS/TCAS I System is also installed, or
ATC is providing the traffic via a TIS-B ground uplink
Table 6-32 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
ADS-B WITH TCAS I
When the display of ADS-B traffic is enabled, and the TCAS I system is in an operating mode (i.e. actively
interrogating the transponders of other aircraft, the system attempts to match (or “correlate”) data the two
traffic sources. When a correlation is made, the system displays the traffic information for the tracked aircraft
determined to be the most accurate. Any traffic that is not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but
not the other) is also displayed for the flight crew. This may occur, for example, if another aircraft is beyond
the active surveillance range of the TCAS I system, but own aircraft is receiving information via an ADS-B In
signal for the other aircraft. The traffic correlation feature improves the accuracy of the traffic displayed, while
reducing the occurrence of displaying the same traffic for a given aircraft twice.
NOTE: In certain situations, a single aircraft may be depicted as two aircraft on the display if the system
is unable to correlate the traffic. This may occur, for example, when operating on the edges of ATC radar
coverage, or the traffic system is receiving intermittent data. This may also occur if TIS-B traffic data does
not closely match the traffic data from other sources, especially while the traffic tracked by ATC radar is
turning.
NOTE: The TCAS I system issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using TCAS I alerting criteria. The ADS-B system
issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using the Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting (CSA) criteria.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TCAS I system discussed previously in the form of TAs.
When a TA based on CSA parameters occurs, the system displays an amber ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation on the
PFD and issues a voice alert. The TA voice alerts are discussed in the TCAS I traffic section of this pilot’s guide.
NOTE: The system mutes TA voice alerts when own aircraft is below 400’ AGL.
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The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to adjust the sensitivity of the CSA
algorithm in accordance with the following table:
Sensitivity
Level
Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
4
4
5
5
Any
Unavailable
Any
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
5
6
7
Unavailable or
>2350
8
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
Vertical
Protected
Own Altitude Look-ahead
GPS Phase of Flight
Threshold for Volume
(Feet)
time (sec)
Alert (feet)
(NM)
Any
Any
20
850
0.20
Approach
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Terminal
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Any
<=5000
25
30
850
850
0.20
0.35
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
Table 6-33 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
ADS-B traffic can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two ADS-B
applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness (SURF). The
system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five nautical miles and 1,500 feet above the nearest
airport. When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five nautical miles and less than 1,500 feet above
field elevation. When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map Pane range of one nautical mile or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and
runways) appears in addition to traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to
the Additional Features section for more information about SafeTaxi displays.
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NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially
when runways are in close proximity to each other.
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic symbols
may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic to be displayed in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Availability for
AIRB and SURF is depicted on the ADS-B Status Screen, discussed later in this section.
ADS-B
Mode (SURF
Application On)
Ground
vehicle
Aircraft on
the ground
Figure 6-161 Traffic Map Pane with SURF Mode On
NOTE: Refer to the TCAS I Traffic section for a table of ADS-B and TCAS I traffic symbols the system can
display.
OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the TCAS I Traffic Section for information about testing the traffic system(s).
TRAFFIC MAP PANE
The Traffic Map Pane shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map
range is adjustable with the lower knob. Rings denote the map range.
The traffic mode and altitude mode are annunciated in the upper right corner of the pane.
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AIRB Application
On
Figure 6-162 Traffic Map Pane with ADS-B Traffic Enabled
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) From MFD Home, touch Traffic > Traffic Settings.
Or:
a) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Selection > Map Settings.
b) Touch the Traffic Settings Button on the Sensor Tab.
Or:
a) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
b) Touch the Traffic Settings Button.
2) Touch the ADS-B Display Button.
NOTE: If a TCAS I system is installed, and the TCAS I mode changes from Standby to Operating, the display
of ADS-B traffic is automatically enabled, unless the pilot has manually disabled the ADS-B Display Button
while the TCAS I was in Standby Mode.
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
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forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future. If the system does not have
sufficient information to calculate motion vectors, they are not shown.
Absolute Motion
Vector Type
Selected
Figure 6-163 Traffic Map Pane with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
Relative Motion
Vector Type
Selected
Figure 6-164 Traffic Map Pane with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
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Selecting a Motion Vector display:
1) From MFD Home, touch Traffic > Traffic Settings.
Or:
a) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Selection > Map Settings.
b) Touch the Traffic Settings Button.
Or:
a) From PFD Home, touch PFD Map Settings.
b) Touch the Traffic Settings Button.
2) Touch the ADS-B Motion Vector Button.
3) Touch a button to select the desired Motion Vector display mode: Off, Absolute, or Relative.
4) To change the duration of time used to forecast motion vectors, touch the VECT Duration Button.
5) Touch a button for the desired duration: 30SEC, 1MIN, 2MIN, or 5MIN.
Displaying Additional Traffic Information
The Traffic Map Pane can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may include
the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service vehicle,
unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV), course, track, groundspeed, and other information.
Showing additional traffic information on the Traffic Map Pane:
1) From MFD Home, touch Traffic > Traffic Settings.
2) Touch the ADS-B Target Selection Button.
3) Turn the right knob. A cyan border appears on the first selected traffic symbol. Additional information appears
in a window in the lower-left corner of the Traffic Map Pane.
4) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the right knob.
5) When finished, touch the Target Selection Button again to disable the button.
Traffic Map Pane Display Range
The pilot can adjust the range of traffic displayed on the Traffic Map Pane. Range indications appear
on rings shown on the page. The minimum map range is 750 feet. A maximum map range of 40 nautical
miles is available.
Selecting the Traffic Map Pane display range:
1) From MFD Home, touch the Traffic > Traffic Settings Button.
2) Turn the lower knob clockwise to increase map range, or counter-clockwise to decrease map range.
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous TCAS I
discussion for information about these additional traffic displays.
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ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Pane.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Pane)
Traffic Map Pane Center
Banner Annunciation
ADS-B: AIRB
None
ADS-B: SURF
None
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
NO TRK/HDG
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
ADS-B Mode
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-36 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-34 ADS-B Modes
The Traffic Map Pane displays a white antenna icon to indicate the successful reception of ADS-B traffic
services from a ground station. A white-X over this icon indicates reception of ADS-B services is unavailable.
ADS-B Ground Station Reception Status
Receiving ADS-B traffic services from a ground
station
Not receiving ADS-B traffic services from a
ground station
Traffic Map Pane Icon
Table 6-35 ADS-B Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Pane. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Pane Center
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-36 Traffic Failure Annunciations
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Pane
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Pane
Table 6-37 Traffic Status Annunciations
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the ADS-B Status Screen.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > ADS-B Status.
2) View the status of the traffic applications, then touch the Back Button or the Home Button when finished.
Figure 6-165 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on the ADS-B Status Screen
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ADS-B Status Screen
Item
Status Message
Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does
not meet performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the
application has failed.
Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this
annunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
Available to Run
Airborne (AIRB),
Surface (SURF),
Airborne Alerts (CSA)
Not Available
Fault
Not Configured
----------------
Table 6-38 ADS-B Status Screen Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
NOTE: The approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) always supersedes the information in this Pilot’s Guide.
In addition to the discussion throughout this section, Appendix F provides an example of navigating a flight
plan while employing some of the features of the Automatic Flight Control System. Referring to Appendix F will
aid in putting the following information into context.
The Garmin AFCS is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the System
avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description.
The AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
• Flight Director (FD) — The Garmin AFCS Flight Director function can be coupled to PFD data. Commands
for the Flight Director can be calculated by either IAU. The Flight Director provides:
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Pitch and roll commands to the Autopilot
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch and roll servos. It provides automatic flight
control in response to Flight Director steering commands, Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS),
altitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Stability Augmentation System (YSAS) - The YSAS servo operates from Takeoff to Landing. It provides
Dutch Roll damping in response to yaw rate and true airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The optional Yaw Damper controls the primary yaw control surfaces that are controlled
via the rudder pedals, and has greater authority than the YSAS. Because of this, the Yaw Damper is only engaged
above 200ft AGL. When GPS AGL exceeds 200ft AGL (or, if GPS is unavailable, when flaps and gear are both
fully retracted), the optional Yaw Damper engages automatically. When the aircraft descends below 200ft AGL,
the Yaw Damper automatically disengages. The YSAS stays engaged at all times when the aircraft is airborne.
• Trim (TRIM) — The trim system provides manual electric pitch trim capability.
• Automatic Pitch Trim (APT) — The pitch trim system provides automatic pitch trim when the Autopilot is
engaged.
The following provides an overview for Autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed description
follows in Section 7.5.
• Autopilot Engagement — The Autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit.
Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the Autopilot will be set to hold the
current attitude of the airplane, if the Flight Director was not previously on. In this case, ‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will be
annunciated.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the Flight Director is on, the Autopilot will smoothly
pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior Flight Director modes remain unchanged.
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• Autopilot Disengagement — The most common way to disconnect the Autopilot is to press and release
the A/P DISC Switch, which is located on the control stick. An Autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and
annunciated on the PFD until the disconnect is acknowledged via a second press of the A/P DISC. Other ways
to disconnect the Autopilot include:
– Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
– Operating the TRIM Switch (located on either control stick)
– Pulling the Autopilot circuit breaker
– The stick pusher will also disconnect the Autopilot
In the event of unexpected Autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the A/P DISC Switch will disconnect
the Autopilot and remove all power to the servo motors, with the exception of the YSAS servo. The YSAS can
easily be overpowerd via the main rudder controls
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7.1 AFCS CONTROLS
The AFCS Control Unit has the following controls:
1
HDG Knob
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading
2
APR Key
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
3
4
AP Key
LVL Key
5
UP/DN Wheel
6
FLC Key
VNV Key
ALT SEL Knob
Engages/disengages the Autopilot
Engages the autopilot (if the autopilot is disengaged and the aircraft is within the
autopilot engagement limitations) and selects level vertical and lateral modes on
the flight director
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, and
Altitude Hold modes (see Table 7-2) for change increments in each mode)
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Selects/deselects VNAV Path Descent Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments. Press to synchronize the
Selected Altitude to the current altitude.
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Activates/deactivates the Flight Director only
Pressing once turns on the selected Flight Director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the Flight Director and removes the Command
Bars. If the Autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
7
8
ALT Key
10 VS Key
11 FD Key
9
NAV Key
13 HDG Key
12
1
2
3
13
12
11
4
5
6
7
10
8
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 707 AFCS Control Unit
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The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
A/P DISC Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
Disengages the Autopilot, Yaw Damper, Throttle Friction Lock, and Flight Director and
interrupts pitch trim operation.
An A/P DISC Switch is located on each control stick.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an Autopilot disconnect alert and mute
the associated aural alert.
TO/GA Switch
(Takeoff/Go
Around)
Selects Flight Director Takeoff Mode (on ground) or Go Around Mode (in air). AFCS
stays engaged through Go Around.
This switch also activates the missed approach when the selected navigation source
is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC and a valid frequency has been
tuned.
The TO/GA Switch is located on the underside of the throttle lever.
AT DISC Button
(Autothrottle)
Disengages the Autothrottle Servo.
TRIM Switch
Used to command manual electric pitch trim
The AT DISC Button is located on the left side of the throttle. The AT DISC Button
also disengages the Throttle Friction Lock.
An TRIM Switch is located on each control stick.
The pilot side TRIM Switch has priority over the copilot side TRIM Switch.
Pushing either TRIM Switch disengages the Autopilot, if engaged, but does not
affect Yaw Damper operation. Pushing either TRIM Switch will also mute the
Autopilot Disconnect Alert.
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7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The Flight Director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFD.
With the Flight Director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (+20°, -17°) and roll (30°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The Flight Director also provides commands to the Autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 activates the Flight Director in the listed modes.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
LVL Key
Heading Select
Level Hold
FD Key
AP Key
TO/GA Switch
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
GPS
VAPP
LOC
HDG
LVL
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
Pitch Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Altitude Hold
Vertical Speed
VNAV Path Descent*
PIT
PIT
TO
GA
ALT
VS
V PATH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
Level Hold
PIT
LVL
*When the VNV Key is pressed in conjunction with another mode selection, a ‘V’ is displayed
with the selected mode annunciation.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates Flight Director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight Director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFD when the Flight Director is active. Autopilot
and Yaw Damper status are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Lateral Flight Director modes are
displayed on the left and vertical modes on the right. Armed modes are displayed in white and active in green.
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Active Status Status
Active
Lateral
Modes
Vertical
Modes
Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
COMMAND BARS
Upon activation of the Flight Director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFD as single cue. If
the aircraft is being flown by hand, the command bars are displayed hollow. The aircraft symbol (in amber)
changes to accommodate the Command Bar format. The single cue Command Bars move together vertically to
indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Command Bars (Autopilot Engaged)
Command Bars
Command Bars (Pilot Hand Flying Aircraft)
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-3 Command Bars
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FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight Director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the Flight Director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes(s).
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation
when the Flight Director is activated by pressing the FD mode button, the Flight Director activates the default
mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode
annunciation moving to the green active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
If the information required to compute a Flight Director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the Flight
Director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing amber mode annunciation indicates
loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS) required to compute commands. When such a loss
occurs: the Command Bars give guidance to roll the wings level, and then depending on the affected axis, either
enters Roll Hold Mode or maintains the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode). The flashing annunciation stops
when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If after 10 seconds no action is
taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-4 Loss of VOR Signal
The Flight Director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default Flight
Director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
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7.3 VERTICAL MODES
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The
mode reference (Altitude, Vertical Speed, Air Speed, or GPS Speed Target) is displayed next to the active mode
annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes. The UP/DN Wheel can be used
to change the vertical mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change
Mode or Altitude Hold Mode. Increments of change and acceptable ranges of values for each of these references
using the UP/DN Wheel are also listed in the table where applicable.
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Vertical Mode
Pitch Hold
Selected Altitude
Capture
Altitude Hold****
Description
Control Annunciation
Holds aircraft pitch attitude; may
be used to climb/descend to the (default)
Selected Altitude
PIT
Captures the Selected Altitude
ALTS
Holds current Altitude Reference
Holds aircraft vertical speed; may
Vertical Speed
be used to climb/descend to the
Selected Altitude
Holds aircraft airspeed while
Flight Level Change aircraft is climbing/descending to
the Selected Altitude
Captures and tracks descent legs
VNAV Path Descent
of an active vertical profile
VNAV Target Altitude Captures the Vertical Navigation
Capture
(VNAV) Target Altitude
Captures and tracks the SBAS
Glidepath
glidepath on approach
Captures and tracks the ILS
Glideslope
glideslope on approach
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level on the
ground in preparation for takeoff.
Takeoff
FLC mode may be armed while
TO mode is active and will
become active at 400 ft AGL.
Commands a constant pitch
Go Around
angle and wings level
*
Reference Range
Reference
Change
Increment
-17° to +20°
0.25°
ALT Key ALT
nnnnnft
VS Key
nnnnfpm
-6000 to +6000 fpm
100 fpm
nnnkt
85 to 250 kts†
.XXX to .53 Mach***
1 kt
.002
VS
FLC Key FLC
VNV
Key
V PATH
**
ALTV
APR
Key
GA
Switch
GP
GS
TO
5°
GA
7°
* ALTS is armed automatically when the Selected Altitude is to be captured instead of the VNAV Target Altitude.
** ALTV is armed automatically when the VNAV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of the Selected Altitude.
*** Minimum Mach displayed (.XXX) is the equivalent Mach for 105 kts for a given altitude and temperature.
**** While in ALT mode, the UP/DN wheel will change the altitude ref in 10 ft increments up to a maximum of 180 ft from
the initial ref
† Reference Range is displayed as Mach for specified speeds and altitudes which is flap and gear position dependent.
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
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PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
When the Flight Director is activated (the FD or AP Key is pressed), Pitch Hold Mode is selected by default.
Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active pitch mode by the green annunciation ‘PIT’. This mode may be used
for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter), since Selected Altitude Capture Mode
is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the Flight Director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the Flight Director pitch command limitations, the Flight Director commands a pitch angle equal to
the nose-up/down limit.
CHANGING THE PITCH REFERENCE
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
• Using the UP/DN Wheel
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-5 Pitch Hold Mode
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SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at
least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
• Vertical Speed
• VNAV Path Descent (While VNAV is active,
V ALTS indicates that the Selected Altitude is to be
captures instead of the VNAV Target Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed. The ALT SEL Knob is
used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected Altitude Capture Mode becomes
active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the Flight Director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed (see following figure). This automatic transition is indicated by
the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the Flight Director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active, the
white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate
the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Figure 7-6 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
CHANGING THE SELECTED ALTITUDE
NOTE: While ALTS is active, the reference altitude cannot be changed by using FLC, VS, or VNAV Modes.
Change to another selected altitude by deactivating ALTS, then re-activate the desired vertical mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the Flight Director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the
new Selected Altitude.
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ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
If Altitude Hold Mode is activated by pressing the ALT Key, the Flight Director maintains the current aircraft
altitude (to the nearest one foot). Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the
AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the Flight Director is in either of the following modes:
• Selected Altitude Capture
• VNAV Target Altitude Capture
The transition to Altitude Hold Mode begins when at 50 feet from the Selected Altitude. In this case, the
Selected Altitude or VNAV Target Altitude becomes the Flight Director’s altitude reference. The active mode
annunciation ‘ALT’ appears if the transition was made from VNAV Target Altitude Capture Mode.
CHANGING THE ALTITUDE REFERENCE
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
Flight Director’s altitude reference, and does not cancel the mode.
Altitude
Reference
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-7 Altitude Hold Mode
The Altitude Reference may also be changed by using the UP/DN Wheel. The Altitude Reference will
change in increments of 10’ to a maximum of 180’ from current altitude. This will command the FD to climb/
descend as appropriate.
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VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the Flight Director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference (shown above
the Vertical Speed Indicator). Current aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical
Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent
to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically
armed when Vertical Speed Mode is selected. When Vertical Speed Mode is used in conjunction with VNAV (V
VS), VNAV Target Altitude Capture is also enabled.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS Status
Box. The Vertical Speed Reference is displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference
Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on the indicator.
CHANGING THE VERTICAL SPEED REFERENCE
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown above the Vertical Speed Indicator) may be changed by:
• Using the UP/DN Wheel
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode
Armed
Vertical Speed Vertical Speed
Reference
Mode Active
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-8 Vertical Speed Mode
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FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference (in IAS or Mach) while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter). When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the Flight Director continuously monitors Selected
Altitude, airspeed/Mach, and altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation (see following figure). Flight Level
Change Mode is indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed Reference is
displayed in cyan directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a cyan Airspeed Reference Bug corresponding
to the Airspeed Reference along the tape. Airspeed can be adjusted by using the UP/DN Wheel on the AFCS
Controller.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the Autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The Flight Director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode
Armed
Flight Level Change Airspeed
Reference
Mode Active
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-9 Flight Level Change Mode
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CHANGING THE AIRSPEED REFERENCE (FLC MODE)
The Airspeed Reference units automatically change from IAS to Mach or Mach to IAS as the aircraft passes
18,386 feet MSL.
When the FLC Airspeed Reference is displayed in Mach, the Airspeed Reference Bug is displayed on the
Airspeed Indicator at the IAS corresponding to the selected Mach target speed and the current Mach number
is shown below the Airspeed Indicator.
The Airspeed Reference (shown above the Airspeed Indicator in cyan) may be adjusted by:
• Using the UP/DN Wheel to adjust the Airspeed Reference Bug
VNAV PATH DESCENT MODE (V PATH)
NOTE: If another pitch mode key is pressed while VNAV Path Descent Mode is selected, VNAV Path Descent
Mode reverts to armed.
When a VNAV flight plan is active and the VNV Key is pressed, VNAV Path Descent Mode is armed in
preparation for the descent path capture. If the system is not set up to continue the upcoming descent, a
white “V” will appear when the VNV Key is pressed.
When descending, the appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNAV Target
Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater. If the next target altitude has an
“AT or BELOW” constraint, no level off is required, therefore, no target altitude is to be captured. ALTS is
then armed and the Selected Altitude is captured. If an “AT-or-BELOW” altitude is used to define bottom-of
descent, it will be treated as an “AT” altitude (arming ALTV). Intermediate “AT-or-BELOW” altitudes in the
descent do not arm ALTV.
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude by
at least 75 feet.
In conjunction with the ‘TOD (top of descent) within 1 minute’ annunciation in the Navigation Status Box
and the Vertical Track Voice Alert, VNAV indications (VNAV Target Altitude, Vertical Deviation Indicator,
Vertical Speed Required Indicator, and green ‘V’ in the AFCS Mode annunciation field) appear on the PFDs
(see following figure).
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VNAV Mode Active
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
VNAV Path Descent
Armed and flashing
VNAV
Target
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-14 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured, VNAV Path Descent becomes active and tracks the descent profile (see
following figure). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as appropriate. In the following
figure, the VNAV Target Altitude (3000 ft.) will be captured.
VNAV Path
Descent Active
VNAV Target
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
GPS is Selected
Navigation Source
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-15 VNAV Path Descent Mode
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If the Altimeter’s barometric setting is adjusted while VNAV Path Descent is active, the Flight Director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path (without
commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNAV vertical
deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to reestablish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNAV Target Altitude,
the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while VNAV Path Descent Mode is active which cause the Flight Director to
revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in the
vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by flight plan
changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Unless VNAV is disabled, VNAV Path Descent Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNAV is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while VNAV Path Descent Mode is selected, VNAV
Path Descent Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode to allow profile recapture.
Figure 7-16 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied prior to profile re-capture:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms VNAV Path Descent for immediate profile re-capture.
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VNAV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNAV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNAV Target Altitude
Capture Mode is armed.
VNAV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNAV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected
Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNAV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNAV Target
Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan.
At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute” is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box when VNAV is
active, the active VNAV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator (see following figure).
As the aircraft nears the VNAV Target Altitude, the Flight Director automatically transitions to VNAV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT” annunciation.
The VNAV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains
displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) is removed once
VNAV Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNAV Target Altitude, the Flight Director automatically transitions from VNAV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active,
the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds (before
changing to solid green) to indicate the automatic transition. The Flight Director automatically arms VNAV
Path Descent, allowing upcoming descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Altitude Reference (in this
case, equal to VNAV
Target Altitude)
Figure 7-17 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the VNAV Target Altitude
Changing the current VNAV Target Altitude while VNAV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes
the Flight Director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. VNAV Path Descent and the appropriate altitude capture
mode are armed in preparation to capture the new VNAV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending
on which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNAV Target Altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the Flight Management
Section for details).
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GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
Glidepath Mode is used to track the glidepath when executing an approach procedure with GPS as the
navigation source. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting Glidepath Mode:
1) Ensure an RNAV approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight
plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source.
3) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV+V or LP+V are flown to an MDA, until visual contact is made with
the runway environment, even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided. If it is desired
for the AFCS to capture the MDA, it is recommended another vertical mode be selected to arm ALTS.
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath there is a transition to Glidepath Mode, and the Flight Director gives Command
Bar guidance to capture and track the glidepath.
Figure 7-18 Glidepath Mode Armed
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• An RNAV approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, LP+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan.
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
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GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
GPS Approach
Mode Active
Glidepath
Mode Active
LPV
Active
Command Bars Indicate
Descent on Glidepath
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 7-19 Glidepath Mode
GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When Glideslope
Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral Flight Director
mode.
Selecting Glideslope Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source.
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source.
2) Ensure a ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
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Figure 7-23 Glideslope Mode Armed
Approach
Mode Active
Glideslope
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Descent
on Localizer/Glideslope Path
NAV1 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 7- 20 Glideslope Mode
Once the following conditions have been met, the glideslope can be captured:
• An ILS approach with vertical guidance is loaded into the active flight plan
• A valid ILS frequency is tuned on the NAV radio
• A glideslope signal is being received
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF)
• Vertical deviation is valid
• The CDI is at less than full scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
In Takeoff and Go Around modes, the Flight Director commands a constant set pitch attitude. The TO/GA
Switch (located on the thrust lever) is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the Flight Director
depends on whether the aircraft is on the ground. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when
the aircraft is at least 400 feet below the Selected Altitude at the time Takeoff or Go Around Mode is selected.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the TO/GA Switch. The Flight Director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude. FLC mode may also be armed while TO mode is active and automatically couples at 400 ft
above ground level.
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Pressing the TO/GA Switch while the aircraft is in the air activates the Flight Director Command Bars to
assume a wings-level, pitch-up attitude, allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. If there is
a valid flight plan loaded with GPS lateral guidance, GPS Mode becomes the active lateral mode in preparation
for proceeding to the Missed Approach Hold Point. If no approach has been loaded, or if there is no GPS lateral
guidance, GA will be the active lateral mode.
Takeoff
Mode Active
Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Figure 7-21 Takeoff and Go Around Modes
LEVEL MODE (LVL)
Level Mode is coupled pitch and roll modes and is annunciated as both the vertical and lateral modes when
active. Pressing the LVL Key engages the autopilot (if the autopilot is disengaged) in level vertical and lateral
modes. Level Mode does not track altitude or heading. When the LVL Key is pressed all armed and active modes
are cancelled and the autopilot and flight director revert to LVL mode for pitch and roll. While in level mode,
all other modes are available by pressing the corresponding button.
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 40 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “ENGAGING
AUTOPILOT” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The
AFCS will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
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7.4 LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation.
Lateral Mode
Description
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Captures and tracks the
Selected Heading
Roll Hold
Heading Select
Control
(default)
ROL
30˚
HDG Key
HDG
30˚
GPS
30˚
30˚ Capture
10˚ Track
30˚ Capture
10˚ Track
Navigation, GPS
Navigation, VOR Enroute Capture/Track
Navigation, LOC Capture/Track
(No Glideslope)
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation source
(GPS, VOR, LOC)
VOR
NAV Key
Captures and tracks a
Navigation, Backcourse Arm/Capture/Track localizer signal for backcourse
approaches
Approach, GPS
Approach, VOR Capture/Track
Approach, LOC Capture/Track
(Glideslope Mode automatically armed)
Takeoff
Go Around
Maximum Roll
Annunciation
Command
Limit
LOC
BC
GPS
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation source
(GPS, VOR, LOC)
APR Key
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level on the
ground in preparation for
takeoff. HDG or NAV modes
may be armed while TO mode
is active and will automatically
couple at 400 ft AGL.
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level
TO/GA
Switch
VAPP
LOC
30˚ Capture
10˚ Track
30˚
30˚ Capture
10˚ Track
30˚ Capture
10˚ Track
TO
0˚
GA
0˚
The AFCS limits turn rate to 3 degrees per second (standard rate turn), therefore, the maximum roll angle may not reach the
command limit at slower speeds.
Table 7-5 Flight Director Lateral Modes
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ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the Flight Director rolls the wings level.
When the Flight Director is activated, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is annunciated as
‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank angle conditions listed
in Table 7-6.
Figure 7-22 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
Flight Director Response
< 6°
Rolls wings level
6° to 30° Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
> 30°
Limits bank to 30°
Table 7-6 Roll Hold Mode Responses
HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains
the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in the box to the
upper left of the HSI.
CHANGING THE SELECTED HEADING
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob. Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected
Heading to the current heading. When the HDG Knob is pressed while the aircraft is in a turn, the Heading
Bug moves to the current heading, but continues to adjust as heading changes until the airplane rolls to wings
level. Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the Bug is
turned more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading
changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
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Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Selected
Heading
Bug
Pitch Mode
Active
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-23 Heading Select Mode
NAVIGATION MODES (GPS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
Flight Director to enter Navigation Mode.
NOTE: When intercepting a flight plan leg, the Flight Director gives commands to capture the active leg at
approximately a 45° angle to the track between the waypoints defining the active leg. The Flight Director
does not give commands to fly to the starting waypoint of the active leg.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The Flight Director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the Flight Director creates roll steering guidance
from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision GPS and LOC
approaches where glideslope/glidepath capture is not required.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than ¼ dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the selected
mode is armed. If the CDI is less than ¼ dot, the active leg or course is automatically captured when the NAV
Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white below the active roll mode.
Figure 7-24 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
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When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is activated when the automatic navigation source switch takes place. If the APR Key is pressed prior to
the automatic navigation source switch, LOC Navigation Mode is armed.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the Flight Director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the Active NAV Softkey)
• During a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source transition from GPS to LOC
GPS Navigation
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Pitch Mode
Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode
Armed
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track GPS Course and Climb
to Intercept Selected Altitude
Figure 7-25 Navigation GPS Mode
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APPROACH MODES (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
Flight Director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on the loaded approach. This mode uses the selected
navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the
CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white below the active lateral
mode). If the CDI is less than one dot, the LOC, GPS, or VAPP is automatically captured when the APR Key
is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source.
3) Press the APR Key.
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Selecting GPS Approach Mode:
1) Ensure an RNAV approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight
plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source.
3) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-26 Navigation/Approach Mode Armed
LOC Approach Mode allows the Autopilot to fly a ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC Approach
Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the difference
between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
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Selecting LOC Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source.
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source.
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
If the following occurs, the Flight Director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Different VOR/LOC tuned while in VOR/ILS Navigation Mode (VOR/LOC Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
• During a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
INTERCEPTING AND FLYING A DME ARC
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that GPS
Navigation Mode is engaged, GPS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is
the active flight plan leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS.
Thus, even if the APR key is pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides vectors
to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically
intercept or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms GPS Navigation
Mode. The AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of the
arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects GPS Navigation
Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
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7.5 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The Autopilot and Optional Yaw Damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight
control. The Autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the Flight
Director. Pitch autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim actuator to relieve any sustained effort required
by the pitch servo.
The Yaw Damper and YSAS reduce Dutch Roll tendencies and coordinate turns.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active Flight Director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the YSAS servo and or Yaw Damper servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed
and torque. The servo gearboxes allow the servos to be overridden in case of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The Autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during upsets and Flight
Director maneuvers. Flight Director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch
damper control, and sent to the pitch servo motor.
When the Autopilot is engaged, the automatic pitch trim (APT) function commands the pitch trim actuator
to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
Trim functionality is available at any time via the pilot and copilot TRIM Switches. Trim speeds are
scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
The pilot side TRIM Switch has priority over the copilot side TRIM Switch.
ROLL AXIS
The Autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during upsets and Flight Director
maneuvers. The Flight Director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper
control, and sent to the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The YSAS uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response. The Yaw
Damper also uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns. The YSAS and optional Yaw Damper engage and
disengage automatically. However, if the AP is engaged on the ground to test the ability to manually override
the servo forces, the optional Yaw Damper is also engaged.
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ENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT
When the AP Key is pressed, the Autopilot, and Flight Director (if not already active) are activated. The Flight
Director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated. Autopilot and Yaw Damper status are
displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations,
respectively. The AP must be disconnected prior to takeoff until the minimum use height has been achieved
(consult the AFM).
Autopilot
Engaged
Figure 7-27 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Engaged
DISENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT
NOTE: Pressing the AP Key does not disengage the Yaw Damper, except when on the ground.
Manual Autopilot disengagement is indicated by a amber and black ‘AP’ annunciation and an autopilot
disconnect alert tone. The Autopilot is manually disengaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
or the A/P DISC Switch.
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white annunciation and the Autopilot
disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the A/P DISC Switch. Automatic
Autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Inability to compute default Flight Director modes
(FD also disengages automatically)
• Invalid sensor data
Figure 7-28 Automatic Autopilot Disengagement
THROTTLE FRICTION LOCK
The throttle friction lock (located forward of the throttle) can be activated to hold the throttle steady during
extended segments at a constant power setting. Pressing the Friction Lock button toggles it on and off. When
engaged, a lock icon will appear on EIS strip on the MFD. The Friction Lock can be disengaged by pressing
the AT DISC or AP DISC buttons.
Friction
Lock Icon
Figure 7-29 Friction Lock
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7.6 ABNORMAL OPERATION
CIRRUS AIRFRAME PARACHUTE SYSTEM (CAPS)
When the CAPS system is engaged the Cirrus logic engages the AP and AT to prepare the aircraft for parachute
deployment (refer to the AFM for complete description). Once the CAPS system has been initiated a green
CAPS appears in the Status Bar.
Figure 7-30 PFD AFCS Display
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, VNAV Path Descent, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the Flight Director and pitch commands are limited for overspeed protection.
Overspeed protection is provided in situations where the Flight Director cannot acquire and maintain the mode
reference for the selected vertical mode without exceeding the certified maximum Autopilot airspeed.
When an Autopilot overspeed condition occurs, a flashing amber ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation appears above the
Airspeed Indicator. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference adjusted to slow the aircraft.
The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-31 Overspeed Annunciation
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UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
Underspeed Protection is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum established airspeeds and
is available when the Flight Director is on.
When the aircraft reaches a predetermined airspeed, a yellow MINSPD annunciation (see following figure)
will appear above the airspeed indicator. When the airspeed trend vector reaches a predetermined airspeed, a
single aural “AIRSPEED” will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition.
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-32 MINSPD Annunciation
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical flight
director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can be divided
into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical
modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical modes).
ALTITUDE-CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC CLIMB, CAPS)
If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change from
active to armed. The autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down to maintain an airspeed
no less than stall warning activation speed plus two knots, and the wings to level. An aural “AIRSPEED” alert
will sound every five seconds
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference.
The vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active.
NON-ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (LVL, VS, PATH, PIT, FLC DESCENT)
If the aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed will appear to
the right of the vertical speed indicator. The vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed,
and the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the
minimum commandable autopilot airspeed.
When sufficient power/thrust is available, the autopilot will recapture the previously selected vertical
reference and the flight director mode will change from armed to active.
NOTE: When the autopilot is outside normal operating limits, it uses more aggressive commands to return
to normal limits.
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LEVEL MODE (LVL)
Level (LVL) mode becomes active as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the ESP feature.
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 40 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “Engaging
Autopilot” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The AFCS
will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
Figure 7-33 Level Mode
SUSPECTED AUTOPILOT MALFUNCTION
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as specifics that may
supplement or amplify this procedure.
If an Autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the following steps:
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
2) Press and hold the A/P DISC Switch. The Autopilot will disconnect and power is removed from the trim motor.
Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged solenoids. Note the visual and aural alerting
indicating Autopilot disconnect.
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid components.
5) Release the A/P DISC Switch.
OVERPOWERING AUTOPILOT SERVOS
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied to the pitch controls
when the Autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or force on the pitch controls can cause the
Autopilot automatic trim to run to an out-of-trim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to
the controls should be avoided when the Autopilot is engaged.
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper Autopilot operation and ensure the Autopilot can be overpowered.
2) Note the forces required to overpower the Autopilot servo clutches.
NOTE: The YSAS servo does not disengage when the A/P DISC button is pressed. This servo has low authority,
and any malfunction should be countered by the pilot via the main rudder, which has much greater authority
than the YSAS.
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EMERGENCY DESCENT MODE
ACTIVATION
Emergency Descent Mode (EDM) consists of two phases – the primary descent to 14,000 feet, followed
by an altitude capture and hold at 14,000 feet. The descent phase consists of a high-speed FLC descent
performed at an automatically managed speed reference. EDM is automatically activated when the autopilot
is engaged and:
• Pressure Altitude is at least 14,900 feet MSL
AND
• Cabin pressure altitude greater than or equal to 15,000 feet for at least 1 second.
AND
• A manual cabin dump is not in progress.
An ‘AUTO DESCENT’ warning CAS message will be annunciated and a corresponding warning aural is
played until acknowledged. Once EDM has activated, a red annunciation is displayed on the PFD above the
airspeed tape.
When EDM is activated, the autopilot automatically sets the altitude preselect to 14,000 feet and the speed
reference to the EDM descent speed. These references cannot be manually changed until EDM is disengaged
via the A/P DISC button. The AFCS logic waits 3-5 seconds for the GDU to establish these references before
selecting the appropriate FD/AT modes for EDM. The throttle servo engages to manage power during the
descent phase.
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EDM is
annunciated
HDG Mode
Active
FLC Mode Target speed 14000MSL
is selected is selected
Active
Figure 7-34 Emergency Descent Mode Armed
AUTO DESCENT Annunciated
EDM OVERRIDE
Once active, EDM can only be aborted by disconnecting the autopilot. FD mode changes are precluded
while EDM is active.
NOTE: Refer to the current pertinent flight manual for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: Regardless of the availability of SafeTaxi® or ChartView, it may be necessary to carry another source
of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the Cirrus Perspective Touch by Garmin integrated avionics system include the following:
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• SurfaceWatch™ (optional)
• ChartView electronic charts (optional)
• FliteCharts®
• Airport Directory (AOPA™ or AC-U-KWIK)
• Iridium satellite telephone
• Data Link Services
• SiriusXM® Satellite Radio entertainment (optional)
• Connext® Setup
• Scheduler
• Flight Data Logging
• Auxiliary Video
• Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) System
• Electronic Documents
• Electronic Checklists
• Position Reports
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the United
States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the airport layout
can be seen.
The optional SurfaceWatch™ feature provides voice and visual annunciations to aid in maintaining situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions during ground and air operations in the airport environment.
ChartView provides on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic charts offer the convenience of
rapid access to essential information.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory offers detailed information for a selected airport, such as available
services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
Telephone and Data Link Services are optional subscription services offered through Garmin Connext and
Iridium Satellite LLC. Voice and SMS messaging communications are through the Iridium Satellite Network. Data communications are through Iridium Data Services, or a wireless network (WiFi) when the aircraft is on
the ground. Incorporated in this feature set is a System Data Logging function which records aircraft system
parameters specified by the aircraft manufacturer. This data is then uploaded to Garmin Connext through one of
the data communications options.
Connext allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth connection between
the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver handles
more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment choices and
longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages such as VOR
checks, Change oil, or Altimeter-Transponder Check in the Notifications Screen on the Touchscreen Controller.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card. Approximately
1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
The Auxiliary Video feature provides a control and display interface for an optional auxiliary video system.
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The Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside
the normal flight envelope
The Electronic Document function allows viewing of electronic documents on selected GDU displays.
Optional Electronic Checklists help to quickly find the proper checklist procedure on the ground or during flight.
The Position Reporting feature allows the system to send position reporting information to a provider, such as
FlightAware.com.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SAFETAXI
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range on the
Navigation Map or the Inset Map on the PFD. The maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot
configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with
identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers,
and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at lower map ranges. When the aircraft’s current position is
within the SafeTaxi view, the airplane symbol on the airport provides enhanced position awareness. To view the
full capability of the SafeTaxi feature, ‘Airports’ must be enabled in the Map Settings menu on the Touchscreen
Controller.
NOTE: When obstacles are displayed on the Navigation Map in the vicinity of an airport being viewed with
SafeTaxi, the obstacle symbols may be obscured by SafeTaxi feature labels.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map display that shows the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of displays where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map
• Weather Datalink Pane
• Inset Map (PFD)
• Trip Planning Pane
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Charlie approaching a designated Airport Hot Spot
boundary on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features
such as runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
Airport
Features
Aircraft
Position
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
Taxiway
Identification
Figure 8-1 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Display
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Enabling/Disabling SafeTaxi:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If not already selected, touch the Aviation Tab.
3) If necessary, scroll to display the SafeTaxi Annunciator Button.
4) Touch the SafeTaxi Button to enable or disable the display of SafeTaxi on the Navigation and Inset maps. A
green annunciator on the button indicates SafeTaxi is enabled.
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) From MFD Home, touch Map > Map Settings.
2) If not already selected, touch the Aviation Tab.
3) If necessary, scroll to display the SafeTaxi Range Button.
4) Touch the SafeTaxi Range Button. A selection of ranges is displayed.
5) Touch the desired range. In the following figure, 4 NM has been selected. With this setting, SafeTaxi will be
displayed on the Navigation Map for range settings up to, and including 4 NM.
Figure 8-2 SafeTaxi Map Settings
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 SURFACEWATCH
If Installed, the SurfaceWatch™ feature provides aural and visual annunciations to help the pilot maintain
situational awareness and avoid potential runway incursions during ground and air operations in the airport
environment. The SurfaceWatch feature is comprised of the following key components:
•Alert Annunciations
Taxiway Takeoff
Runway Too Short (during takeoff or landing)
Check Runway (during takeoff or landing)
Taxiway Landing
•Provides the pilot with voice alerts at key transition points and runway distance remaining callouts.
•Provides information on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) that contains runway and taxiway information that
changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment.
The SurfaceWatch feature is not available in Reversionary Mode.
SurfaceWatch
Alert
Information
Box is Updated
as the Aircraft
Taxies
Figure 8-3 SurfaceWatch Information on the PFD
Enable/disable SurfaceWatch:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Settings.
2) If not already selected, touch the Alerts Tab and scroll to view SurfaceWatch.
3) Touch the SurfaceWatch Inhibit Button to enable or disable SurfaceWatch. A green annunciator indicates
SurfaceWatch is inhibited, or disabled. A system message is also displayed indictating SurfaceWatch is inhibited.
The inhibit setting will be canceled after a power cycle.
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INFORMATION DISPLAY
The SurfaceWatch™ Information Box is displayed on the PFD to the left of the HSI. It contains runway and
taxiway information that dynamically changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment. The
information that is displayed in the Information Box is the aircraft’s relative position to nearby aprons, taxiways,
and runways.
There are three components to the SurfaceWatch™ Information Box as shown in the following figure. These
components are Currently Occupied, Approaching, and Crossing Runways.
Crossing Runways
Currently Occupied
Approaching
Figure 8-4 Information Types Displayed in the Information Box
CURRENTLY OCCUPIED
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘ON’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. In the previous
figure, the aircraft is currently ‘ON’ runway 04 right (RWY 04R). The remaining runway distance is also
shown when the aircraft is situated on and aligned with a runway.
If the aircraft is airborne and approaching an airport, ‘AIRBORNE TO’ and the destination airport identifier
will be displayed.
Information is displayed only for objects labeled on the SafeTaxi diagram.
APPROACHING COMPONENT
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘APPROACHING’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. In the
previous figure, the aircraft is currently ‘APPROACHING’ taxiway H (TWY H). The distance to the taxiway
is also shown.
When the aircraft is taxiing and approaching an intersection of multiple taxiways, the taxiway identifiers
will be listed in order of proximity and the distance to the nearest is displayed.
When the aircraft is taxiing and crossing an intersection of multiple taxiways, ‘CROSSING’ will be displayed
and no distance will be shown.
CROSSING RUNWAYS
This component lists the runways, from closest to furthest, that are ‘CROSSING’ the runway the aircraft
currently occupies, as seen in the previous figure. The distance to each runway is also shown in order of
closest distance. Runways behind the aircraft are not depicted.
The Crossing Runways component is shown in conjunction with the Currently Occupied component of
the Information Box.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ALERTS
The SurfaceWatch alert annunciations are displayed in the central portion of the PFD. The alert annunciations
are accompanied by a corresponding voice alert. Other associated information is presented in the SurfaceWatch
Information Box.
The following is a descriptive list of the SurfaceWatch alerts.
SurfaceWatch Alert
Annunciation
Associated Voice
Alert
“Taxiway takeoff”
“Runway too short”
“Check runway”
“Taxiway”
Description
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from, or landing on, a runway with a
length less than needed as calculated by the PERF function.
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from, or landing on, a runway different than
that entered in PERF.
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Table 8-1 SurfaceWatch Alert Annunciations
TAKEOFF ALERTS
The Takeoff phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Takeoff Alerts.
Taxiway Takeoff
The Taxiway Takeoff alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway). The system determines this when the Takeoff phase-of-flight is valid and the aircraft is not
aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied taxiway (or other maneuvering area) and potentially the next area (apron or maneuvering area)
to be occupied (based on aircraft heading and the airport geometry) and the distance to that area (see
following figure).
Figure 8-5 Typical Taxiway Information Displayed in the Information Box
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Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short (during takeoff) alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway
and the remaining runway length is less than the required length. The system determines this when the
Takeoff phase-of-flight is valid while the aircraft is aligned with a runway the system PERF function has
calculated to be too short.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway from which the aircraft is
taking off, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in PERF.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will contain a textual description of the
currently occupied runway and the remaining runway length as shown in the following figure.
Figure 8-6 Typical Runway Information Displayed in the Information Box
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway that does not
match the departure runway in PERF. The system determines this when the Takeoff phase-of-flight is valid
while the aircraft is aligned with a runway that is not the departure runway entered in the PERF function.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied runway as shown in the previous figure.
LANDING ALERTS
The On-Final phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Landing Alerts.
Taxiway Landing
The Taxiway Landing alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway). The system determines this when the On-Final phase-of-flight is valid and the aircraft is not aligned with
a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING TWY” to indicate a non-runway landing is being attempted (see following
figure).
Figure 8-7 Typical Information Displayed During a Taxiway Landing Alert
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Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway where the remaining
runway length is less than the required landing runway length as calculated by the PERF function. The
system determines this when the On-Final phase-of-flight is valid and the aircraft is aligned with a runway
the system PERF function has calculated to be too short.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway with which the aircraft is
aligned, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in PERF.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING” above the runway designation and the text “RMNG” above the indicated
remaining runway length as indicated in the following figure.
Figure 8-8 Typical Information Displayed During a Runway Too Short Alert
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway that does not match the
arrival runway specified in the PERF function. The system determines this when the On-Final phase-offlight is valid while the aircraft is aligned with a runway that is not the arrival runway entered in the PERF
function.
Additionally, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier, the runway with which
the aircraft is aligned, and the distance to the runway (see the following figure).
Figure 8-9 Typical Information Displayed During a Check Runway Alert
DISTANCE REMAINING CALLOUTS
With rejected takeoff or during landing rollout, distance remaining voice callouts are issued for the remaining
runway distances of 5000’, 4000’, 3000’, 2000’, 1000’, 500’, and 100’.
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8.3 CHARTS
Electronic charts that resemble the paper versions of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts (FliteCharts)
and Jeppesen terminal procedures charts (ChartView) can be displayed on the MFD or PFD.
When the databases for both chart types are purchased and loaded in the system, the desired charts brand,
or source, can be selected for viewing. The active chart source for a particular procedure is shown on the Chart
Options Screen under Preferred Source.
Selecting Preferred Charts Source:
1) From MFD Home, touch Chart Selection > Chart Options > Preferred Source.
2) Touch either Chartview or FliteCharts to set as the preferred chart source
Figure
. 8-10 Chart Options Preferred Source Button
Figure 8-11 Select Preferred Chart Screen
CHARTVIEW
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in
full color with high-resolution. The Display Pane depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in
the plan view of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes (see following figure) are not considered within the
chart boundaries. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft
symbol is removed from the display.
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading
is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or Display Pane. These off-scale
areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position
of this information, as it relates to the chart plan view, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when
the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart plan
view, not to the off-scale area.
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Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-12 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Chart NOTAMs
• Approaches
NOTE: Only NOTAMs applicable to specific information conveyed on the displayed Jeppesen chart are
available. There may be other NOTAMs available pertaining to the flight that may not be displayed. Contact
Jeppesen for more information regarding Jeppesen database-published NOTAMs.
CHART SELECTION
When a flight plan is active, or when flying direct-to a destination, the initial set of charts made available
pertain to the departure airport. After departing the airport environment, the initial chart set made available
pertains to the destination airport. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination,
the initial chart set is made available for the nearest airport.
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Selecting Charts using the Charts Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Charts.
2) The airport for which charts will be displayed is shown at the top of the Charts Screen. Touch the Airport Button
to enter another airport.
3) Touch the Info Tab to display the airport information selection buttons for the selected airport (the following
figure).
• Departure Tab to display a list of possible departures for the selected airport.
• Arrival Tab to display a list of possible arrivals for the selected airport.
• Approach Tab to display a list of possible approaches for the selected airport.
4) Touch the desired information button in any of these lists to display the applicable chart on the selected Display
Pane.
Figure 8-13 Airport Diagram Selection
Figure 8-14 Airport Diagram View Options
5) Touch the Charts Options Button to select the desired display option for the selected chart (see previous
figure).
6) Touch All to display the complete Airport Diagram. Fit Width displays the full width of the Airport Diagram. Plan
displays only the diagram portion of the chart. Minimums displays only the approach minimums on an approach
chart. Profile displays only the descent profile on the approach chart. Header displays the chart header. Only
appropriate views are available for the selected chart.
7) Touch Back to return to the Charts Screen.
Zoom-in, zoom-out, panning, and rotating the displayed chart:
1) From MFD Home, touch Charts.
2) Select the desired chart for display in the selected pane.
3) Push the Lower Knob. The Charts Pan/Zoom Control screen is displayed on the Touchscreen Controller as shown
in the following figure.
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Figure 8-15 Pan and Zoom Touchpad
4) Turn the lower knob, or use the pinch-and-zoom feature on the Touchpad to adjust the chart zoom.
5) Move a finger along the Touchpad, or turn the upper knobs to pan the displayed chart.
6) Touch the Rotate Buttons to rotate the chart clockwise or counter-clockwise, as indicated on the button. Each
touch of the button rotates the chart 90 degrees in the designated direction.
Selecting Airport Diagrams from the Nearest Airports Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > Airport.
2) Touch the desired airport button. KCOS is selected in this example. The Waypoint Options buttons are
displayed as shown in the following figure.
Figure 8-16 Airport Diagram Selection
3) Touch the Airport Chart Button. The Info Tab selections are displayed on the Touchscreen Controller and the
Airport Diagram is displayed on the selected Display Pane (see following figure).
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Figure 8-17 Airport Chart for Selected Airport
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the
boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If the
Chart Scale Box displays a banner ‘NOT TO SCALE’, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not Shown
Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
When no terminal procedure chart is available for the nearest airport or the selected airport, the banner
‘No Available Charts’ appears on the screen. The ‘No Available Charts’ banner does not refer to the Jeppesen
subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-18 No Available Charts Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
‘Unable To Display Chart’ is then displayed.
Figure 8-19 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment.
Selecting Day, Night, or Auto View:
1) From MFD Home, touch Charts > Charts Options.
2) Touch the Light Mode Button (see following figure).
3) Touch the Day, Night, or Auto button (see following figure). The selection is annunciated on the Light Mode
Button. When Auto is selected, the display will change to the appropriate day or night setting, dependent on
ambient lighting.
Figure 8-20 Selecting Day/Night View
4) Touch the Threshold button (see following figure). The Auto Light Mode Threshold window is displayed.
Select Chart Options
Adjust Threshold Setting
Figure 8-21 Setting Day/Night Switching Threshold
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5) Move the slider left or right to set the desired threshold. Setting the Threshold Level percentage to the same
percentage shown as the Current MFD Backlight Level will cause the Day/Night view to switch at the current
backlight setting. Adjusting the Threshold Level setting larger than the Current MFD Backlight Level will cause
the display to remain in Night Mode longer. Adjusting the Threshold Level setting smaller than the Current MFD
Backlight Level will cause the display to change to Day Mode sooner.
Figure 8-22 Airport Diagram, Day View
Figure 8-23 Airport Diagram, Night View
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FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area
depicted on some charts.
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas
are not shaded on the published chart. These off-scale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental
information. However, the depicted geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview,
is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas,
the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.The FliteCharts database
subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Airport Diagrams
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Figure 8-24 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
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NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
CHART SELECTION
When a flight plan is active, or when flying direct-to a destination, the initial set of charts made available
pertains to the departure airport. After departing the airport environment, the initial chart set made available
pertains to the destination airport. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination,
the initial chart set is made available for the nearest airport.
Selecting Charts using the Charts Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Charts.
2) The airport for which charts will be displayed is shown at the top of the Charts Screen. Touch the Airport Button
to enter another airport.
3) Touch the Info Tab to display the airport information selection buttons for the selected airport (see following
figure).
• Departure Tab to display a list of possible departures for the selected airport.
• Arrival Tab to display a list of possible arrivals for the selected airport.
• Approach Tab to display a list of possible approaches for the selected airport.
4) Touch the desired information button in any of these lists to display the applicable chart on the selected Display
Pane.
Figure 8-25 Airport Diagram Selection
Figure 8-26 Airport Diagram View Options
5) Touch the Charts Options Button to display the viewing options available for the selected chart (see previous
figure).
6) Touch Fit Width to display the full width of the chart.
7) Touch Back to return to the Charts Screen.
Selecting Airport Diagrams from the Nearest Airports Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > Airport.
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2) Touch the desired airport button. KCOS is selected in the following figure. The Waypoint Options buttons are
now displayed.
Figure 8-27 Airport Diagram Selection
3) Touch the Airport Chart Button. The Info Tab selections are displayed on the Touchscreen Controller (see
previous figure) and the Airport Diagram is displayed on the selected Display Pane (see following figure).
Figure 8-28 Airport Chart for Selected Airport
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the
boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If
the Chart Scale Box displays a banner ‘NOT TO SCALE’, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not
Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
When no terminal procedure chart is available for the nearest airport or the selected airport, the banner
‘No Available Charts’ appears on the screen. The ‘No Available Charts’ banner does not refer to the Jeppesen
subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected
airport.
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Figure 8-29 No Available Charts Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner ‘Unable To Display Chart’ is then displayed.
Figure 8-30 Unable To Display Chart Banner
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment.
Selecting Day, Night, or Auto View:
1) From MFD Home, touch Charts > Charts Options.
2) Touch the Light Mode Button (see following figure).
3) Touch the Day, Night, or Auto button. The selection is annunciated on the Light Mode Button. When Auto
is selected, the display will change to the appropriate day or night setting, dependent on ambient lighting.
Figure 8-31 Selecting Day/Night View
4) Touch the Threshold button (see following figure). The Auto Light Mode Threshold window is displayed.
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Select Chart Options
Adjust Threshold Setting
Figure 8-32 Setting Day/Night Switching Threshold
5) Move the slider left or right to set the desired threshold. Setting the Threshold Level percentage to the same
percentage shown as the Current MFD Backlight Level will cause the Day/Night view to switch at the current
backlight setting. Adjusting the Threshold Level setting larger than the Current MFD Backlight Level will cause
the display to remain in Night Mode longer. Adjusting the Threshold Level setting smaller than the Current MFD
Backlight Level will cause the display to change to Day Mode sooner.
Figure 8-33 Airport Diagram, Day View
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Figure 8-34 Airport Diagram, Night View
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8.4 AIRPORT DIRECTORY
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory databases offer detailed
information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more for various airports. This
information is viewed on the Airport Directory Info Screen as shown in the following figure.
Selecting the Airport Directory Info Screen:
1) From MFD Home, touch Nearest > Airports.
2) A list of the nearest airports to the aircraft present position is displayed, beginning with the closest. Touch the
desired airport, in this case KCOS. The Waypoint Options buttons are displayed as shown in the following
figure.
3) Touch the Airport Info Button to display the Airport Directory Info Screen.
4) Touch the APT DIR Tab to display the Airport Directory information for the selected airport as shown in the
following figure.
Figure 8-35 Nearest Airport Selection
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Figure 8-36 AOPA Airport Directory Information
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8.5 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISIONS
CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation, ChartView,
SafeTaxi, Airport Directory. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable during a period that
extends from the cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page
displays the current status of the databases. As an example, see the table below for the various FliteCharts
Power-up Page displays and the definition of each. The expiration date and disables date varies for each database.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Table 8-2 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current. Yellow text,
such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no longer viewable and
have expired.
Database time critical information can also be found on the ‘Avionics Status’ page. The database Region, Cycle
number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue or yellow text. Dates
shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not within the current subscription
period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Viewing Database Information:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Status.
2) Touch the Database Tab.
3) Touch the button corresponding to the display (MFD1, PFD1, PFD2, GTC1, or GTC2) for which the database
information will be viewed.
4) Scroll to display the appropriate database information.
Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
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YYTI
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
YYII
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Database Cycle Number Format
YYII
Revision Cycle
28 days
YYMI
Not Applicable
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
28 days
Table 8-3 Database Cycle Number and Revision
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8.6 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND DATALINK SERVICES
NOTE: Separate accounts must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice and Garmin
Connext for data transmission of maintenance reports.
If installed, the GDL 59 Data Link Transceiver provides an aircraft systems data logger for communication of
potential maintenance issues and, while the aircraft is on the ground, a high speed (IEEE 802.11g) WiFi data link
between the aircraft and a ground computer network. The GDL 59 can also be paired with an optional GSR 56
Iridium Transceiver providing an airborne low speed data link, Iridium Satellite Telephone service and SMS text
messaging.
REGISTERING THE SYSTEM WITH GARMIN CONNEXT
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the System ID and serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) by performing the
following procedure. Contact Garmin Connext at: www.flyGarmin.com.
Registering the system for data link services:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Avionics Status.
2) If necessary, touch the Airframe Tab. Note the System ID number as seen in the following figure. This number
will be needed when contacting Garmin Connext to establish the account.
Figure 8-37 System ID Number
Figure 8-38 Iridium Transceiver Serial Number (GSR1)
3) Touch the LRU Info Tab. Scroll to view ‘GSR1’ and note the serial number (see previous figure), which will also
be needed when contacting Garmin Connext.
4) Contact Garmin Connext to establish an account and receive an access code.
5) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > Connext Registration.
6) Press Register (see following figure)
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Figure 8-39 Connext Registration Display
Figure 8-40 Entering the Access Code
7) Enter the access code as shown in the previous figure.
8) Touch the Enter Button.
CONTACTS
Names, telephone numbers, and email addresses may be entered and stored. These contacts may be used to
place telephone calls or send email and text messages.
Creating a new contact:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Contacts.
2) The Contacts Screen is displayed as shown in the following figure.
Figure 8-41 Services Menu
Figure 8-42 Contact List
3) Touch Create New (see previous figure).
4) Touch Name, shown in the following figure. The Contact Name entry screen is displayed.
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Figure 8-43 Enter New Contact Information
Figure 8-44 Enter Name
5) Enter the name of the new contact as the example shows in the previous figure.
6) Touch Enter.
7) If desired, touch the Favorite Button to designate the new contact as a favorite. A green annunciator indicates
the contact is now designated as a favorite, as shown in the following figure.
8) Touch Telephone Number. The Telephone Number entry screen is displayed.
Figure 8-45 Select Telephone Number
Figure 8-46 Enter Telephone Number
9) Enter the telephone number of the new contact as the example shows in the previous figure.
10) Touch Enter.
11) Touch Email Address. The Email Address entry screen is displayed.
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Figure 8-47 Select Email Address
Figure 8-48 Enter Email Address
12) Enter the email address of the new contact as the example shows in the previous figure.
13) Touch Enter.
14) Touch Create. The new contact is created and appears in the list of contacts as shown in the following figure.
The star symbol displayed on the right side of the contact button indictes this contact is designated as a favorite.
Figure 8-49 New Contact Info Complete
Figure 8-50 Enter Email Address
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION (OPTIONAL)
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network. Ensure telephone audio is
enabled for the pilot and/or copilot when using the satellite telephone feature. See the Audio & CNS section
for information regarding enabling and disabling the telephone audio.
Viewing the Telephone Status:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Telephone.
2) The Telephone Screen is displayed as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 8-51 Telephone Service Selection
Figure 8-52 Telephone Status Information
ENABLE/DISABLE THE IRIDIUM TELEPHONE SYSTEM
The Iridium Satellite Telephone System may be disabled by the pilot. When disabled, incoming calls will
not be received and outgoing calls will not be possible from the cockpit or cabin.
Enabling/disabling the Iridium telephone system:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Telephone.
2) Touch the Iridium #1 Button to display the Iridium #1 Transceiver Screen, as shown in the following figure.
3) Touch the Disable Iridium Transmission Annunciator Button to disable (green annunciator as in the following
figure) the transceiver. Touch the button again to enable (gray annunciator) the transceiver.
Figure 8-53 Iridium Transceiver Enabled
Figure 8-54 Iridium Transceiver Disabled
INCOMING CALLS
Incoming voice calls from an external telephone phone through the Iridium Satellite Network are
annunciated by a ring tone and flashing TEL Button on the GTC Button Bar, as shown in the following figure,
as well as a flashing TEL annunciation in the upper left corner of the PFD display.
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Answering a call:
1) Touch the flashing TEL Button. The Notifications Screen is displayed as in the following figure.
2) Touch the Answer Button. The call is now connected as indicated in the following figure. Touching the Ignore
Button extinguishes the new call annunciation and the call remains disconnected.
Figure 8-55 Incoming Call Notification
Figure 8-56 Telephone Notification Selected
3) When the call is finished, touch End Call to disconnect the call.
Figure 8-57 Call Answered
OUTGOING CALLS
Voice calls can be made from the cockpit to an external telephone through the Iridium Satellite Network.
Making a call by entering the telephone number:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Telephone.
2) Touch the Cockpit Phone Button. The Cockpit Phone Screen is displayed as shown in the following figure.
3) Touch Dial. The phone number entry screen is displayed as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 8-58 Cockpit Telephone Status
Figure 8-59 Telephone Number Entry
4) Using the number keys, enter the phone number. Touch the Find Button to select a number from the Contacts
list.
The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit to an external phone: Country
Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number. The following country codes may be used when calling
other satellite telephone systems.
Satellite System
Inmarsat
ICO
Ellipso
Iridium
Globalstar
Country Code
870
8810 or 8811
8812 or 8813
8816 or 8817
8818 or 8819
5) Touch Enter. The system initiates the call (see following figure). The system indicates a completed connection
when the telephone is answered (see following figure).
Figure 8-60 Establishing a Connection
Figure 8-61 Telephone Connected
Making a call by selecting a contact:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Contacts.
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2) Touch the button corresponding to the desired contact. The selected contact is displayed (see following figure).
Figure 8-62 Contact List
Figure 8-63 Contact Chosen
3) Touch the Call or Send Text Button. A selection screen, as shown in the following figure, is displayed.
Figure 8-64 Select Action To Perform
4) Touch the Make Phone Call Button. The system initiates the call (see following figure). The system indicates
a completed connection when the telephone is answered (see following figure).
Figure 8-65 Establishing a Connection
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Figure 8-66 Telephone Connected
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When numeric entries are required during a call, such as selecting menu items like “dial zero to get an
operator”, a phone keypad is available to access the numeric softkeys.
Entering numbers during a call:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Telephone.
2) Touch the Cockpit Phone Button. The Cockpit Phone Screen is displayed (see following figure).
3) Touch the Open Keypad Button. The Phone Keypad Screen is displayed (see following figure).
4) Touch the desired numeric button to send the number. Repeat as necessary.
Figure 8-67 Open Keypad Button
Figure 8-68 Phone Keypad
Ending a call:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Telephone.
2) Touch the Cockpit Phone Button. The Cockpit Phone Screen is displayed (see following figure).
3) Touch the End Call Button.
Figure 8-69 Ending the Call
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Figure 8-70 System is Idle After Ending Call
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MANAGING TELEPHONE AUDIO
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active
whenever a call is connected and telephone audio is enabled.
When an incoming call is received, or an outgoing call is made, telephone audio (which includes headset
and microphone) is automatically enabled for either the pilot or copilot, depending on which Touchscreen
Controller was used to make or answer the call. If the pilot or copilot wishes to join an existing call, the
telephone audio must be enabled manually on the appropriate Touchscreen Controller. When the call is
ended, telephone audio is automatically disabled. The green Pilot Audio Annunciator Button in the following
figure. indicates the enabled pilot audio on the pilot-side Touchscreen Controller. Pilot and copilot telephone
audio can be enabled and disabled manually by performing the following steps.
Enabling/disabling telephone audio and adjusting volume:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Telephone.
2) Touch the Cockpit Phone Button. The Cockpit Phone Screen is displayed as shown in the following figure.
Figure 8-71 Managing Telephone Audio
3) Touch the Pilot Audio or Copilot Audio Annunciator Button to disable telephone audio, including microphone
(gray annunciator).
4) Touch the Annunciator Button again to enable telephone audio, including microphone (green annunciator).
5) Touch and move the Volume Slider on the appropriate Touchscreen Controller to adjust the telephone volume.
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address.
Incoming SMS messages are annunciated by a flashing SMS Button on the Touchscreen Controller Button
Bar, as shown in the following figure, as well as a flashing SMS annunciation in the upper left corner of the PFD
display.
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Viewing a Text Message When Received
1) Touch the flashing SMS Button as shown in the following figure. The SMS Text Inbox Tab is automatically
selected and the newly received text message is shown at the top of the list, as in the following figure.
Figure 8-72 New SMS Text Message Annunciation
Figure 8-73 New Text Message at Top of List
2) Touch the desired message to display its contents as seen in the following figure.
Figure 8-74 New Text Message Contents
3) If desired, touch Reply to create a reply to the message.
4) Touch Delete to delete the message from the list.
5) Touching Save Contact saves the contact information in the system contact list.
Replying to a Text Message
While viewing the text message content, touch the Reply Button.
Or:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > SMS Text (see following figure).
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Figure 8-75 SMS Text Services Selection
Figure 8-76 Touch Desired Message
2) Touch the desired text message in the Inbox list (see previous figure). If necessary, scroll to the desired message.
The text message is displayed (see following figure).
3)
Touch the Reply Button. The SMS Text Message Draft Screen is displayed (see following figure).
Figure 8-77 Message Content
Figure 8-78 New Reply Message Screen
4) Touch the ‘Message’ Window to display the alphanumeric buttons.
Figure 8-79 Message Content
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Figure 8-80 Reply Message
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5) Enter the reply text as seen in the previous figure. The large upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller may be
used to move the cursor within the message text in order to select the location for adding new text, or delete
existing text.
6) Touch the Enter Button. The reply message is displayed as in the previous figure.
7) Touch the Send Button. The SMS Text Message Replied To Screen is displayed as seen in the following figure.
Figure 8-81 Reply Message Sent
8) If desired, touch the Reply Again Button to send another reply.
9) Touch Delete to delete the message from the list.
10) Touching Save Contact saves the contact information in the system contact list.
Sending a Text Message
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > SMS Text.
Figure 8-82 SMS Text Services Selection
Figure 8-83 Touch Desired Message
2) Touch the Draft New Button. The Opened SMS Text Message Draft Screen is displayed as shown in the
following figure. The Draft New Message button is also available from within the Drafts and Outbox Tabs.
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Figure 8-84 Touch ‘To’ Window
3) Touch the ‘To’ Window. A selection screen is displayed like in the following figure. If the text message is to be
sent to SMS compatible telephone, touch the Phone Button. If the message is to be sent to an email address,
touch the Email Button.
Alpha Buttons are
displayed when the
Email Button is
touched
Numeric Buttons
are displayed when
the Phone Button is
touched
Figure 8-85 Select Message Destination
Figure 8-86 Enter Number or Address
4) Enter the telephone number or email address as seen in the previous figure. The number or address may be
obtained from the Contacts by touching the Find Button.
5) Touch the Enter Button. The number or address is now displayed as in the following figure.
6) Touch the ‘Message’ Window. The alphanumeric buttons are displayed as in the following figure.
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Figure 8-87 Touch Message Window
Figure 8-88 Reply Message
7) Enter the message text. The large upper knob on the Touchscreen Controller may be used to move the cursor
within the message text in order to select the location for adding new text, or delete existing text.
8) Touch the Enter Button. The message text is displayed in the ‘Message’ Window as shown in the following
figure.
Figure 8-89 Message Ready to Send
9) Touch the Send Button.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts.
Viewing Inbox messages:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > SMS Text.
2) Touch the Inbox Tab. A list of received messages is displayed as in the following figure. The Inbox Tab is
selected by default when accessing the SMS Text Messaging Screen.
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Figure 8-90 SMS Text Inbox
Viewing Draft messages:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > SMS Text.
2) Touch the Draft Tab. A list of draft messages is displayed as in the following figure, provided messages have
been previously saved.
3) Touch a message to access the Send or Delete Buttons.
Figure 8-91 SMS Text Drafts
Viewing Outbox messages:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > SMS Text.
2) Touch the Outbox Tab. A list of sent or unsent messages is displayed as in the following figure.
3) Touch a message to access the Send Again, Delete, and Save Contact Buttons.
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Figure 8-92 SMS Text Outbox
MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
The following table illustrates the various message status icons.
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
Received text message that has been opened
A reply has been sent for this text message
Saved text message, draft not sent
System is sending text message
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Table 8-4 Text Message Symbols
The viewed messages in the Inbox, Outbox, or Drafts may be listed according to the date/time the message
was sent or received or by message address.
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Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > SMS Text.
2) Touch the Options Button. The ‘Sort Messages By’ selections are displayed as in the following figure.
Figure 8-93 Message Sort Options
3) Touch the Time Button. A green annunciator indicates an active selection.
4) Touch the Back Button to return to the previously selected message box.
Viewing messages sorted by address:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > SMS Text.
2) Touch the Options Button. The ‘Sort Messages By’ selections are displayed as in the previous figure.
3) Touch the Address Button. A green annunciator indicates an active selection.
4) Touch the Back Button to return to the previously selected message box.
Marking all messages as read:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > SMS Text.
2) Touch the Options Button. The selection buttons are displayed as in the previous figure.
3) Touch the Mark All Read Button to mark all messages as read, and return to the Inbox. All messages in the
Inbox now indicate they have been opened.
Deleting all messages:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > SMS Text.
2) Touch the Options Button. The selection buttons are displayed as in the previous figure.
3) Touch the Delete All Messages Button. A confirmation screen is displayed as in the following figure.
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Figure 8-94 Confirm Deletion of Messages
4) Touch the OK Button.
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8.7 WIFI CONNECTIONS
If installed, WiFi connections are used for transferring maintenance data to the aircraft manufacturer. The
system can connect to a IEEE 802.11g compatible network provided the aircraft is on the ground and located
within range of a network. The system is capable of WEP64, WEP128,WPA-PSK, and WPA2-PSK encryption
formats. WPA-Enterprise and WPA2-Enterprise are not supported. Connections that require web proxies, captive
portals, or other elements that require user credentials, including a username and password or a redemption or
access code; or require action such as accepting a user agreement, are not supported.
Connecting to a WiFi network:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > WiFi Setup.
2) A list of available WiFi networks is displayed as in the following figure. If necessary, scroll the displayed list
of networks to find the desired network. If a specific network is expected to be present in the list, but is not
displayed, try rescanning networks by performing the following steps:
a) Touch the WiFi Options Button.
b) Touch Rescan as seen in the following figure.
Figure 8-95 WiFi Networks Available for Connection
Figure 8-96 Rescan Networks
3) Touch the network to be connected. In this example, GarminGuests is selected. A confirmation screen is
displayed as in the following figure.
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Figure 8-97 Confirm Network Connection
Figure 8-98 Confirm Favorite Selection
4) Touch OK. If there is not an airport associated with this network, the system will ask if an airport should be
associated with this network. Answer Yes to associate the closest airport to the current position to the network,
or No to not associate an airport. The system now asks if it is desired to make the connected network a Favorite,
as shown in the previous figure.
5) Touch OK to place the network in the Favorites list, or touch Cancel to connect to the selected network without
making it a Favorite network. Networks shown in the Available networks list which have been designated as
a Favorite network are indicated by a star, as shown in the following figure. Connected networks are indicated
by a green antenna symbol as seen in the following figure.
Figure 8-99 Favorite Network Indication
Figure 8-100 Connected Network Indication
Disconnecting a WiFi network:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > WiFi Setup.
2) Touch the WiFi Options Button.
3) Touch Disconnect.
Making changes to a Favorite network:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > WiFi Setup.
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2) Touch the Favorites Tab to display the Favorite networks list, as in the following figure.
3) Touch the network to which changes will be made. The Network Options are displayed as shown in the
following figure.
Figure 8-101 Favorite Networks List
Figure 8-102 Network Options
4) Touch Auto Connect, as in the previous figure to enable (green annunciator) an automatic connection to this
network whenever the aircraft is on the ground and in range of the network.
5) Touch Edit to display the edit screen as in the following figure.
Figure 8-103 Edit Favorite Network
6) Touch the desired parameter for editing and make selections accordingly.
7) When finished making desired changes, touch Save.
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8.8 CONNEXT SETUP
The Connext Setup Screen allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth
connection between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the system in order to use the various functions. Pairing is accomplished
by first placing the system in pairing mode by displaying the Connext Setup Screen. The system is ‘discoverable’
whenever this screen is displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the mobile device and the Garmin
Pilot application. See the device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the connection instructions in the Garmin
Pilot™ application.
Viewing the Connext Setup Page:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities>Setup>Wireless Setup.
2) Touch Connext.
Changing the Bluetooth Name:
1) From Connext Setup, touch the Bluetooth Tab.
2) Touch the Bluetooth Device Name window to display the alphanumeric buttons.
3) Enter the desired name using the alphanumeric buttons (see following figure).
Figure 8-104 Connext Setup Bluetooth Device Info.
Figure 8-105 Edit Bluetooth Device Name.
Enabling/Disabling Flight Plan Importing from Garmin Pilot:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Screen, touch Functions.
2) Touch Enable to enable (green annunciator) Flight Plan Import from Garmin Pilot™ (see following figure).
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Figure 8-106 Enable/Disable Database and/or Flight Plan Import
Enabling/Disabling WiFi Database Importing from Garmin Pilot:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup screen, touch Functions.
2) Touch Enable to enable (green annunciator) WiFi Database Import from Garmin Pilot™ (see previous figure).
Enabling/Disabling Automatic Reconnection of a Specific Paired Device:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Screen, touch the Paired Devices Tab.
2) Touch Enable to enable (green annunciator) Auto Reconnect to the desired paired device (see following figure).
Figure 8-107 Bluetooth Device Info.
Figure 8-108 Editing the Bluetooth Name.
Removing a Specific Paired Device from the List of Paired Devices:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Screen, touch Paired Devices.
2) Touch the Bluetooth Device Name to be removed.
3) A confirmation screen is displayed asking to remove the paired Bluetooth device.
4) Touch OK to remove the device from the list of paired devices (see previous figure).
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8.9 SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO (IF INSTALLED)
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information and activation of SiriusXM Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver provides audio
entertainment for the pilots. The GDL 69A can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services at any
altitude throughout the Continental United States.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE SERVICES
The SiriusXM Radio services are activated by first establishing an account with SiriusXM Satellite Radio. The
Audio Radio ID must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses the coded radio ID to send an activation signal that, when received by the GDL
69A, allows it to play entertainment programming.
The Audio Radio ID is located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Screen on the Touchscreen Controller (see following figure)
Contact the installer if the radio ID cannot be located.
Establishing a SiriusXM Satellite Radio account:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Setup > SiriusXM Info.
2) Note the Audio Radio ID and Data Radio ID as seen in the following figure.
3) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
Figure 8-109 XM Information Display
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USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
The Music Screen provides information and control of the cockpit audio entertainment features of the
SiriusXM Satellite Radio. The in-flight entertainment is a separate system and is not controlled through the
Cirrus Perspective Touch by Garmin.
Add Current Channel
to Favorites
Select Channel
By Number
Channel List
for Selected
Category
Select Channel
Categories
Select Volume
Figure 8-110 SiriusXM Satellite Radio Controls
SELECTING CHANNELS
The Channel field on the Music Screen shows the available channels for the selected audio entertainment
category. The Now Playing field shows information for the currently active channel.
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Music to access the Music Screen as in the previous figure.
2) Touch the desired channel in the channel list. The selected channel is now shown in the Now Playing field.
Selecting a channel directly:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Music > Channel.
2) The numeric keypad is displayed. Enter the desired channel number.
3) Press the Enter Button. The selected channel is now shown in the Now Playing field.
ENTERTAINMENT CATEGORIES
The Category field on the Music Screen shows the currently selected entertainment category. Categories of
audio entertainment, such as jazz, rock, talk/news, sports, etc., can be selected to list the available channels
for a type of music or other contents.
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Selecting a category:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Music > Category.
2) The list of categories is displayed as shown in the following figure.
Figure 8-111 Channel Categories
3) Scroll to view the available categories.
4) Touch the desired category to select. The selected category is displayed on the Category Button and the
channel list displays channels available for the selected category.
FAVORITES
Channels can be saved to a list of favorites and recalled for listening later.
Saving a channel to favorites list:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Music to access the Music Screen.
2) Select a desired channel as the ‘Now Playing’ channel.
3) Touch the Favorite Annunciator Button. The current channel is placed in the favorites list. Note, a green
annunciator indicates a favorite channel is ‘Now Playing’.
Selecting a favorite channel for listening:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Music > Category.
2) The list of categories is displayed as shown in the previous figure.
3) If necessary, scroll to view the Favorites Button.
4) Touch the Favorites Button to view the favorite channel list.
5) Touch the desired channel in the list. The channel is now displayed in the Now Playing field.
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ADJUSTING VOLUME
Pilot SiriusXM entertainment audio volume is shown on the Volume Button on the Music Screen as a
percentage of full volume. Volume can be muted manually, or muting may be initiated automatically when
other audio, such as radio, intercom, or aural alerts, is present.
Adjusting the SiriusXM audio volume:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Music > Volume.
2) The volume adjustment slider is displayed as shown in the following figure.
3) Touch and drag the slider to the right or left to adjust the volume. Drag to the right increases volume. Drag to
the left to decrease the volume.
Or:
Turn the Volume Knob on the Touchscreen Controller.
Figure 8-112 Adjusting Volume
Muting or unmuting the SiriusXM audio volume:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Music > Volume.
2) Touch the Music Annunciator Button to mute or unmute the volume. Muted volume is indicated by a gray
annunciator. Unmuted volume is indicated by a green annunciator.
3) Touch the Back Button to return to the Music Screen. When the volume is muted, ‘Muted’ is displayed in the
Volume field.
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AUTOMATIC MUSIC MUTING
Cockpit music is automatically muted at power-up. Music may be unmuted by the pilot or copilot at any
time, but the system will again mute cockpit music when any of the following occur.
• Aircraft is on the ground and accelerates to greater than 40 KIAS
• Aircraft descends below 10,000 feet MSL or 2000 feet AGL
• Aircraft decelerates to less than 150 KIAS
• Aircraft enters an unusual pitch or roll attitude sufficient to cause PFD display decluttering
• MFD enters reversionary mode
When enabled, the system will decrease music volume to a very low level (soft mute) when the following
occur:
• Push-to-talk button is pressed for Com radio transmission
• Com radio audio is received
• Intercom is active
Cockpit music will always be soft muted during aural and voice alerts.
Enabling/disabling soft mute settings:
1) From MFD Home, touch Services > Music > Volume > Mute Settings.
2) Touch the Intercom Annunciator Button (see following figure) to select/deselect automatic soft muting of
entertainment audio when intercom audio is present. This function is active when the annunciator is green.
Figure 8-113 Mute Settings
3) Touch the Radio Inputs Annunciator Button to allow automatic soft muting of entertainment audio when
COM, NAV, ADF, etc. audio is present. This function is active when the annunciator is green.
4) Touch the Aural Alerts Annunciator Button to allow automatic soft muting of entertainment audio when alert
audio is present. This function is active when the annunciator is green.
5) Touch the Back Button to return to the Music Screen.
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8.10 SCHEDULED MESSAGES
The Scheduled Messages feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., Change oil, VOR
checks, or Altimeter-transponder check) on the Messages Screen of the Touchscreen Controller. Messages can
be set to display based on a specific date and time (Event), once the message timer reaches zero (One Time),
or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (Periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting
automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, all messages
are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is resumed. Event messages triggered when the system
is powered off will be displayed the next time the system is powered on.
Entering a scheduled message:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Scheduled Messages.
2) Touch the Add Message Button as shown in the following figure.
3) Touch the Message Button as shown in the following figure.
Figure 8-114 Touch Add Message
Figure 8-115 Touch Message Button
4) The keypad is displayed as in the following figure. Enter the message name using the keypad. The large and
small upper knob can also be used to enter the characters.
5) Touch the Enter Button. The message name is displayed on the Message Button.
6) Touch the Frequency Button as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 8-116 Enter Message Name
Figure 8-117 Touch Frequency Button
7) Touch Event, One Time, or Periodic. The selection is displayed on the Frequency Button as in the following
figure.
Figure 8-118 Touch Event Button
Figure 8-119 Touch Time Button
8) Touch the Time Button as seen in the previous figure.
9) The numeric keypad is displayed as in the following figure. Enter the time value using the keypad. If Event was
selected in step 7, time is entered in a clock format (HH:MM utc or lcl) as universal or local time, depending on
what was selected in Avionics Settings. If One Time or Periodic were selected in step 7, the time is entered
in a HH:MM:SS format.
10) Touch the Enter Button. The time is displayed on the Time Button.
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Figure 8-120 Enter Time
Figure 8-121 Message
11) If Event was selected in step 7, touch the Date Button. The Date Button is subdued and disabled when One
Time or Periodic were selected in step 7.
12) Touch the desired year, as in the following figure, then the month followed by the day.
Touch Year
Touch Month
Touch Day
Figure 8-122 Event Date Entry
Editing a scheduled message:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Scheduled Messages.
2) Touch the name of the message to be edited. The Message Options Window is displayed as in the following
figure.
3) Touch the Edit Message Button.
4) Select the desired message parameter to be edited and perform the needed steps as discussed previously for
entering a scheduled message.
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Figure 8-123 Select Message for Editing
Figure 8-124 Select Edit Option
Deleting a scheduled message:
1) From MFD Home, touch Utilities > Scheduled Messages.
2) Touch the name of the message to be deleted. The Message Options Window is displayed as in the previous
figure.
3) Touch the Delete Message Button. Touch the Delete All Messages Button to delete all saved messages.
When a scheduled message is activated, the MSG Button flashes inverse video (see following figure) and ‘MSG’
icon flashes inverse video on the PFD (see following figure). Touching the MSG Button on the Touchscreen
Controller opens the Messages Screen (see following figure) and acknowledges the message, indicated by the
removal of the message annunciation on the PFD and the MSG Button ceasing to flash. Touching the MSG
Button again removes the Messages Screen from view, and the scheduled message is deleted from the message
queue.
Figure 8-125 Message Annunciation on Touchscreen Controller
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Figure 8-126 Message Annunciation on PFD
Figure 8-127 Scheduled Message Example
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8.11 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card. The data recorded by the Flight Data Logging feature is separate from data
recorded by the Central Maintenance Computer (CMC).
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport identifier. The
file is created automatically each time the system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the system is capable of logging for the aircraft.
• Date
• Time
• GPS altitude (MSL)
• GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• Vertical speed (fpm)
• GPS vertical speed (fpm)
• OAT (degrees C)
• True airspeed (knots)
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Lateral and Vertical G Force (g)
• Ground Speed (kts)
• Ground Track (degrees
magnetic)
• Latitude (degrees; geodetic;
+North)
• Autopilot On/Off
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
• AFCS roll/pitch commands
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• HSI source
• Selected course
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• AFCS roll/pitch modes
• GPS fix
• GPS horizontal alert limit
• GPS vertical alert limit
• SBAS GPS horizontal protection
level
• CDI deflection
• SBAS GPS vertical protection
level
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Fuel Qty (lbs)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Fuel Flow (pph)
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Fuel Temperature (deg. C)
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
• Oil Temperature (deg. C)
• Bearing to next waypoint
(degrees)
• N1, N2 (percent)
• ITT (deg. C)
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in the following figure. This file can be
imported into most computer spreadsheet applications.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_180610_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-128 Log File Format
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.12 AUXILIARY VIDEO
If installed, the system provides a control and display interface for an Enhanced Vision System.
Displaying auxiliary video:
From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > Video > Video Settings. The Video Settings Screen is displayed
on the Touchscreen Controller, as shown in the following figure. Video is displayed on the selected Display Pane.
Figure 8-129 Aircraft Systems Screen
Figure 8-130 Video Controls
Figure 8-131 Video Display
Adjusting the video settings:
1) From MFD Home, touch Aircraft Systems > Video > Video Settings.
2) To adjust the Video Display brightness, touch and slide the Brightness slider on the Touchscreen Controller.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Or:
Touch the + pointer to increase brightness, or - pointer to decrease brightness. Each touch increases or decreases
one percent. The brightness setting is displayed in the Brightness field as a percent of maximum brightness.
3) To adjust the Video Display contrast, touch and slide the Contrast slider on the Touchscreen Controller.
Or:
Touch the + pointer to increase contrast, or - pointer to decrease contrast. Each touch increases or decreases
one percent. The contrast setting is displayed in the Contrast field as a percent of maximum