Garmin | G1000 NXi: Beechcraft King Air 200/B200 | Garmin G1000 NXi: Beechcraft King Air 200/B200 Pilot's Guide, G1000 King Air 200/B200 Series - SSV 2286.07

Garmin G1000 NXi: Beechcraft King Air 200/B200 Pilot's Guide, G1000 King Air 200/B200 Series - SSV 2286.07
®
Pilot’s Guide
Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
System Software Version 2286.07 or later
Copyright © 2005-2019 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2286.07 or later for the G1000 NXi Beechcraft 200/B200 Series. Some
differences in operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
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Garmin Corporation
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Contact Garmin Product Support or view warranty information at www.flygarmin.com.
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personal use, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual or revision must contain the complete text of this copyright notice
and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin®, G1000® NXi, WATCH®, FliteCharts®, and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. Garmin ESP,
Garmin SVT™, SurfaceWatch™, and Connext™ are trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. These trademarks may not
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maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
to any actual or alleged inaccuracies in the information arising out of Garmin’s use of the information in the datasets. Some jurisdictions
do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
190-02041-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. B
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: Do not rely on the displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) as the sole source of obstacle
and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum
clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Do not operate this equipment without first obtaining qualified instruction.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a system
message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that may be
incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned in error
as displayed.
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
190-02041-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Always use traffic information shown on system displays only as an aid to visually acquiring
traffic. Traffic avoidance maneuvers are based upon TCAS II Resolution Advisories , ATC guidance, or positive
visual acquisition of conflicting traffic.
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of
the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
WARNING: Do not assume weather radar transmission is disabled unless all display panes displaying
weather radar are set to Standby Mode, and are displaying ‘STANDBY’ in the center of each weather radar
display. Transmission is also disabled by touching the Radar On Button or pressing the Radar On Softkey to
set the weather radar system to Off Mode, as indicated by a gray annunciator.
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. B
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Do not allow repairs to be made by anyone other than an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the
aircraft.
NOTE: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may appear as
a partial symbol.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
190-02041-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
v
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen are assured compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs) by virtue
of a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA. A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each database
and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Type 2 LOA Status.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.FlyGarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.FlyGarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to www.FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. B
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Electronic aeronautical charts displayed on this system have been shown to meet the guidance in AC
120 76D as a Type B Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) for FlightCharts and ChartView. The accuracy of the charts
is subject to the chart data provider. Own-ship position on airport surface charts cannot be guaranteed to
meet the accuracy specified in AC 120-76D. Possible additional requirements may make a secondary source
of aeronautical charts, such as traditional paper charts or an additional electronic display, necessary on the
aircraft and available to the pilot. If the secondary source of aeronautical charts is a Portable Electronic
Device (PED), its use must be consistent with the guidance in AC 120-76D.
NOTE: The navigation databases used in Garmin navigation systems contain Special Procedures. Prior to flying
these procedures, pilots must have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the corresponding
current, and legitimately sourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special Procedure in the
navigation database DOES NOT imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89° North latitude and south 89° South latitude.
This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process the data
representing the affected areas.
NOTE: When operating the system with the magnetic sensor uncoupled from the AHRS, the displayed
heading and heading information used by some system components (e.g. traffic system, AFCS, and weather
radar) will be different from the heading calculated by the AHRS. The difference is an amount equal to the
difference between the current Magnetic Field Variation Database (MV DB) value, and the MV DB value
when the magnetic sensor was uncoupled. Due to the convergence of isogonic lines, this condition is most
noticeable at or near the north and south magnetic poles.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby thunderstorms
that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of two or more
discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after
the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: Operate G1000 NXi system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days of continuous
operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
NOTE: The nose of the ‘own ship’ symbol represents the location of the aircraft. The center of any traffic
symbol represents the location of that traffic. The traffic and own ship symbols are an abstract representation
and do not reflect the physical extent of the aircraft/traffic, and should not replace other methods for
identifying traffic.
190-02041-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
vii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. B
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
BY USING THE DEVICE, COMPONENT OR SYSTEM MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY GARMIN (“THE GARMIN PRODUCT”), YOU AGREE TO
BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT
CAREFULLY. Garmin Ltd. and its subsidiaries (“Garmin”) grants you a limited license to use the software embedded in the Garmin Product
(the “Software”) in binary executable form in the normal operation of the Garmin Product. Title, ownership rights, and intellectual property
rights in and to the Software remain with Garmin and/or its third-party providers. You acknowledge that the Software is the property of
Garmin and/or its third-party providers and is protected under the United States of America copyright laws and international copyright
treaties. You further acknowledge that the structure, organization, and code of the Software are valuable trade secrets of Garmin and/or its
third-party providers and that the Software in source code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin and/or its third-party providers.
You agree not to reproduce, decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse assemble, reverse engineer, or reduce to human readable form the
Software or any part thereof or create any derivative works based on the Software. You agree not to export or re-export the Software to
any country in violation of the export control laws of the United States of America.
190-02041-01 Rev. B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
ix
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. B
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-02041-00
190-02041-01
190-02041-01 Rev. B
Revision
A
Date
9/14/16
Page Range
Description
i – I-6
Initial Release for GDU 20.01
B
3/24/17
i – I-6
A
7/20/18
i – I-6
B
5/02/19
i – I-6
Revision
Added Visual Approach
Added Glidepath Preview
Added SurfaceWatch Setup user interface
Added ChartView section
Added phone contacts
Corrected comparator annunciations
Software update to GDU 20.82
Editorial Updates
Revision
Software update to GDU 20.84
Editorial Updates
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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REVISION INFORMATION
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. B
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................. 1
Line Replaceable Units................................................... 1
System Controls....................................................... 4
PFD Controls................................................................. 4
PFD/MFD Controller....................................................... 6
Secure Digital Cards....................................................... 8
System Operation..................................................... 9
System Power-up........................................................... 9
Normal Operation........................................................ 10
Reversionary Mode...................................................... 10
system Annunciations.................................................. 11
ADAHRS Operation...................................................... 14
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 17
Accessing System Functionality.............................. 22
Softkey Function.......................................................... 22
Menus........................................................................ 29
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 30
Split Screen Functionality............................................. 33
System Settings........................................................... 35
System Utilities............................................................ 45
Display Backlighting.............................................. 49
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 54
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 54
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 57
Altimeter.................................................................... 59
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 65
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 65
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 68
Directional Gyro (DG) Mode (GRS 7800 Installations Only)..
.................................................................................. 71
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 74
2.2 Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology).......... 81
SVT Operation............................................................. 82
SVT Features............................................................... 84
Field of View............................................................... 93
2.3 Supplemental Flight Data..................................... 94
Temperature Displays................................................... 94
Wind Data.................................................................. 95
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 96
190-02041-01 Rev. B
2.4 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 97
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 97
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 97
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 98
Minimum Altitude Alerting........................................... 98
Radar Altimeter......................................................... 100
2.5 Abnormal Operations.......................................... 102
Abnormal GPS Conditions.......................................... 102
Comparator Annunciations......................................... 103
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................. 104
SVT Troubleshooting.................................................. 105
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 105
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 105
SVT Unusual Attitudes................................................ 106
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 EIS Display............................................................. 108
3.2 EIS Display in Reversionary Mode...................... 111
Reversionary Display.................................................. 112
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Overview............................................................... 113
Audio Panel Volume Control....................................... 113
PFD Controls and Frequency Display............................ 114
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 116
PFD/MFD Controller................................................... 119
COM Operation..................................................... 121
COM Tuning Boxes..................................................... 121
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 122
Quick-Tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz................... 122
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency................................. 123
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 126
NAV Operation...................................................... 127
NAV Tuning Boxes..................................................... 127
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 128
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 128
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD............... 129
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 132
DME Tuning.............................................................. 132
Mode S Transponders........................................... 134
GTX 33D/335/345 Transponder Controls...................... 134
GTX 33D/335/345 Transponder Mode Selection............ 135
GTX 3000 TCAS II Transponder Controls (optional)........ 137
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
GTX 3000 TCAS II Transponder Mode Selection (optional)....
................................................................................ 138
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 140
IDENT Function......................................................... 141
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions...................... 142
Power-Up.................................................................. 142
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 142
Speaker.................................................................... 142
Unmuted Inputs........................................................ 142
Intercom System (ICS) (GMA 1347)............................. 142
Intercom System (ICS) (GMA 1360)............................. 143
Passenger Address (PA) System................................... 145
Simultaneous COM Operation..................................... 145
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 146
3D Audio (GMA 1360)................................................ 146
Telephone/Entertainment Inputs.................................. 147
Bluetooth® Setup (GMA 1360).................................... 150
4.6 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure....................... 151
4.7 Abnormal Operation............................................ 152
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 152
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 152
PFD Failure, Dual System............................................ 152
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation.................................. 152
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 152
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
xiv
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Introduction.......................................................... 153
Navigation Status Box AND Data Bar........................... 155
Using Map Displays.............................................. 157
Map Orientation........................................................ 157
Map Range............................................................... 159
Map Panning............................................................. 161
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 164
Topography............................................................... 165
Map Symbols............................................................ 168
Airways.................................................................... 173
Additional Navigation Map Items................................ 175
Waypoints.............................................................. 178
Airports.................................................................... 179
Non-Airport Waypoints............................................... 186
Airspaces............................................................... 195
Nearest Airspace....................................................... 196
Smart Airspace.......................................................... 199
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ........................................... 200
5.6 Flight Planning...................................................... 205
Introduction.............................................................. 205
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 208
Creating a Flight Plan................................................ 211
Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications............ 213
Flight Plan Operations................................................ 222
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 224
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 228
Managing Flight Plans............................................... 232
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 242
Constraints............................................................... 243
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)................................... 247
Vertical Navigation Direct To....................................... 251
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 252
Departures................................................................ 253
Arrivals .................................................................... 256
Approaches .............................................................. 260
5.9 Trip Planning......................................................... 272
Trip Planning............................................................. 272
Weight Planning........................................................ 276
5.10 Abnormal Operation............................................ 279
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 Data Link Weather................................................ 282
Activating Data Link Weather Services......................... 283
Weather Product Age................................................. 286
Displaying Data Link Weather Products........................ 291
Connext Data Requests.............................................. 301
Weather Product Overview......................................... 304
FIS-B Weather Status................................................. 341
Abnormal Operations for Garmin Connext Weather...... 343
6.2 Stormscope Lightning Detection System.......... 345
Using the Stormscope Page........................................ 346
Additional Stormscope Displays.................................. 347
Stormscope Abnormal Operations............................... 348
6.3 Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 349
System Description.................................................... 349
Principles of Airborne Weather Radar........................... 350
NEXRAD and Airborne Weather Radar ........................ 350
Antenna Beam Illumination........................................ 351
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 356
Basic Antenna Tilt and Range Setup............................ 357
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. B
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 360
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 374
Additional Weather Radar Displays.............................. 375
System Status............................................................ 379
6.4 TAWS-B.................................................................. 381
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 382
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 386
System Status............................................................ 393
6.5 Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain............ 395
VSD Display.............................................................. 395
6.6 TAWS-A.................................................................. 399
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 400
TAWS-A Page............................................................ 404
TAWS-A Alerts........................................................... 405
System Status............................................................ 419
TAWS-A Abnormal operations..................................... 420
6.7 TAS/TCAS I Traffic................................................. 422
TAS Theory of Operation............................................. 423
Traffic Alerts.............................................................. 427
System Test............................................................... 429
Operation................................................................. 430
6.8 ADS-B Traffic......................................................... 438
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 438
ADS-B with TAS/TCAS I............................................... 440
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting.................... 440
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 443
Traffic Description...................................................... 444
Operation................................................................. 444
ADS-B System Status................................................. 450
6.9 TCAS II Traffic........................................................ 453
Theory of Operation................................................... 453
TCAS II Alerts............................................................ 454
System Test............................................................... 459
Operation................................................................. 460
System Status............................................................ 466
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Overview..................................................... 469
Basic Autopilot Operation........................................... 469
7.2 AFCS Controls....................................................... 471
AFCS Controller......................................................... 471
190-02041-01 Rev. B
Additional AFCS Controls........................................... 472
7.3 Flight Director Operation.................................... 473
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 473
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 474
Flight Director Modes................................................. 474
Flight Director Selection............................................. 475
Command Bars.......................................................... 475
7.4 AFCS Modes.......................................................... 477
Vertical Modes.......................................................... 477
Lateral Modes........................................................... 483
Combination Modes.................................................. 487
7.5 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation.............. 501
Flight Control............................................................ 501
Engaging the Autopilot and Yaw Damper..................... 501
Control Wheel Steering (CWS)..................................... 502
Disengaging the Autopilot and Yaw Damper................. 502
7.6 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts.......................... 504
AFCS Status Alerts..................................................... 504
AFCS Voice Alerts....................................................... 504
Overspeed Protection................................................. 505
Underspeed Protection............................................... 505
7.7 Abnormal Operation............................................ 507
Suspected Autopilot malfunction................................. 507
Overpowering Autopilot Servos................................... 507
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SafeTaxi................................................................. 510
Charts..................................................................... 513
ChartView................................................................. 513
IFR/VFR Charts.......................................................... 526
Database Cycle Number and Revisions............. 529
Cycle Number and Revision........................................ 529
Satellite Telephone and Text Messaging (SMS).531
®
Registering with Garmin Connext ............................. 531
Disable/Enable Iridium Transceiver.............................. 531
Telephone Communication......................................... 532
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 540
WiFi Connections.................................................. 552
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment........................... 555
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 555
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 556
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
xv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
8.7 SurfaceWatch........................................................ 560
Information Box........................................................ 560
Alerts....................................................................... 562
SurfaceWatch Setup................................................... 564
8.8 Flight Data Logging............................................. 567
8.9 Connext Setup...................................................... 569
8.10 Auxiliary Video (Optional)................................... 571
Video Setup.............................................................. 571
Display Selection....................................................... 571
Zoom/Range............................................................. 573
8.11 Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™).......... 575
Roll Engagement....................................................... 575
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 577
Angle of Attack Protection.......................................... 578
High Airspeed Protection............................................ 579
8.12 Abnormal Operation............................................ 580
Iridium and WiFi Receiver Troubleshooting................... 580
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 583
Aircraft Alerts............................................................ 584
System Message Annunciations.................................. 586
System Messages...................................................... 587
Database Management................................................. 601
Loading Updated Databases....................................... 601
Database Deletion Feature ........................................ 613
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update................... 614
Aviation Terms and Acronyms....................................... 617
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 629
Miscellaneous Map Symbols........................................ 633
INDEX
Index .................................................................................I-1
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the integrated avionics system as installed in the Beechcraft 200/B200
Series. The system presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication, and identification
information to the pilot through large-format displays.
LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS
The system consists of the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
-- GDU 1050A (2) – Each unit is configured as a PFD that features a 10-inch high resolution LED backlit
display. The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one installed on the right/
copilot side is designated as PFD2. These units communicate with each other, the MFD, and with the on-side
GIA Integrated Avionics Unit through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
-- GDU 1550 (1) – Features a 15-inch, high resolution LED backlit display configured as an MFD. This unit is
linked to both PFDs via HSDB connection.
-- GIA 64E (2) or GIA 63W (2) (Alternate) – Integrated Avionics Units (IAUs) function as the main communication
hub, linking all LRUs with the on-side PFD and MFD. Each GIA contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/
NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system integration microprocessors. Each GIA is paired with
the on-side PFD via HSDB connection. The GIAs are not paired together and do not communicate with each
other directly.
-- GSU 75B (2) (Alternate to GDC and GRS) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT
probe to provide pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system. This unit
also provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to the onside PFD and both GIA units.
The GSU contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the GMU
44 to obtain magnetic field information, and with the GIA to obtain GPS information. ADAHRS modes of
operation are discussed later in this document.
-- GEA 71B (2) or GEA 71 (2) (Alternate) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors.
This unit communicates with both GIAs using an RS-485 digital interface.
-- GDC 7400 (2) or GDC 74B (Alternate to GSU) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the
OAT probe. This unit provides pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system
and communicates with the on-side GIA, PFD, GRS, and GTP. The #1 GDC communicates with the MFD. It
is designed to operate in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.
-- GRS 7800 (2) or GRS 77 (2) (Alternate to GSU) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information to the
on-side PFD, GIA, and GMU. The GRS contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors)
and interfaces with the on-side GMU to obtain magnetic field information, the GDC to obtain air data, and
both GIAs to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of operation are discussed later in this document.
-- GMU 44 (2) – Measures and sends local magnetic field data to the GRS for processing to determine aircraft
magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GRS and communicates with the GRS using an
RS-485 digital interface.
-- GMA 1360D (2) or GMA 1347D (2) (Alternate) – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and
marker beacon controls, and is installed in dual configuration on the outboard side of PFD1 and PFD2. This
unit also enables the manual control of the display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP Button) and
communicates with the on-side GIA.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
-- GTX 335R / 345R / 3000 / 33 (2) (Optional) – Solid-state transponders that provide Modes A, C, S and
ADS-B “In” capability for the 335R and 3000, and “In/Out” capability for the 345R. Both transponders
can be controlled from either PFD, and only one transponder can be active at a time. Each transponder
communicates with the on-side GIA through an RS-232 digital interface. If a GTX 345R is installed, the
second transponder will not be another GTX 345R. If the GTX 3000 is installed, both transponders will be
the GTX 3000 model.
-- Flight Stream 510 (1) (Optional) – Bluetooth® transceiver that provides wireless connectivity between a
compatible tablet/mobile device and the avionics system.
-- GDL 69A SXM (1) (Optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides datalink weather information to the
MFD (and, indirectly, to the inset map of the PFD) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A SXM
communicates with the MFD via HSDB connection. Subscriptions to the SiriusXM Weather or SiriusXM
Satellite Radio services are required to enable the GDL 69A SXM capability.
-- GDL 59 (1) (Optional) – GDL 59 datalink operations are performed through the GDL 69A via an HSDB
connection. If the GDL 69A is not installed, operations go through the MFD. Connectivity with the GSR 56
for the Iridium telephone feature is through the RS-232 bus.
-- GSR 56 (1) (Optional) – The Iridium Transceiver operation for voice communication is by means of a
telephone handset in the cabin and pilot and copilot headsets in the cockpit. The transceiver can also send
and receive data provided by the GDL 59 through the RS-232 bus, and provide Garmin Connext Weather
and SMS functions.
-- GWX 75 / 68 / 70 (1) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD, through the
XM datalink, via HSDB connection. If the GDL 69A is not installed, operations go through the MFD.
-- GCU 477 (1) – Provides the Flight Management System (FMS) controls for the PFD1 and MFD through an
RS-232 digital interface.
-- GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the Garmin AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface allowing
communication with both PFDs.
-- GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GSU or GDC.
-- GTS 825 / 855 / 8000 (1) (Optional) – The GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS), GTS 855 Traffic Alert
and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) and GTS 8000 (TCAS II) use active interrogations of Mode S and
Mode C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of the ATC system.
-- GRA 5500 (1) (Optional) – Provides altitude above the ground (AGL) to the MFD, through the GIA.
-- GSA 80 (4) and GSM 85A / GSM 86 (4) – The GSA 80 servos are used for the automatic control of roll, pitch,
and yaw, and pitch trim. These units interface with each GIA. The GSM servo gearboxes are responsible for
transferring the output torque of the servo actuator to the mechanical flight-control surface linkage.
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment, consult the applicable optional interface user’s guide.
This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of this additional equipment.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GMC 710
(AFCS
Controller)
GTS 825/
855/8000
(TAS or TCAS I/II)
Link for GTX 3000 to
GTS 8000/Collins TCAS II only
PFD1 linked to
GTS only when GDL
69 not installed
Link for GTX 345R
to PFD1 only
#1
GDU 1050A
(PFD1)
GWX 75 linked to
MFD only when GDL
69 not installed
GCU 477
(Display
Controller)
#2
GDU 1050A
(PFD2)
#3
GDU 1550
(MFD)
GDL 59
(Data Link)
FS 510
GSR 56
(Iridium
Transceiver)
(FlightStream)
#1 GMA
1360D/1347D
(Audio Panel)
#1 GIA
64E/63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
GDL 59 linked to
PFD 2 only when
GDL 69 not installed
GDL 69A SXM/GDL 69A
(SiriusXM
Weather Datalink / Datalink)
GWX 75/70/68
(Weather
Radar)
#1 GTX
335R/345R/3000
(Transponder)
Link for GTX 3000 to
GTS 8000/Collins TCAS II only
#2 GTX
335R/3000
(Transponder)
#2 GMA
1360D1347D
(Audio Panel)
#2 GIA
64E/63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#1 GSU 75B
(ADAHRS)
or
#2 GSU 75B
(ADAHRS)
or
#1 GRS 7800/77
(Attitude & Heading)
#2 GRS 7800/77
(Attitude & Heading)
VHF COM
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
GPS/SBAS
VOR/LOC
G/S
AFCS Mode
Logic
#2 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#1 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
GTP 59
(OAT Probe)
#1 GDC 7400/74B
(Air Data
Computer)
Flight
Director
Servo
Management
VOR/LOC
G/S
GTP 59
(OAT Probe)
#2 GDC 7400/74B
(Air Data
Computer)
AFCS Mode
Logic
Flight
Director
Servo
Management
#1 GSA 80 (Pitch)
ADF
#2 GSA 80 (Yaw)
#3 GSA 80 (Roll)
Traffic
System
#4 GSA 80 (Pitch Trim)
#1 GEA 71B/71
Lightning
Detection
(Engine & Airframe)
#2 GEA 71B/71
(Engine & Airframe)
DME
Garmin Equipment
Garmin Equipment
(Non-ADAHRS
alternative)
Non-Garmin Equipment
GRA 5500
(Radar Altimeter)
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Radar
Altimeter
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 System (LRU Configuration)
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
3
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SYSTEM CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel and AFCS controls are described in the Audio and CNS and AFCS Sections respectively.
The system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels, PFD/MFD Controller, AFCS Controller and the
audio panel. The controls for the PFD and MFD bezels and PFD/MFD Controllers are discussed in this section.
PFD CONTROLS
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
Figure 1-2 PFD Controls
9
13
10
14
11
15
12
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the PFD bezel (see Figure 1-2).
1 NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to toggle the Morse code identifier audio
ON and OFF. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Toggles the standby and active NAV frequencies.
Dual NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob
for kHz). Push to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between NAV1 and NAV2.
3
4
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed.
5
BARO Knob – Sets the altimeter barometric pressure. Push to enter standard pressure (29.92).
Dual COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small
knob for kHz). Push to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between COM1 and COM2.
6
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Toggles the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this
key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
7
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency
field as a percentage. Push to turn the COM automatic squelch ON and OFF.
8
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or taken
from the map pointer position).
9
10
FPL Key – Displays the active ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page for creating and editing the active flight plan.
11
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus.
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. Push the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor
ON and OFF. When the cursor is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small and
large knobs. The large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects individual characters
for the highlighted cursor location.
12
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
13
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. These procedures can then be loaded into the active flight plan.
If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
14
15
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
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5
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PFD/MFD CONTROLLER
The controls for the MFD are located on both the MFD bezel and the PFD/MFD Controller. The bottom
portion of the MFD bezel features 12 softkeys that are designed to perform various functions depending upon
the specific page being displayed. These softkeys are discussed throughout the Pilot’s Guide documentation.
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the Controller (see figure below):
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
21
20
19
18
17
Figure 1-3 PFD/MFD Controller (GCU 477)
Alphabetic Keys – Allow the user to enter letters quickly, without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob.
1
2
Range Knob/Joystick – Turn to change map range. Push to activate the map pointer for map panning.
3 CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus. Pressing and holding this key
displays the ‘Navigation Map’ Page automatically.
FPL Key – Displays the active ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page for creating and editing the active flight plan,
or for accessing stored flight plans.
4
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or taken
from the map pointer position).
5
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
6
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. Theses procedures can then be loaded into the active flight plan.
If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
7
8
6
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. When the FMS Key is pressed, this knob selects the
MFD page to be viewed. The large knob selects a page group (Map, WPT, Aux, NRST), while the small knob
selects a specific page within the page group. Pushing the FMS Knob turns the selection cursor ON and OFF.
When the cursor is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small and large knobs.
In this case, the large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects individual characters
for the highlighted cursor location. This knob also has tuning capability for the COM and NAV radios when
the appropriate COM or NAV key is pressed. When the XPDR Key is pressed, the transponder code may be
entered using the FMS Knob.
9
10 Numeric Keys – Allow the user to enter numbers quickly, without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob.
FMS Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control FMS functions on the MFD. When pressed, an annunciator
next to the key illuminates indicating adjustment of the FMS Knob will now affect FMS functions.
11
COM Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the COM radios. The first press will select COM1,
as indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select COM2. This is annunciated with
a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the COM Key will switch between COM1 and COM2.
Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected COM.
12
Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Switches the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies. Press
and hold this key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into the active
frequency field.
13
NAV Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the NAV radios. The first press will select NAV1, as
indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select NAV2. This is annunciated with a
“2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the NAV Key will switch between NAV1 and NAV2. Use
the FMS Knob to tune the selected NAV.
14
XPDR Key – Sets the FMS Knob to enter transponders codes. When pressed, an annunciator next to the
key illuminates indicating the FMS Knob can now be used for transponder code entry.
15
16
IDENT Key – Activates transponder IDENT function.
17
Plus (+) Minus (-) Key – Toggles a (+) or (-) character.
SEL Key – The center of this key activates the selected MFD softkey, while the right and left arrows move
the softkey selection box to the right and left, respectively.
18
19
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
20
BKSP Key – Moves the cursor back one character space.
21
SPC Key – Adds a space character.
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7
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The PFD or MFD data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right portion of
the display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used system software
updates. Also, flight plans may be imported or exported from an SD card in the MFD.
Inserting and Removing an SD card:
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel. To remove, gently press on the SD card to release the
spring latch and eject the card.
PFD
MFD
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-4 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
This section discusses powering up the system, normal and reversionary display operation, annunciations,
system status, air data and attitude heading reference system (ADAHRS) modes of operation, and GPS receiver
operation.
SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the current version of the pertinent flight manual for specific procedures concerning avionics
power application and emergency power supply operation.
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical busses.
The PFDs, MFD and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features that
exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
When powering up the system, test annunciations are displayed and key annunciator lights also
become momentarily illuminated on the audio panel and the display bezels. On the PFD, the
ADAHRS begins to initialize and an alignment message is displayed. All system annunciations
should disappear typically within one minute of power-up.
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Start-up Page displays the following information:
-- System version
-- Navigation database name and effective dates
-- Checklist File
-- Airport Directory name and effective dates
-- Land database name and version
-- FliteCharts/ChartView database information
-- Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
-- IFR/VFR charts database information
-- Terrain database name and version
-- Crew Profile
-- Obstacle database name and effective dates
-- Copyright
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted
to continue.
The displays are connected together via multiple data busses, thus allowing for high-speed communication.
As shown in Figure 1-1, each IAU is connected to the on-side PFD. This section discusses the normal and
reversionary modes of operation as well as the various AHRS modes of the system.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD (see later in this section).
In reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display.
In normal operating mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed,
altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster (see the Flight Instruments Section
for more information). The MFD normally displays a full-color moving map with navigation information (see
the Flight Management Section), while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System
(see the EIS Section). Both displays offer control for COM and NAV frequency selection.
PFD1
PFD2
MFD
Figure 1-5 Normal Operation
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices for
further information regarding system-specific alerts.
In the event of a display failure, the system can be manually switched to reversionary (backup) mode (all
remaining displays enter reversionary mode). In reversionary mode, all important flight information is presented
on the remaining display(s) in the same format as in normal operating mode.
If a display fails, the appropriate IAU-display Ethernet interface is cut off. Thus, the IAU can no longer
communicate with the remaining display (refer to the figure below), and the NAV and COM functions provided
to the failed display by the IAU are flagged as invalid on the remaining display. The system reverts to backup
paths for the ADAHRS, Engine/Airframe Unit, and Transponder, as required. The change to backup paths is
completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot action is required.
When a display fails, the system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode as follows:
-- PFD1 failure – MFD and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
-- MFD failure – PFD1 automatically switches to reversionary mode.
-- PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-6 Reversionary Mode
Reversionary mode can be activated manually by pressing the dedicated DISPLAY BACKUP Button at the
bottom of the audio panel (see the following figure). Pressing this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
Pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP
button activates/deactivates
reversionary mode for both the onside PFD and the MFD.
Figure 1-7 GMA DISPLAY BACKUP Button
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
-- PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the left audio panel.
-- MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the left or the right audio panel.
-- PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the right audio panel.
Should the connection between a PFD and the on-side IAU become inoperative, the on-side IAU can no
longer communicate with the remaining PFD. As a result, the NAV and COM functions provided to the failed
PFD by the on-side IAU are flagged as invalid (red “X”) on the remaining PFD (see in the following table).
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to initialize. All
windows should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged,
the system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red or amber “X” is typically displayed on windows associated
with the failed data. Refer to the aircraft flight manual for additional information regarding pilot responses to
these annunciations.
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page. Active LRUs are indicated by
green check marks; failed
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for additional information regarding pilot
responses to these annunciations.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Annunciation
Comment
System Annunciation
Air Data, Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input.
Display system is not
receiving valid heading input
from the AHRS/ADAHRS or
magnetometer.
Display system is not receiving
attitude information.
Display system is not receiving
altitude input.
ADAHRS/AHRS calibration
incomplete or configuration
module failure.
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid
for navigation use. Note
that ADAHRS/AHRS utilizes
GPS inputs during normal
operation. ADAHRS/AHRS
operation may be degraded
if GPS signals are not present
(see aircraft flight manual).
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input.
Comment
Display system is not receiving
valid ISA information.
Display system is not
receiving valid Ground Speed
information from the GPS.
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information.
Other Various Red X
Indications
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
A red ‘X’ through any other
display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
Table 1-1 System Annunciations
Viewing LRU Information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
Press the LRU Softkey
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key
b) With the ‘Select LRU’ Window highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS PAGE
The ‘Aux - System Status’ Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system
LRUs. Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green
check marks and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or
Garmin dealer informed.
Figure 1-8 Example ‘Aux - System Status’ Page
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page select the applicable list (‘LRU Information’
or ‘Airframe’ Window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
Pressing the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected) places the
cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Pressing the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Pressing the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2
DB. PFD 2 database information is now displayed in the database window.
The ANN Test Softkey, when selected, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
The RA Test Softkey, when selected, initiates the Radar Altimeter test mode. For more information, see the
Flight Instruments section.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ADAHRS OPERATION
In addition to using internal sensors, the ADAHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air data
to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the ADAHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field
measurements. In Heading Preset Mode, the magnetometer data is replaced by a heading value set by the pilot.
If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the ADAHRS uses air data information for
attitude determination. Six ADAHRS modes of operation are available (see table below) and depend upon the
combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated
to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
ADAHRS Mode GPS Data Magnetometer Air Data Attitude Indicator
Condition
Available Data Available Available
ADAHRS Normal
Yes
Yes
Yes
Valid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
ADAHRS no-GPS
No
Yes
Yes
Valid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
ADAHRS no-GPS/
no-Mag
No
No
Yes
Valid Pitch/Roll.
Heading will coast-on-gyros until
it becomes invalid.
ADAHRS coast-ongyros until invalid
No
No
No
Invalid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
ADAHRS no-Mag
Data
Yes
No
Yes
Valid Pitch/Roll.
Heading Invalid.
ADAHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Data
Yes
No
No
Invalid Heading.
ADAHRS coaston-gyros until
invalid
No
Yes
No
Invalid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
ADAHRS no-Air
Data
Yes
Yes
No
Valid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
Table 1-2 ADAHRS Operation
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific ADAHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while the ADAHRS is not operating normally can degrade ADAHRS accuracy.
NOTE: In-flight initialization of ADAHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight ADAHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid ADAHRS outputs are unavailable.
AHRS OPERATION
The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) (optional) performs attitude, heading, and vertical
acceleration calculations for the system, using GPS, magnetometer, air data, and internal inertial sensors.
Attitude and heading information are updated on the PFD(s) while the AHRS receives appropriate combinations
of information from the external sensor inputs.
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic Field
Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field
and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every five years. See the Appendices
for information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup
when an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information
being displayed to the pilot.
GRS 7800 Operation
In primary mode, the GRS 7800 AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field measurements (air data is
not used). If either GPS or magnetometer data is unavailable or unreliable, the AHRS uses the remaining
inputs for attitude/heading determination. In DG Free Mode, the magnetometer data is replaced by a
heading value set by the flight crew. Four AHRS modes of operation are available (see figure below) and
depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of GPS or magnetometer sensor inputs is
communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for further
discussion of DG Free Mode.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available & Reliable?
Mag Data Available & Reliable?
YES
NO
NO
YES
Manual DG Selection?
10
10
YES
NO
AHRS
Primary Mode
AHRS
No-Magnetometer Mode
10
10
10
10
360‘
AHRS
DG Free Mode
10
10
10
10
360‘
Heading Invalid,
DG Free Mode Available
FREE
AHRS
Classical Mode
10
10
10
10
360‘
10
10
360‘
Heading Entered by Pilot
Figure 1-9 AHRS Modes (GRS 7800)
GPS Input Failure
Two GPS inputs are provided to the AHRS. If GPS information from one of the inputs fails, the AHRS
uses the remaining GPS input and an alert message is issued to inform the pilot. If both GPS inputs
fail, the AHRS can continue to provide AHRS information to the PFD(s) as long as magnetometer data is
available and reliable (air data will be used to aid calculations during speed changes and extended turns).
Magnetometer Failure
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS continues to output valid attitude information; however, the
heading output on the PFD(s) is shown in amber. The pilot can select DG Free mode to provide heading
inputs.
Air Data Input Failure
Failure of the air data input has no effect on the AHRS output.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each IAU Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
GPS1 provides information to the pilot-side PFD and GPS2 provides data to the copilot-side PFD. Internal
system checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFDs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing a better
GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better solution is automatically
coupled to both PFDs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” is displayed in the ‘Reversionary Sensor’
Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning
properly, but one receiver is performing better than the other at that particular time.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD. If
no failure message exists, check the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.4 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
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17
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection
Softkeys
RAIM Softkey
Selected
SBAS Softkey
Selected
Figure 1-10 ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM
The ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page displays satellites currently in view at their respective positions on a sky view
diagram. The sky view is always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the
inner circle representing 45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
SATELLITE STATUS
This box provides information regarding signal status. The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated
using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures
of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in
which actual position has 95% probability of laying. EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual
error measurement.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
GPS RECEIVER STATUS
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active GPS
receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page. When the receiver
is in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. “Acquiring” is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired for
computing a solution.
The system will determine if messages are being received from the WAAS engine. If so, the SBAS will read
‘Active’. If no messages have been received for 4 seconds and SBAS providers are enabled, the SBAS status will read
‘Inactive’. If SBAS providers are disabled, SBAS status will read ‘Disabled’. Note, that a fix is not required, but rather
the status is determined by communication with the WAAS engine.
RAIM PREDICTION
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area, and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the
intended approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to Map”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
NOTE: The system RAIM prediction capability does not meet all RAIM prediction requirements. Reference
the RAIM/Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) Prediction Tool at fly.garmin.com as required.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Push the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key.
Refer to Section 1.7 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the system.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or User waypoints, if
required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system automatically fills in the
identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Push the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
SBAS SELECTION (SBAS SOFTKEY IS SELECTED)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable EGNOS, WAAS or MSAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the
‘SBAS’ Field in the ‘GPS Status’ Box indicates Disabled. There may be a small delay for the ‘GPS Status’ Box
to be updated upon WAAS and MSAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Push the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
GPS SATELLITE SIGNAL STRENGTHS
The ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor
satellite coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is
displayed for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS)
below each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar
appearance:
»» No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
»» Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
»» Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
»» Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
»» Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
»» “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey
level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to press the appropriate softkey.
There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an annunciator on the softkey
label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects among several options, indicated by
the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option.
The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also,
these softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled,
the softkey label is subdued (dimmed)
Softkey On
Subdued Name
Softkey Names
(displayed)
Bezel-Mounted Softkeys (press)
Figure 1-11 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
Another means of selecting softkeys on the MFD is by using the Controller:
Selecting a softkey using the PFD/MFD Controller:
1) Move the softkey selection box to the desired softkey using the arrows of the SEL Key.
2) Press the center of the SEL Key to press the desired softkey.
PFD SOFTKEYS
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions, including
GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back Softkey which can be
pressed to return to the previous level. If messages remain after acknowledgement, the Alerts Softkey is black
on white. The Alerts Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the transponder
(XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
The following table describes PFD Softkey functions. Softkeys which display another set of softkeys are
indicated in the table by showing the given set as an increased level. For example, the Map/HSI Softkey is
shown in the Level 1 column. When pressed, the Map/HSI Softkey will display another set of softkeys and
these softkeys are explained in the Level 2 column. If a softkey on Level 2 provides yet another set of softkey
functions, those new available softkeys are then explained in the Level 3 column, etc.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Map/HSI
190-02041-01 Rev. A
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Description
Displays the PFD Map display settings softkeys.
Displays the PFD Map selection softkeys.
Layout
Removes the PFD map from display (Inset, HSI, or Traffic)
Map Off
Displays the Inset Map
Inset Map
Displays the HSI Map
HSI Map
Replaces the Inset Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Inset Trfc
Replaces the HSI Map with a dedicated traffic display.
HSI Trfc
Selects desired amount of map detail:
Detail
-- All (No Declutter): All map features visible
-- Detail 1: Declutters land data
-- Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA data
-- Detail 3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
Displays traffic information on PFD Map.
Traffic
-- Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes)
TER
and elevation scale on PFD Map.
-- REL: Displays relative terrain information on the PFD Map.
-- Off: Removes terrain
Displays/removes the name of the selected weather data provider
WX LGND
(SiriusXM) and the weather product icon and age box (for enabled
weather products).
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on PFD Map (subscription
NEXRAD
optional)
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (subscription optional)
METAR
Adds/removes the display of SiriusXM or Connext lightning information
Lightning
(based on weather data source selection) on the PFD Map.
Disables lightning function on PFD Map. The softkey annunciator is green
LTNG Off
when the lightning function is off.
Selects the datalink weather source for the PFD Map
Datalink
Adds or removes the display of Stormscope information on the PFD Map.
STRMSCP
The softkey annunciator is green when the function is on. When the
function is off, the annunciator is gray.
When enabled, displays the airborne weather radar overlay on HSI Map
Wx Radar
(WX 70/75 only).
Displays softkeys for airborne weather radar options (WX 70/75 only).
RDR Opt
Displays softkeys for weather radar mode selection (WX 70/75 only).
Mode SEL
Disables weather radar mode (WX 70/75 only).
Off
Standby Selects Standby weather radar mode (WX 70/75 only).
Weather Activates Weather radar mode (WX 70/75 only).
Ground Activates Ground Map weather radar mode (WX 70/75 only).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Gain Gain +
WX ALRT
Level 4
Stab
ACT
TFC Map
PFD Opt
SVT
Pathways
Terrain
HDG LBL
APT Sign
Wind
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
Off
DME
Bearing 1
Sensors
ADC
ADC 1
ADC 2
AHRS
AHRS 1
AHRS 2
HDG
DG
HDG HDG +
24
Description
Decreases weather radar gain setting (WX 70/75 only).
Increases weather radar gain setting (WX 70/75 only).
When enabled, displays weather alerts as system messages (WX 70/75
only).
Activates antenna stabilization feature (WX 70/75 only).
Activates Altitude Compensated Tilt feature (WX 70/75 only).
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD options.
Displays additional SVT overlay softkeys
Displays Pathway Boxes on the Synthetic Vision Display.
Enables synthetic terrain depiction.
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line.
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the
current aircraft position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport
is within approximately 9 nm.
Displays the wind option softkeys
Headwind/Tailwind and crosswind components.
Wind direction arrow and speed.
Wind direction arrow with direction and speed.
Wind information not displayed.
Displays ‘DME Information’ Window
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency,
and Off.
Displays the sensor selection softkeys.
Displays ADC selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 ADC.
Selects the #2 ADC.
Displays the AHRS selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 AHRS.
Selects the #2 AHRS.
Displays the softkeys for selecting one of the two DG modes (GRS 7800
only).
Selects desired DG Mode: (GRS 7800 only).
-- Slave: Slaves the DG to the AHRS.
-- Free: Allows the DG to enter FREE mode.
Slews heading counterclockwise (GRS 7800 only).
Slews heading clockwise (GRS 7800 only).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Bearing 2
ALT Units
Meters
IN
HPA
STD Baro
OBS
CDI
DME
XPDR
XPDR 1
XPDR 2
Standby
On
ALT
VFR
Code
0-7
Ident
BKSP
Ident
XPDR/TFC
XPDR1
XPDR2
190-02041-01 Rev. A
Level 4 Description
HDG Sync Synchronizes heading to the selected heading (GRS 7800 only).
TRK Sync Synchronizes heading to the current track (GRS 7800 only).
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency, and
Off.
Displays softkeys to select altitude unit parameters.
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters.
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopascals.
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are
selected)
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with
active leg). When OBS is on, the softkey annunciator is green.
Cycles through FMS, NAV1, and NAV2 navigation modes on the CDI.
Displays the ‘DME Tuning’ Window, allowing tuning and selection of the
DME (optional).
Transponder Softkeys without TCAS II
Displays the transponder selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 transponder as active.
Selects the #2 transponder as active.
Selects transponder Standby Mode (transponder does not reply to any
interrogations).
Activates transponder (transponder replies to identification interrogations).
Altitude Reporting Mode (transponder replies to identification and altitude
interrogations).
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only)
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7.
Use numbers to enter code.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Removes numbers entered, one at a time.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Transponder Softkeys with TCAS II
Displays the transponder selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 transponder as active
Selects the #2 transponder as active
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Mode
Level 3
Level 4
Standby
On
ALT
TA Only
TA/RA
TCAS
Relative
Absolute
ALT RNG
Above
Normal
Below
UNREST
Test
Code
0-7
Ident
BKSP
Ident
Ident
TMR/REF
Nearest
Alerts
or
Messages
Description
Displays transponder mode selection softkeys
Selects transponder Standby Mode (transponder does not reply to any
interrogations). When the transponder is set to standby, the TCAS II
system is also set to standby.
Activates transponder (transponder replies to identification interrogations).
When the transponder is set to ON, the TCAS II system is set to standby.
Altitude Reporting Mode (transponder replies to identification and altitude
interrogations). When the transponder is set to ALT, the TCAS II system is
set to standby.
Activates the TCAS II system in TA Only Mode and sets the transponder to
ALT.
Activates the TCAS II system in TA/RA Mode and sets the transponder to
ALT.
Displays the TCAS control softkeys.
Displays intruder altitude as altitude relative to own aircraft altitude.
Displays intruder MSL altitude.
Displays the altitude display range softkeys.
Displays non-threat traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
Displays non-threat traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
Displays non-threat traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
All traffic is displayed.
Activates Test Mode and displays test intruder symbols.
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7.
Use numbers to enter code.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Removes numbers entered, one at a time.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Displays Timer ‘References’ Window.
Displays ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
Displays the Alerts window when pressed. System generated messages
cause the Alerts Softkey label to change to a flashing ‘Message’ label.
Pressing the Message softkey opens the ‘Alerts’ Window, acknowledges
the message, and the softkey reverts to the ‘Alerts’ label
Table 1-3 PFD Softkeys
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MFD SOFTKEYS
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and weather (optional). There are many softkey functions available on the MFD depending on the page group
and screen selected.
The following table provides an example of the MFD Softkey functions accessed from the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page. Further information concerning softkeys providing more navigation and flight planning functions
may be found in the Flight Management Section. Terrain, traffic, and weather softkey descriptions may be
found in the Hazard Avoidance section. Further description of optional equipment and corresponding softkey
functions may be found in the Additional Features Section.
Level 1
Map Opt
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Level 2
Level 3
Description
Displays second level Map Options softkeys
Displays traffic information on ‘Navigation Map’ Page.
Traffic
Displays inset window second level softkeys.
Inset
Removes VSD inset from ‘Navigation Map’ Page.
Off
FPL PROG Displays the Flight Plan Progress inset on the ‘Navigation Map’ Page.
Displays VSD profile information of terrain/obstacles along the current track,
VSD
vertical track vector, and selected altitude.
-- Auto: Automatically displays either VSD profile information for active
flight plan information or along current track with no active flight plan.
-- FPL: Displays VSD profile information for active flight plan.
-- TRK: Displays VSD profile information along current track.
Displays terrain on the map; cycles through the following:
TER
-- Off: No terrain information shown on MFD Map.
-- Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes)
and elevation scale on MFD Map.
-- REL: Displays relative terrain information on the MFD Map.
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
AWY
-- Off: No airways are displayed.
-- On: All airways are displayed.
-- Low: Only low altitude airways are displayed.
-- High: Only high altitude airways are displayed.
Displays Stormscope information on ‘Navigation Map’ Page (optional).
STRMSCP
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on ‘Navigation Map’ Page
NEXRAD
(optional).
Displays XM lightning information on ‘Navigation Map’ Page (optional).
XM LTNG
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (subscription optional).
METAR
Displays legends for the displayed XM Weather products (optional).
Legend
Displays XM weather radar information on ‘Navigation Map’ Page
WX Radar
(optional).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Detail
Charts
Level 2
Level 3
Description
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through the following levels:
-- Detail All: All map features visible.
-- Detail-1: Declutters land data.
-- Detail-2: Declutters land and SUA data.
-- Detail-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan.
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts.
Displays chart display settings softkeys.
CHRT Opt
Displays the entire chart on the screen.
All
Header Displays the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
Displays the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
Plan
Profile Displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
Minimums Displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
Fit WDTH Changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Full SCN Removes data window to display chart on screen.
Displays the most pertinent chart based on the phase of flight and loaded
AUTO
procedures in the active flight plan.
Displays airport information:
Info
-- Info 1: Airport Information
-- Info 2: Airport Directory
Displays departure procedure chart.
DP
Displays standard terminal arrival procedure chart.
STAR
Displays approach procedure chart.
APR
Displays weather information.
WX
Displays NOTAM information for selected airport, when available.
NOTAM
Table 1-4 MFD Softkeys
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MENUS
The system has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently
displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional
submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘No Options’ when there are
no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group
operations are described in section 1.2. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on PFD
Options with FPL
Window Displayed
on MFD
Figure 1-12 Page Menu Examples
Navigating the ‘Page Menu’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The Display Title is comprised
of the page group and active page title and is displayed in the upper center of the screen below the Navigation
Data Bar. In the bottom right corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS
Knob. The page group tabs are displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list
above the page group tabs.
Page Group
MFD
Active Page Title
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-13 Page Title and Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
There are several pages which may be selected by selecting the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page
(or from the page menu). In this case, the active page title will change when a different page softkey is selected,
but the page will remain the same (i.e. the Radio and Info Softkeys show different active page titles (‘Aux - XM
Radio’ and ‘Aux - XM Information’ respective) within the same page, ‘XM Radio’.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• Map (Map Page Group)
• WPT (Waypoint Page Group)
• Aux (Auxiliary Page Group)
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-- Navigation Map
-- IFR/VFR Chart pages
»» VFR chart (VFR Softkey)
»» Low IFR chart (IFR Low Softkey)
»» High IFR chart (IFR High Softkey)
-- Traffic Map
-- Weather Radar
-- Stormscope® (optional)
-- Weather Datalink (service optional)
-- TAWS
-- Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
»» Airport Information (Info 1 Softkey)
»» Airport Directory Information (Info 2 Softkey)
»» Departure Information (DP Softkey)
»» Arrival Information (STAR Softkey)
»» Approach Information (APR Softkey)
»» Weather Information (optional) (WX Softkey)
-- Intersection Information
-- NDB Information
-- VOR Information
-- VRP Information
-- User Waypoint Information
-- Weight Planning
-- Trip Planning
-- Utility
-- GPS Status
-- System Setup 1/2
-- XM Radio Pages
»» XM Information (Info Softkey)
»» XM Radio (Radio Softkey)
-- Satellite Phone
»» Telephone (Phone Softkey)
»» Text Messaging (SMS Softkey)
-- Maintenance WiFi Setup
-- System Status
-- ADS-B Status
-- Connext Setup
-- Databases
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• FPL (‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page
Group)
• NRST (Nearest Page Group)
-- Active Flight Plan
»» Wide View, Narrow View (View Softkey)
-- Flight Plan Catalog
»» Stored Flight Plan (via New Softkey)
-- SurfaceWatch Setup (optional)
-- Nearest Airports
-- Nearest Intersections
-- Nearest NDB
-- Nearest VOR
-- Nearest VRP
-- Nearest User WPTS
-- Nearest Frequencies
-- Nearest Airspaces
Table 1-5 Page Group and Pages
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages
»» Approach Loading
»» Arrival Loading
»» Departure Loading
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SPLIT SCREEN FUNCTIONALITY
Chart pages may be viewed in split screen mode with either the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ or ‘FPL - Active
Flight Plan’ Page open. To activate the split screen functionality, press the Charts Softkey. Two display panes
are displayed on the MFD. If split screen is activated from the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, the page title will
show ‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’. If split screen is activated from the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, the
page title will change to show ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’.
MFD in Split Screen Mode
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts is the
active display pane
Page Title shows Map Chart + Navigation Map
Softkeys for the active
display pane
Figure 1-14 Split Screen Mode
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
CONTROLLING DISPLAY PANES
In split screen mode, the active display pane is outlined by a cyan box called the pane selector. Softkeys
and menu options will automatically change depending on which display pane is active. Display panes may
be displayed vertically in Narrow View, or horizontally in Wide View. In Narrow View, move the Joystick left
or right to move the pane selector. In Wide View, move the Joystick up and down to move the pane selector.
To change between Wide View and Narrow View, push and hold the Joystick.
MFD in Split Screen Mode
Pane Selector Box
- Move Joystick in
direction of cyan
arrows to move
display pane
- Push and hold
Joystick to change
Narrow/Wide view
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts
is the active display
pane
Figure 1-15 Split Screen in Wide View
Softkeys for the active
display pane
For information on viewing Charts and the Active ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page with the Flight Plan map,
see the Flight Management Section.
For more information on Charts and how to enable Charts Full Screen, see the Additional Features Section.
Enabling/disabling split screen mode:
1) From the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page press the Charts Softkey, or press
the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode On’.
2) To disable the split screen mode, press the Charts Softkey again or press the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode
Off’. The display returns to the base page, either the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight
Plan’ Page.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM SETTINGS
System settings and crew profiles are managed from the System Setup Pages. Fields shown in cyan text may
be edited. Managing crew profiles and editing the system time format, display units, arrival alerts, and audio
voice format settings are discussed in this section. For other system settings, see the reference given to their
respective sections.
Figure 1-16 System Setup Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
If desired, the default system settings may be restored at any time.
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
The message ‘Restore Setup (1 or 2) Page Defaults?’ is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
CREW PROFILES
System settings may be saved under a crew profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected crew
profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Screen. The system can store up to 25 profiles; the currently active
profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at the top of the ‘Aux
- System Setup 1’ Page in the box labeled “Crew Profile”. From here, crew profiles may be created, selected,
renamed, or deleted. Crew profiles may also be exported from the system to an SD card, or imported from
an SD card into the system.
Crew Profile Import/Export Messages
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others:
Message
Description
‘No crew profile files found.’
Displayed if the SD card does not have one or more valid crew profile
filenames.
‘Overwrite existing profile?’
Displayed if the profile name matches the name of existing profile.
‘Profile name invalid. Enter a different
profile name.’
Displayed if the profile name is invalid.
‘All available crew profiles in use. Delete
a profile before importing another.’
‘Crew profile import failed.’
‘Crew profile import succeeded.’
‘Overwrite existing file?’
‘Crew profile export failed.’
‘Crew profile export succeeded.’
Displayed if the maximum number for crew profiles has been reached.
Displayed if the importing operation fails for any other reason.
Displayed if the importing operation succeeds.
Displayed if the filename matches the name of an existing file on the SD card.
Displayed if the export operation fails.
Displayed if the export operation succeeds.
Table 1-6 Crew Profile Messages
Creating a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Create’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ Window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Crew profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or other previously created profile settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Create’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Create & Activate’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘Cancel’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: After restoring the Default crew profile, SVT will no longer be synced between the pilot and copilot
PFD. To restore the sync, set SVT to display terrain on both PFD(s).
Selecting an active profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the crew profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The system loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
Renaming a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Rename’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Rename’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘Delete’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the crew profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
3) Press the Import Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Importing’ Window with ‘Import’ highlighted. Turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the desired profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs,
then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘Import’ highlighted.
5) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system displays an ‘Overwrite
existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace profile on the system with the profile
imported from the SD card, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
‘Crew Profile Importing’ Window.
6) If successful, the system displays ‘Crew profile import succeeded.’ in the window below. With ‘OK’ highlighted,
press the ENT or CLR Keys or push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page. The
imported profile becomes the active profile.
Crew Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Crew Profiles Available for Import
from SD Card
Import Successful
Figure 1-17 Pilot Profile Import on the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page
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Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Crew Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
3) Press the Export Softkey. The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Exporting’ Window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) To export the crew profile using the current selected profile, press the ENT Key with ‘Export’ highlighted. To
change the selected profile, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the
desired profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key
with ‘Export’ highlighted.
5) If the selected profile to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the SD card, the system
displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the
SD card with the profile to be exported, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to
return to the ‘Pilot Profile Exporting’ Window without exporting the profile.
6) If successful, the window displays ‘Crew profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR
Keys, or push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
Crew Profile Exporting Window, Enter
a Name to Use for Exported Profile
Export Successful
Figure 1-18 Pilot Profile Export on the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DATE/TIME
The system obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page). System time (displayed in the lower right corner of
the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is set by adding/
subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
Figure 1-19 System Time (Local 24-hr Format)
Figure 1-20 Date/Time Settings (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page)
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ Field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. If local time
format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ Field is highlighted.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection.
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DISPLAY UNITS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system screens are listed on the ‘Aux - System Setup
1’ Page. The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set from here.
Category
Navigation Angle
Distance and Speed**
Altitude and Vertical
Speed
Temperature
Fuel and Fuel Flow**
Weight**
Position
Settings
Affected Quantities
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (‘Trip Planning’ Page)
Nautical
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK Fields (Navigation Data Bar)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
†
Feet
All altitudes on MFD
Meters
All elevations on MFD
††
Celsius*
All temperatures on PFD
Fahrenheit
Total Air Temperature (‘Trip Planning’ Page)
†††
Pounds
Fuel parameters (‘Trip Planning’ Page)
†††
Pounds
N/A
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
MGRS 1m
MGRS 10m
UTM/UPS
* Default setting
** Not configurable
† Excludes: airspeed indicator, altitude, true airspeed (PFD), wind speed vector, map range (‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, ‘Map - TAWS-A
(or TAWS-B)’ Page), CDI scaling (System Setup), and fuel range calculation (EIS)
†† Excludes: altimeter, Vertical Speed Indicator, and VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan). QFE settings can be in meters.
††† Excludes: Engine Indication System (EIS)
Table 1-7 Display Units Settings (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Changing a display unit setting:
1) While on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
BARO TRANSITION ALERT
See the Flight Instruments Section for a discussion on setting the Baro Transition Alert.
AIRSPACE ALERTS
See the Flight Management Section for a discussion on Airspace Alerts settings.
ARRIVAL ALERTS
The ‘Arrival Alert’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page allows the ‘Alerts’ Window arrival alerts to be
turned ‘On/Off’ and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the ‘Alerts’ Window and the
PFD ‘Navigation Status’ Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching
a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight
plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘On’, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message
is displayed in the PFD ‘Navigation Status’ Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is
displayed in the ‘Alerts’ Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘Off’, only the PFD ‘Navigation Status’ Box
message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is
approximately ten seconds.
Figure 1-21 Arrival Alert Settings (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page)
Enabling/disabling the Arrival Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ‘On’ or counterclockwise to turn the alert ‘Off’.
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Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Distance’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
SURFACEWATCH
See the Additional Features Section for the discussion on SurfaceWatch.
FLIGHT DIRECTOR
See the Flight Instruments Section for the discussion on the Flight Director format.
BARO QFE
See the Flight Instruments Section for the discussion on the Barometric QFE settings.
MFD DATA BAR FIELDS
See the Flight Management Section for the discussion on the MFD Data Bar Fields settings.
GPS CDI
See the Flight Instruments Section for the discussion on GPS CDI.
COM CONFIGURATION
See the Audio & CNS Section for the discussion on the COM Configuration for Channel Spacing.
NEAREST AIRPORT
See the Flight Management Section for the discussion on the Nearest Airport settings.
STABILITY AND PROTECTION
See the Additional Features Section for information on enabling and disabling the Stability and Protection
feature.
TOUCHDOWN CALLOUTS
See the Flight Instruments Section for the discussion on Touchdown Callout settings.
PAGE NAVIGATION
The large FMS Knob displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates through the tabs. The small FMS Knob
navigates through the pages within a specific group. The number of clicks it takes to display the Page Group
Tabs and change to the next tab can be controlled from the ‘Page Navigation’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup
2’ Page.
Off – Displays the Page Group Tabs with one click of the large FMS Knob.
On – Displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates to the next tab with one click of the large FMS Knob. The
amount of time the Page Group Tabs are displayed is set to 3 seconds.
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Selecting page navigation settings:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the Setup 2 Softkey, if necessary.
3) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Change On 1st Click’ Field in the ‘Page Navigation’ Box.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
6) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO
The ‘Audio’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page displays the audio alert voice setting (male or female)
and allow the pilot and copilot to enable/disable the 3D Audio feature and swap left and right audio within
the respective headset earpieces. Refer to the Audio & CNS Section for more information about 3D audio.
Figure 1-22 Audio Setting
Changing the audio alert voice:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the ‘Audio’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
Enabling/Disabling 3D Audio:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Pilot 3D Audio’ or ‘Copilot 3D Audio’ ‘On/ Off’ Field in the ‘Audio’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn 3D Audio On or counterclockwise to turn Off.
Swapping left/right audio in a headset:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Pilot L-R Swap’ or ‘Copilot L-R Swap’ ‘On/ Off’ Field in the ‘Audio’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the Swap On or counterclockwise to turn Off.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
CHARTS
See the Additional Features Section for information on setting up auto taxi charts.
SYSTEM UTILITIES
UTILITY PAGE
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the ‘Aux Utility’ Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer,and a
record of the time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum
groundspeeds—are displayed from the time of the last reset.
Figure 1-23 Utility Page
Timers
The system timers available on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page include:
ƒƒ Stopwatch-like generic timers
ƒƒ Total-time-in-flight timer
ƒƒ Time since departure
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the
countdown on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before
reaching zero on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when
reset, the digits return to zero.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled from
the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Setting the generic timer (MFD ‘Aux - Utility’ Page):
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS ‘Generic’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Departure Time’ Field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Trip Statistics
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS — Resets trip average ground speed and odometer
• Reset Odometer — Resets odometer display only
• Reset Maximum Speed — Resets maximum speed display only
• Reset All — Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed displays
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are
reset to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
Scheduler
The system’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Switch fuel
tanks”, “Overhaul”, etc.) in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on a
specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently
whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically
reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, messages are
retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Scheduler messages appear in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD and cause the Alerts Softkey label to change
to a flashing “Message” label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the ‘Alerts’ Window and acknowledges
the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the “Alerts” label. Pressing the softkey again removes the
‘Alerts’ Window from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 1-24 PFD Alerts Window
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty field within the ‘Scheduler’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter text within the ‘Message’ Field to be displayed in ‘Alerts’ Window and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to the ‘Type’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event — Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time — Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic — Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.5 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
• The ‘PFD Setup’ Menu and procedures below. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted
from a PFD. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from remaining displays.
Figure 1-25 PFD Setup Menu
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup’ Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
If desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to ‘MFD Display’ or ‘PFD2 Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR Key or the MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup’ Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD1 Display’, ‘MFD Display’, or ‘PFD2 Display’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 Key’, ‘MFD Key’, or ‘PFD2 Key’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR Key or the MENU Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional indications such as bugs and
annunciations on selected flight instruments during certain AFCS flight director modes. Refer to the AFCS
section for more information about these indications.
The system increases pilot situational awareness by providing easy-to-scan Primary Flight Displays (PFD)
featuring large horizon, airspeed, attitude, vertical speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the
flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the
PFD’s and are explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFDs:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
-- True Airspeed
-- Ground Speed
-- Mach number
-- Airspeed awareness ranges
-- Reference flags
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
• Altimeter, showing
-- Barometric setting
-- Selected Altitude
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
-- Turn Rate Indicator
-- Bearing pointers and information windows
-- DME Information Window (optional)
-- Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• DME Tuning Window
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
• International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
temperature deviation
• System Time
• Wind Data
• Vertical Navigation Indications
• Radar Altimeter (Optional)
The PFDs also display various alerts and annunciations.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
23
22
21
20
19
1
18
17
2
16
15
3
14
4
5
13
6
12
7
11
8
10
9
1
NAV Frequency Box
13
Turn Rate Indicator
2
Airspeed Indicator
14
Altimeter Barometric Setting
3
Ground Speed
15
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
True Airspeed
16
Selected Altitude Bug
5
Current Heading
17
Altimeter
6
Selected Heading Bug
18
Selected Altitude
7
19
COM Frequency Box
8
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
temperature deviation
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
20
AFCS Status Box
9
Softkeys
21
Navigation Status Box
10
System Time
22
Slip/Skid Indicator
11
Transponder Data Box
23
Attitude Indicator
12
Horizontal Situation Indicator ( HSI)
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
10
9
8
1
7
2
3
4
6
5
1
Selected Heading
6
2
Wind Data
7
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height
Selected Course
3
Map/HSI
8
Current Vertical Speed
4
DME Information Window (optional)
9
Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
5
Bearing Information Windows
10
VNV Target Altitude
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for speed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed (TAS)
is displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. When displayed, the Mach number appears above the
Airspeed Indicator. The ground speed is displayed to the left of the TAS. The numeric labels and major tick
marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots, while minor tick marks on the moving tape are
indicated at intervals of 5 knots. Speed indication starts at 40 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed viewable at any
time. The actual airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until reaching the
high airspeed limit, at which point it turns red.
The Mach number appears above the Airspeed Indicator. During climb, the pilot must select the Airspeed
Reference (IAS or Mach), automatic switching does not occur. For descent, if Mach airspeed reference is
selected (above 16,000 ft), the aircraft descends in Mach until the Mach airspeed reference reaches 250 KIAS, at
which point the airspeed reference automatically switches to IAS at that airspeed value. Refer to AFCS Section
for more information on Airspeed Reference.
Mach Number
VYSE
Blue Line
Actual
Airspeed
Vspeed
References
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
VMCA
Red Line
True
Airspeed
Ground
Speed
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
Figure 2-4 Overspeed/Minimum Speed Indications
Speeds above the maximum operating speed, VMO or MMO depending on aircraft altitude, appear in the high
speed warning range, represented on the airspeed tape by red/white “barber pole” coloration.
A red low speed awareness range extends up to the low speed awareness velocity, VLSA. An aural stall warning
is generated as the aircraft approaches a stall condition.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VMO/
MMO, the text of the actual airspeed readout changes to amber while the pointer remains black. The trend
vector is absent if the speed remains constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to
a system failure.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Landing Takeoff
Vspeeds can be changed and their flags turned on/off from the Timer/References Window. When active (on),
the Vspeeds are displayed at their respective locations to the right of the airspeed scale. All Vspeed values are
reset and all Vspeed flags are turned off during power up.
Vspeed
Flag
VR
R
V2
2
VREF
RF
Table 2-1 Vspeed Flag Labels
Vspeeds are categorized as either takeoff or landing. The order in which the categories are displayed is
determined by whether the aircraft is on the ground or in the air. If the aircraft is on the ground, the takeoff
Vspeeds are displayed at the top of the Vspeed list. If the aircraft is in the air, the landing Vspeeds are displayed
at the top.
The maximum speed with approach flaps is displayed as a solid white triangle to the right of the airspeed
scale. This indication is always displayed and cannot be turned off by the pilot.
Maximum
Approach
Flaps Speed
Figure 2-5 Maximum Flaps Extended Speed Reference
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Changing Vspeeds and turning Vspeed flags on/off:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired Vspeed.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to change the Vspeed in 1-kt increments (when a speed has been changed from a
default value, an asterisk appears next to the speed).
4) Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On/Off’ Field
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Figure 2-6 Takeoff and Landing Vspeeds
(‘Timer/References’ Window)
Vspeed flags can be turned on or off and values restored all at once or by category (takeoff and landing).
Modifying Vspeeds (on, off, restore defaults):
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired selection.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Figure 2-7 Page Menu
(‘Timer/References’ Window)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
1
2
8
7
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-8 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚. When the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) is activated, the pitch scale is reduced to 10˚ up
and 7.5˚ down. Refer to Section 2.2 Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology) for details when the optional
Synthetic Vision Technology System (SVT™) is installed.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer. A one bar displacement on the Slip/Skid
Indicator is equal to 1/2 ball of displacement on a traditional inclinometer.
Figure 2-9 Slip/Skid Indication
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
When the optional Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™) system is available, the Pitch
Limit Indicator will appear on the Attitude Indicator at the corresponding pitch attitude, if the angle of attack
is within six degrees of a stall condition. The Pitch Limit Indicator is subsequently removed when the angle of
attack is seven degrees or greater from a stall condition. The indicator appearance is based on the selected flight
director Command Bar/aircraft symbol format. Refer to the Additional Features and AFCS Sections for more
information about ESP.
NOTE: The Pitch Limit Indicator will continue to be displayed if the autopilot envelope protection fails.
The amber symbolic aircraft on the Attitude Indicator changes appearance based on selection of AFCS Flight
Director Command Bar format (see the AFCS Section for details). Both PFDs show the same Command Bar
format and Aircraft Symbol. The Command Bar format (single-cue or cross-pointer) may be selected from
the Aux - System Setup 1 Page. If a compatible lift computer is installed, the cross-pointer option will be
unavailable.
Changing Command Bar format:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Active’ in the ‘Flight Director’ Box.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
’Single Cue’ to display Command Bars as a single cue.
Or:
’X Pointer’ to display Command Bars as a cross-pointer.
Cross-pointer
Single-cue
Figure 2-10 Flight Director Format
(‘Aux- System Setup 1’ Page)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays barometric altitude values on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The pilot can
choose display units format for the Altimeter as feet or meters.
If the altitude is displayed in feet, the Altimeter shows 600 feet of barometric altitude at a time, with numeric
labels and major tick marks displayed at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20 feet.
If the altitude is displayed in meters, the Altimeter shows 180 meters of barometric altitude at a time, with
numeric labels and major tick market displayed at intervals of 50 meters. Minor tick marks are at intervals of
10 meters.
The name of the chosen altimeter units (‘FEET’ or ‘METERS’) appears near the bottom of the Altimeter.
The Indicated Altitude is displayed in the black pointer.
The Altitude Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the left of the altitude range strip when
the aircraft is either climbing or descending. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the tip of the altitude
pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down according to the rate of vertical speed. For any
constant rate of vertical speed, the moving end of the line shows approximately what the indicated altitude
value will be in six seconds. The trend vector is absent if the altitude remains constant or if data needed for
calculation is not available due to a system failure.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
Turn the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments.
If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available for the Selected Altitude.
When the altimeter is configured for metric units, the selected altitude is adjusted in 50 meter increments.
Selected
Altitude
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Selected
Altitude
(Meters)
Indicated
Altitude
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
Barometric
Setting
Figure 2-11 Altimeter
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Selected Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Selected Altitude in Feet
Overlay
Indicated Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Indicated Altitude in
Feet Overlay
Altimeter in Feet with Metric
Overlays Enabled
Altimeter in Meters with Feet
Overlays Enabled
Figure 2-12 Altimeter with Altitude Units Overlays
NOTE: Changing the Altitude Display Units on the MFD ‘Aux -System Setup 1’ Page does not change the
‘Barometric Setting’ Box on the PFD. The ‘Barometric Setting’ Box can be changed with the PFD Softkeys.
Selecting the altitude display units:
1) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘ALT, VS’ datafield in the ‘Display Units’ Window.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Feet (FT, FPM)’ or ‘Meters (MT, MPS)’ and press the ENT Key. This
setting affects altitude displays system-wide, in addition to those shown on the PFD.
The pilot can choose to display overlays for the indicated altitude and Selected Altitude using alternate
display units. For example, if the Altimeter is displaying feet, the system can show a metric overlay for the
indicated and selected altitudes without changing the scale or display units of the Altimeter.
Displaying altitude in meters:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the Meters Softkey to turn on metric altitude readouts.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNAV vertical deviation, moving
the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the
descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNAV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not
re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
NOTE: Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNAV vertical deviation, moving
the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the
descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNAV Target Altitude, the aircraft may
not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure:
Push the BARO Knob to select standard pressure; STD BARO is displayed in barometric setting box.
Or:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD Baro Softkey; STD BARO is displayed in barometric setting box.
Figure 2-13 Standard Barometric Altimeter Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or, press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between PFD’s by more than 0.02 Hg, the readouts turn amber.
The settings can be synchronized from the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page on the MFD. Once the settings are
synchronized, the readouts will turn from amber to cyan.
Barometric Settings
not Synchronized on PFDs
Displayed in Amber
Figure 2-14 Barometric Setting on PFDs not Synchronized
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘BARO’ in the ‘Synchronization’ Box.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
6) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
BAROMETRIC TRANSITION ALTITUDE ALERT
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the barometric
pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition Alert occurs when
climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The flight level Baro Transition
Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at 200 feet above this flight level.
The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the barometric pressure setting. The pilot
can enable/disable either Baro Transition Alerts, and choose the altitude or flight level used to trigger the alerts.
Setting the Baro Transition Alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) To enable/disable the Baro Transition Alert based on altitude, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or
‘Off’ Field for the BARO Transition Alert Altitude in the ‘BARO Transition Alert’ Box.
4) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Altitude ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude’ Field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to change the altitude and press the ENT Key to accept or press the CLR Key to return to
the previous altitude selection.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ Field for the BARO Transition Alert Level.
8) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Flight Level ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Flight Level’ Field.
10) Use the FMS Knobs to change the Flight Level for the alert and press the ENT Key to accept or press the CLR
Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
11) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
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BARO QFE ALTIMETER SETTING
WARNING: A QFE altimeter setting should only be used in the terminal environment for the corresponding
issuing airport to ensure adequate obstacle clearance.
When a QFE altimeter setting is used, the BARO QFE setting enables the system to automatically adjust
certain altitudes in the system between QNH (height above sea level) and QFE (height above airport reference
datum). Altitudes that may be automatically adjusted by the system between QFE and QNH altitudes are
displayed in parenthesis when based on a BARO QFE setting. Refer to PFD Annunciations and Alerting
Functions in this section for QFE annunciations.
BARO QFE mode should be enabled and the altimeter should be set to the QFE setting in conjunction with
each other. This can be done automatically by arming QFE while the baro setting is still set to STD BARO
ahead of time; at the appropriate time set the baro setting on the PFD to the QFE setting when QFE operation
is required. When both PFD baro settings are set to something other than STD BARO with QFE armed, BARO
QFE mode will automatically become active.
When entering QFE VNAV altitude constraints, it is important to note that only the current QFE reference
is used. It is not possible to enter a QFE constraint for the destination while the origin is the current reference.
Therefore, while QFE is active and the QFE reference is the origin:
»» QFE constraints cannot be entered for the destination airport/runway
»» QFE constraints cannot be entered for any arrival/approach waypoints
»» Entering an MSL/AGL constraint for any departure/enroute waypoints displays a message clarifying that the
constraint will be shown as a converted QFE value relative to the origin
Note: ‘FMS ORIG’ and ‘FMS DEST’ references do not dynamically update with flight plan changes. Always
verify QFE settings when changing the QFE reference (airfield, runway, etc.) or flight plan and re-enter
settings on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Note: VPTH, VSD, and VNV discontinuities may occur when switching from QNH to QFE Baro settings.
Setting the BARO QFE while on the ground:
1) Set the appropriate QFE BARO setting on both PFDs.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘REF’ Field in the ‘BARO QFE’ Box.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ or ‘FMS ORIG’, and press the ENT Key to accept.
6) If ‘Manual’ was selected, use the FMS Knobs to enter the field elevation of the departure airport in the ‘ELEV’
Field and press the ENT Key.
7) If ‘FMS ORIG’ was selected, the field elevation of the selected departure airport/runway from the flight plan will
be shown in the ‘BARO QFE’ Box. Verify this information is correct.
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8) The ‘On/Off’ Field will automatically highlight, turn the small FMS Knob to change the selection from ‘Off’ to
‘On’.
9) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor. QFE mode is now active.
Change the BARO setting on both PFDs to STD BARO to disable BARO QFE.
Setting the BARO QFE while in flight:
1) Set the BARO setting to STD BARO on both PFDs.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘REF’ Field in the ‘BARO QFE’ Box.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ or ‘FMS DEST’, and press the ENT Key to accept.
6) If ‘Manual’ was selected, use the FMS Knobs to enter the field elevation of the destination airport in the ‘ELEV’
Field and press the ENT Key.
7) If ‘FMS DEST’ was selected, the field elevation of the selected destination airport/runway from the flight plan
will be shown in the ‘BARO QFE’ Box. Verify this information is correct.
8) The ‘On/Off’ Field will automatically highlight, turn the small FMS Knob to change the selection from ‘Off’ to
‘On’.
9) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor. BARO QFE mode is now armed.
10) Enter the desired QFE BARO setting to activate the BARO QFE mode.
Change the BARO setting on both PFDs to STD BARO to disable BARO QFE. The desired BARO setting can now be
entered.
During QFE operations an annunciation will be displayed to the left of the altimeter.
BARO TRANSITION ALERTS
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the barometric
pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition Alert occurs
when climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The flight level Baro
Transition Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at 200 feet above this
flight level. The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the barometric pressure
setting. The pilot can enable/disable either of the Baro Transition Alerts, and choose the altitude or flight level
used to trigger the alerts.
Setting the Baro Transition Alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Altitude or Level in the ‘Baro Transition Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to turn the alerts ‘OFF’ or ‘ON’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude or level and press the ENT Key.
6) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob.
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VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance
when SBAS is available.
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape. The current
vertical speed is displayed in the pointer along the tape. The pilot can choose the display units format for the
VSI and altimeter as feet or meters.
If the VSI is displayed in feet, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 2000 and 4000 feet per minute.
Minor tick marks appear for every 1000 fpm. If the current vertical speed is at least 100 fpm, digits appear in
the pointer. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 4000 fpm, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of
the tape while displaying the current vertical speed numerically.
If the VSI is displayed in meters, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 10 and 200 meters per
second. Minor tick marks appear for every 5 meters per second. If the current vertical speed it least 0.5 meters
per second, digits appear in the pointer. If the rate of ascent or descent exceeds 20 meters per second, the
pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape while displaying the current vertical speed numerically.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a VNV
Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.3, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) uses a magenta chevron to indicate the VNV vertical deviation when
Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used; the VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” alert.
Full-scale deflection (two dots) is 1000 feet. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes
invalid. See the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.3,
Supplemental Flight Data, for more information about VNV indications on the PFD.
The Glideslope Indicator appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned in the active
NAV field and the aircraft heading and selected course are within 107˚. A green diamond acts as the Glideslope
Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned and there is no
glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
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VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Vertical
Speed
Pointer
Figure 2-15 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 2-16 Glideslope Indicator
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the
active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC clearance, the aircraft may be
centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath Indicator appears.
NOTE: When the temperature is warmer than a standard day, the system-generated glidepath guidance for
a non-precision approach may cross below the FAF minimum altitude restriction.
The Glidepath Indicator is a vertical deviation scale for GPS approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (L/VNAV, LPV) or advisory vertical guidance (LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual). The Glidepath Indicator, a
magenta diamond appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the active waypoint,
and GPS is the selected navigation source. Full-scale deflection (two dots), is angular with upper and lower
limits. The upper limit is +/-492 feet (150 meters) and lower limits depend on approach service level.
• LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, and LP+V, and Visual is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
• LPV is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
A hollow gray diamond represents a preview of the glidepath indicator. This is shown while inbound to the
FAF waypoint, but before the FAF waypoint is the next active waypoint. The preview is also shown when the
AFCS is coupled to the Vertical Path Tracking Mode (VPTH) while inbound to the FAF waypoint, until the
AFCS captures the glidepath; refer to the AFCS section for more information about Vertical Path Tracking Mode.
The hollow gray preview diamond changes to a solid magenta diamond to indicate the glidepath indicator is
active.
If the approach type downgrades past the Final Approach Fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
diamond.
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Glidepath
Preview
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 2-17 Glidepath Indicator
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach, and between the FAF and MAP, the Vertical Deviation Limit
Indicators appear as vertical white lines indicating the area where deviation exceeds allowable limits for the
glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator provides a scaled representation of +/- 75 feet of the calculated
glidepath. The “window” between the lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The length of the lines
will change while progressing through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator enters an excessive
deviation area, the Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators are amber.
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach and SBAS is unavailable, baro-VNAV (barometric vertical
navigation) is used for vertical guidance. This occurs due to any of the following conditions:
• SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
• The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
• SBAS is manually disabled on the GPS Status page
Baro-VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV procedure does not support
SBAS vertical guidance.
While baro-VNAV is being utilized, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta pentagon.
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
(excessive
deviation)
Figure 2-18 Glidepath Indicator (Baro-VNAV) and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor
tick marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI. The HSI also
presents turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and selected navigation source information. The HSI is available
in two formats: a 360˚ compass rose and a 210˚ HSI Map. The HSI Map is mutually exclusive with the Inset
Maps.
The HSI with the HSI map disabled presents a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) with a Course Pointer, To/
From Indicator, and a sliding deviation bar and scale. The Course Pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1,
and LOC) or a double line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/
From Indicator rotates with the Course Pointer and appears when the system is receiving the active NAVAID.
15
14
13
1
12
2
3
11
4
5
10
6
9
7
8
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
To/From Indicator
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
Course Pointer
11
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
4
Navigation Source
12
Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Turn Rate and Heading Trend Vector
6
Lateral Deviation Scale
14
Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
15
Lubber Line
8
OBS Mode Active
Figure 2-19 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay capabilities
such as topographical, weather, traffic, and land information. The HSI Map contains a Course Pointer, a
combined To/From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral deviation scale. Upon passing a
station, the To/From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI
on the HSI Map can appear either as an arrowhead (FMS, VOR, OBS) as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight
Management Section for information about using HSI Map overlays.
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Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation Source
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
Course Pointer
Figure 2-20 HSI Map
The following information appears above the Current Heading when the HSI Map is enabled:
-- A sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and
deviation indicators are combined)
-- Deviation scale
-- Navigation Source
-- Flight Phase
-- OBS Mode/Suspend Mode Status
-- Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode Annunciation
-- Crosstrack Error (XTK)
-- Back Course Annunciation (BC)
NOTE: When OBS mode is active to a VOR waypoint, the course pointer and current track indicator are
relative to the published magnetic variation of the VOR which can be outdated with respect to the current
magnetic variation. Consequently, in OBS mode a slight offset may exist between indicated heading and
selected course and track indicator even when there is no crosswind.
Enabling/disabling the HSI Map on the PFD:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Map Softkey to enable the HSI Map.
Or:
Press the Map Off Softkey to disable the HSI Map.
For either HSI display format, a digital reading of the current heading appears above the rotating compass
card. A magenta diamond on the HSI represents the current track over the ground the aircraft is flying. To the
upper left of the HSI, the Selected Heading is shown in cyan, which corresponds to the cyan heading bug on the
compass rose. The Desired Track (DTK) is shown in magenta to the upper right of the HSI when the selected
navigation source is FMS and OBS Mode is not active. The Selected Course (CRS) is shown to the upper right
of the HSI when the selected navigation source is VOR or LOC and in magenta when the selected navigation
source is FMS with OBS Mode active.
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Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Push the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted The cyan bug
on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Push the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station (see OBS Mode for adjusting a GPS course).
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected Heading
Selected Course
Selected Heading Bug
Figure 2-21 Heading and Course Indications
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted.
The Current Track Indicator, represented by a magenta diamond on the HSI, is the current over the ground
track the aircraft is flying.
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (‘Mag
Var’) or referenced to true north (denoted ‘T’), set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page. When an approach
referenced to true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the
navigation angle setting to ‘True’ at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-22 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight NAV Angle setting in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• True - References angles to true north (denoted with ‘T’)
• Magnetic - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (‘Mag Var’)
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DIRECTIONAL GYRO (DG) MODE (GRS 7800 INSTALLATIONS ONLY)
DG Mode allows the pilot to manually input a heading value. While DG Mode is not active, a amber heading
value annunciation indicates that reliable magnetic variation data is unavailable.
Selecting DG Mode:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Sensors Softkey.
3) Press the HDG Softkey.
4) Press the DG Slave Softkey to activate DG mode. Press the DG Free Softkey to deactivate DG mode.
5) Press the Back Softkey three times to return to the top-level softkeys.
Figure 2-23 DG Mode
NOTE: When operating the system with the magnetic sensor uncoupled from the AHRS, the displayed
heading and heading information used by some system components (e.g. traffic system, AFCS, and weather
radar) will be different from the heading calculated by the AHRS. The difference is an amount equal to the
difference between the current Magnetic Field Variation Database (MV DB) value, and the MV DB value
when the magnetic sensor was uncoupled. Due to the convergence of isogonic lines, this condition is most
noticeable at or near the north and south magnetic poles.
NOTE: HDG SYNC does not apply magnetic variation correction to true GPS tracks.
Once active, ‘FREE’ is annunciated to the left of the heading value on the HSI. While in DG Mode and reliable
magnetic variation data is not available, the heading value is cyan. While in DG Mode and reliable magnetic
variation data is available, the heading value is amber. The HDG-, HDG+, HDG SYNC, and TRACK SYNC keys
are enabled, and can be operated as follows:
-- Pressing the HDG- or HDG+ softkey to slew the heading up or down.
-- Pressing the HDG SYNC Bug softkey to synchronize the heading to the current selected heading
-- Pressing the TRACK SYNC softkey to synchronize the heading to the current track
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TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6 seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than
4 deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Half Standard
Turn Rate
Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
Figure 2-24 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and GPS sources.
The pointers are cyan and are single- (BRG1) or double-lined (BRG2); an icon is shown in the respective
information window to indicate the pointer type. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are
visually separated from the CDI by a white ring (shown when bearing pointers are selected but not necessarily
visible due to data unavailability).
Bearing 1
Pointer
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Bearing 2
Pointer
Distance
DME Information Window
(optional)
Distance to
Bearing Source
Bearing
Source
Pointer
Icon
Bearing 2
Information
Window
Bearing 1 Information Window
Figure 2-25 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
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When a bearing pointer is displayed, its associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows are displayed to the lower sides of the HSI and show:
»» Bearing source (NAV, GPS, ADF)
»» Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
»» Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
»» GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
»» Frequency (NAV)
If the NAV radio is the bearing source and is tuned to an ILS frequency (refer to the Audio Panel and CNS
Section for information on tuning the radios), the bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and the frequency
is replaced with “ILS”. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the
station identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier
is displayed in lieu of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and “NO DATA” is displayed in the information window if:
»» The NAV radio is not receiving the tuned VOR station
»» GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not selected
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window
with a NAV source.
3) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
4) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey a third time to change the bearing source to ADF (note: ADF radio
installation is optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
NOTE: DME radio installation is optional.
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “– – . – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the ‘DME Information’ Window above the ‘BRG1 Information’ Window.
3) To remove the ‘DME Information’ Window, press the DME Softkey again.
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COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
Flight
Phase
Navigation
Source
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
CDI
Figure 2-26 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can display two sources of navigation: GPS or NAV (VOR, localizer). Color indicates the current
navigation source: magenta (for GPS) or green (for VOR and LOC); the Selected Course readout also follows
these color indications. When coupled to GPS, the full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPS-derived
distance. When coupled to a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI has the same angular limits as a mechanical CDI.
If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots) while coupled to GPS, the crosstrack error
(XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
Figure 2-27 Navigation Sources
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
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NAV1 Selected for Tuning
LOC1
Selected
GPS
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-28 Selecting a Navigation Source
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation turns
amber on both displays (unless synchronized). Once the CDIs are synchronized (CDI SYNC turned on), they
remain synchronized until the setting is turned off.
Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘CDI Sync’ in the ‘Synchronization’ Box.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
6) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
-- A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
-- The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
-- A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
-- The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating
a Vector-to-Final (VTF; see the Flight Management Section) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation
source; GPS steering guidance is not provided after this switch.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to the
FAF, it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically switches from GPS to
LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
Figure 2-29 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
GPS CDI SCALING
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page and
the full-scale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If
the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled
accordingly and the selected setting is be displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Format Allowed selection in the ‘GPS CDI’ Box.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
6) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
When set to ‘Auto’ (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight.
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Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-30 Automatic CDI Scaling
»» Once a departure procedure is active, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
»» The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
ƒƒ The next leg in the procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
ƒƒ The next leg in the departure procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
ƒƒ After any leg in the departure procedure that is not CA or FA
»» At 30 nm from the departure airport the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
ƒƒ When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
»» If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
»» Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm; except under the following conditions:
ƒƒ Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
»» During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (see Figures 2-31 and 2-32). This transition
normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling
automatically once the approach procedure is activated or if Vector-to-Final (VTF) is selected.
ƒƒ If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
ƒƒ If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
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2 nm
FAF
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
angle based
on database
information
course width
2 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
angle set
by system
350 ft
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-31
Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach CDI Scaling
Figure 2-32
Typical LNAV/VNAV, LP, and LPV Approach CDI Scaling
»» When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
»» The system automatically switches back to terminal scaling under the following conditions:
ƒƒ The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
ƒƒ The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
ƒƒ After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not CA or FA
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Approach
(Non-precision)
Approach
(Non-precision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(Non-precision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Approach
(LP with Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(LP)
Missed Approach
Annunciation
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
LNAV
LNAV + V
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (see Figure 2-31)
VISUAL
L/VNAV
LPV
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width,
then 0.3 nm, depending on variables
(see Figure 2-32)
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the
color changes to amber.
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
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OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to” waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
GPS
Selected
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables OBS
Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-33 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving map.
If desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Push the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label changes
to indicate the suspension is active. Pressing the SUSP Softkey deactivates the suspension and resumes
automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-34 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.2 GARMIN SVT (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
NOTE: Do not use the flight path marker as a flight director.
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is a visual enhancement to the system. SVT depicts a forwardlooking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The vertical field of view is 48
degrees. The horizontal field of view is 71 degrees in full screen and 50 degrees in split mode. SVT information
is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The
depicted imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arcsecond database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of 4.9 arc-seconds,
meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds on each side, is
required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal,
will cause SVT to be disabled (although the softkeys will still appear functional) until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
TAWS is integrated within SVT to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and
obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and amber shading on
the PFD.
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If SVT is enabled when
switching to Reversionary Mode, it will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD
display will be shown in the interim.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
•
•
•
•
Flight Path Marker
Horizon Heading Marks
Airport Signs
Runway Display
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• Obstacle Alerting
• Pathways
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Figure 2-35 Synthetic Vision Imagery
NOTE: The terrain feature is not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation information provided
by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The softkeys
are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, APT Sign. The Back Softkey returns to the previous level of
softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated. A green annunciator
on the softkey label indicates the feature is activated.
The APT Sign Softkey is only available when the Terrain Softkey is activated (softkey annunciator is green).
When the Terrain Softkey is activated the Flight Path Marker is automatically displayed on the PFD.
-- Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
-- HDG LBL Softkey enables the display of heading marks and digits on the zero pitch line.
-- Airport Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
-- The crew profile defines the state (on or off) of these features.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with each press of the Terrain Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathways display will cycle on or off with each press of the Pathways Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The Horizon Heading display will cycle on or off with each press of the HDG LBL
Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of Airport Signs will cycle on or off with each press of the APT Sign
Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SVT FEATURES
Zero Pitch
Line (ZPL)
with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Synthetic
Terrain
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 2-36 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always displayed when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 2-37 Flight Path Marker Position is Affected by Wind
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows the compass heading in 30‑degree increments
on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing on the zero pitch line are not visible
behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used for general heading awareness, and is
activated and deactivated by pressing the HDG LBL Softkey.
TRAFFIC
NOTE: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL will not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a partial
symbol.
NOTE: In situations where a TA is occurring in close proximity to the aircraft, such as while taxiing, a large
amber TA symbol may appear on the SVT display.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not appear on the SVT display.
Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed on the navigation maps and the
Traffic Map Pane. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For
more details, refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
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AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display.
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 2-38 Airport Signs
PATHWAYS
NOTE: SVT Pathways are not available when the Cross Pointer symbolic aircraft format is selected.
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the PFD maps or MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 2-39 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be used
independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from the
display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
Departure and Enroute
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight
plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude
selected or programmed.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Descent and Approach
During an approach, Pathways be can shown for the programmed descent, level transition flight, and
at the Selected Altitude within the approach segments. When an approach providing vertical guidance is
activated, the corresponding approach glideslope or glidepath will be displayed using a color corresponding
to the selected navigation source and conditions.
White Pathways represent the next segment of the approach that is not yet active. Magenta Pathways
represent the active segment with GPS as the navigation source. Green Pathways indicate the ILS/LOC
navigation source. During the arrival/approach phases of flight, gray pathways indicate the anticipated
preview glidepath/glideslope. The gray Approach Preview Pathways will be displayed beginning at the start
of the segment leading to the FAF waypoint. With active approach vertical guidance, the selected altitude
will be displayed as a level gray Pathway if the Selected Altitude is lower than the glidepath/glideslope.
The gray Selected Altitude Preview Pathways are displayed until they converge with the green glideslope
or magenta glidepath pathways. If approach vertical guidance is not yet active, pathways at the Selected
Altitude will be displayed in magenta throughout the arrival/approach.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is the selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with the
LOC selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and
glideslope. VOR, LOC, BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are
displayed in magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or
VOR final approach courses are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 2-40 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Missed Approach
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 2-41 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Other
Runway on
Airport
Runway
Figure 2-42 Airport Runways
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
TAWS ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning
alert on the navigation maps and TAWS Page. For more detailed information regarding TAWS, refer to the
Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
Terrain
Annunciation
Terrain
Caution
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 2-43 Terrain Alert
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols
found on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. To depict obstacles from the pilot’s perspective, the
synthetic terrain display determines the size of each obstacle symbol using the obstacle’s relative height above
terrain and distance from the aircraft. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not
shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
During a terrain obstacle alert, the obstacle symbol on the synthetic terrain display is yellow (for an obstacle
caution) or red (for an obstacle warning).
PULL UP
Annunciation
Obstacle
Warning
Obstacle
Caution
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 2-44 Obstacle Alert
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Enabling/Disabling SVT Field of View on the Navigation Map:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Map’ Group options to ‘Field of View’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ page.
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and Field of View
turned on.
Lines
Depict PFD
Field of
View
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 2-45 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
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2.3 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer can be accessed via softkeys on the PFD and allows for quick access for timing functions
(either counting up or down) for the pilot.
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Timer’ Field (HH:MM:SS).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time.
4) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Up/Dn’ Field is now highlighted.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Up/Down’ Window.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Start?’ is now highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘Stop?’. If the timer is counting Down, it will start
counting Up after reaching zero.
9) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
10) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
11) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and deviation from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) temperature
are displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD under normal conditions, or below the true airspeed in
Reversionary Display Mode. Both are displayed in degrees Celsius (°C).
Figure 2-46 Outside Air Temperature
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Changing temperature display units:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD using the FMS Knob.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the TEMP field in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Celsius’ or ‘Fahrenheit’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the
selection.
5) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed in a window to the upper left of the HSI. When the
window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window shows “NO WIND
DATA”. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways:
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-47 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data below the Selected Heading.
3) Press one of the Option Softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• Option 1: Wind direction arrow and speed
• Option 2: Wind direction arrow with true digital direction and speed
• Option 3: Wind direction arrows with headwind, tailwind, and crosswind speed components
4) To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD
according to the criteria listed in Table 2-3.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Phase of
Flight
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 2-48 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
VNV Indication Removed
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey selected on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint cannot be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
X
Last altitude-constrained waypoint in active flight plan reached
X
X
(30 sec before)
Criteria
Table 2-3 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.4 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in cyan, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-49 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ALTITUDE ALERTING
The Altitude Alerting function provides the pilot with visual and aural alerts when approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The Altitude Alerter is
independent of the Garmin AFCS, but aural and visual alerts are generated only when the Garmin AFCS is
installed. The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
-- Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter)
changes to black text on a cyan background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
-- When the aircraft passes within 200 ft of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to cyan text on
a black background and flashes for 5 seconds.
-- After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude), the Selected Altitude changes to amber text on a black background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an
aural tone is generated.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-50 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Attitude Annunciation requires SBAS. Terrain alerts from Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems
will appear instead of the Low Altitude Annunciation when these systems are operating and not inhibited.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation appears to the left of the Altimeter, flashing for
several seconds then remaining displayed until the condition is resolved.
TAWS Inhibited
Annunciation
Glidepath
Indicator
Low Altitude
Annunciation
Figure 2-51 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
MINIMUM ALTITUDE ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a barometric Minimum Altitude Alert can be set in the References Window and is
reset if the current approach is deleted, another approach is loaded, or the system power is operated off then
on. For example, while enroute, the crew may choose to set the MEA. When the crew loads an approach, the
set minimum altitude alert is removed, and the crew may enter approach minimums. When active, the altitude
setting is displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter. The function serves only as an alert and does not couple
to the autopilot. Once the altitude is within the range of the tape, a bug appears at the reference altitude on the
Altimeter. The following visual annunciations occur when approaching the minimum altitude alert:
-- When the aircraft altitude is over 100 ft above the minimum altitude alert setting, the BARO MIN or COMP
MIN box appears with the altitude in cyan text. The bug appears on the altitude tape in cyan (or magenta for
COMP MIN) once in range.
-- When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the altitude alert, the bug and text turn white.
-- Once the aircraft reaches the alert value, the bug and text become amber and a “Minimums. Minimums” voice
alert occurs.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-52 Barometric Minimum Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the set
value. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the alerting altitude, once it reaches 50 feet above
the value, alerting is disabled. The function is reset when the power is cycled or a new approach is activated.
Setting the Minimum Altitude Alert and bug:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Minimums’ Field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT.’ ‘Off’ is selected by default. Press the
ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet when ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’
is selected, or up to 2,500 feet when ‘RAD ALT’ is selected).
5) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field and
then enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Figure 2-53 BARO and TEMP COMP Minimum Altitude Alerting
NOTE: For temperature compensated minimums to be displayed on the PFDs, the active flight plan must
contain an airport.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered on the MFD ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page. There
is only one compensation temperature for the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both
the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums. Refer to the Flight Management section for information
about applying temperature compensation to approach altitudes
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
RADAR ALTIMETER
When the radar height (the aircraft altitude above ground level detected by the radar altimeter) is between
zero and 2500 feet, the current value is displayed in white to the right of the current aircraft heading. Display
of radar height becomes more sensitive as the height above ground decreases (Table 2-4).
Radar Altimeter
Figure 2-54 Current Radar Height
Radar Height Range
Shown to Nearest
0 to 200 feet
5 feet
200 to 1500 feet
10 feet
1500 to 2500 feet
50 feet
Table 2-4 Radar Altimeter Sensitivity
When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the minimum descent altitude alerting function,
the color of the radar height changes to amber upon reaching at or below the MDA/DH.
Figure 2-55 RAD ALT Setting
(‘Timer/References’ Window)
Figure 2-56 RA as Altitude Source for MDA/DH
A ground line is shown on the Altimeter to display the aircraft’s height relative to the ground. If the data
becomes invalid, the message “RA FAIL” is displayed in amber in the RA box. The Radar Altimeter test is done
on the MFD but is displayed on the PFDs to the right of the current heading.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Radar
Altimeter
Ground
Line
Radar Altimeter
Minimums Box
Figure 2-57 Altimeter Displaying the Ground Line (RAD ALT)
Figure 2-58 Radar Altimeter with Invalid Data
Testing the Radar Altimeter (KRA 405B only):
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status 1’ Page.
3) Press the RA Test Softkey to enable or disable the test.
The ‘RA TEST’ annunciation is displayed above the RA box. To cancel the test, press the RA TEST Softkey again,
or turn the FMS Knob to exit the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
When test mode is active, ‘RA TEST’ is annunciated above the RA box and 40 feet will be displayed in the
RA box.
Figure 2-59 Radar Altimeter with Test Annunciation
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.5 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-5 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur. Refer to
the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode.
Annunciation
Location
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring – GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
GPS LOI
Right of HSI
phase of flight
Integrity OK – GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits
GPS INTEG OK Right of HSI
(annunciation displayed for 5 seconds)
Dead Reckoning – System is using projected position rather than GPS
Lower left of
DR
position to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan
aircraft symbol
waypoints
Table 2-5 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-60 Example HSI Annunciations
DR Mode causes the following items on the PFD to be shown in amber:
-- CDI (when GPS is the selected navigation source; removed after 20 minutes in DR mode operation)
-- Current Track Indicator
-- Wind data and pointers in the Wind Data Box on the PFD
-- GPS bearing pointers
-- Distances in the Bearing Information windows
-- Active Flight Plan distances, bearings, and ETE values
The accuracy items should be verified when operating in DR Mode.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, a comparator annunciation is displayed in black text on an amber background. If one or
both of the sensed values are unavailable, the comparator annunciation is black text on a white background.
Comparator
Annunciation
Figure 2-61 Sensor Comparator Annunciations on the PFD
The following is a list of the possible annunciations:
Comparator
Condition
Annunciation
ALT
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If both airspeed sensors detect < 35 knots, this is inhibited.
IAS
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10 knots.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 knots.
HDG
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
PIT
ROL
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
VDI
Difference in temperature compensated altitudes is > 50 ft.
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
ALT
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
IAS
No data from one or both heading sensors.
HDG
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
PIT
No data from one or both roll sensors.
ROL
No temperature compensated altitude data available.
VDI
Table 2-6 Comparator Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated on the PFD. These annunciations reflect reversionary sensors
selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the Sensor Softkey gives access to ADC1, ADC2, AHRS1, and AHRS2
Softkeys. These softkeys allow manual switching of sensors. In the case of certain types of sensor failures, the
System may make some sensor selections automatically. The GPS sensor cannot be switched manually.
Reversionary
Sensor
Annunciation
Figure 2-62 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
BOTH ON ADC1
BOTH ON ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
BOTH ON AHRS2
BOTH
ON GPS1
BOTH
ON GPS2
USING ADC1
USING ADC2
USING AHRS1
USING AHRS2
USING
GPS1
USING
GPS2
Condition
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Air Data Computer..
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Air Data Computer.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two Attitude & Heading Reference System.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number one GPS receiver.
Both PFDs are displaying data from the number two GPS receiver.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 Air Data Computer.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 Air Data Computer.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 AHRS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 AHRS.
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
Table 2-7 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
SVT is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs. SVT is
disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVT data, the
PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
-- Attitude data
-- Heading data
-- GPS position data
-- 4.9 Arc-second Terrain data
-- Obstacle data
-- TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
-- The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database
REVERSIONARY MODE
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled when
switching to Reversionary Mode, SVT will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD
display will be shown in the interim.
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
Unusual attitudes are displayed with red chevrons overlaid on the display indicating the direction to fly to
correct the unusual attitude condition. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during
extreme pitch attitudes.
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the display.
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red extreme pitch warning chevrons pointing toward the
horizon are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon line.
Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-63 Pitch Attitude Warnings
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from the PFD (and corresponding softkeys are disabled) when the aircraft
experiences unusual attitudes:
-- Traffic Annunciations
-- AFCS Annunciations
-- Inset Map
-- Outside air temperature (OAT)
-- ISA temperature deviation
-- Wind data
-- Selected Heading readout
-- Selected Course readout
-- Transponder Status Box
-- System Time
-- PFD Setup Menu
-- Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
-- References
-- Nearest Airports
-- Flight Plan
-- Messages
-- Procedures
-- Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
-- Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
-- Altimeter Barometric Setting
-- Selected Altitude
-- VNV Target Altitude
-- Ground Speed
-- True Airspeed
SVT UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
During extreme pitch attitudes, the display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or bottom
of the screen to represent earth or sky. The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great
enough to completely fill the display. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during extreme
pitch attitudes.
Blue Band
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Figure 2-64 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
The G1000 NXi Engine Indication System (EIS) displays critical engine and fuel flow parameters on the left
side of the Multi Function Display (MFD) during normal operations (Figure 3-1). In Reversionary Mode, the
display(s) are configured to combine the Primary Flight Display (PFD) symbology with the EIS (Figure 3-3).
EIS Display
Figure 3-1 MFD (Normal Mode)
EIS information is presented using gauges and digital displays. Green bands on the instrument scales indicate
normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution and warning, respectively. White or uncolored
bands indicate areas outside of normal operation not yet in the caution or warning ranges (except for the Fuel
Flow gauges, which do not display bands). During normal operating conditions, an instrument’s pointer appears
in white and the text is green.
When an unsafe operating condition occurs, the pointer and digit color change to amber or red, indicating
a caution or warning. If a cautionary time limit is exceeded, the pointers and digits may flash red, even if the
parameter is still within the cautionary range. If the sensor data for a parameter becomes invalid or unavailable,
ared ‘X’ is displayed across the indicator and/or display. If the sensor data for a parameter is out of range, dashes
‘---’ are displayed instead of a numeric value .
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 EIS DISPLAY
NOTE: The gauges displayed and the values shown in this section are taken from an example Beechcraft
200/B200 configuration. Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for specific values and
operating limitations.
200/B200 Example Configuration
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
Figure 3-2 EIS Display (Normal Mode)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for specific engine gauge values and
operating limitations.
1 Interstage Turbine
Temperature
The Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) Gauge is located at the top of the
EIS display. This gauge differs for engine start and running conditions.
ITT Engine Running
2 Torque
3 Propeller Tachometer
ITT Engine Start
The Torque Gauge displays engine power in foot-pounds and is located
beneath the ITT gauge.
The Tachometer displays the propeller speed in revolutions per minute
(RPM). The Tachometer is equipped with a propeller sync indicator,
which points towards the higher-speed propeller when propellers are out
of sync. The indicator changes linearly with RPM difference between the
left and right propellers. A full diamond is displayed when the propellers
are synchronized and transitions to a full arrowhead when the difference is
greater or equal to 50 rpm.
Propellers Synchronized
Propellers Out of Sync (less than 50 rpm)
Propellers Out of Sync
(greater than or equal to 50 rpm)
4 Propeller Sync
5 Turbine Speed
Displays a diamond when propellers are in sync. Indicates when propellers
are out of sync by the diamond changing to an arrowhead. The arrowhead
points towards the propeller turning at a higher-speed.
Displays turbine speed in a percentage of the revolutions per minute (rpm)
6 Fuel Flow
Displays current fuel flow in pounds per hour (pph)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
7 Oil Pressure
The Oil Pressure Gauge is located beneath the Fuel Flow gauge. Oil
pressure is displayed in pounds per square inch (psi) from 0 to 200 psi.
Safe operating pressure is more than 90 psi and less than 135 psi (varies
based on altitude above FL210 and type of engines installed; refer to the
current version of the pertinent flight manual). A red triangle represents
the maximum oil transient pressure at 200 psi.
Below FL210
8 Oil Temperature
110
Above FL210
Displays the oil temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 EIS DISPLAY IN REVERSIONARY MODE
PFD1 will revert to reversionary (or backup) mode automatically during an MFD failure in flight. In the event
of PFD1 or PFD2 failure, the Display Backup button must be pressed to enter reversionary mode. Reversionary
mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically on at least one of
the operating displays (see Figure 3-3). Flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode
(refer to the System Overview for information about display Reversionary Mode).
EIS Display
Figure 3-3 Reversionary Mode (200/B200)
In the event of display failure, the display modes are as follows:
• PFD1 failure – Press the Display Backup button on the left Audio Panel. MFD enters reversionary mode; PFD2
remains in normal mode.
• MFD failure – Press the Display Backup buttons on both Audio Panels. PFD1 and PFD2 enter reversionary
mode.
• PFD2 failure – Press the Display Backup button on the right Audio Panel. MFD enters reversionary mode;
PFD1 remains in normal mode.
Figure 3-4 Display Backup Button
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
REVERSIONARY DISPLAY
The EIS Reversionary Mode Display gauges have a different shape and share one title (i.e. ITT, TORQUE)
for each pair of gauges. White tick marks are displayed only at the minimum and maximum values. Green
bands on the instrument scales indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution and
warning, respectively. No minor tick marks or numeric labels are displayed. Prop Synchronization information
is not displayed while in Reversionary Mode.
NOTE: The gauges displayed and the values shown in this section are taken from an example Beechcraft
200/B200 configuration. Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for specific values and
operating limitations.
200/B200 Example Configuration
Figure 3-5 EIS Reversionary Mode Display
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
• Audio Panel (2)
• Multi Function Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder (2)
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
• PFD/MFD Controller
The PFD and PFD/MFD Controller controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation
radios.
The two Audio Panels provide the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio
selection. Each Audio Panel includes a two position intercom system (ICS) between the pilot and copilot, a
marker beacon system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a
feature called Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces
the amount of background noise from the radios.
The Mode S Transponders are controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knobs. The Transponder Data Box is
located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the selected transponder, the active four-digit
code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
AUDIO PANEL VOLUME CONTROL
The VOL/CRSR Knobs control selection and volume for audio sources that may not be adjustable anywhere
else in the system. The small knob controls the volume. Turning the large knob activates and/or moves the
cursor (flashing white annunciator or flashing blue annunciator in Blue-Select Mode) to select the audio source
to adjust. The cursor will time-out after a few seconds and the position of the cursor will always default back to
the CREW Key. Pressing the small knob cancels the cursor.
COM and NAV volumes may be adjusted either using the audio panel or using the PFD COM and NAV
VOL Knobs. These two methods of adjustment affect the same volume control for each radio; there are not two
separate adjustments.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9
10
11
13
12
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and DME Tuning Window
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue numbers) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected COM
transceiver frequency is displayed in green. If available, the COM frequency source is pulled from the
database and displayed below the COM frequency box.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue numbers) and the Frequency Transfer
Arrow between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
DME Tuning Window – Displays DME frequency pairing mode. Display by pressing the DME Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME pairing mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes, select DME modes, and
Auto-tune entries when DME Tuning Window or NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn
the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
13
DME Softkey – Displays the DME Tuning Window.
190-02041-01 Rev. B
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115
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
1
2
3
4
3
4
5
6
25
17
7
8
13
14
9
10
15
16
11
12
7
8
13
14
26
27
15
16
28
29
10
17
18
19
11
12
20
21
19
18
30
Volume/Squelch
Annunciations
23
22
32
31
33
24
24
GMA 1347D
GMA 1360D
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
NOTE: When a GMA 1347D key is selected, the annunciator above the key is illuminated. When a GMA
1360D Key is selected, the in-key annunciation is illuminated.
Control Name
116
1
COM1 MIC
2
COM1
3
COM2 MIC
4
COM2
GMA
1347D
GMA
1360D
Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM
receiver to be heard. COM2 receiver audio can be added by pressing the
COM2 Key. When the PTT is active the annunciation will be flashing.
X
X
When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
X
X
Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM
receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be added by pressing the COM1 Key.
When the PTT is active the annunciation will be flashing.
X
X
When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
X
X
Description
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. B
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Control Name
Description
GMA
1347D
5
COM3 MIC
Reserved for optional COM radio.
X
6
COM3
Reserved for optional COM radio.
X
7
PA
8
TEL
9
MUSIC
10
SPKR
11
MKR/MUTE
12
HI SENS
13
DME
14
Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is
deselected when the PA Key is pressed. A solid annunciation indicates PA
mode is active, while a flashing annunciation indicates PTT has been keyed.
When selected, activates the SATCOM transceiver enabling telephone audio
and MIC.
Selects/Deselects the TEL audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device to
the TEL audio. Press the TEL key until the annunciator turns blue. The inkey annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the
wired audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE:
The Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time. Once the
Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment
audio sources will only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
Toggles the Music 1 input on or off. Pressing and holding toggles music
muting on or off..
Selects and deselects the on-side flight deck speaker. COM, NAV, AUX, PA, and
MKR receiver audio can be heard on the speaker.
Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker
beacon receiver audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon
audio is received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio.
Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to
low sensitivity.
X
GMA
1360D
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Turns optional DME audio on or off.
X
X
NAV1
When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
X
X
15
ADF
Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
X
X
16
NAV2
When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
X
X
17
AUX
Not used in Beechcraft 200/B200 Series aircraft.
X
18
MAN SQ
19
PLAY
20
INTR COM
190-02041-01 Rev. B
Reserved for optional audio.
Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press
the ICS Knob to illuminate SQ. Turn the ICS Knob to adjust squelch.
Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press
the VOL/SQ Knob to illuminate the squelch annunciation. Turn the VOL/SQ
Knob to adjust squelch.
Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is
playing and the previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent
press plays each previously recorded block. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key
during play of a memory block stops play.
Selects and deselects the pilot/copilot intercom on both Audio Panels.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
X
X
X
X
X
X
117
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Control Name
21
CABIN
Initiates intercom communications with passengers in the cabin.
22
ICS Knob
23
MSTR Knob
24
Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. Press to switch between volume
and squelch control as indicated by illumination of VOL or SQ. The MAN SQ
Key must be selected to allow squelch adjustment.
The Master Volume Control adjusts volume for the blended NAV, COM,
intercom audio, and alert warnings.
DISPLAY
Manually selects PFD/MFD Reversionary Mode.
BACKUP Button
25
AUX MIC
26
CREW ICS
27
MUS1
28
PASS ICS
29
Description
MUS2
Reserved for optional audio.
Controls the crew intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable onside
Bluetooth recording mode.
Selects/Deselects the MUS1 audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device
to the MUS1 audio. Press the MUS1 key until the annunciator turns blue. The
in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the
wired audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The
Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time for each audio
panel. Once the Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining
entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
GMA
1360D
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Controls the passenger intercom system.
X
Selects/Deselects the MUS2 audio source and can assign the Bluetooth device
to the MUS2 audio. Press the MUS2 key until the annunciator turns blue. The
in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the
wired audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The
Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time for each audio
panel. Once the Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining
entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
X
Volume/Squelch
Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
Indicator
Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the selected source
(indicated by the flashing white or blue annunciator). When the volume control
cursor is not active press to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume control
Volume/
cursor is active, press twice (once to cancel the cursor, twice to activate BlueSquelch (VOL/
31
Select mode). Press and hold for five seconds to enable the audio panel as
SQ) Control
discoverable for pairing. The Bluetooth Annunciator will flash to indicate that
Knob
the unit is discoverable. The unit will remain discoverable for 90 seconds or
until a successful pair is established. Once a successful pair is established, the
audio “Bluetooth paired” is played.
Cursor (CRSR) Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or blue annunciator) to the desired
32
Control Knob source.
Bluetooth®
A flashing cyan annunciator indicates the unit is discoverable. A solid blue
Connection
33
annunciator indicates an active Bluetooth connection.
Annunciator
30
118
GMA
1347D
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
X
X
X
X
190-02041-01 Rev. B
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD/MFD CONTROLLER
The PFD/MFD Controller is a pedestal-mounted interface allowing MFD operation, data entry, COM and NAV
tuning, and transponder control. Many procedures can be performed using the PFD/MFD Controller rather
than the display bezel controls. Annunciators beside the FMS, XPDR, COM, and NAV keys illuminate when
their respective control modes are selected. The unit is in FMS control mode by default on system power-up.
The appropriate frequency box on the selected display is outlined by a light blue selection box, which flashes
for a few seconds to indicate PFD/MFD Controller activity. Selection of a different display control or radio
tuning mode results in cancelation of the previous radio tuning mode.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
14
10
13
12
11
Figure 4-3 PFD/MFD Controller
Tuning Selection
Box
Figure 4-4 Frequency Tuning with the PFD/MFD Controller
1
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus. Press and hold to activate the Navigation
Map Page on the MFD
2
MENU Key – Displays a list of options for accessing additional features or making setting changes.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
120
3
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
4
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. This knob provides tuning capability for the COM and
NAV radios when the appropriate COM or NAV key is pressed. When the XPDR Key is pressed, the
transponder code may be entered using the FMS Knob. The large knob moves the cursor in the window.
The small knob selects individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
5
FMS Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control FMS functions on the MFD. When pressed, an annunciator next
to the key illuminates indicating adjustment of the FMS Knob will now affect FMS functions.
6
COM Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the COM radios. The first press will select COM1,
as indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select COM2. This is annunciated
with a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the COM Key will switch between COM1 and
COM2. Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected COM The COM Tuning Selection Box is outlined with a
light blue line when the COM frequency is active on the PFD/MFD Controller (Figure 4‑4).
7
Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Transfers the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies. Press
and hold for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the COM
active frequency field.
8
NAV Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the NAV radios. The first press will select NAV1, as
indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select NAV2. This is annunciated with
a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the NAV Key will switch between NAV1 and NAV2.
Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected NAV. The NAV Tuning Selection Box is outlined with a light blue
line when the NAV frequency is active on the PFD/MFD Controller.
9
XPDR Key – Sets the FMS Knob to enter transponder codes. When pressed, an annunciator next to the
key illuminates indicating the FMS Knob can now be used for transponder code entry. Transponder code
entry can be performed with either the number keypad or FMS Knob.
10
IDENT Key – Press to activate the IDENT function of the transponder. When the IDENT Key is pressed,
a green IDNT indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for 18 seconds.
11
SEL Key – The center of this key activates the selected MFD softkey, while the right and left arrows move
the softkey selection box to the right and left, respectively.
12
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
13
BKSP Key – Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
14
Alphanumeric Keys – Allows data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/
numbers).
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-01 Rev. B
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TUNING BOXES
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
8
Figure 4-5 COM Tuning Box Indications
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
1
Active Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
left. An active COM frequency is displayed in green and indicates that the COM transceiver is selected
on the Audio Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white
indicate that no COM radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which COM transceiver is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
3
Standby Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the right. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
4
Frequency Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which COM transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field.
5
Automatic Squelch Indication – Indicates that Automatic Squelch is disabled. Automatic Squelch quiets
unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good sensitivity to weak COM
signals. When Automatic Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise
is heard over the headsets and speaker, if selected.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
6
Transmit and Receive Indications – During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM
frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow. During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by
the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow.
7
Frequency Spacing – The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or
8.33-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When
8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in
the complete 3040-channel list.
8
COM Volume – COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
When the same COM radio is selected on both Audio Panels, the pilot has transmit priority on COM1, the
copilot has transmit priority on COM2.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
Manual COM frequency tuning from the PFD/MFD Controller
1) Press the COM Key to enable the FMS Knob for COM tuning. The COM Tuning Selection Box is shown.
2) Press the COM Key again, if needed, to select the desired COM radio (1 or 2).
3) Turn the FMS Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
Or:
Press the numeric keys on the keypad to enter a Frequency.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
If an error is made during frequency entry with the numeric keypad, pressing the BKSP Key moves the
cursor back one space. If an incorrect frequency is entered, reenter the correct one using the same procedure.
QUICK-TUNING AND ACTIVATING 121.500 MHZ
Pressing and holding the COM Frequency Transfer Key for two seconds automatically loads the emergency
COM frequency (121.500 MHz) in the active field of the COM radio selected for tuning (the one with the
transfer arrow). In the example shown, pressing the Audio Panel COM2 MIC Key activates the transceiver.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Press for Two Seconds to
Load 121.500 MHz
Figure 4-6 Quickly Tuning 121.500 MHz
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport
identifiers and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Figure 4-7 Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
Select the
Nearest Softkey
to Open the
Nearest Airports
Window
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
190-02041-01 Rev. B
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
4) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu .
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired NAV frequency field.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-8 Nearest Pages Menus
On the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to
load frequency
into PFD1 COM
Standby Field.
Cursor then
advances to the
next frequency.
Figure 4-9 WPT – Airport Information Page
Select Info 1 Softkey
for AIRPORT,
RUNWAYS, and
FREQUENCIES
Windows
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page, ‘NRST – Nearest
Frequencies’ Page, and ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate
softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FREQUENCY SPACING
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000
to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected,
all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the G1000 softkeys are blank.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-10 ‘AUX – System Setup 1’ Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV TUNING BOXES
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
Figure 4-11 NAV Tuning Box Indications
1
Standby Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the left. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which NAV transciever is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
3
Active Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
right. An active NAV frequency is displayed in green. The active NAV radio is selected by pressing the
CDI softkey on the PFD. Both active NAV frequencies appearing in white indicate that no NAV radio is
selected.
4
NAV Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio standby frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which NAV transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field. Moving the Frequency
Tuning Box is accomplished by pressing the NAV knob on the PFD.
5
VOR/LOC Morse Code Audio Indication – When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio,
a white ID replaces the Frequency Transfer Arrow to the left of the active NAV frequency. In order to
listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID
Knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV Tuning Box. To turn on/off both
NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing the small NAV Knob and
pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
6
Decoded Morse Code Station Identifier – The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code
station identifier that is received from the navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station
identifier is still required, and can be accomplished by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio
panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
7
NAV VOLUME – NAV radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Pressing the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for tuning,
the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active NAV frequency
color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the previously selected NAV
standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, ADF, or DME Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard over
the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
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Manual NAV frequency tuning from the PFD/MFD Controller
1) Press the NAV Key to enable the FMS Knob for NAV tuning. The NAV Tuning Selection Box is shown.
2) Press the NAV Key again, if needed, to select the desired NAV radio (1 or 2).
3) Turn the FMS Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
Or:
Press the numeric keys on the keypad to enter a Frequency.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
If an error is made during frequency entry with the numeric keypad, pressing the BKSP Key moves the
cursor back one space. If an incorrect frequency is entered, reenter the correct one using the same procedure.
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or the
appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor on the NAV
frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
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Turn the FMS Knob
to Scroll Through a
List of Frequencies.
Press the ENT Key to Load a
Highlighted Frequency into the
NAV Standby Frequency Box.
Figure 4-12 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the PFD/MFD Controller to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired NAV frequency field.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-13 Nearest Pages Menus
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
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Press the ENT Key to
Load the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
Select the FREQ Softkey to Place
Select the VOR Softkey to Place
the Cursor on the VOR Frequency
the Cursor on the VOR Identifier
Figure 4-14 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency field on approach activation, on both
PFD1 and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
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• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of an ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations. The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The MKR/MUTE Key
Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker beacon signal
is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while marker beacon
audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME tuning
and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The system tunes the optional DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF
NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The DME Tuning Window is located to the right of the HSI in the lower right corner of the PFD. The DME
transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the DME Tuning Window. Pressing the DME
Softkey switches the DME Tuning Window on and off.
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DME
Modes
Figure 4-15 DME Tuning Window
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV frequency.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the DME Softkey to display the ‘DME Tuning’ Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the tuning entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor in
the DME Tuning Window.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME information window.
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4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDERS
The GTX 335R, GTX 345R and GTX 3000 (optional) Mode S Transponders provide Mode A, Mode C, and
Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the
following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
GTX 33D/335/345 TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is pressed, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1,
XPDR2, Standby, On, ALT, VFR, Code, Ident, and Back.
When the Code Softkey is pressed, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Ident, BKSP, and
Back. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Pressing the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Pressing the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Pressing the Back Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Pressiing the Back
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Pressing the Ident Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 4-16 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 Softkey or the XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the desired transponder.
When turning on the system for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit, regardless of
which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder 1 and Transponder 2,
the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active transponder, switching transponders
does not bring back the previous code.
GTX 33D/335/345 TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Ground and Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The Standby, On, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by pressing the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select the active transponder.
3) Press the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder
is powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted.. When Standby is
selected, a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data
Box.
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-17 Standby Mode
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MANUAL ON MODE
ON Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode S replies
will not include altitude information. Mode C altitude reporting is inhibited.
The ON indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne
and white while on the ground.
ON Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
On-Ground (White Indication)
Airborne (Green Indication)
Figure 4-18 ON Mode
ALTITUDE MODE (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
The white Altitude Reporting Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground.
White Altitude Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while on the ground. White
Altitude Mode generates Mode S replies to discrete interrogations as well as transmission of acquisition and
extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call replies are inhibited.
If Altitude Mode is selected while on the ground, a white ALT indication and transponder code appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
On-Ground ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting Inhibited)
Figure 4-19 Altitude Mode
The green Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Green Altitude
Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while airborne. Green Altitude Mode
generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies as well as transmissions of acquisition and extended squitters
including ADS-B out.
If Altitude Mode is selected while airborne, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are
provided with pressure altitude information.
Airborne ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-20 Altitude Mode
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REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to Interrogation
Figure 4-21 Reply Indication
GTX 3000 TCAS II TRANSPONDER CONTROLS (OPTIONAL)
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Transponder/Traffic
Selection, and Mode Selection or Code Entry. When the top-level XPDR/TFC Softkey is selected, the Function
Select softkeys appear: XPDR1, XPDR2, MODE, TCAS, Code, Ident, Back.
When the MODE Softkey is pressed, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: Standby, On, ALT, TA Only, TA/
RA, Back.
When the Code Softkey is pressed, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Ident, BKSP, Back. The
digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Pressing the numbered softkeys in sequence enters the transponder
code. If an error is made, pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit.
Pressing the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Pressing the Back Softkey returns to the previous level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Pressing the Ident Softkey while in Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 4-22 Transponder Softkeys (with TCAS II option)
GTX 3000 TCAS II TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION (OPTIONAL)
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Mode) or manual (Standby, On, and Altitude Modes). The
Standby, On, ALT, TA Only, and TA/RA Softkeys can be accessed by pressing the XPDR/TFC Softkey, then the
MODE Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the MODE Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
3) Press the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode (STBY, On, or ALT).
Selecting a TCAS II mode:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the MODE Softkey to display the TCAS II Mode Selection Softkeys.
3) Press the desired softkey to activate the TCAS II mode (TA Only or TA/RA).
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited. TCAS II is switched to Standby Mode, because the
transponder is not capable of supporting TCAS II operation in Standby Mode.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder does
not reply to interrogations, but new codes can be entered. When Standby is selected, a white STBY indication
and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-23 Standby Mode
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NOTE: TCAS II is switched to Standby Mode, because the transponder is not capable of supporting TCAS II
operation in On Mode.
ON Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the On Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters, including ADS-B out (if equipped).
Mode S replies will not include altitude information. Mode C altitude reporting is inhibited.
The On indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and
white while on the ground.
ON Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
On-Ground (White Indication)
Airborne (Green Indication)
Figure 4-24 On Mode
ALTITUDE MODE (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
NOTE: TCAS II is switched to Standby Mode when the altitude mode is manually selected using the ALT
Softkey.
The white Altitude Reporting Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground.
White Altitude Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while on the ground. White
Altitude Mode generates Mode S replies to discrete interrogations as well as transmission of acquisition and
extended squitters, including ADS-B out (if equipped). Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call replies are
inhibited.
If Altitude Mode is selected while on the ground, a white ALT indication and transponder code appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
On-Ground ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting Inhibited)
Figure 4-25 Altitude Mode
The green Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Green Altitude
Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while airborne. Green Altitude Mode
generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies as well as transmissions of acquisition and extended squitters
including ADS-B out (if equipped).
If Altitude Mode is selected while airborne, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are
provided with pressure altitude information.
Airborne ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-26 Altitude Mode
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ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Press the XPDR or XPDR/TFC Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the Code Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be selected within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Pressing the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering a Code
Figure 4-27 Entering a Code
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR or XPDR/TFC and the Code Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
Figure 4-28 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
Entering a transponder code with the PFD/MFD Controller:
1) Press the XPDR Key to select the transponder code field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits, turn the large FMS Knob to select the
last two digits, and turn the small FMS Knob to enter the last two code digits.
Or:
Press the numeric keys on the keypad to enter a code.
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If an error is made during code entry with the numeric keypad, pressing the BKSP Key moves the cursor
back one space. If an incorrect code is entered, reenter the correct one using the same procedure.
Third, Press the ENT Key to Complete Code Entry
Second, Turn the FMS Knob, Small Knob to Enter Two Code Digits at a
Time, Large Knob to Move the Cursor to the Next Code Field, or Press
the Numeric Keys to Enter a Code into the Transponder Data Box
First, Press the XPDR Key to Activate Code
Entry from the FMS Knob or Numeric
Keypad into the Transponder Data Box
Figure 4-29 Transponder Code Entry from the PFD/MFD Controller
VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by pressing the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is pressed, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Pressing the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-30 VFR Code
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
Pressing the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The Ident Softkey
appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is pressed, a green Ident indication is
displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the Ident Softkey is pressed while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level softkeys.
Ident Indication
Select the Ident Softkey
to Initiate the ID Function
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Figure 4-31 Ident Softkey and Indication
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panels perform a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off. The exceptions are the speaker and intercom, which are always
selected during power up.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
NOTE: When the oxygen mask switch on the instrument panel is selected, each pilot’s microphone audio is
heard on the cross-side speaker. The on-side speaker is also enabled and cannot be deselected.
Each Audio Panel is connected to a separate flight deck speaker for listening to all of the radios. Each SPKR
Key controls the on-side speaker unless oxygen masks are in use. During oxygen mask use the on-side speaker
is always enabled.
Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects the speaker. Except for oxygen mask use, speaker audio is
muted when the PTT Key is pressed.
UNMUTED INPUTS
Aural alerts are always present on the headset and are on the speaker when the SPKR is selected. These
warnings and the aircraft radios are not heard on the passenger headphones.
INTERCOM SYSTEM (ICS) (GMA 1347)
Pressing the INTR COM Key on either Audio Panel selects and deselects the intercom on both Audio Panels.
The annunciator is lit when the intercom is active. The intercom connects the pilot and copilot together. Either
the pilot or copilot may select or deselect the intercom.
The CABIN Key initiates two way communication between the pilot or copilot and the passengers in the
cabin. The annunciator is lit when the cabin intercom is active on either Audio Panel.
When the flight crew wants to communicate with the passengers, the pilot or copilot presses the CABIN
Key to signal that communication is desired. The cabin signal must be acknowledged to begin intercom
conversation.
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The MAN SQ Key allows either automatic or manual control of the intercom squelch setting. Pressing the
MAN SQ Key enables manual squelch control, indicated by the MAN SQ annunciator.
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished (Automatic Squelch is on), the ICS Knob controls only the
volume (pressing the ICS Knob has no effect on the VOL/SQ selection).
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated (Manual Squelch), the ICS Knob controls either volume or
squelch (selected by pressing the ICS Knob and indicated by the VOL or SQ annunciation).
Manual Squelch
Annunciator; Off
for Automatic
Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
Pilot/Copilot
ICS
Press to switch
between VOL and SQ.
Turn to adjust Squelch
when SQ Annunciation
is lit, Volume when
VOL Annunciation is lit.
Volume Annunciation
Cabin Annunciator; On for
Cabin Intercom, Flashes for
Cabin to Flight Deck Hail
Selects and Deselects
Cabin Intercom
Master Volume
Control for Pilot
Side or Copilot
Side
Squelch Annunciation
Figure 4-32 Intercom Controls (GMA 1347)
INTERCOM SYSTEM (ICS) (GMA 1360)
The GMA 1360D includes an intercom system, two MUSIC inputs, and one telephone/entertainment input
for the pilot, copilot and passengers. The intercom provides Crew and Passenger audio isolation.
Pilot (Audio Panel #1)
Copilot (Audio Panel #2)
Figure 4-33 Intercom Controls (GMA 1360)
Press the CREW ICS Key and/or the PASS ICS Key to enable intercom audio for the selected position. If
the annunciators are lit, those positions will share intercom audio. If an annunciator is NOT lit that position
is isolated from the others. The CREW ICS Key is shared betweeen the Audio Panels for ICS distribution.
The PASS ICS Key is not shared betweeen the Audio Panels for ICS distribution.
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INTERCOM MODES
Audio Panel
#1
Audio Panel
#2
Pilot Hears
Copilot Hears
Passenger Hears
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot Selected Radio
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Copilot Selected Radios
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot Selected Radios
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot Selected Radios
Copilot Selected Radios
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Copilot Selected Radios
Onside Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot Selected Radios
Copilot Selected Radios
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
The VOL/CRSR Knob controls selection and volume or manual squelch adjustment for audio sources that
may not be adjustable anywhere else in the system. The small knob controls the volume or squelch. Turning
the large knob activates and/or moves the cursor (flashing white annunciator or flashing blue annunciator in
Blue-Select Mode) to select the audio source to adjust. The cursor will time-out after a few seconds and the
position of the cursor will always default back to the CREW Key. Pressing the small knob cancels the cursor.
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Manual Squelch Key
Off for Automatic Squelch,
On for Manual Squelch
Volume Annunciatio
Manual Squelch Annunciator
Off for Automatic Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
Volume/Squelch Indicator
Indicates volume/squelch setting
relative to full scale
Squelch Annunciatio
VOL/SQ Control Knob
Turn to adjust Squelch when
SQ Annunciation is lit, Volume
when VOL Annunciation is lit.
CRSR Control Knob
Turn to move the cursor (flashing
annunciator) to the desired
source
Figure 4-34 Volume/Squelch Control (GMA 1360)
PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM
A passenger address system is provided by pressing the PA Key to deliver messages to the passengers. The
message is heard by the other pilot on the headset only if the CREW ICS Key is enabled. PA messages are one
way from the flight deck to the passengers.
A Push-to-talk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA announcements to the passengers over their headphones.
When PA is selected on the Audio Panel, the annunciator flashes about once per second while pressing the
PTT, the COM MIC annunciators are no longer lit, and the active COM frequency for that Audio Panel changes
to white, indicating that there is no COM selected.
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
Figure 4-35 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
SIMULTANEOUS COM OPERATION
Both the pilot and the copilot can transmit and receive simultaneously over separate COM radios. The
selected COM MIC Annunciator flashes when either pilot’s microphone PTT is pressed.
If both pilots select the same COM radio, the pilot has priority on COM1 and the copilot has priority on
COM2.
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CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
NOTE: Pressing the Play Key on the pilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Pilot. Pressing the Play
Key on the Copilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Copilot.
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that continually records up to 2.5 minutes of the
selected COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from
the oldest block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. The PLAY annunciator remains lit to indicate when play is in
progress. The PLAY annunciator turns off after playback is finished.
Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory block and then returns to normal operation.
Pressing the PLAY Key again during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Press the microphone push-to-talk button to stop playback.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
PLAY Key Controls
the Play Function
PLAY Key Controls
the Play Function
Figure 4-36 PLAY Key
3D AUDIO (GMA 1360)
3D Audio is useful when multiple audio sources are present while using COM1 or COM2. By using different
responses in each ear, 3D audio processing creates spatial separation from each audio source, aiding in the
distinction of which audio source the pilot is hearing.
Because this feature uses different signals for left and right channels, it requires wiring for stereo intercom and
stereo headsets. If an aircraft is not wired to support stereo headsets, or the crew does not use stereo headsets,
then COMs audio will be distributed to both ears regardless of the 3D audio functionality selection.
With a single COM selected and 3D Audio enabled, the listener will hear the audio source at the 12 o’clock
position. If both COMs are selected, the listener hears COM1 at the 11 o’clock position and at the 1 o’clock
position. The scope of 3D Audio is limited to COM audio for pilot and copilot stations. All other audio (alerts,
side-tones, intercom, etc.) will be distributed equally to both ears.
Enabling 3D Audio
See the Audio discussion in System Overview for information on operation of 3D Audio. When 3D
Audio is enabled, the aural message “3D audio left” is heard in the left ear followed by “3D audio right”
in the right ear. If the aural messages are not heard in only the left and then the right ear respectively, the
cause may be aircraft wiring or headset settings. Refer to the following table if a headset or aircraft wiring
problem is suspected.
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3D Audio Troubleshooting
Cause(s)
Solution(s)
1) Use a stereo headset
1) Mono headset in use
Symptom(s)
“3D audio left” message
heard in both ears.
2) Set mono/stereo switch on headset to ‘stereo’
“3D audio right” message 2) Stereo headset in use with
mono/stereo
switch
set
to
not heard
‘mono’
3) If after checking solutions #1 and #2 see a service
3) Aircraft wiring has left audio
wired to both left and right
center as soon as possible to inspect/correct wiring.
channels of stereo headset jack
This wiring fault can cause fail-safe audio not to
function.
“3D audio left” message 1) Mono headset in use
1) Use a stereo headset
heard in both ears,
2) Set mono/stereo switch on headset to ‘stereo’
2) Stereo headset in use with
followed by “3D audio
mono/stereo switch set to
right” message heard in
mono
both ears
3) If after checking solutions #1 and #2 see a service
3) Incorrect aircraft wiring (left/
right shorted together)
center as soon as possible to inspect/correct wiring.
This wiring fault can cause fail-safe audio not to
function.
“3D audio right” message 1) Incorrect aircraft wiring (right
1) See a service center as soon as possible to inspect/
heard in both ears. “3D
channel used for mono instead
correct wiring. This wiring fault can cause fail-safe
audio left” not heard
of left or left/right swapped)
audio not to function.
“3D audio left” message 1) Stereo headset is on backwards 1) Verify correct orientation from the left/right indication
heard in right ear only
on each side of the headset or the position of the
followed by “3D audio
boom mic (usually attached on left side). If the
right” message heard in
headset is backwards left/right position information
left ear only
will be swapped.
2) Incorrect aircraft wiring (left/
2) See a service center as soon as possible to inspect/
right channels swapped)
correct wiring. This wiring fault can cause fail-safe
audio not to function.
“3D audio left” message 1) Aircraft wired for mono
heard in left ear only, no
intercom
audio heard in right ear.
“3D audio right” message 1) Incorrect aircraft wiring (right
heard in right ear only, no
channel used for mono instead
audio heard in left ear
of left, or left/right swapped)
1) See a service center to wire the installation for stereo
headsets.
1) See a service center as soon as possible to inspect/
correct wiring. This wiring fault can cause fail-safe
audio not to function.
TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS (GMA 1347)
MUSIC INPUT #1 and MUSIC INPUT #2 cannot be completely turned off. Audio level for
MUSIC INPUT #1 and MUSIC INPUT #2 can be adjusted by a Garmin-authorized service center.
NOTE:
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The Audio Panel provides two stereo auxiliary entertainment inputs: MUSIC INPUT #1 and MUSIC
INPUT #2. These inputs are compatible with popular portable entertainment devices such as MP3 players,
cell phones, and tablets. Two 3.5-mm stereo phone jacks are installed in convenient locations for audio
connection. The headphone outputs of the entertainment devices are plugged into the MUSIC INPUT #1 or
MUSIC INPUT #2 jacks.
The current ICS state of isolation affects the distribution of the entertainment input MUSIC INPUT #1.
MUSIC INPUT #1
MUSIC INPUT #1 can be heard by the pilot and copilot when both the PILOT and the COPLT Annunciators
are extinguished. MUSIC INPUT #1 can also be heard by the pilot when the COPLT Annunciator is
illuminated and by the copilot when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated.
MUSIC INPUT #1 Muting
MUSIC INPUT #1 muting occurs when aircraft radio or marker beacon activity is heard. MUSIC
INPUT #1 is always soft muted when an interruption occurs from these sources. Soft muting is the
gradual return of MUSIC INPUT #1 to its original volume level. The time required for MUSIC INPUT #1
volume to return to normal is between one-half and four seconds.
MUSIC INPUT #1 Muting Enable/Disable
Pressing and holding the MKR/MUTE Key for three seconds switches MUSIC INPUT #1 muting on and
off. When switching, either one or two beeps are heard; one beep indicates that music muting is enabled,
two beeps indicate music muting is disabled. MUSIC INPUT #1 muting is reset (enabled) during power
up.
MUSIC INPUT #2
MUSIC INPUT #2 can be heard only by the passengers and is never muted.
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously
(optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional Features Section for
more details on the Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to either MUSIC INPUT #1 or MUSIC INPUT #2 jacks removes the SiriusXM
Radio Audio from that input. For example, if passengers prefer their own music while the pilot listens to
the SiriusXM Radio, the entertainment audio should be connected to the MUSIC INPUT #2 jack.
TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS (GMA 1360)
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs:
• The TEL Key, the MUS1 Key and the MUS2 Key control a telephone or entertainment device connected to
the rear of the audio panel or connected using Bluetooth.
• SiriusXM Radio audio, if equipped, is wired to the MUS1 and MUS2 inputs.
Distribution of the entertainment inputs are configured in Blue-Select Mode.
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Iridium phone distribution for passengers can be controlled by either audio panel, but the volume
adjustment is controlled only by the on-side audio panel, even if TEL has been deselected.
Telephone and Entertainment Muting
Telephone and entertainment muting is configured at installation. Regardless of configuration, telephone
and entertainment audio is always muted during alerts.
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously
(optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional Features Section for
more details on the Data Link Receiver.
BLUE-SELECT MODE (GMA 1360)
The music (MUS) and telephone (TEL) audio are distributed using the Blue-Select Mode. The following
example indicates that the pilot will hear the telephone, and all passengers will hear the Music 2 audio.
Pilot (Audio Panel #1)
Copilot (Audio Panel #2)
Figure 4-37 Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)(GMA 1360)
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pressing the small knob when the volume control cursor (flashing white
annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, press the small knob twice. The first press
will cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select Mode.
The annunciator over the TEL Button will be flashing blue. Any combination of the annunciators over
the CREW ICS Button and the PASS ICS Button may be blue. Select the desired button to turn the blue
annunciator on or off to distribute the telephone audio to selected crew/passenger positions. Turn the large
knob to select MUS1 or MUS2, and select the crew/passenger positions to receive the music audio. The
CREW ICS Key is not shared between the Audio Panels for Blue-Select Mode. The PASS ICS Key is shared
between the Audio Panels for Blue-Select Mode.
Selecting any button other than CREW ICS, PASS ICS, TEL, MUS1, or MUS2 will cancel Blue-Select Mode.
Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After approximately ten seconds with no
input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel.
NOTE: Bluetooth telephone audio is not available for distribution to the passenger position via Blue Select
Mode.
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BLUETOOTH® SETUP (GMA 1360)
NOTE: Pairing is only necessary during the first attempt to connect a Bluetooth device. Once paired, the
Audio Panel and the device will connect automatically.
PAIRING A BLUETOOTH DEVICE WITH AN AUDIO PANEL
Press and hold the VOL/SQ Knob for two seconds. The Bluetooth Annunciator flashes to indicate the
unit is discoverable and the aural message “Bluetooth discoverable” is heard. The Audio Panel will remain
discoverable for 90 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once paired, the Bluetooth Annunciator
turns steady blue and the aural message “Bluetooth connected/paired” is heard.
ASSIGNING AN AUDIO SOURCE TO THE BLUETOOTH DEVICE
To enable a telephone conversation utilizing a Bluetooth connection to either GMA-1 or GMA-2 , press the TEL
Key (Blue Select Mode). Pressing the TEL Key on GMA-1 telephone audio will only be heard by the pilot. Pressing
the TEL Key on GMA-2 telephone audio will only be heard by the copilot. Adjusting the distribution of blue
TEL audio to the passenger position is not possible. Music can be heard by either pilot position or passengers by
pressing the MUS1 Key (Blue Select Mode) on each GMA and adjusting the distribution as desired.
For music sources that are selected on by both pilots, the Bluetooth distribution to passengers is shared
between audio panels (if one pilot turns passenger distribution on or off, that is reflected on the other pilot’s
audio panel).
And although music can be distributed to all passengers by either audio panel, music volume for passengers
is adjusted only by the audio panel that each passenger is connected to.
Bluetooth audio will maintain a separate volume level and Blue Select distribution from the wired audio
source.
NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source per Audio Panel at a time. Once the
Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment audio sources on that Audio
Panel will only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
ADDITIONAL BLUETOOTH CONTROL FUNCTIONS
When the Audio Panel detects a recording device as the Bluetooth connected device, the CREW ICS
Annunciator will turn BLUE. All audio heard by the Pilot will be recorded. Press and hold the CREW ICS
Button to enable/disable Bluetooth Recording mode.
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4.6 AUDIO PANELS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the flight crew is using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob, verify that
the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at max volume setting. On
single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the audio
system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the flight crew is now able to set the ICS squelch manually. If
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the small knob turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the system the following steps aid the flight crew in maximizing the use of the Audio Panels
as well as prevent flight crew induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a flight
crew boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panels and radios.
Once this procedure has been completed, the master volume controls on both Audio Panels may now be
adjusted. The flight crew can change settings, keeping in mind the notes above.
Setting the Audio Panels during preflight:
1) Verify that the CREW ICS and PASS ICS annunciators are lit.
2) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
3) Use the Blue-Select Mode to distribute TEL, MUS1, and MUS2 appropriately.
4) Use the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust the intercom volumes to the desired level.
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4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the system includes equipment failures of the system components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
The COM1 MIC Key Annunciator or the COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as
the PTT Key remains stuck.
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred.
PFD FAILURE, DUAL SYSTEM
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1
automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency frequency is available
to both the copilot and pilot.
If PFD2 fails, COM2 and NAV2 display a red X on the remaining PFD display. NAV2 is unavailable. COM2
tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM2 emergency frequency is available to both the
copilot and pilot.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on
the speakers.
If there is a failure of one Audio Panel, the remaining one does not have access to the others side’s COM and
NAV. For example, if the pilot side Audio Panel fails, the copilot side Audio Panel has access to all the radios
except for COM1 and NAV1. If a single Audio Panel has failed, COM volume control is not adjustable on the
failed Audio Panel, audio volume will default to a set level.
REVERSIONARY MODE
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the PFD/MFD Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview
Section for more information on Reversionary Mode.
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the three full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and
one Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD. A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/
VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)).
The Inset Map and HSI Map are small versions of the Navigation Map. The Inset Map is displayed in the lower
left corner of the PFD (lower right during reversionary mode), and the HSI Map is displayed in the center of
the HSI. The Inset Map and the HSI Map may each be referred to as the PFD Map. A PFD Map is displayed by
pressing the Map/HSI Softkey, pressing the Layout Softkey, then pressing either the Inset Map or HSI Map
Softkey. Pressing the Map Off Softkey removes the PFD Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the PFD Map can be reduced by pressing the Map/
HSI Softkey on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey. The amount of displayed data for the Navigation Map
can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the MFD. The Navigation Map can be oriented three different
ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. The current range is indicated in the
upper left corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
The ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘Flight Plan’ Window, the ‘Procedures’ Window, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Current Track Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD (Inset Map)
Navigation Status Box
Navigation Mode
Current Track Indicator
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
HSI Map
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD (HSI Map)
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Navigation Status Box
Display Title
Map Orientation
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Map Range
Flight Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Map
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1
minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status box are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Right Holding Pattern
Table 5-1 PFD Status Bar Symbols
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The Navigation Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
• BRG
(Bearing)
• FOB
• DEST
(Destination airport identifier)
• FOD (Fuel over destination)
• DIS
(Distance)
• GS
(Groundspeed)
• DTG
(Distance to go to destination)
• ISA
(Temperature at standard pressure)
• DTK
(Desired tack)
• LDG (ETA at final destination)
• END
(Endurance)
• MSA (Minimum safe altitude)
• ENR
(ETE to final destination)
• TAS
(True airspeed)
• ESA
(Enroute safe altitude)
• TKE
(Track angle error)
• ETA
(Estimated time of arrival)
• TRK
(Track)
• ETE
(Estimated time enroute)
• VSR
(Vertical speed required)
• FLT
(Flight timer)
• XTK
(Cross-track error
(Fuel on Board)
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the ‘MFD Data Bar Fields’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the desired data.
5) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the Defaults Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system maps
can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.)
with names
• Map range
• Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Obstacle data
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing
to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other
pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
• Topography scale and data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (‘Map’)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (‘WPT’)
• ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page (‘Aux’)
• Flight Plan Pages (‘FPL’)
• All Nearest Group Pages (‘NRST’)
• Direct To Window
• PFD Maps
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper left corner of the map.
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
• North up (North up) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (Track up) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Heading up (HDG up) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
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The North Up Above setting configures the map to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the
map range reaches a minimum range.
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. Any other displays that
show navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
North Up Above Field
Figure 5-8 Map Settings Menu - Map Group
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Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Map Settings’ Menu.
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘Orientation’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
7) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
Enabling/disabling North Up Above and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘North Up Above’ Field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. The current range is indicated in
the upper left corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. When the
map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to accurately represent the map,
a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick
counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
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Auto Zoom On
Figure 5-9 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on ‘Map Settings’ Menu). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map
range clearly showing the potential impact areas. If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any navigation map
displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic
advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the
active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of the ranges
at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times (set on the
‘Map Settings’ Menu for the ‘Map’ Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum distance to
display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the
auto zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/ minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the ‘Map Settings’ Menu for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
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• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range
available (1000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ On/Off Field, and select ‘Off’ or ‘On’ using the small FMS
Knob.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Auto Zoom’ display selection
Field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max Look FWD’ Field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99 minutes).
11) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• Graphically create user waypoints
• Measure the bearing distance from the aircraft present position to any location on the navigation map, or
between any two points on the navigation map
• View obstacle, airspace, and airway information
When the panning function is selected by pushing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
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NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
Map Pointer Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
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Information about Point
of Interest
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet above Mean Sea Level
(MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Panning the map:
1) Push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer and place the
Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘WPT - <Waypoint> Information’ Page for the selected waypoint.
3) Press the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page showing
the selected waypoint.
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Reviewing information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer and place the
Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace. (As the Map Pointer crosses the airspace
boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information is shown.)
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Information’
Window for the selected airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the ‘Information’ Window.
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may
be calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page menu. The
bearing and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically
identifying points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is
provided in a window at the top of the navigation map.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed).
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, push the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the ‘Page
Menu’ Window and press the ENT Key.
TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar to
aviation sectional charts. The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data
is displayed.
Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following procedures. Topographic data
can also be displayed on the selectable VSD Inset at the bottom of the navigation map. In addition, the
Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the map) showing a
scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.(the profile map is not available if
TAWS-A is configured).
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
TER SoftkeyOff Selected
Topographic Data
on VSD Inset
TOPO Off
TER SoftkeyTopo Selected
TOPO On
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
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Topo Data On
Topo Data Off
Figure 5-14 PFD Inset Map - Topographic Data
Topo Data On
Topo Data Off
Figure 5-15 HSI Map - Topographic Data
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - Topo Scale
Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
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Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey .
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data using the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ ‘Page Menu’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ ‘Off, Topo, REL’ field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range field. Ranges are from 1 nm to 1000 nm.
6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ ‘On/Off’ field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land, aviation, and airspace symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type
of symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering
of the symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
Symbol
User Waypoint
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
25
1000
Highways and Roads
Interstate Highway (Freeway)
50
400
International Highway (Freeway)
50
400
US Highway (National Highway)
15
150
State Highway (Local Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads (RAILROAD)
7.5
25
Large City (> 200,000)
100
1000
Medium City (> 50,000)
Small City (> 5,000)
50
25
400
100
State/Province
400
1000
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
1
1000
Local Road (Local Road)
N/A
Table 5-2 Land Symbol Information
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AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
Symbol
Large Airport (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airport (8100 ft > Longest Runway ≥ 5000 ft, or
Longest Runway < 5000 ft with control tower)
Small Airport (Longest Runway < 5000 ft without a control
tower)
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
100
1000
50
400
25
150
1.5
5
7.5
150
N/A
25
N/A
40
Non-directional Beacon (NDB)
25
50
VOR
50
250
N/A
N/A
Visual Reporting Point (VRP)
25
40
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
250
1000
VNAV Constraints
1000
1000
See Additional Features
Runway Extension
Missed Approach Preview On/Off (Missed APPR)
Intersection (INT)
VOR Compass Rose On/Off
N/A
N/A
Table 5-3 Aviation Symbol Information
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AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Class B Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
*
*
Class C Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
*
*
Class D Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling)
*
*
Class B/Terminal Manoeuvring Area** and surrounding
Airways** (CL B/TMA/AWY)
50
150
Class C Airspace/Control Area
(CL C/CTA)
50
100
Class D Airspace/ Class A Airspace
(CL A/D)
10
100
Restricted and Prohibited Areas
(Restricted)
50
100
Military Operations Areas
(MOA (Military))
50
250
50
250
ADIZ, Alert, Danger, and Warning
(Other)
(see below)
ADIZ
Alert
Danger/Warning
* Label placement and range is determined by the system for best display and minimal clutter
** Applies to European airspace only
Table 5-4 Airspace Symbol Information
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SYMBOL SETUP
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway extensions,
railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which items appear on the
display. For example, enabling “Runway Extension” displays a dashed line on the map extending from each
runway of an airport in the flight plan when the range is set at or below the value of the map settings option.
Setting up the ‘Land’, ‘Aviation’ or ‘Airspace’ group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
The following table lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
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Item
Detail 3
Detail 2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
VRPs
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Detail 1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-5 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
Decluttering the MFD navigation map:
Press the Detail Softkey with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown.
With each softkey press, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key to apply the next declutter level and return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Decluttering the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
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AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Figure 5-17 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY Softkey
selections, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The Airway range
can also be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific
number.
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The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Airways Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airways (V Routes and T Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways (J Routes and Q Routes)
50
100
Table 5-6 Airways Symbol Information
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (AWY LO).
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (AWY HI).
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed (AWY Off).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ On/Off field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Item On or Off
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map Settings - Airways Group Setup
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’ range field.
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5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION MAP ITEMS
Navigation maps can display some additional items. These items (e.g. track vector, selected altitude intercept
arc, wind vector, fuel range ring, and SVT field of view) can be displayed/removed individually.
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for information on displaying obstacles (Point Obstacle, Wire Obstacle) on
the map.
Setting up additional ‘Map’ Group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Or:
If it is a data field, use the FMS Knob to select the range or time value.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map.
TRACK VECTOR
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track
vector is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is
selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track
vector. The track vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always
a straight line for the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map -Track Vector
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SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected
altitude. The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
WIND VECTOR ON MFD
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the display. Wind vector
information is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind
speeds greater than or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle. Fuel reserve time can be input into the
Fuel Range (RSV) time field within the ‘Map Settings’ Menu.
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Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-22 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This
is only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-23 Navigation Map - Field of View
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the system. As
a waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the system scrolls through the database, displaying
those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation leg to the
selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Identifier Entry Field
Facility Entry Field
City Entry Field
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
Entered Waypoint on Map
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-24 Waypoint Information
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a ‘Duplicate
Waypoints’ Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
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Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
Figure 5-25 Waypoint Information - Duplicate Identifier
AIRPORTS
AIRPORT INFORMATION
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs
to be aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page Map.
The ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport
information, load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures
that may be involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on
loading frequencies (auto-tuning). After engine startup, the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page defaults to the
airport where the aircraft is located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport.
On a flight plan with multiple airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘Airport’, ‘Runways’, and ‘Frequencies’.
For airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on
the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page by pressing the Info Softkey until 1 is displayed.
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Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Airport/Runway
Diagram
Softkeys
Figure 5-26 Airport Information
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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Airport Directory
Information
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Softkeys
Figure 5-27 Airport Directory Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the ‘WPT - Airport Directory’ Page by pressing the Info
Softkey until 2 is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available) on
the ‘WPT - Airport Directory’ Page:
Airport: Identifier, Type, Name,
City, State, Map
Facility Lighting and Beacon:
Hours operating, Type and Location,
CTAF, beacon colors
Runways: Headings, Length,
Width, Facility Obstructions, Surface,
Condition, Clearance Slope
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
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Control Tower: Full/Part-time
Hours, Days Open
Noise Abatement: Flying
Procedures
Attendance: Annual, weekly, daily,
hours
Pattern Altitudes: Aircraft Class/
Altitude
FBO: Name/Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit Cards,
Phone/Fax, Hours Internet, Courtesy
Car
Weather Contacts: Service Type
and Frequencies/Phone (AWOS/
ASOS)
Approaches: Types
Aircraft Businesses/Clubs:
Name, Type (sales, training,
servicing), Frequencies/Phone/Fax,
Credit Cards, Internet, Services
Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
General Information and/or
Notes: Fees, Airport Notes, local
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Special Operations at Airport:
Helicopters, etc.
Restaurants: On the Field and
Nearby
Attractions: Hotels, Museums,
Raceways, Golfing, etc.
Elevation: Airfield Elev (ft)
NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
Mag Var: Airfield Mag Var
(degrees)
Transportation: Taxi Services, Car
Rentals, Type and Availability (public,
shuttle, limo, etc.)
Charts: VFR Sectional
Airport Manager: Phone
The Airport ‘Frequencies’ Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
FSS
Terminal *
AWOS
Gate
TMA *
Center
Ground
Tower
Class B *
Helicopter
TRSA *
Class C *
Multicom
Unicom
Clearance
Other
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-7 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
See the Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for
display (see the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey), press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location within the ‘Airport’ Box.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination
Airport’. The Destination Airport is displayed.
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NEAREST AIRPORT
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The ‘Nearest Airports’ Window displays a list of
up to 25 of the nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they
are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-28 Nearest Airports on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Window for the highlighted airport.
Pressing the ENT Key again returns to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window with the cursor on the next airport in
the list. Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the
Nearest Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-29 Airport Information on PFD
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Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey to display the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the ‘Airport Information’
Window.
3) To return to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘Back’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window and the ‘Airport Information’
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
The ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential
use in the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport
and surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘Nearest Airports’,
‘Information’, ‘Runways’, ‘Frequencies’, and ‘Approaches’.
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation
map from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one runway, up to seven
frequencies, and up to eight approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list
can be scrolled. If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The
currently selected airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
Nearest Airport
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
Approaches Available
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Window Selection
Softkeys
Figure 5-30 Nearest Airport
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Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may
already be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list
is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight
‘Select Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘Nearest Airports’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page defines the minimum runway length and
surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
Page. A minimum runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways
or runways that are not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 3000 feet (or
meters) for runway length and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface and minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Runway Surface’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, Hard/ Soft).
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Minimum Length’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
WAYPOINT INFORMATION
Non-Airport Waypoints are considered to be Intersections, VORs, NDBs, VRPs, and User Waypoints. For
each of these waypoints, their respective information pages will show a map of the currently selected waypoint,
the waypoint identifier, and location. Additionally, intersections will show the nearest VOR while both the
VOR and NDB waypoints will show their frequency and the nearest airport. User Waypoint information also
provides the waypoint type (radial/radial, radial/DME, or latitude/longitude), temporary status, comments,
and a User Waypoint list.
The ‘VOR Information’ Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly tune a VOR or ILS frequency. If a VOR station is combined
with a TACAN station it is listed as a VOR-TACAN on the ‘VOR Information’ Page and if it includes only DME,
it is displayed as VOR-DME. Also, the VOR class (Low Altitude, High Altitude, and Terminal) will be shown
in the VOR ‘Information’ Box.
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from
any map page (except PFD Inset Map, ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position
on the map using the Joystick, or from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page by referencing a bearing/
distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and longitude. Once
a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased
upon system power down.
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the ‘WPT - Intersection Information’ Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily
the VOR used to define the intersection.
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Waypoint:
Intersection
(as seen here)
NDB
VOR
VRP, or
User Waypoint
Figure 5-31 Non-Airport Waypoint Information (Intersection Example)
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NDB Identifier/Type
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
NDB Information
VOR Information
NDB Frequency
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Nearest Airport Info
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- VRP Name
VRP Information
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
User Wpt Comment
Reference Wpt/Info
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
User Waypoint List
- Identifier
- Comment
Figure 5-32 Non-Airport Waypoint Information Pages (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User Waypoint)
Viewing Non-Airport Waypoints:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT - Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPT Information’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the ‘Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User Waypoint’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
5) Press the ENT Key, if needed.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NEAREST NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
The Nearest pages can be used to quickly find waypoints close to the aircraft. The system will display
a scrollable list of up to 25 nearest waypoints with bearing and distance from the aircraft, a map of the
surrounding area, and additional information particular to the type of waypoint chosen. A white arrow before
the waypoint identifier/name indicates the currently selected waypoint shown on the map, with its associated
information in the lower box or boxes:
- The ‘NRST - Nearest Intersection’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest INT’, ‘Information’, and a
‘Reference VOR’.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest NDB’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest NDB’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NDB ‘Information’ Box will show a Compass Locator if the NDB is associated with either a Locator
Outer Marker (LOM) or Locator Middle Marker (LMM).
- The ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest VOR’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NAV frequency from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page via the
FREQ Softkey. See the Audio & CNS Section for more information.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest VRP’ Page will show two boxes labeled ‘Nearest VRP’ and ‘Information’. Information
will contain the VRP Name, Country and latitude/longitude.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest User WPTS’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest User’, ‘Information’, and
‘Reference Waypoints’. Information will include any Comments and the latitude/longitude. The ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box will provide a reference NAVAID with a radial/DME that coincides with the User Waypoint.
The nearest waypoint list will only include waypoints within 200nm. If there are no waypoints in the list,
text indicating that there are no nearest waypoints will be displayed, and the information and frequency fields
(if applicable) will be dashed.
Nearest Intersections
- White arrow indicates
the selected waypoint
shown.
Navigation Map
Example:
Showing Nearest
Intersection
Note: See next Figure
for NDB, VOR, VRP,
and User Waypoint
examples.
Nearest Non-Airport
Waypoint:
- Intersection (this example)
- NDB
- VOR
- VRP, or
- User Waypoint
Intersection Info
- Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Figure 5-33 Nearest Intersection Example
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NDB Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest User Wpt List
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
User Waypoint Info
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-34 Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User WPTS)
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Viewing Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Intersections, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPTS’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the ‘Nearest INT, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User’ Box,
Or:
If the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page is displayed, to display the flashing cursor:
Press the VOR Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key
b) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) If needed, press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob as needed to select an identifier.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page:
1) Press the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the cursor to “Temporary” and
pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “Temporary” or “Normal” by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Creating a user waypoint from the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new user waypoint. The new waypoint is placed
directly in front of the highlighted waypoint.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or user waypoints).
5) Enter the name of the new user waypoint (a waypoint that does not match any existing waypoint in the
database) and press the ENT Key.
6) The message ‘AAAAA does not exist. Create User Waypoint?’ is displayed. Press the ENT Key with ‘Yes’
highlighted.
7) The ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page is displayed. If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in
one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
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Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
9) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
10) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load WPT to FPL’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’
Page is displayed with the new user waypoint added to the flight plan.
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page is displayed with the captured position.
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
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EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Once a user waypoint has been created, it may be edited, renamed, or deleted. A system generated
comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing, and distance. If a
system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the ‘WPT — User Waypoint
Information’ ‘Page. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. The cursor
is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS Knob and scroll to the
desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page.
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DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. The cursor
is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. The cursor
is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS Knob and scroll to the
desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
5) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. The cursor
is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS Knob and scroll to the
desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All User Waypoints.’
5) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B, TMA, and Airways surrounding TMA, Class
C, CTA, Class A, Class D, Restricted (Prohibited), MOA (Military), and other airspace provided by the navigation
database. Some examples of typical airspaces are depicted below. See Table 5-4 for the maximum ranges for
each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace area. Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) are
discussed in the Hazard Avoidance Section.
Class D Airspace
MOA (Military)
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
Airspace Altitude Label
Class C Airspace
Alert Area
ADIZ
Warning Area
Figure 5-35 Airspaces
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Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace’ Group, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace ALT LBL’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ to display labels and ‘Off’ to remove labels.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
NEAREST AIRSPACE
SETTING AIRSPACE ALERTS
The ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page) on the MFD allows the pilot to turn the controlled/
special-use airspace message alerts on or off. This does not affect the alerts listed on the ‘NRST - Nearest
Airspaces ‘ Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. It simply turns on/off
the message provided in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD when the aircraft is approaching or near an airspace.
Pressing the PFD Message Softkey displays the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts
are displayed in the ‘Alerts’ Window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less than
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft track. The aircraft current ground
track penetrates the airspace within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-8 Airspace Messages
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For
example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/ below an airspace, an alert
message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter
it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Enabling/disabling airspace alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude Buffer’ Field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘Arrival Alert’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page allows the ‘Messages’ Window arrival alerts to be
turned ‘On/Off’ and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the ‘Messages’ Window and
the PFD Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching
a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight
plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘On’, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message
is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is
displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘Off’, only the PFD Navigation Status Box
message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is
approximately ten seconds.
Figure 5-36 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Enabling/disabling the Arrival Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Distance’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
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VIEWING NEAREST AIRSPACE INFORMATION
The ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In
addition, a selected frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’
Page. In addition to displaying a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the ‘NRST - Nearest
Airspaces’ Page displays airspace information in four boxes labelled ‘Airspace Alerts’, ‘Airspace Agency’,
‘Vertical Limits’, and ‘Frequencies’.
The map on the ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page automatically zooms in on the nearest airspace as listed in
the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box and an information window about that airspace is shown on the map. Use the FMS
Knob to select and view other nearest airspaces on the map. If there are no nearest airspaces listed, the map
will be centered around the aircraft present position.
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’
Page. The Alerts and FREQ Softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled
only if one or more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Airspace Alerts Info
Nearest
Airspace
Information
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace 1
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Airspace 2
Airspace 3
Softkeys
Figure 5-37 Nearest Airspaces
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SMART AIRSPACE
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The
function does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the
airspace. If the current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace
boundary is shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of
the airspace, the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
Figure 5-38 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Group’ Box of the ‘Map Settings’
Menu.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace ‘On’ or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on either the MFD Controller or the
PFD, is quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The ‘Direct To’ Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The ‘Direct To’ Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
Figure 5-39 Direct-to - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-40 Direct-to - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the ‘Direct To’ Window. Also, any waypoint
contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘FPL Active Flight Plan’ Page, or the active ‘Flight Plan’ Window.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD “Flight Plan” or
“Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into
the flight plan.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
Figure 5-41 Waypoint Submenu
The ‘Direct To’ Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to
navigation. If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active
flight plan waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page
defaults to the displayed waypoint.
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field on the ‘Direct To’ Window.
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Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan waypoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the active
flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD), and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
desired waypoint.
3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User Waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the default
selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page on
the MFD and press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan waypoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field.
3) Highlight the ’CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field.
4) Enter the desired course.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the cursor flashing in the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Box.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. If no
airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is
automatically created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, push the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the system resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from the
aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint, or at the
specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior to the directto destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of a direct-to destination that is
part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on
Vertical Navigation for more information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
INTRODUCTION
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The system
allows flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on
maps using different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan
currently being flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A Roll Steering Path is displayed for: transitions between two disconnected legs (i.e. holding), some procedure turn
segments, parallel track segments, or transitions after some fly-over waypoints (discussed later in this section).
‡ A Roll Steering Path that is beyond the next leg will appear as a Future Roll Steering Path. When a Future Roll Steering Path
becomes the next leg, it appears as a Roll Steering Path.
Table 5-9 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. Upon power up,
the previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft position is at the origin
airport and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not within 5 nm of the airport origin, on
the ground, or if more than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification, the previously
active flight plan is not retained. One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan.
The active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an
approach, departure, or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define
the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the information if
the procedure has not been modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available,
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the procedure is deleted from the affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous
Messages in Appendix A) advising that one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Vertical Deviation
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-42 Active Flight Plan
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Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Figure 5-43 Flight Plan on PFD
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flt Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
Figure 5-44 Flight Plan Catalog
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
Auto-designation will determine the most likely airport of origin and auto-populate the Active Flight Plan.
Once determined, the airfield identifier automatically appears in the ‘Origin’ Field and the line immediately
below ‘Origin’ while keeping the runway (‘RW’) Field empty. The line below the Origin line serves as the first
point in the flight plan.
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Auto-designation occurs between 15 and 60 seconds after display power-up under the following conditions:
• Aircraft position is known
• Aircraft is on the ground
• Nearest airport is within 200NM
• Flight plan is empty
If the pilot manually enters the origin, or any other leg of the flight plan before auto-designation occurs,
nothing gets inserted automatically. The automatic insertion logic only runs once, so the pilot can edit the
origin if the nearest airport is not the desired origin.
If the pilot enters a different airport into the first point of the flight plan, the Origin will change to this entry,
and the pilot will be prompted to enter the departure runway.
Both the Origin airport/runway and the first point of the flight plan will be the same unless a departure is
entered and a manual leg is inserted at the beginning of the loaded departure. Loading a departure locks in the
origin information.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD“Flight Plan” or
“Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into
the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
Flight plan information can be viewed in different locations and formats. The Flight Plan Progress inset may
be displayed on ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page format can be modified in
several ways; and the MFD Split Screen feature can provide different display configurations of the flight plan,
navigation map and charts. For flight plan profile information see the Flight Management, Vertical Situation
Display section.
FLIGHT PLAN PROGRESS INSET
Active flight plan progress can be displayed on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
NOTE: ETE can be displayed as either HH+MM (ETE greater than 60 minutes) or MM:SS (ETE less than 60
minutes).
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Active Flight
Plan Leg
Flight Plan
Progress
enabled
Figure 5-45 Flight Plan Progress on the Navigation Map
Displaying/removing the active flight plan progress on the navigation map:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the FPL PROG Softkey to display the active flight plan progress.
5) To remove the active flight plan progress from the navigation map, press the Off softkey.
ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
The ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page can be configured to show cumulative distance over the length of the
flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan; and it can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In
the wide view, additional information is displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute
(ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Changing the flight plan view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the View Softkey to display the Wide, Narrow, Leg-Leg, and CUM Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the Leg-Leg Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Press the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or press the Narrow Softkey to display the narrow view.
5) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys..
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SPLIT SCREEN
Charts may be viewed alongside the active flight plan in split screen mode. Pressing the Charts Softkey
from the ‘FPL-Active Flight Plan’ Page will remove the active flight plan map to display a Charts Pane alongside
the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane. The Active Page Title will change to ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’. The
active flight plan map can be re-displayed. However, displaying the map in split screen on the ‘Active Flight
Plan’ Pane limits the flight plan content which can be displayed. For example, displaying the Flight Plan Map
while in split screen narrow view removes the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box. See the following figures depicting
the different split screen displays with the active flight plan.
See the System Overview section for more information on Split Screen Mode. For more information on
Charts, see the Additional Features Section.
Display Title shows ‘Chart + Active Flight Plan’
Split Screen Narrow View
Split Screen Wide View
Figure 5-46 Split Screen Mode Narrow and Wide View
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Split Screen Narrow View with Flight Plan Map
Split Screen Wide View with Flight Plan Map
Figure 5-47 Split Screen Mode with Flight Plan Map
Viewing charts and ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. Split screen mode is now enabled displaying a Charts Pane alongside the ‘Active
Flight Plan’ Pane. The Charts Pane is highlighted by a cyan border indicating it is the active pane.
3) To quickly view the chart corresponding to the active flight plan leg, press the Sync Softkey.
Displaying the flight plan map on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. Split screen mode is now enabled displaying a Charts Pane alongside the ‘Active
Flight Plan’ Pane. The Charts Pane is highlighted by a cyan border indicating it is the active pane.
3) Move the Joystick to select the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane as the active display pane.
4) Press the MENU Key. ‘Show Flight Plan Map’ is highlighted. Press the ENT Key.
5) To removed the Flight Plan Map, press the MENU Key and select ‘Hide Flight Plan Map’. Press the ENT Key.
CREATING A FLIGHT PLAN
The active flight plan is listed on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, and in the ‘Flight Plan’
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is shown on
the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
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The following procedure is intended to provide an overview of basic flight plan creation. It will create a flight
plan from the origin runway to the destination runway, and includes enroute waypoint selection. The following
procedure does not include airways or terminal procedures. For instructions on how to add airways to a flight
plan, see the Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications discussion later in this Flight Planning Section.
For information on departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches see the Procedures Section.
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key. Press the small FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
2) Select the origin airport and runway (as required).
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Airport and Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field highlighted.
NOTE: If the ‘RW’ Field is filled, then the first point in the flight plan is auto-populated with the runway
selected, located in the line immediately below the ‘RW’ Field.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
3) Repeat step number 2 for the destination airport and runway.
4) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item).
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
5) Repeat step number 4 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor (if required).
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) From the MFD, press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c)
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d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
5) Repeat step number 4 for the destination airport and runway.
6) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item.)
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The stored flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
8) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINT AND AIRWAY MODIFICATIONS
Active and stored flight plans can be edited at any time. Waypoints and airways can be added, modified, or
removed from any flight plan. Edits made to an active flight plan affect navigation as soon as they are entered.
Modifications to flight planned departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches are discussed later in
the Procedures portion of Flight Management.
FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINTS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select
the desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight
plans are limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of
waypoints in the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.”
appears and the new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Adding Waypoints
NOTE: Manually adding waypoints to a flight plan after a MANSEQ leg creates a lateral gap in the flight
plan. Time, fuel, and distance values for legs beyond the gap do not include the distance across the gap.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window has duplicates, a ‘Duplicate Waypoint’
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
NOTE: If the flight plan is successfully edited in the ‘Flight Plan’ Window from PFD while the MFD ‘FPL -
Active Flight Plan’ Page is in the process of being edited, the ‘Flight Plan Modified By Other User’ Window
will appear on the MFD. Press the ENT key to return to the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page with the accepted
changes.
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Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Softkeys
Figure 5-48 FPL - Stored Flight Plan
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or user waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan using the map pointer:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob on the MFD to activate the cursor.
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint.
4) Push the Joystick on the MFD to activate the panning function on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page and pan
to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
5) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the active
flight plan.
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Adding a waypoint to an existing stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
Removing Waypoints
Individual waypoints and airways can be removed from a flight plan. Some waypoints in the final
approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be removed individually. Attempting to remove a
waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification’.
NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the end waypoint of
the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and activated.
Removing an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be removed.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Removing an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Fly-Over Waypoint Designation
Waypoints entered in the enroute segment of the flight plan may be treated as fly-by waypoints, unless
otherwise designated. A fly-by waypoint is a waypoint that marks the intersection of two straight paths,
with the transition from one path to another being made by the aircraft using a precisely calculated turn
that “flies by” but does not vertically cross the waypoint. A fly-over waypoint is a waypoint that must be
crossed vertically by the aircraft.
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-By Waypoint
Figure 5-49 TOP Fly-By Waypoint
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Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-Over
Waypoint
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Figure 5-50 TOP Fly-Over Waypoint
A fly-over waypoint is a waypoint that must be crossed vertically by the aircraft. If the system determines
that the flight plan leg geometry cannot support fly-by navigation for a waypoint sequence in the current
flight plan, it will change a fly-by waypoint to a fly-over waypoint automatically. A roll steering path or
future roll steering path may be displayed after the fly-over waypoint until the roll steering path aligns with
the course leg connecting the fly-over waypoint and the following waypoint in the flight plan. This system
generated fly-over waypoint will not display the fly-over symbol.
Fly-Over Waypoint
- No fly-over symbol
Roll Steering to next leg
- Roll Steering until path aligns
with course leg (PNH to ILOZA)
Figure 5-51 PNH Fly-Over Waypoint
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- Geometry cannot support fly-by
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A fly-over waypoint may also be manually designated by the pilot, in which case, the fly-over waypoint
symbol is displayed.
Designating a fly-over waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan, press the FPL Key and press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
Or:
For a stored flight plan, highlight the desired flight plan on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page’ and press the
Edit Softkey.
2) Highlight the desired waypoint.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-Over Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a
fly-over waypoint?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) To change the waypoint back to a fly-by waypoint, highlight the desired waypoint. Press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Set Fly-By Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a fly-by waypoint?’ Window
is displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN AIRWAYS
Within flight plans, airways can be added, removed and collapsed/expanded.
Adding Airways
Airways can be added to any flight plan. An airway can only be added if there is an existing entry waypoint
in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure. The
system anticipates the desired airway based on the selected waypoint and the flight plan.
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Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of
Selected Airway
Figure 5-52 Select Airway - Selecting Airway
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
Airway Exit Points
Available
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Figure 5-53 Select Airway - Selecting Exit Point
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Adding an airway to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey (MFD only), or press the MENU
Key and select “Load Airway”. The ‘FPL - Select Airway’ Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load
Airway” menu item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead
of the cursor position).
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is
highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
Adding an airway to a stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey (MFD only), or press the MENU
Key and select “Load Airway”. The ‘FPL - Select Airway’ Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load
Airway” menu item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead
of the cursor position).
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
7) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is
highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a
directional restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction.
For example, airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the
list of airway waypoints. That is, each waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to another
waypoint.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the system database.
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The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the
flight plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
Removing Airways
Removing an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the header of the airway to be removed.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the airway to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Collapsing Airways
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded. When airways have
been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value
is inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The active flight plan will always keep the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a
collapsed airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is
automatically expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight
plan review.
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All Airways
Collapsed View
V4.SLN Airway
Expanded View
Figure 5-54 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
FLIGHT PLAN OPERATIONS
This section will discuss activating a flight plan leg and conducting enroute operations such as creating an
along track offset, parallel track, closest point from a reference point and user defined holding. For information
on departures, arrivals, and approaches refer to the Procedures portion later in the Flight Management Section.
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The flight plan leg which is currently being used for navigation guidance is referred to as the ‘active leg’.
The system automatically sequences from one active leg to the next as defined by the active flight plan. Any
leg in the active flight plan successive to the leg currently being flown may be selected to become the new
active leg.
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight
plan. Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the
system reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances
can be entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along
track offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results
in an along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an
along track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at
or after the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be removed and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-55 Along Track Offset
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Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ Box altitude field.
3) Enter the desired altitude using the FMS Knob.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice is
displayed. If the waypoint is an airfield, turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT
Key to accept the altitude.
5) The cursor is now flashing in the ‘VNV’ offset distance field.
6) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to activate.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The system displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user
waypoint at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
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PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of
the current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the
parallel course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier. Activation of parallel
track will apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that does not meet the criteria for
parallel track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track at the beginning of that leg.
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled.
The following will inhibit activation of a parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to the selected waypoint.
• If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with
the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’.
• If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp turn of
more than 120 degrees), the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because
of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’).
• If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status indicates that
the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the active leg type
(‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’).
If there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. The following will
cancel the parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to a waypoint.
• Initiating a hold at the present position.
• If a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
• No legs are remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. Initiating a hold at
a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is required to fly to the hold
waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the parallel track will be resumed.
Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be resumed upon exiting the hold.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
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Offset Direction
Offset Distance
Activation Prompt
Figure 5-56 Parallel Track
Parallel Track Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Parallel Track
Original Track
Figure 5-57 Parallel Track Active
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Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with the ‘Direction’ Field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘Distance’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Parallel Track’ is
highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-58 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To
Waypoint selection
Figure 5-59 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the time/length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the time/length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
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Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a ¯ Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘Hold?’ instead of ‘Activate?’ when
finished (MFD or PFD).
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the time/length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined
at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the active flight plan, the HOLD is inserted into
the active flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is
created.)
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the HOLD waypoint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window (PFD or MFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
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MANAGING FLIGHT PLANS
The pilot can manage flight plans by importing/exporting via SD Card or mobile device, and by storing,
copying, inverting, and deleting. Also, the comment field (name) of each flight plan can be changed to
something that is useful for identification and sorting.
IMPORTING AND EXPORTING FLIGHT PLANS
Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Wireless Transceiver (FlightStream 510).
Transfer of a flight plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device. When a mobile device is
attempting to transfer a flight plan to the system, the pending flight plan may be ignored, previewed, stored,
or activated by the pilot.
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
Ignore Softkey
Preview Softkey
Figure 5-60 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
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Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Store? or Activate?
Selection
Delete Softkey
Store Softkey
Activate Softkey
Figure 5-61 Preview Flight Plan
Ignoring a flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight Plan pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan will
still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Or:
Press the Ignore Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan
will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Previewing a flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight Plan pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
Press the Preview Softkey to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Preview Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
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Storing a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
6) Press the Store Softkey to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store?’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Activating a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
4) Press the Activate Softkey. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
5) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to activate the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan becomes
the active flight plan and is removed from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
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Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
5) Press the Delete Softkey. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
Press the CLR Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan is removed
from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All Pending’.
5) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
6)
With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
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If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or Cancel” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “Cancel” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a flight plan to an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS Knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
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Under certain conditions, some messages may appear when a flight plan is imported or exported.
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No
stored flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
‘User waypoint database full. Not all
loaded.’
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight plan export failed.’
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight
plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
These waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans
stored in the system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however
others had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in
the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
One or more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can
support. The flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system
cannot find in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but
must be edited within the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored
user waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints
on the SD card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not
imported are locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the
system before it can be activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to
naming conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card
may not have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed
prematurely.
Table 5-10 Flight Plan Import/Export Messages
INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
A flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point. The ‘Inverting
and activating a stored flight plan’ procedure is discussed within the Stored Flight Functions portion of this
section.
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Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert active flight plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The active flight plan is erased when the system is turned off, overwritten when another flight plan is
activated. Additionally, the system allows the pilot to delete the active flight plan, which suspends navigation
by the system.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
STORED FLIGHT PLAN FUNCTIONS
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. Details about each stored flight plan
can be viewed on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page and on the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
A stored flight plan may be viewed or edited. The system also allows copying a flight plan into a new
flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to
duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Lastly, individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
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Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Selected Flight Plan
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
Stored Flight Plan Info
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
Figure 5-62 Flight Plan Catalog - Selecting Flight Plan
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
5) Press the Edit Softkey to open the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
Storing an active flight plan from the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
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Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Open the ‘Activate stored flight plan?’ window:
Press the Activate Softkey.
Or:
Press the ENT Key. An ‘Activate stored flight plan?’ window will appear.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
Copying a stored flight plan to another flight plan memory slot, on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Open the ‘Copy to flight plan XX?’ window:
Press the Copy Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy to flight plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Open the ‘Delete flight plan XX?’ window:
Press the Delete Softkey.
Or:
Press the CLR Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
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NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
CHANGING A FLIGHT PLAN COMMENT (NAME)
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
3) Open the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page:
Press the Edit Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Edit’ button.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF,
CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and terminal phases
of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a direct-to waypoint is
provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a linear deviation from the
desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified altitudes or as a vertical
angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the active flight plan. Both
manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
Vertical navigation is available for flight control operations when valid VNV data is entered in flight plan, and
the ENBL VNV Softkey is pressed (softkey label changes to ‘Cncl VNV’ once enabled) on the ‘FPL - Active Flight
Plan’ Page. Refer to the AFCS Section for more information on utilizing vertical navigation for aircraft control.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and
time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TOD items
displayed in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually enabled. Vertical
guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the Active Flight Plan page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight plan
waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent (TOD)
point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and
time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TOD items
displayed in the Active VNV Profile box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually enabled. Vertical
guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
NOTE: Inhibiting VNV prevents automatic waypoint sequencing and FPA calculations. Subsequently
enabling VNV after it had been inhibited, may result in a steep FPA and inaccurate VSD profile depiction.
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Enabling and Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL- Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., FALUR)).
3) To Disable VNV guidance, press the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and
press the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is disabled.
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
Enabled (valid data)
Cncl VNV Softkey
Figure 5-63 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
CONSTRAINTS
NOTE: Initiating the VNV direct-to function to the FAF, manually specifying an FPA to the FAF, or manually
creating an altitude constraint at the FAF will disrupt the VNV function from creating a lateral offset. Thus,
the baro-VNV path may not intersect the approach descent path.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database.
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Altitude Constraint
Examples
Displayed Text
Examples
5OOOFT
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
System Calculated Advisory
Altitude (White Text)
Modified Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text with Pencil Icon)
Auto Designated
Altitude (Cyan Text)
Temperature
Compensated
White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
23OOFT
Cross AT 2,300 ft
3OOOFT
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
Figure 5-64 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
Advisory altitude calculated by the system estimating the altitude of the
aircraft as it passes over the navigation point. No white line above or
below to indicate a potential constraint.
5OOOFT
Altitude is designated for use in determining
vertical guidance. A pencil icon indicates manual
designation or manual modified data entry.
Altitude retrieved from the navigation database. White line above or
below indicates the type of constraint,
as shown in the preceding figure.
These altitudes are provided as a reference, and are not designated to be
used in determining vertical guidance.
The system cannot use this altitude in
determining vertical guidance because of an
invalid constraint condition.
Table 5-11 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
When a procedure is loaded, the system will auto-designate (automatically enter and enable) altitude
constraints to be used for vertical guidance. An altitude constraint which has been auto-designated by the
system will be displayed as cyan text.
An altitude constraint may be manually designated for procedure waypoints and enroute waypoints by
activating and moving the cursor to the desired altitude in the active flight plan, turning the small FMS
Knob and pressing the ENT Key. An altitude constraint may be manually designated only if it is available for
vertical guidance. Altitudes that are not available for vertical guidance are shown in white text and cannot be
selected by the cursor.
NOTE: If the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is available for vertical guidance, the FAF altitude constraint may be
modified and set above or below the published FAF altitude.
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For all designated altitudes, the system will automatically calculate advisory altitudes prior to the designated
altitude constraint. These advisory altitudes are not auto-designated and are displayed as white text.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated”. Pressing the
CLR Key with the altitude constraint highlighted in the active flight plan removes the altitude constraint
designation. The altitude will not be used for vertical guidance and the text displayed will be shown in
white. The system will recalculate advisory altitudes (white text) once any altitude constraint is designated,
modified, or un-designated.
An altitude constraint may be entered as a flight level (FL), height above mean sea level (MSL), or height
above ground level (AGL). AGL format is only available for airport waypoints.
NOTE: All designated altitudes (cyan text) will be displayed in the active flight plan without restriction bars
regardless of what is shown on the published procedure.
A designated altitude constraint may be rendered invalid if any of the following are true:
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• The descent constraints are not sequentially descending.
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. If an altitude
constraint is removed and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral waypoint,
the system will display that altitude restriction in white text. The system also provides a way to reinstate a
published altitude constraint that has been modified.
Entering/designating or modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Removing/undesignating an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
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Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘Revert’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
QFE CONSTRAINTS
QFE Constraints
Baro QFE settings may be enabled within the System Setup Page so that the altimeter will read zero at the
selected airfield reference point (Origin or Destination airfield) or to a manual setting. Once QFE is enabled,
altitude constraints based on Baro QFE may be entered or modified in the flight plan. All former QNH
altitude constraints in the flight plan will be displayed as the height above the reference airfield and will be
in parenthesis. QNE altitudes in the flight plan will continue to appear as “FLXXX” in white or cyan text
without parenthesis. See the Flight Instruments Section for more information on how to enable Baro QFE.
NOTE: The system will generate a system message and inhibit VNAV guidance when the aircraft is vertically
approaching a flight level altitude constraint with QFE active. The system will automatically resume VNAV
guidance if QFE is disabled or the flight level altitude constraint is bypassed.
NOTE: ‘FMS ORIG’ and ‘FMS DEST’ references do not dynamically update with flight plan changes. Always
verify QFE settings when changing the QFE reference (airfield, runway, etc.) or flight plan and re-enter
settings within the Avionics Settings.
Entering or modifying a Baro QFE altitude constraint:
1) With Baro QFE enabled, press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin entry of the altitude constraint, and use the FMS Knobs to enter the
constraint in reference to Baro QFE. If modifying an existing Baro QFE altitude constraint, turning the small FMS
Knob displays the existing constraint in MSL in the entry field. If adding a new altitude constraint, turning the
small FMS Knob displays ‘00000FT’ in the entry field.
4) Press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘QFE’ and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude
constraint. The constraint is shown in parenthesis indicating it is based on the Baro QFE setting.
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System Calculated Advisory Altitude
Baro QFE Altitude
Designated Altitude Constraint
Baro QFE Altitude
Figure 5-65 Baro QFE Altitude Constraints
VERTICAL SPEED AND FLIGHT PATH ANGLE CONSTRAINTS
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (‘VS TGT’) and/or
flight path angle (‘FPA’) in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD)
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The
terrain, obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active flight plan
information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNAV profile, BOC/TOC, TOD/
BOD, and destination runway) can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode. See the Hazard
Avoidance section for information about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on the VSD.
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track mode.
When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation map indicated
range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD altitude range automatically
changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant ratio of altitude range to horizontal
range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been met. At ranges above the maximum, the
altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
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The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on the vertical
scale is close to the top for a descent phase, at the bottom for on-ground or a climb phase, and in the middle
for a cruise phase or if the phase is unknown.
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure any text,
one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint is displayed as
darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO waypoint, (2) waypoint
with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough for the
terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown in gray if the terrain is selected Off on the navigation map).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon the
highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution, within a
predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft present position and the end of the map range
or active flight plan. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase.
Constraint Type
Numeric Representation
AT
(Designated Altitude Constraint)
3OOOFT
AT or ABOVE
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
AT or BELOW
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
Altitude Constraint Icon
5OOOFT
3OOOFT
Table 5-12 Altitude Constraint Icons
NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNV descents because the lateral distance of
those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNV profile for any legs that have no vertical path guidance.
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VSD Mode (AUTO FPL)
Active FPL Waypoints
Selected Alt. (14,000ft)
Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
Current VNAV Profile
VSD Mode Buttons
Altitude Constraints
VNAV Constraint
Published Constraint
- FPL
- TRK
- Auto
Destination Runway
Absolute Terrain
Figure 5-66 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
VSD Mode Displayed
Button
Mode
AUTO FPL
Auto
AUTO TRK
FPL Criteria
Items available on VSD
Available active FPL & aircraft
within FPL swath
(1) Active FPL available &
aircraft not within FPL swath,
or (2) Active FPL not available
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
selected altitude
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Flight Plan
FPL
Active FPL not available
Only shows message 'Flight Plan Not Available'
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
Track
TRK
N/A
selected altitude
Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNAV profile, TOD/BOD, and
destination runway
Active FPL available
Table 5-13 VSD Modes
Flight Phase
Approach, Departure
Terminal
En Route, Oceanic
Width of Swath
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 5-14 VSD Width of Swath
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VSD MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Message
‘Loading...’
‘Flight Plan Not Available’
‘Flight Plan mode unavailable because aircraft off
course and active leg over 200 NM’
‘Aircraft Beyond Active Leg’
‘VSD Not Available’
‘VSD Data Old. Deselect and Reselect VSD’
Description
VSD is loading data due to a range change, full/half switch, or first being
selected for display.
Flight Plan mode is selected and there is not a flight plan loaded with at
least one leg.
All of the following are true:
- Flight Plan mode is selected
- The active leg is greater than 200 nm
- The aircraft is outside the swath
Flight Plan mode is selected and the aircraft’s position, as projected on
the flight plan, is past the end of the active leg.
At least one of the following is true:
- Valid terrain database not available
- GPS MSL altitude not available
- Current barometric altitude not available
- Neither current track nor current heading available
- GPS position not available
- Map range setting is less than 1 nm
VSD data has failed to update for 2 seconds or more.
Table 5-15 VSD System Messages
Enabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable the Vertical Situation Display.
5) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
5) Press the Inset Softkey.
6) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
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Disabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the Off Softkey.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
VERTICAL NAVIGATION DIRECT TO
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the Active Flight Plan page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight
plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
All VNV altitudes prior to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful
activation of a direct-to destination that is part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the directto waypoint are retained.
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
3) Press the VNV ¯ Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key. An
‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using any
Procedures (PROC) Key.
NOTE: The charts database may contain Special Procedures. Prior to flying these procedures, pilots must
have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the corresponding current, and legitimatelysourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special Procedure in the navigation database DOES
NOT imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
NOTE: Some airports may have published instrument approach procedures not contained within the navigation
database. These procedures may be available for preview from the charts database, but are not available for
navigation guidance. See the Additional Features Section for more information on previewing Charts.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and destination airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Furthermore, only one procedure for each type of procedure (DP, STAR,
APPR) can be loaded at a time in a flight plan.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually initiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Figure 5-67 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP, STAR, or APR Softkey.
2) The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. To select another airport, enter an identifier/
facility name/city, and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the procedure. The procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available procedures. Press the ENT Key to select the procedure. The
cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs, as required, to highlight a runway or transition. Press the ENT Key to select the runway
or transition. The cursor moves to the next box. The procedure is previewed on the map.
6) Repeat Step 5, until desired information has been viewed for the chosen procedure.
7) Press the Info 1 Softkey or the Info 2 Softkey to return to the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Departure Airport
Departure Preview
Departure Choices
Figure 5-68 Departure Selection
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Selected Departure/Transition
Loaded Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-69 Departure Loading
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport information’
Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
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3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The
cursor moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on
the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Removing a departure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the departure:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the departure.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Departure’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active flight
plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition
waypoints, and a runway.
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Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
Figure 5-70 Arrival Selection
Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-71 Arrival Loading
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Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the WPT group), press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’
Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The
cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
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6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing an arrival from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the arrival:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the arrival.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Arrival’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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APPROACHES
INSTRUMENT APPROACH
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels
according to the published chart. LNAV+V is an LNAV with advisory vertical guidance provided for assistance
in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is
displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. In all cases
where LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV minima are used. The active approach
service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
HSI Annunciation
Description
LNAV
GPS approach using LNAV MDA. Available only if GPS available.
If GPS unavailable, abort.
LNAV+V
GPS approach using LNAV MDA with advisory vertical guidance.
Available only if SBAS or Baro/VNAV available, otherwise
downgrades to LNAV. If GPS unavailable, abort.
L/VNAV
GPS approach using LNAV/VNAV DA. Available with Baro/VNAV
or SBAS availability. If both SBAS and Baro/VNAV unavailable,
downgrades to published LNAV MDA.
LP
GPS approach using LP MDA. Available only if SBAS available. If
SBAS unavailable, downgrades to published LNAV MDA.
LP+V
GPS approach using LP MDA with advisory vertical guidance.
Available only if SBAS available. If SBAS unavailable,
downgrades to published LNAV MDA.
LPV
GPS approach using LPV DA. Available only if SBAS available. If
SBAS unavailable, downgrades to L/VNAV published DA. If after
the FAF, downgrades to published LNAV MDA.
Example on HSI
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
Table 5-16 Approach Service Levels
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VISUAL APPROACH
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches are not
defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the system calculates
the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach waypoints based on runway
position and course as specified in the navigation database.
NOTE: The charts database may contain Charted Visual Flight Procedures (CVFPs) for certain airports. CVFPs
follow a precise prescribed path and are classified as Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs). See the Additional
Features Section for more information on Charts.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRAIGHT) and the Vectors-toFinal transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial fix (STRGHT), the
final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree glide path is calculated from
the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended straight-in path.
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore, when
a visual approach is selected, the message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches” is
displayed on the approach selection page and must be acknowledged before the visual approach is loaded
into the flight plan.
Loading and activating a visual approach using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
b) Select a visual approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
4) Select a transition and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums:
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure (‘Load’ is only available if there is
no previous approach already loaded in flight plan); or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate’ and press
the ENT Key procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘-NOT APPROVED FOR GPS - GPS
guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach>’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
7) The message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is displayed. Press ENT to continue.
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Figure 5-72 Loading Visual Approach
APPROACH SELECTION AND REMOVAL
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either ‘Load’ or ‘Activate’ is given. ‘Load’ adds the approach
to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows continued
navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure available for
quick activation when needed. ‘Activate’ also adds the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately
begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to load the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps below to select ‘Activate Vector-To- Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED
FOR GPS -’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
NOTE: When there is no arrival procedure in the flight plan, loading an approach after a destination airport
has already been entered will result in a duplicate destination airport waypoint being added to the end of
the enroute segment.
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Available Procedure Actions
Destination Airport
Loaded Procedures
Approach Preview
Figure 5-73 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Approach Choices
Loaded Approach
Load or Activate? Annunciation
Figure 5-74 Approach Loading
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Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’ or ‘RAD ALT’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page:
1) Select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed with the ‘Transition’ Field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
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7) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’ or ‘RAD ALT’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘Load?’ field is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate?’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the ‘Procedures’ Window.
2) Highlight ‘Activate Vector-to-Final’ and press the ENT Key.
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Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) From the ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed with
‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’ and press the ENT Key.
3) From the ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page, press the MENU Key on the MFD. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is
displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing an approach from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
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4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the approach:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the approach.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Approach’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
MISSED APPROACH
The system is capable of providing guidance for the approach as well as the missed approach. Once the
missed approach is activated, MAPR will be displayed on the HSI next to the CDI. If the missed approach is
activated prior to the Missed Approach Point (MAP), waypoint sequencing will continue along the approach
to the missed approach. If the missed approach is not activated prior to the MAP, the system will enter SUSP
Mode once the aircraft crosses the MAP until the missed approach is activated or SUSP Mode is disabled. See
the Flight Instruments, Course Deviation Indicator section for more information on SUSP Mode.
See the Using Map Displays, Map Symbols discussion previously given in this section for information on
displaying the missed approach preview on the navigation map.
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6600ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,600 feet is reached. After reaching 6,600 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
ADANE). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (ADANE) to begin the missed approach procedure.
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Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-75 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if
the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
Press the Go-Around Button. Prior to the MAP, the aircraft will continue to laterally navigate to the MAP
before executing the missed approach. Otherwise, the aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Fly past the MAP, and press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD.
Or:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. Prior to the MAP, the aircraft will continue to laterally navigate to the MAP before executing
the missed approach. Otherwise, the aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
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TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied temperature
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of – 40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly. Temperature compensated altitudes are displayed with a snowflake ( )
icon.
Manually setting temperature compensation for approach loaded altitudes:
1) From the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed with the temperature highlighted.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to change the ‘Temperature at <airport>’ Field. The compensated altitude is computed
as the temperature is selected.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window on the
MFD, or in the ‘References’ Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for the system,
therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums.
Refer to the Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation to the
MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
Cancelling temperature compensation setting for approach loaded altitudes:
1) From the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-76 Manually Setting Temperature Compensation
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Compensated
Altitudes
Figure 5-77 Temperature Compensation set for approach loaded altitudes
Entering a temperature compensated minimum into an approach:
1) From the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’. Press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob and the ENT Key to select the desired approach and transition.
4) Use the FMS Knob to place the flashing cursor in the ‘Minimums’ Box. Turn the small FMS Knob to select
‘TEMP COMP’. Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the minimums altitude. Press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘TEMP
AT <destination airport>’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the temperature at the destination. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to Load or Activate the approach. The approach is added to the active flight plan, and the
temperature compensated minimums are displayed on the PFD.
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Temperature at
destination
Approach
minimum
MFD – ‘PROC – Approach Loading’ Page
PFD – COMP MIN Shown
TEMP COMP
Minimum
Figure 5-78 Entering Temp Comp Minimums for an Approach
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5.9 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on manually entered fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining
fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’
Page located in the ‘Aux’ Page Group.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page
Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
Figure 5-79 Aux - Trip Planning
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure Time - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are from the
aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated Airspeed - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of information
is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated Altitude - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of information
is GPS altitude.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track - Desired Track is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints. It
is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown as
minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected,
then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current leg
being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to and
including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg
of the flight plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT.
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (Sunrise, Sunset) - These times are shown as hours:minutes and are
the local time at the destination.
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FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (Efficiency) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the current
fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (Total Endurance) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (Remaining Fuel) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (Remaining Endurance) - This value is calculated by taking
the time of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (Fuel Required) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel
flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow (Total Range) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density Altitude
• True Airspeed
The pilot may select Automatic or Manual page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs) mode. In
automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/ WPTs selection). In
manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Selected Leg(s)
Selected Flight Plan NN -
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-80 Trip Planning - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-81 Trip Planning - Waypoint Mode
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Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the ‘FPL’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Trip Planning Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the ‘FPL’ Field.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the ‘Page Menu’ Window ‘Set WPT to Present
Position’ if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the ‘Page Menu’
Window, and press the ENT Key. The cursor may now be positioned in any field within the input data box.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the ‘Departure Time’ Field and enter the desired value. Press the
ENT Key. The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat
until all desired values have been entered.
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WEIGHT PLANNING
The ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page is available to manage actual weight, estimated weight, and fuel quantity.
NOTE: All weight planning page data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds or 5 kilograms.
A/C Payload Calculator
Fuel Weight Calculator
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Wt Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Wt Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Empty Weight Softkey
(selects Basic Empty Weight)
Figure 5-82 Weight Planning
The following three fuel calculations can be completed when a destination waypoint has been entered into the
flight plan and one of the following has occurred: 1) the aircraft is in the air, or 2) the aircraft is on the ground
with the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page fields completed in Manual Mode. Otherwise, these three fuel fields will
display invalid values consisting of four dashes:
• Est Landing Weight = Zero Fuel Weight + Estimated Landing Fuel Weight.
• Est Landing Fuel = Fuel on Board Weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess Fuel = Estimated Landing Fuel Weight - Fuel Reserves Weight
WEIGHT WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is
displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
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If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the
following values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
WEIGHT COMPILATIONS
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight. The ‘Zero Fuel Weight’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo
weights.
Entering basic empty weight:
1) Press the Empty WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘Basic Empty Weight’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Pilot & Stores’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the number of passengers:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Passengers #’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Entering the cargo weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Cargo’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel on Board’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel Reserves’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
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5.10 ABNORMAL OPERATION
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the system
stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the
system uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when
available) to calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the system through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the ‘own
aircraft’ symbol as shown in the following figure. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the
HSI slightly above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in the following figure. The CDI
deviation bar remains, but is removed from the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain
coupled in DR mode as long as the deviation info is available (20 min.) Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV
LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically
once a valid GPS solution is restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in the
following figure. If the VSD Inset is selected on the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be displayed.
NOTE: GPS derived information will remain displayed in magenta (not amber) on the Flight Plan Progress
inset when operating in Dead Reckoning mode. However, this information shall still be considered as
degraded navigation source information.
Also, while the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the accuracy of
all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
Ground
Speed
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Wind Data
Course Deviation
Indicator
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Wind Data
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg, TAS,
and DTK are in
amber
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
Figure 5-83 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard avoidance features available for the G1000 NXi are designed to aid situational awareness and provide
advisory information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air
traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69/69A or 69/69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
• GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
• Flight Information Services-Broadcast (Optional)
• GWX 68/70/75 Airborne Color Weather Radar
• L-3 Stormscope® WX-500 Lightning Detection System (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
• TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B)
• TAWS-A (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class A) (Optional)
Traffic
• Garmin GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
• Garmin GTS 855 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) (Optional)
• Garmin GTS 8000 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) (Optional)
• L-3 SKYWATCH® SKY 497 TAS (Optional)
• L-3 SKYWATCH® HP SKY 899 TAS/TCAS I (Optional)
• Honeywell® KTA 870 TAS (Optional)
• Collins TCAS 94 TCAS II (Optional)
• Collins TCAS 4000 TCAS II (Optional)
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6.1 DATA LINK WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
The Data Link Weather feature enables the system to receive weather information from a variety of weather
sources, depending on the equipment installed in the aircraft. These sources may include SiriusXM Weather,
Garmin Connext Weather, and Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B). For each source, a ground-based
system processes the weather information collected from a network of sensors and weather data providers.
The SiriusXM Weather service, available with the Garmin 69A SXM data link receiver and an active service
subscription, updates its weather data periodically and automatically, and transmits this information to the
aircraft’s receiver via satellite on the S-Band frequency. This service provides continuous reception capabilities at
any altitude throughout North America.
The FIS-B Weather service, available when equipped with a capable transponder or data link receiver which
can receive 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data, delivers subscription-free weather information
periodically and automatically to the aircraft. FIS-B uses a network of FAA-operated Ground-Based Transceivers
(GBTs) to transmit the information to the aircraft’s receiver. Reception is limited to line-of-sight, and is available
below 24,000 feet MSL in the United States. FIS-B broadcasts provide weather data in a repeating cycle which
may take approximately ten minutes to transmit all available weather data. Therefore, not all weather data may
be present immediately upon initial FIS-B signal acquisition. FIS-B is a component of the Automatic Dependent
Surveillance (ADS-B) system, which offers both weather and traffic data; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later
in this section for a more detailed discussion of the ADS-B system and its capabilities.
The Garmin Connext Weather service, available when equipped with the Garmin GSR 56 Iridium Satellite
Transceiver and an active service subscription, provides data link weather information to the aircraft after the pilot
defines a geographic area and subsequently selects a manual or automatically recurring Connext Data Request.
The transceiver then contacts the Garmin Connext Weather service using the Iridium Satellite telephone system
and retrieves the weather data for the specified area. The Garmin Connext Weather service offers worldwide
weather coverage, but the availability of individual weather products, such as radar precipitation, varies by region.
NOTE: To check the availability of Garmin Connext weather products offered in a particular region, visit
flygarmin.com.
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ACTIVATING DATA LINK WEATHER SERVICES
NOTE: Service activation is not applicable to the FIS-B Weather service.
ACTIVATING THE SIRIUSXM WEATHER SERVICE
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be enabled by providing SiriusXM’s customer
service the coded ID(s) unique to the installed data link receiver. The Data Radio ID must be provided to
activate the weather service. A separate Audio Radio ID, if present, enables the receiver to provide SiriusXM
Radio entertainment. To view this information, refer to the following locations:
• The ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page on the MFD.
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver.
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver.
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display weather data and/
or provide audio entertainment programming through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Radio Page in the Aux Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather data) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website, www.siriusxm.com.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and the desired weather product subscription package.
After SiriusXM has been contacted, it may take approximately 15 minutes until the activation occurs.
Verifying the SiriusXM Weather service activation:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) View the list of supported Weather Products. An empty box appears next to an unavailable weather product; a
green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several minutes
for weather products in the selected subscription package to become available.
NOTE: Not all weather products offered by SiriusXM are supported for display on this system. This pilot’s
guide only discusses supported weather products.
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Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Satellite Radio)
Data Radio ID (for
SiriusXM Weather)
Weather
Products
(Available
Products for
Service Class
Indicated in
Green)
Press INFO
Softkey to
Display XM
Information Page
Figure 6-1 ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page
ACTIVATING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
Garmin Connext weather requires an active Iridium satellite network account and an active subscription to
the Garmin Connext Weather service.
A subscriber account must be established for the Iridium transceiver prior to using the Iridium Satellite
System for telephone services. Before setting up an Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium
Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page. Then go to the website
www.flygarmin.com and follow the instructions for establishing an account for Garmin Connext data services.
After an account has been established, Garmin provides an access code that must be entered and successfully
transmitted to the Garmin Connext service via the Iridium satellite network.
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System ID Number
Iridium Transceiver
Serial Number
Figure 6-2 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the
Map page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page. If another data link weather
source such as ‘XM’ or ‘FIS-B’ is displayed in the page title, it will be necessary to change the data link weather
source to CNXT before continuing. Refer to ‘Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page’ procedure to change
the data link source to prior to registration.
3) If the system displays the Connext Registration Window, proceed to step 6. Otherwise, press the MENU Key.
The page menu window is now displayed.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
5) Press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-3 Enter Access Code
6) Enter the access code provided by Garmin in the ‘Access Code’ field.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Register’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key. The system contacts Garmin through the Iridium network. System registration is complete
when the Current Registration Window displays the correct information for the Airframe, Tail Number, Airframe
Serial Number, and Iridium Serial Number.
9) When finished, push the FMS Knob to remove the Connext Registration Window.
WEATHER PRODUCT AGE
Unlike real-time weather information collected directly from weather sensors on-board an aircraft, such as an
airborne weather radar or a lightning detection system, data link weather in contrast relies on external service
providers to collect, process, and transmit weather information to the aircraft. This information can come from
a variety of sources such as government agencies. Due to the time it takes to collect, process, and distribute
data link weather information, it is imperative for pilots to understand that data link weather information is not
real-time information and may not accurately depict the current conditions.
For each data link weather product which can be displayed as a map overlay, such as radar precipitation,
the system can also show a weather product age. This age represents the elapsed time, in minutes, since the
weather service provider compiled the weather product and the current time. It does not represent the age of the
information contained within the weather product itself. For example, a single mosaic of radar precipitation is
comprised data from multiple radar sites providing data at differing scan rates or intervals. The weather service
provider periodically compiles this data to create a single composite image, and assigns one time to this image
which becomes the basis of the product age. The service provider then makes this weather product available for
data link transmission at the next scheduled update time. The actual age of the weather data contained within
the mosaic is therefore older than its weather product age and should never be considered current.
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SiriusXM and FIS-B weather products are broadcast automatically on a repeating cycle without pilot
intervention. For the Garmin Connext service, the pilot schedules a one-time or repeating data request at
regular intervals.
Each data link weather product age has an expiration time. The weather product age is shown in white if it
is less than half of this expiration time, otherwise it is shown in amber until reaching its expiration time. After
a weather product has expired, the system removes the expired weather product from the displays, and shows
white dashes instead of the age. If the data link receiver has not yet received a weather product ‘N/A’ appears
instead of the age to show the product is currently not available for display. This may occur, for example, after
powering on the system but before the data link receiver has received a complete weather data transmission. It
could also indicate a possible outage of a weather product.
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For PFD
maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
Enabling/disabling the weather product age for PFD Maps:
1) With the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey to show/remove the weather product age information for PFD maps.
Tables 6-1 and 6-2 show the weather product symbols where applicable, and expiration times, for SiriusXM
Weather and FIS-B Weather, respectively. The data link weather service providers and their respective weather
data vendors define and control the data update intervals, which are subject to change. These update intervals
represents the interval at which the service provider transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated
weather product information. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated or
when the Data Link Receiver receives new data.
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SiriusXM Weather Product
Product Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Next-generation Radar (NEXRAD)
30
Cloud Tops
60
Echo Tops
30
SiriusXM Lightning
30
Storm Cell Movement
30
SIGMETs
60
AIRMETs
60
METARs
90
City Forecast
90
Surface Analysis
60
Freezing Levels
120
Winds Aloft
90
County Warnings
60
Cyclone (Hurricane) Warnings
60
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
Pilot Weather Report (PIREPs)
90
Air Report (AIREPs)
90
Turbulence
180
No Radar Coverage
no product symbol
Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports (TAFs)
30
60
no product symbol
60
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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FIS-B Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
METARs
90
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
Winds Aloft
*
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
No Radar Coverage
No product image
30
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
(TAF)
No product image
60
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
60
* The Winds Aloft product no longer issues an expiration time. It uses the best
applicable model data for the time given, if one is available, to set an expiration time.
Table 6-2 FIS-B Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
The following table shows the Garmin Connext Weather product symbols and expiration times. The pilot
chooses how often to contact the Garmin Connext Weather service in order to retrieve weather data through the
Connext Data Request. This data link weather request rate represents the interval at which Garmin Connext
Weather Service makes available the most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the
rate at which the service receives new data from various weather sources.
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Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Connext Radar
30
Cloud Tops
60
Connext Lightning
30
SIGMETs
60
AIRMETs
60
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
90
Winds Aloft
90
Pilot Weather Reports
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
(TAFs)
90
60
no product image
60
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australia Bureau of Meteorology.
†
Table 6-3 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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DISPLAYING DATA LINK WEATHER PRODUCTS
WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
The ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM/FIS-B/CNXT)’ Page is the principal map page for viewing data link
weather information. This page provides the capability for displaying the most data link weather products of
any map on the system. The Weather Data Link Page also provides system-wide controls for selecting the data
link weather source, if more than one source has been installed. The page title indicates the selected data link
weather source (e.g., “XM”, “FIS-B” or “CNXT”).
NEXRAD
Weather
Product Icon
and Age
(U.S.)
NEXRAD Weather
Product Selected
for Display
Figure 6-4 ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Viewing the Weather Data Link Page and changing the data link weather source, if applicable:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT or FIS-B) Page. The currently selected
data link weather source appears in the page title.
3) If the page title does not contain the desired weather source, press the MENU Key.
a) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’, ‘Display Connext Weather’ or ‘Display FIS-B Weather’
(choices may vary depending on the installed equipment).
b) Press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-5 Changing the Data Link Weather Source
The system presents the softkeys for the selected source on the Weather Data Link Page, and for weather
product map overlays used throughout the system. The following tables show the softkeys for the Weather Data
Link Page based on the selected weather source.
WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE SOFTKEYS
NOTE: Only softkeys pertaining to data link weather features are shown in the following tables.
Level 1
NEXRAD
Level 2
Echo Top
CLD Top
XM LTNG
Cell MOV
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
Cyclone
SFC
FRZ LVL
Wind
292
Level 3
Description
Enables/disables the NEXRAD weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Echo Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cloud Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Lightning weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cell Movement weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level SiriusXM Weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the Cyclone weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkey for enabling/disabling the Surface Analysis and
City Forecast weather product and selecting a forecast period.
Disables the Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather product overlay.
Displays the Surface Analysis for the current time period overlay.
Off
Current
12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, These softkeys display a Surface Analysis and City Forecast overlay for the
selected future time period.
48 HR
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the Freezing Level weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting winds from
the Surface to 42,0000
feet
Next
Legend
Back
ICNG
PREV
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting winds from
the Icing altitude from
to 1,000 to 30,000 feet
Next
Legend
TURB
PREV
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting Turbulence
altitude from 21,000
feet to 45,000 feet
Next
Legend
Back
AIREPS
PIREPS
County
Back
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Description
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
altitude.
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Displays altitude softkeys for the Icing weather product overlay.
Shows the previous level of Icing altitude softkeys.
Disables the Icing weather product.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 1,000 feet to
30,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays softkeys for enabling/disabling the Turbulence weather product
overlay.
Shows the previous level of Turbulence altitude softkeys.
Disables the Turbulence weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 21,000 feet to
45,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the AIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the County Warnings weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
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WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT) PAGE SOFTKEYS)
Level 1
PRECIP
Level 2
IR SAT
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
Wind
PIREPs
Back
Level 3
Description
Enables/disables the Precipitation weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Infrared Satellite weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level Connext Weather product softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B) PAGE SOFTKEYS)
Level 1
NEXRAD
or
US
or
RGNL
or
US/RGNL
IR SAT
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
294
Level 2
Level 3
Description
Cycles through NEXRAD display modes with each press:
NEXRAD (with annunciator disabled): No NEXRAD is shown.
US: Displays NEXRAD data for the Continental US (CONUS).
RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data.
US/RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data where available, and CONUS
NEXRAD data in other coverage areas.
Enables/disables the Infrared Satellite weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the FIS-B Weather Legends Window. Softkey available for
selection when at least one FIS-B Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level FIS-B Weather product softkeys.
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Level 1
Level 2
Wind
PIREPs
Back
Level 3
Description
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the FIS-B Weather Legends Window. Softkey available for
Legend
selection when at least one FIS-B Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
The Weather Data Link Page can display a legend for each enabled weather product.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the XM Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the
FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following weather products can be displayed by panning the Map Pointer
over the following products on the Weather Data Link Page:
• Echo Tops
• METARs
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
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Additional Information on Weather
Feature Selected
with Map Pointer
METAR flag
selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-6 Panning on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Certain weather products, such as METARs or TFRs have full text associated with a graphic shown on the
map. When a weather product is selected with the Map Pointer, press the ENT Key. The system displays the
full text for the selected weather product in a window. To remove the window, press the FMS Knob or the
CLR Key.
The Weather Data Link Page also has a page menu that can be accessed by pressing the MENU Key. It has
controls for enabling/disabling the weather products as an alternative to using the softkeys.
Customizing the Weather Data Link Page
The Weather Data Link Page includes controls for selecting the maximum map range to display each
weather product on the page. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range,
the system removes the weather product from the map. If more than one data link weather source has been
installed, the system uses the same maximum map range for the comparable weather product of another
source.
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Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
NOTE: ‘Product Group 2’ is only applicable to SiriusXM and Garmin Connext Weather.
The pilot can select a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page, or choose to synchronize the map
orientation to the same orientation used on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Group options.
5) If SiriusXM is the selected data link weather source, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map’ Group and
press the ENT Key.
Or:
If FIS-B or Garmin Connext is the selected data link weather source, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
‘Orientation‘ field at the bottom of the Product Group 1 list.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired map orientation: North up, Track up, HDG up, or SYNC, then
press the ENT Key.
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
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If multiple data link weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in Table 6-4 will result in identical settings for all services.
SiriusXM Weather Product
and Softkey
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar
Coverage
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
FIS-B Weather Product
Precipitation
(PRECIP) and No Radar Coverage
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar Coverage
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Data Link
SiriusXM Lightning
Lightning
(XM LTNG)
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
Not Available
Not Available
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Table 6-4 Weather Data Link Map Settings Shared for Multiple Weather Data Link Sources
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WEATHER PRODUCT MAP OVERLAYS
Cloud Top
+
Echo Top
+
Infrared Satellite
+
Data Link Lightning
+
Cell Movement
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Surface Analysis & City Forecast
+
Freezing Levels
+
Winds Aloft
+*
+
+
County Warnings
+
Cyclone Warnings
+
Icing Potential
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
METARs
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
Aux - Trip Planning Page
+
Weather Information Page
Weather Data Link Page
NEXRAD/Radar Precipitation
Navigation Map Page
Data Link Weather Product
PFD Maps
Other PFD and MFD maps and pages can display a smaller set of data link weather products. The following
table shows which data link weather products can be displayed on specific maps, indicated with a ‘+’ symbol.
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the ‘Map - Navigation Map Page’.
Table 6-5 Weather Product Display Maps
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Displaying Data Link Weather Products on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the softkey to enable/disable the desired weather product.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also can display legends for weather products enabled on this map with
the Legend Softkey. This softkey is subdued if no weather products are enabled.
Showing/removing the weather legend on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Legend Softkey to show the weather legends window.
4) When finished, press the Legend Softkey again, or press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the window.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also allows the pilot to select the maximum map range to display weather
products. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the system removes
the weather product from the map. The system uses this setting for all navigation maps, including those
displayed on the PFD.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
The system can also display data link weather information on the PFD navigation maps.
Displaying Data Link Weather products on the PFD:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of data link products on the PFD map.
3) To enable/disable a data link lightning weather product on a PFD, press the Lightning Softkey.
a) Press the Datalink Softkey to enable data link lightning or press the LTNG Off Softkey.
b) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level PFD Softkeys.
NOTE: Data link lightning is not applicable to the FIS-B Weather service.
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On the MFD maps, the weather product icon and age appear automatically when a weather is enabled and
the range is within the maximum display limits. On PFD maps, this information is available using the PFD
softkeys.
Enabling/disabling the weather product icon and age display (PFD maps):
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey to enable/disable the weather product age, source, and icon box display on PFD
Maps.
The setup menus for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The page
menus also provide an alternative to using the softkeys to enable/disable data link weather product overlays on
maps.
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
NOTE: Data requests are not applicable to the SiriusXM Weather or FIS-B Weather services.
The Connext Data Request Menu provides the pilot with the options to define the requested weather coverage
area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or cancel weather data
requests. A Request Status Window inside the menu shows the status of the Connext Data Request.
Before a Connext Data Request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all
currently available Garmin Connext Weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field)
must be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window indicates ‘INVALID COVERAGE
AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a
flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
Manually Requesting Garmin Connext Weather information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to show or hide a
green check mark to select one of more of the following coverage selections:
• Present Position – Requests data based on current location.
• Destination – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded). See
the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one currently exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select
the desired flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘Remaining FPL’ to request weather data for the
remainder of the flight plan), then press the ENT Key.
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• Waypoint – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘Diameter / Route Width’ distance field and turn the small FMS Knob
to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page without requesting
weather data.
Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-7 Garmin Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Data Displayed
During a Connext Data Request, the Request Status Window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”. Once
a connection is established, the Request Status Window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time Remaining:” with
an estimated data transfer time (either minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext Data Request Menu may
be removed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the data request will continue
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to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between 1 to 4 minutes to complete
depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area, the amounts of weather activity present, and the
Iridium signal strength.
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext Weather products within the selected coverage area during
an initial Connext Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for display. On
subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs and TAFS) if it has
not expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and all graphical weather data
is transferred to the aircraft during every data request.
At the completion of a successful weather data request, the Request Status Window indicates ‘OK’ if the
Connext Data Request menu is still within view.
Cancelling a Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Cancel Request’ field and press the ENT Key. The request status box
indicates ‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Automatic requests remain
enabled until the flight crew them, or the system power is removed. The Request Status Window indicates the
number of minutes or seconds until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
the automatic weather data requests will continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data
Request Window and its associated options will not be available in Reversionary Mode.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Update Rate’ field. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min), then press
the ENT Key.
6) The ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘Request Status’ Window
based on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext
Data Request.
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
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WEATHER PRODUCT OVERVIEW
The following is an overview of data link weather products the system can display.
NEXRAD (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Datalink weather radar information cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, icing,
or turbulence data.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity image.
This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various altitudes. For radar
sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from the lowest antenna tilt angle,
known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes
and the type of precipitation, if known.
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Figure 6-8 NEXRAD Data on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown for the selected region (US or Canada).
The pilot can change the region on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
Changing the NEXRAD coverage region:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Region datafield.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ (Canada) and press the ENT Key.
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The system can animate a loop of NEXRAD information. The animated view is available on the ‘Map Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page, and on navigation maps with the exception of the PFD Inset or HSI Map.
When enabled, animation begins after the system has received at least two recent NEXRAD images since the
last avionics power cycle. When NEXRAD animation is enabled, a timeline appears in the upper-right corner
of the map. A pointer on the timeline indicates the relative position of the displayed frame of animation,
from oldest to newest. The NEXRAD weather product age corresponds to the displayed frame. The system
can show up to six frames of NEXRAD animation when the USA coverage option is selected, and up to three
frames of animation when Canada is selected. Due to the time it takes to accumulate successive frames, allow
approximately 30 minutes in order for the maximum number of frames to be available for animation.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’, then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The pilot enables/disables the NEXRAD animation feature for navigation maps from the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’ and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either the NEXRAD or Echo Tops weather products
are enabled for display. Areas where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently
available, or outside of the selected coverage area, or is not being collected are indicated in a gray shade of
purple.
Reflectivity
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex. Radar reflectivity can be separated into two elements: Base or Composite.
The base reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a
single antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the highest radar
energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate
the intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-9 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
• An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
• Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar beam
overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site, the radar beam
is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any precipitation occurring
below the beam at this distance and altitude.
• At smaller map ranges, the smallest square block on the display represents an area of two square kilometers
for US composite or when Base (Canadian and other regions) is selected approximately four square
kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of radar reflectivity
sampled within the area.
• Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
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Block represents
approximately 2 km2
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Weather Product at a 10 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter.
• Strobes and spurious radar data.
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun).
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows.
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans.
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless of
actual precipitation type.
• If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of actual
precipitation type.
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No Coverage
Above 55°N
Precipitation Above
52°N Displays as
Mixed
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
NEXRAD (FIS-B)
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as relative terrain.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to FIS-B compiles
the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time
to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual
images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD
weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar synopsis and may not
depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for maneuvering
in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
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Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-12 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page
The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher resolution,
updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution, updated less
frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display on the same map.
When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display precedence where data is available,
and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional NEXRAD coverage area.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey. Each press cycles though a coverage option as the softkey name changes (US,
RGNL, or US/RGNL.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) To enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information for the continental United States, turn the small FMS
Knob to highlight the NEXRAD On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of NEXRAD for the continental United
States or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
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4) To enable/disable the display of Regional NEXRAD information, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
Regional On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of Regional NEXRAD or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
5) When finished, push the FMS Knob.
Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
No radar coverage
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-13 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather
Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page
NOTE: When both NEXRAD options are enabled on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page, a combined version
is displayed.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
3) To change the type of NEXRAD displayed, press the MENU Key.
4) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘CONUS’ (continental United States), ‘RGNL’ (regional), or ‘Combined’,
then press the ENT Key. This selection also affects display of NEXRAD on the PFD Maps.
8) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
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Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received from
ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white spiked boundary
encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being displayed. The
system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this boundary area.
If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey enabled),
the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the
information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed
on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page. For the NEXRAD legend, press the Legend Softkey when the
NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
No radar coverage
Boundary of radar
coverage area
Figure 6-14 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar data
is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple.
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during initial FIS-B signal
acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system may display areas of no radar
coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is received. It may take up to approximately ten
minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when adequate reception is available.
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Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional version
of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm tall. For the
continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5 nm wide by 5 nm
wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected within that area.
• The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of latitude.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter.
• Strobes and spurious radar data.
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun).
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows.
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans.
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PRECIPITATION (GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as relative terrain data.
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically, the
Garmin Connext Weather service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns
a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
Precipitation
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary of
weather data
request
Precipitation
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-15 Precipitation Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for PFD maps, press the Map/HSI or Map Opt Softkey). This step is not necessary
on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the PRECIP Softkey.
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The system displays either base or composite radar imagery, depending on the region.
Region
Radar Reflectivity Type
United States
Composite Reflectivity
Canada, Europe, Australia
Base Reflectivity
All weather product legends can be viewed on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page. For the
Precipitation legend, select the Legend Softkey when Precipitation is selected for display.
No radar coverage
Boundary of
weather data
request
Figure 6-16 Precipitation Weather Product Legend
The display of radar coverage is enabled active when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple. A white boundary line depicting the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request encloses the
precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
Reflectivity
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex. Radar reflectivity can be separated into two elements: Base or Composite.
The base reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a
single antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the highest radar
energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate
the intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
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Radar Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
• Radar base reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine cloud layers or precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• Radar base reflectivity is sampled at the minimum antenna elevation angle. An individual radar site
cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about storms directly over the
site.
• When zoomed in to a range of 30 NM, each square block on the display represents an area of four square
kilometers.
• Colors displayed from NEXRAD and airborne weather radar systems are not interchangeable. Refer to the
applicable legends based on the weather source.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter.
• Strobes and spurious radar data.
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun).
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows.
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans.
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ECHO TOPS (SIRISUXM)
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is displayed.
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar echo. The
highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the highest altitude at
which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Altitude for
selected Echo Top
Figure 6-17 Echo Tops Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are removed.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-18 Echo Tops Legend
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CLOUD TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
Altitude for selected
Cloud Top
Figure 6-19 Cloud Tops Weather Product
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the CLD Top Softkey.
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Figure 6-20 Cloud Tops Legend
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DATA LINK LIGHTNING (SIRIUSXM, GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Lightning from a data link source cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as information
from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
The Data Link Light weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes.
A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact location of the
lightning strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-21 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the XM LTNGSoft Softkey or the DL LTNG Softkey.
To display the Lightning legend on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page, press the Legend
Softkey when Data Link Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-22 SiriusXM Lightning Legend
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Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the Datalink Softkey.
4) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
NOTE: The source of the data link lightning weather product for the PFD Maps is determined by which
source is selected on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page.
CELL MOVEMENT (SIRIUSXM)
The Cell Movement weather product shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the
ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement indicated with
short, orange arrows.
Storm Cells
Additional
information for
selected Storm Cell
Figure 6-23 Cell Movement Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
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On the “Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated CEL
MOV softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69 SXM or 69A SXM data link receiver is installed.
In this case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
Displaying Cell Movement information on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the Cell MOV Softkey.
Figure 6-24 Cell Movement Legend
For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the NEXRAD
Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map Settings menu
of the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation maps:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When set to ‘On’, Cell Movement
is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement
is not displayed on navigation maps.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the menu.
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling the
NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the NEXRAD
Softkey.
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INFRARED SATELLITE (GARMIN CONNEXT)
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite imagery.
Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
Figure 6-25 Infrared Satellite Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page
Displaying Infrared Satellite information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the IR SAT Softkey.
Figure 6-26 Infrared Satellite Legend
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SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition
occurring at a localized geographical position.
NOTE: If SiriusXM Weather is the active data link weather source and a GDL 69A SXM receiver installed, the
SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET has been
received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
NOTE: For Garmin Connext Weather only, the entire SIGMET or AIRMET is shown on the map as long as any
portion of it is issued within the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request.
AIRMET for
Turbulence
AIRMET for
Icing conditions
AIRMET for IFR
conditions
SIGMET
Figure 6-27 SIGMET/AIRMET Weather Product
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT or FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows sample SIGMET text.
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Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-28 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them. If the METAR age is identical form all
available Data Link sources, the system selects one METAR to display in the following order of source priority:
SiriusXm, FIS-B, and Garmin Connext.
Additional Information
on Weather Feature
Selected with Map
Pointer
METAR flag
selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-29 METAR Flags on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
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TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information is displayed only in its original form when TAFs are available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘WPT - Weather Information’ Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
1) Select the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page on the MFD.
a) Press the WX Softkey to select the ‘WPT - Weather Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
Decoded
METAR
Text
Original
METAR Text
Original
TAF Text
Figure 6-30 METAR and TAF Information on the ‘WPT - Weather Information’ Page
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To display the METAR legend on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page, press the Legend Softkey when
METARs are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the information available.
Figure 6-31 METAR Legend
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the
MF.D. The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated with a METAR flag next
to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map pointer
is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on the map.
5) When finished, press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
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SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST (SIRIUSXM)
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-32 Surface Analysis Data - 24-Hour
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Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the SFC Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey
label changes to show the forecast time selected.
Or:
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
Figure 6-33 Surface Analysis Legend
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FREEZING LEVEL (SIRIUSXM)
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at
which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude
has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears when it
becomes available.
Figure 6-34 Freezing Levels Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
Figure 6-35 Freezing Levels Legend
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WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up to 42,000 feet MSL.
If the FIS-B option is installed and FIS-B is the active data link weather source, the Winds Aloft weather
product also displays temperatures aloft next to the winds aloft arrows on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link
(FIS-B)’ Page.
Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Wind Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Press the Next or Prev Softkey
to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-36 Winds Aloft Weather Product with 27,000 Feet Selected
Figure 6-37 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
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Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on the
‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track,
but not to aircraft speed.
Track
Mode
Boundary
of VSD
Winds Aloft
information
Figure 6-38 ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with Winds Aloft Data in the VSD
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-6.
Headwind Symbol
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-6 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
NOTE: VSD Winds Aloft is not available when FIS-B is the selected data link weather source.
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Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the VSD is enabled by default when the VSD is displayed on the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page. This behavior can be changed on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
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COUNTY WARNINGS (SIRIUSXM)
The County warning weather product provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings
from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes, severe thunderstorms,
and flood conditions.
Additional information
for selected
Thunderstorm Warning
Tornado Warning
Flood Warning
Figure 6-39 County Flood and Severe Weather Warnings
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the County Softkey.
Figure 6-40 County Warnings Legend
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CYCLONE (SIRIUSXM)
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms,
and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of
DD/HH:MM.
Cyclone
Figure 6-41 Cyclone Weather Product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Cyclone Softkey.
Figure 6-42 Cyclone Legend
NOTE: The Cyclone weather product is not available unless at least one cyclone or tropical storm has been
received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
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ICING (CIP & SLD) (SIRIUSXM)
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the current icing environment.
Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft
type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the
analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to
cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selected.
Severe Icing
Potential
Light Icing
Potential
Moderate Icing
Potential
Supercooled
Large Droplet
Threat
Figure 6-43 Icing Weather Product, 12,000 Feet Selected
Figure 6-44 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE (SIRIUSXM)
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs, SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selection.
Severe Turbulence
Moderate Turbulence
Light Turbulence
Figure 6-45 Turbulence Weather Product with 27,000 Feet Selected
Figure 6-46 Turbulence Legend
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PIREPS AND AIREPS
NOTE: AIREPs are only available with the SiriusXM Weather service.
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots. When significant
weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit PIREPs.
A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear,
and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
PIREP selected with
Map Pointer
Urgent PIREP
AIREP
Figure 6-47 AIREPs and PIREPs on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
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Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS Softkey or the AIREPS Softkey. (Note the AIREPS Softkey is only available with the SiriusXM
Weather service.)
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not present in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Decoded PIREP Text
Decoded PIREP Text
Figure 6-48 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-49 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) data from Garmin Connext is only available in the United States (not
including any U.S. territories.) Refer to http://sites.garmin.com/connext for product coverage information.
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where flight is
restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement,
natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on the
system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS),
and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
Information for
selected TFR
Figure 6-50 TFR Data on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page
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Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page or ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
Figure 6-51 Full Text for Selected TFR
The setup menus for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page control the map range settings above which TFR data
is decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the
TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range settings.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
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FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’
Page.
Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature, which
includes all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B Weather’, and press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-52 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page
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ADS-B Status Page Item
FIS-B Weather Status:
FIS-B Processing
Weather Products:
AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD
METAR
METAR GRAPHICAL
NOTAM/TFR
PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD
SIGMET
TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
Status
Message
ENABLED
DISABLED
---------------AVAILABLE
Description
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process and display FIS-B weather
products.
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled.
No FIS-B weather data received from the transponder.
FIS-B weather data is available for display for the weather product.
NOT AVAILABLE FIS-B weather data is not available for the weather product, and/or the system is
not receiving the FIS-B weather service.
AWAITING DATA The system is receiving the FIS-B weather service, and is waiting to receive the
weather product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
Table 6-7 ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS FOR GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the Request
Status Window.
Weather Request
Status Message
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to
reset.
Auto update retry: ##
Seconds
Connext Comm Error [1]
Connext Comm Error [2]
Connext Comm Error [3]
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors. Automatic
weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to resume automatic
updates.
The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred during the
previous request. Timer counts down until the next automatic request occurs.
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
A communications error has occurred with the GIA. The system should be serviced.
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [4] This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or a GIA is off-line.
Connext Comm Error [5] This can occur if the Iridium or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal
strength. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6]
Connext Comm Error [7]
Connext Comm Error [8]
Connext Comm Error [9]
A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the system should be serviced.
A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal strength and re-send the data request.
A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
An error occurred while reading or writing data. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Login Invalid
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. Contact Garmin at the phone number
listed at its website, www.flygarmin.com for assistance.
The Garmin Connext Weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to return to
service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext Weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
Connext Server Temp
Inop
Connext Server Inop
Invalid Coverage Area
No Connext
Subscription
Reduce Request Area
Request Canceled
Request Failed - Try
Again
The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least one of the following: a
waypoint, a flight plan, or a flight plan destination. Verify at least one of the coverage options is
enabled (checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data request.
The system is not be currently subscribed to Garmin Connext services or the access code is
incorrect. Verify the access code. Contact Garmin at the phone number listed at its website, www.
flygarmin.com for assistance.
The size of the received weather data has exceeded system memory limits. Reduce the size of the
coverage area and issue another Connext Data Request to ensure all available weather data has
been received.
The user has cancelled a Connext Data Request.
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
Table 6-8 Abnormal Garmin Connext Data Request Status Messages
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When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD maps will be available for display (see Table 6-5 for a list of weather products and their associated
map availability).
If manual Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new weather data
will be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled
prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary
Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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6.2 STORMSCOPE LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as lightning
information from data link lightning sources.
When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby
thunderstorms that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of
two or more discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points
reappear after the screen has been cleared.
NOTE:
The system can display L-3 WX-500 Stormscope lightning detection system information on the ‘Map Stormscope®’ Page, and as an overlay on navigation maps. The system uses the symbols shown in the following
table to depict lightning strikes and cells based on the age of the information.
Lightning Age
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-9 Lightning Age and Symbols
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USING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
On the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page, lightning information can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm,
100 nm, and 200 nm.
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Figure 6-53 ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page with Lightning Information
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
3) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
Selecting ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Press the Mode Softkey. The Cell and Strike softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the Cell Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or press the Strike Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys for the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page Menu. Either ‘Cell Mode’ or ‘Strike Mode’ is
highlighted in cyan to indicate the mode to be selected.
3) Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode and remove the menu. To remove the menu without changing
modes, press the MENU Key or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
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ADDITIONAL STORMSCOPE DISPLAYS
The Pilot can overlay Stormscope lightning information on navigation maps. When the overlay is enabled, and
the map range is within the maximum map range setting limits to display Stormscope lightning, a Stormscope
icon appears on the map. On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, the selected Stormscope mode and strike rate
appear in the upper-right corner of the map. The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also had menus for selecting the
Stormscope mode, and for selecting the maximum map range to display lightning symbols for navigation maps.
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Stormscope Navigation Map
Overlay Enabled Icon
Figure 6-54 ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with Stormscope Lightning Overlay Enabled
Displaying Stormscope information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
Setting up Stormscope options on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections.
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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The following options are available:
• Stormscope On/Off field – Enables/disables the display of Stormscope lightning symbols.
• Stormscope maximum display range – Selects the maximum map range to display Stormscope symbols.
Stormscope data is removed when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
• Stormscope Mode – Selects the Cell or Strike mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters or
cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
Displaying Stormscope information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
STORMSCOPE ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn. This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays on the system.
Manually clearing Stormscope cell or strike information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Press the Clear Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Lightning Data’, then press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’, then press the ENT Key.
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6.3 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a four-color digital pulsed radar with 6.5 kilowatts
of output power. It combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The pulse width is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except the 2.5 nm range. The GWX 68 uses a
one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing together on the display for better target definition
at close range.
The Garmin GWX 70/75 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed radar with forty watts of output
power. The radar combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The GWX 70/75 has an effective pulse length of 27.31 microseconds (µs), and the system optimizes
the pulse length to maximize resolution at each range setting.
Differences between the GWX 68 and GWX 70/75 are discussed throughout this section, where applicable.
The KingAir 300/B300 Series uses a 12-inch antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of pitch and
roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles. A
vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH™ (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range
cell activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation
(or large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
If a GWX 70/75 is installed, the following features may also be available:
• Altitude-Compensated Tilt (ACT) management, which automatically adjusts the antenna tilt angle as the
aircraft altitude changes.
• Independent weather radar scans for each PFD HSI Map while the aircraft is in the air.
• Optional Turbulence Detection presents areas of turbulence associated with precipitation using Doppler
measurements.
• Optional Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS), to remove ground clutter from the displays.
NOTE: Garmin recommends the user obtain instruction in the proper operation of airborne weather radar.
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PRINCIPLES OF AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return echo.
The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the center of
the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and receiving.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
The airborne weather radar has the capability to detect the velocity of precipitation moving toward or away
from the radar antenna. As the radar pulse beam strikes a moving object, the frequency of the returned echo
shifts in relation to the speed at which the object is moving. This effect is analogous to the audible pitch change
observed when an emergency vehicle’s siren gets closer or moves away. Doppler radar employs this effect to
detect areas of precipitation moving at a high rate of speed (indicative of turbulence), and to determine when
an object, such as the ground, is stationary. The system can use this information to suppress the display of
ground clutter.
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather. The decision to fly into an area of radar targets
depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft capabilities, and crew experience. Airborne
weather radar is efficient at detecting wet precipitation such as rain, wet snow, and water coated hail, however
it will not detect clouds or mist. The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not
necessarily mean it is safe to fly between them, as these areas may contain severe turbulence or other hazards
such as hail. In addition, Doppler radar measurement of precipitation velocity only occurs when rain or hail
is moving along the radar beam and either toward or away from the antenna. Airborne weather radar systems
cannot detect Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) as there are no particulate for the radar to detect.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Although both radar systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, the thresholds and
colors are not interchangeable. Airborne color radar values from the installed weather radar system must not
be confused with NEXRAD radar values. In addition, NEXRAD depicts lower intensity returns than airborne
weather radar. Airborne weather radar return images will not appear the same as NEXRAD return images.
Convective weather activity is known to develop rapidly, with cell growth capable of exceeding several
thousand feet per minute. Airborne weather radar provides the flight crew with real-time weather avoidance
information for precipitation detected within the airborne weather radar’s beam. NEXRAD information is not
real-time. It is intended to assist the flight crew with hazardous weather avoidance planning. NEXRAD images
are comprised of individual radar scans arriving at a network at different rates and times, which are periodically
compiled into a mosaic (the NEXRAD weather product) and transmitted via data link. Due to inherent delays in
this process, it is common for the displayed NEXRAD images to be significantly older than the current weather
situation, and may also differ from information the airborne weather radar presents.
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Because NEXRAD operates from an extensive network of ground-based radar antennas performing 360º
scans, it is capable of providing information on large-scale weather patterns such as precipitation associated
with significant frontal activity from multiple radar locations. The airborne weather radar can perform up to
90º scan, but is more affected by distance and precipitation attenuation discussed earlier in this section. Other
factors including curvature of the earth (particularly at map ranges greater than 150 miles), antenna tilt setting,
and aircraft altitude may also cause the airborne weather radar’s antenna beam to miss areas of precipitation
which are detected by NEXRAD. In addition, since the airborne weather radar’s beam often produces ground
returns, it may be difficult to distinguish precipitation from ground returns, especially stratus rain when the
aircraft is above the precipitation.
Both airborne weather radar and the NEXRAD system can detect a radar top of a storm cell. Airborne weather
radar can display this information in vertical scan mode, while NEXRAD radar top information appears in the
Echo Tops SiriusXM Weather Product (Refer to Section 6.1 for more information about SiriusXM Weather).
Because airborne weather radar and NEXRAD use different detection thresholds, a radar top from airborne
weather radar may appear 5,000 feet or more below the NEXRAD-derived Echo Top. Furthermore, radar top
information provided from either source is not the actual or true top of the storm, which is only observable with
the eyes in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top detected by either system.
Because airborne weather radar and NEXRAD present information using similar (but not interchangeable
colors), only one radar source may be shown on a map Display Page at a time. Pilots should carefully consider
information from airborne and data link weather sources, in addition to other available resources to avoid flight
into hazardous weather conditions.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
Radar beams are much like the beam of a flashlight, in that they will illuminate targets within the beam. Just
as with a flashlight, the further the beam travels, the wider it becomes and the less effective it is at illuminating
targets. The certified beam width contains 90% of the energy of the radar signal, with the strongest part of
the beam in the center. Pointing the center of the beam at targets to investigate provides the best returns for a
particular target.
The remaining 10% of beam energy (outside the certified beam) has sufficient strength and the antenna has
the sensitivity to display highly reflective targets, including additional weather and ground returns. Weather
returns from this portion of the beam energy will most likely be under representative of the true intensity of
the hazards, because they are so far from the center of the beam (and outside of the certified beam width).
The strong reflective nature of terrain features will cause the display of ground clutter well short of where the
certified beam width intersects the ground. For the 12-inch antenna this additional beam energy represents
approximately four additional degrees at the top and bottom of the certified beam width of 8 degrees.
The following figure depicts the radar beam as seen from the side, with both the certified beam width and the
additional beam energy illustrated. With the aircraft at 30,000 ft. AGL and a radar tilt angle of zero degrees,
ground clutter may be observed starting at approximately 36 NM. The cell located 20 NM from own ship
would be over-scanned by the beam, and as a result would not be represented on the radar display. The cell
located 80 NM from own ship displays radar tops of 22,000 ft. AGL which is relatively close to the beam center,
so this cell would be represented on the display. However, utilizing a lower radar tilt angle would better depict
the precipitation intensities of this cell. The cell located at approximately 190 NM displays radar tops of 28,000
ft. AGL, while the center of the beam is at about 65,500 ft. AGL (due to the Earth’s curvature at that distance).
While this particular cell may appear on the display due to being within the certified beam width, it would most
likely be under-represented due to being so distant from the beam center. The radar tilt angle would need to
be adjusted downwards to properly explore this cell’s precipitation intensity.
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Figure 6-55 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth from a 12 inch Antenna
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Distance attenuation occurs due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely proportional
to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills the radar beam
is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear to the operator
that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within the equipped
weather radar system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature of the installed weather radar system can help to identify these shadowed areas. Areas in
question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help
detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
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RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often are not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog
or drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
Figure 6-56 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
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Figure 6-57 Precipitation Reflectivity by Altitude
When using the airborne weather radar to explore a more intense thunderstorm cell, it is critical to
understand where radar returns can be expected to be intense, and where they can be expected to decrease
to a point where no returns will be displayed. Since wet precipitation reflects radar energy far better than dry
precipitation, strong radar returns can be expected at lower altitudes, with the strongest radar returns found
near the melting level. At higher altitudes, precipitation becomes frozen, and reflectivity is significantly
reduced. At a certain altitude within in a thunderstorm cell, returns will begin to diminish. This is the “echo
top” of a cell, where radar can no longer detect the frozen precipitation, but this is not the actual top of the
cell, which could extend significantly further into the atmosphere. Since it is difficult to detect the actual
tops of a thunderstorm cell with radar, and invisible bow waves may extend beyond visible tops, overflight
of thunderstorms should never be attempted.
Ground Returns
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
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Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
Ground Clutter Suppression (Optional)
Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) enhances the flight crews ability to differentiate precipitation returns
from ground clutter, by suppressing most, but not all, returns from ground objects. The optional feature
is most effectively used by first obtaining the desired tilt and range settings, and then activating GCS. For
normal surveillance of an air mass, tilt angle and range should be adjusted to obtain minimal ground clutter
prior to activation of the GCS feature. This ensures that the radar beam is functioning and tilt is set to observe
the air above the ground clutter before that clutter is suppressed. The same holds true for investigating
suspected precipitation returns. Tilt angle and range should be set to maximize the precipitation return
image prior to activation of GCS to suppress clutter.
Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
Figure 6-58 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
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SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the
semicircular area of at least 12 feet from the 12-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this
zone. This recommendation slightly exceeds the calculation methods defined in Advisory Circular 2068B. With a scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly
reduced.
MPEL
Boundary
12’ for 12”
antenna
Figure 6-59 MPEL Boundary
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BASIC ANTENNA TILT AND RANGE SETUP
Proper antenna tilt management techniques are a major factor for the successful use of any airborne weather
system. If the antenna tilt angle is set too low, the radar display will show excessive ground returns, making it
difficult for the pilot to distinguish adverse weather phenomena from ground clutter. If the antenna tilt angle is
set too high, the radar beam will overscan the top of the adverse weather. In either of these examples, the flight
crew would be unable to adequately recognize critical weather information.
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of intense weather threats. Correct application of tilt angle is
directly dependent on the storms height and intensity and its relative distance from own ship. Adjusting the
airborne weather radar tilt angle setting until minimal ground clutter is displayed is the simplest setup method
for general surveillance of precipitation returns. For ranges of up to 80 NM this ground clutter should appear
on the outer portion of the radar display. At ranges greater than 80 NM, the displayed ground clutter will move
lower on the radar display due to the curvature of the earth. By displaying a minimal amount of ground clutter
on the installed weather radar system the flight crew can ensure the system is operating and that the air mass
above the ground clutter is being scanned.
When a strong a weather return is detected within the ground clutter it must be further investigated to
determine the source of this return. Further tilt angle adjustment of the airborne radar may be required to
explore this return. Adjusting the radar tilt angle upwards can reveal the radar tops of this return, while
adjusting the tilt angle downwards may be necessary to investigate the strongest intensity of a particular return.
Effective airborne weather radar range management during all phases of flight should be based on the volume
of air to be scanned for returns ahead of own aircraft, to allow sufficient time needed to investigate, analyze,
decide, and tactically maneuver around these hazardous weather returns. Longer ranges may be used to
tactically identify intense weather returns that may warrant further investigation, and closer ranges may be used
during the investigation process.
There is no one tilt or range setting that works for all situations. It is best to remember that active tilt and
range management is necessary to identify and then investigate returns.
NOTE: When a strong weather return is displayed on the weather radar, the tilt angle may be adjusted to
explore return intensities at various altitudes to aid in determination of radar tops.
NOTE: It is the sole responsibility of the flight crew to avoid areas of hazardous weather by adequate
margins.
CAUTION: Overflight of thunderstorms should not be considered safe, as extreme turbulence and hail may
exist significantly above observed returns.
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MANAGING TILT ANGLE AND RANGE
There are many factors to be considered in order to become proficient at using airborne weather radar in
all situations. The following setup provides a good starting point for the practical application of radar tilt
management.
4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
Radar tilt management can easily be remembered by use of the 1-10-1000 rule. The summary of this rule is
the fact that when the flight crew changes the radar tilt angle by 1 degree the resulting change will displace the
center of the beam 1000 feet vertically at a range of 10 nautical miles. Applying the 1-10-1000 rule to various
distances provides the flight crew with the ability to determine how much a 1-degree change in tilt will
move the beam vertically. The radar tilt angle is capable of being adjusted in one-quarter degree increments,
allowing for greater accuracy in the placement of the beam center at desired altitudes.
Figure 6-60 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
The 12-inch phased array antenna has a certified beam width of 8 degrees, which means that the beam is
8,000 feet in height (and width) at 10 NM and 80,000 feet in height (and width) at 100 NM.
• At 20 NM range the beam height changes by 2,000 ft. per degree of tilt change.
• At 40 NM range the beam height changes by 4,000 ft. per degree of tilt change.
• At 100 NM range the beam height changes by 10,000 ft. per degree of tilt change.
Additionally, setting the tilt to UP 4.00 degrees places the bottom of the certified beam at the same altitude
as the aircraft, which is a technique used to determine whether radar tops reach your current altitude.
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Phase of Flight
Taxi
Tilt Angle
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Range Setting
20 NM
Notes
Activate weather mode when clear
of ramp area.
Takeoff / Initial
Climb
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Up 3.00 to 5.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Tilt to Minimize
Clutter
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Tilt to Minimize
Clutter
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
40 - 60 NM
If precipitation is observed in
the departure path, gain can be
reduced to aid in identification of
intense returns.
60 - 80 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviations.
60 - 120 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviations. Tilt angle set to
show minimal ground clutter.
60 - 120 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviation.
40 - 60 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviation. Tilt angle set to show
ground clutter in outer 1/3 of radar
display.
20 NM
These settings allow for observation
of the approach area and the
missed approach holding area.
10,000 Ft. AGL
Cruise
Descent To
10,000 FT
Descent Below
10,000 FT
Approach
Table 6-10 Typical Tilt Settings by Phase of Flight
NOTE: Garmin recommends the user obtain instruction in the proper operation of airborne weather radar.
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ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT (ACT)
The Altitude Compensated Tilt feature enables the equipped weather radar system to automatically adjust
the antenna beam tilt angle setting based on changes of the aircraft’s altitude. For example, if the ACT feature
is enabled and the aircraft climbs, the system compensates by adjusting the tilt downward. As the aircraft
descends with ACT enabled, the system adjusts the antenna tilt upward. The system uses the ground as a
reference for adjusting the antenna tilt angle setting with ACT enabled.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
NOTE: The color white only represents turbulence on the GWX 75 when the turbulence detection option is
installed.
Weather Mode Color
Intensity (in dBz)
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
Approximate
Precipitation
Rate (in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
Magenta
50 dBZ and greater
>2
Table 6-11 Precipitation Intensity Levels (GWX-68)
Weather Mode Color
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
(Optional)
Approximate
Intensity (in dBz)
Precipitation
Rate (in/hr.)
< 23 dBZ
< .01
23 dBZ to < 33 dBZ
.01 - 0.1
33 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
0.1 - 0.5
41 dBZ and greater
Greater than
0.5
TURB- (Optional) Turbulence Detection uses
the color magenta to show areas of rain or
hail that may also contain turbulence
Table 6-12 Precipitation Intensity Levels (GWX-70)
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Weather Mode Color
Black
Green
Green
Green
Green
Green
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Red
Red
Red
Red
Magenta
Magenta
Magenta
White
Intensity (in dBz)
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ or 24 dBZ
25 dBZ or 26 dBZ
27 dBZ or 28 dBZ
29 dBZ or 30 dBZ
31 dBZ or 32 dBZ
33 dBZ or 34 dBZ
35 dBZ or 36 dBZ
37 dBZ or 38 dBZ
39 dBZ or 40 dBZ
41 dBZ or 42 dBZ
43 dBZ or 44 dBZ
45 dBZ or 46 dBZ
47 dBZ or 48 dBZ
49 dBZ to 50 dBZ
51 dBZ to 53 dBZ
> 54 dBZ
TURB- Turbulence Detection uses the
color white to show areas of rain or hail
that may also contain turbulence
Table 6-13 Precipitation Intensity Levels (GWX-75)
In addition, when the optional Turbulence Detection feature is enabled, the system uses the color Magenta
(GWX-70) or white (GWX-75) to show areas of rain or hail which likely contain turbulence.
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence (areas of white) is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red, magenta or white are associated with hail, as well as heavy precipitation. While areas
of turbulence will be displayed as magenta (GWX 70) or white (GWX 75). Vertical scanning and antenna
tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
• Areas of radar shadowing which can result from an attenuated (weakened) signal from a nearby storm,
hiding a larger and more dangerous storm which may exist in the apparently benign area directly behind
the nearby return.
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Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-61 Cell Irregularities
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-62 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
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The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-63 The Blind Alley
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (9 in the southern hemisphere), especially
if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern hemisphere) of
a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail and Radar Tops
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can give
the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by radar.
It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes in clear
air and may be much higher than the radar top. Neither the radar top nor the actual top necessarily indicate
the top of the hazardous area, which may be much higher.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
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Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
Stratus Precipitation
Detecting areas of low altitude, stratus precipitation while the aircraft altitude is significantly above the
precipitation is difficult to accomplish with airborne weather radar. This is because as the radar beam
detects the low altitude precipitation, it also receives significant ground returns which are displayed
with the precipitation. Raising the antenna tilt angle may reduce the ground returns, however the radar
beam is likely to overshoot the low-altitude precipitation when the aircraft is at a high altitude above the
precipitation.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
8°
18,000 ft.
45
Stratus Rain at Low Altitude
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-64 Stratus Rain Combines with Ground Returns when Aircraft is at Higher Altitudes
As the aircraft descends to a lower altitude, increasing the antenna tilt angle may help to reduce unwanted
ground returns and make the display of stratus precipitation more apparent.
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OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Do not assume weather radar transmission is disabled unless all display panes displaying
weather radar are set to Standby Mode, and are displaying ‘STANDBY’ in the center of each weather radar
display.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to ensure the
radar is in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom
stop and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
NOTE: Garmin recommends the user obtain instruction in the proper operation of airborne weather radar.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
Altitude Compensated Tilt Status
Weather Radar
Mode
Turbulence Detection
Status
Antenna Tilt Angle,
Bearing, Sector Scan
and Gain Settings
Figure 6-65 Weather Radar Page with a Horizontal Scan Selected (GWX-75)
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Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the Mode Softkey.
3) While on the ground, select the Standby Softkey. For the GWX 68 only, a one-minute warm-up period is
initiated (countdown is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar enters the Standby
Mode. The warm-up period is not applicable to the GWX 70/75.
a) Select the Weather Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
If the aircraft is airborne, select the Weather Softkey. For the GWX 68 only, a one-minute warm-up period is
initiated (countdown is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar begins transmitting.
The warm-up period is not applicable to the GWX 70/75.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed. If desired, select the Vertical Softkey to change to vertical scanning.
Figure 6-66 Confirming Activating Radar
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Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, press the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
4) Press the Vertical Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is now displayed.
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the Horizontal Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan
view and repeat the previous steps.
Scan Line
Bearing Line
Figure 6-67 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan (GWX-75)
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
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Figure 6-68 Vertical Scan Display (GWX-75)
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the TILT field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Press the Tilt Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line.
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
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Tilt Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-69 Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle on a Vertical Scan Display (GWX-75)
Enabling/disabling manual gain adjustment:
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Press the Gain Softkey to activate the cursor in the Gain field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the Gain field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Press the Gain Softkey again to return to the calibrated gain setting. ‘Calibrated’ is displayed in the Gain field.
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Calibrated Gain Setting
Manual Gain Set Greater than Calibrated Gain Setting
Figure 6-70 Gain Calibration (GWX-75)
Enabling/disabling Sector Scanning:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
BEARING field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Sector Scan field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired scan. Selecting ‘Full’ enables a 90º scan (GWX 68) or 120º
scan (GWX 70/75).
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
7) Press the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
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Figure 6-71 40° Sector Scan (GWX-75)
TURBULENCE DETECTION
The optional Turbulence Detection feature, available with the GWX 70/75, identifies areas of turbulence
associated with precipitation using the color magenta (GWX 70) or white (GWX 75) during a horizontal
scan. The magenta or white areas represent precipitation moving at a high rate of speed either toward or
away from the radar antenna, using Doppler radar measurements. This feature cannot detect areas of Clear
Air Turbulence.
The Turbulence Detection feature is only available in Weather Mode while a horizontal scan is selected.
The GWX 70/75 can detect turbulence up to 40 nm in front of the aircraft. However, while the optional
Turbulence Detection is enabled on the GWX 70, if the radar range is 160 nm or greater, or a vertical scan
is selected, the system automatically removes turbulence information and shows a ‘TURB Detection Inactive’
annunciation on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page. The GWX 75 does not share this limitation as the GWX 70,
turbulence detection will be shown regardless of the range selected beyond 40 nm. If the system is missing
information needed to detect turbulence, a ‘TURB Detection Unavailable’ annunciation appears on the “Map
- Weather Radar’ Page (Table 6-16).
Enabling/Disabling Turbulence Detection during a Horizontal Scan:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
2) With the radar in weather mode, press the Features Softkey.
3) To activate or deactivate the turbulence detection feature, press the TURB Softkey. Turbulence detection is
enabled when the softkey annunciator is green; turbulence detection is disabled when the softkey annunciator
is gray. The system indicates the current turbulence detection feature status in the upper right of the ‘Map Weather Radar’ Page (Table 6-16).
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Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH™)
While in horizontal scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies
in displayed intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The
radar energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation,
and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy
of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions
with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the
extent of attenuation in a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH feature, press the WATCH Softkey.
Areas of Attenuated Signal
Precipitation
intensity is
questionable.
Potentially
stronger than
displayed
Figure 6-72 Horizontal Scan with WATCH Enabled (GWX-75)
REMOVING GROUND CLUTTER
The optional Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) feature which is available on either the GWX 70/75, the
system can distinguish between reflected ground returns (such as terrain features and buildings) and airborne
weather phenomena. Ground clutter may be most pronounced when using a low antenna tilt angle, or when
approaching mountainous terrain.
The Ground Clutter Suppression feature is available while the weather radar Sector Scan is set to Full.
When Ground Clutter Suppression is enabled, the system removes echoes determined to be ground clutter
from the display. While viewing a map with GCS enabled, adjustment of the map range or antenna tilt angle
will momentarily cause the display of ground clutter to return.
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NOTE: The GCS feature of the airborne weather radar may remove the display of low-intensity precipitation
in addition to ground returns when the feature is enabled.
NOTE: The ground clutter suppression feature is optional.
Enabling/disabling Ground Clutter Suppression:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
2) Press the Mode Softkey.
3) To enable or disable the ground clutter suppression feature, press the GCS Softkey. Ground clutter suppression
is enabled when the softkey annunciator is green; ground clutter suppression is disabled when the annunciator
is gray.
Weather Alert Bands and PFD Alert
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alerts are displayed as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is enabled,
the system also displays an alert on the PFD in the Alerts Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts from being displayed on the PFD, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey.
Weather Alert
Band
Figure 6-73 Weather Alert Bands on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page (GWX-75)
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The pilot can enable or disable the Weather Alert Bands and the Weather Alerts which appear in the Alerts
Window on the PFD, press the WX ALRT Softkey.
Enabling/disabling the Weather Alerts Bands and Alerts Window Message:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
2) Select the Features Softkey.
3) Select the WX ALRT Softkey to enable/disable the Weather Alert Bands and Alerts Window message for severe
weather head.
4) Select the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
Enabling/disabling the Weather Alerts Bands and Alerts Window Message on the PFD.
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
2) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
3) Press the WX Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
4) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
5) Press the Features Softkey.
6) Press the WX ALRT Softkey to enable/disable the Weather Alert Bands and Alerts Window message for severe
weather head.
7) Press the Back Softkey three times to return to the top-level softkeys.
Figure 6-74 Weather Alert on PFD
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
Gain and Tilt Softkeys help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
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Ground Map
Mode Color
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 to 2 dB
3 dB to < 13 dB
13 dB to less than 21 dB
21 dB to less than 29 dB
29 dB and greater
Table 6-14 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operation in Ground Map Mode:
1) Press the Mode Softkey.
2) Press the Ground Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Press the Back Softkey.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Tilt field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ADDITIONAL WEATHER RADAR DISPLAYS
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed simultaneously on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page with weather radar information.
The ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Airborne weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The
airborne weather radar is also available on the HSI Map (GWX 70/75), with independent weather radar controls
for each PFD, allowing for different settings and modes for each display. The radar range increases or decreases
automatically as the map range increases or decreases.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled on a navigation map, a weather radar information box
appears on the map. It indicates the selected radar mode, radar range, antenna tilt angle, and gain setting. The
navigation map overlay uses a horizontal scan. For the GWX 68 only, the weather radar must be in horizontal
scan mode on the Weather Radar Page in order for the weather radar to display data on the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page, otherwise the system indicates ‘N/A’ in the information box until horizontal scan mode is selected
on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page. The GWX 70/75 allow for either horizontal or vertical scan to be selected
on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page, and shows a horizontal scan on the navigation maps with the weather radar
overlay.
The pilot may enable airborne weather radar information with other map overlays on navigation maps, such
as traffic, absolute terrain information, and aviation data. However, relative terrain and data link weather radar
(such as NEXRAD) cannot be enabled simultaneously with airborne weather radar information on the same
navigation map. If relative terrain or data link radar is enabled, the system automatically disables the airborne
weather radar overlay for the selected map.
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NOTE: When viewing airborne weather radar information overlay on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page,
selecting a Heading Up navigation map orientation may be desired, since it is identical to the orientation on
the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
Weather Radar Mode
Weather Radar Range
Antenna Tilt Angle
Gain Setting
Scan Line
Tilt and
Bearing
Legend
Figure 6-75 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
Enabling/disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map- Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the WX Radar Softkey.
Or:
1) On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the ‘Weather Radar’ overlay
selection (‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
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Weather radar controls on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range,
bearing, and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges
between 1.5 and 500 nautical miles. At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the weather radar
information from the map. Adjusting the range on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page simultaneously adjusts the
range of the weather radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated in the weather radar information
box that appears when the overlay is enabled. When the radar range is adjusted on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page, system synchronizes the same range to the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page using the
Joystick when the overlay is enabled. The bearing line appears on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page as a white
dashed line, and is displayed during and momentarily after adjustment.
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page using
the Joystick. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna
tilt angle.
Adjusting the bearing and antenna tilt angle on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) With the weather radar overlay enabled, push the Joystick twice. The bearing and tilt legend is displayed.
2) Move the Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick up to adjust the
antenna tilt angle upward.
3) Move the Joystick left or right to adjust the bearing line in the desired direction. The bearing line is displayed
during and momentarily after adjustment.
If either a GWX 70 or GWX 75 is installed and the aircraft is in the air, PFD softkeys control the airborne
weather radar overlay when the HSI Map is displayed. These softkeys are subdued if the aircraft is on the
ground. The pilot and copilot can select a weather radar mode for each PFD (Standby, Weather, Ground), make
adjustments to antenna gain, antenna tilt angle, or enable/disable antenna stabilization or Altitude Compensated
Tilt features. Weather radar settings on the HSI Map are independent for each PFD. For example, the pilot’s
PFD may have Weather Mode selected while the copilot’s PFD may have Standby Mode selected. Both the GWX
70 and GWX 75 weather radars perform multiple scans as necessary to accommodate displays of weather radar
data among the PFDs and MFD.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled on the HSI Map, a weather radar information box
appears on the right side of this map. It indicates the selected radar mode, radar range, antenna tilt angle,
and gain setting. When increasing or decreasing the HSI Map range the corresponding airborne weather radar
range overlay will be the same as the HSI Map range, in most cases. However, a few instances do exist where
the selected airborne weather radar overlay range does not match the current displayed HSI Map range. For
example, if 25 nm is selected for the HSI Map range, the airborne weather radar range will be automatically
selected to 40 nm, but only 25 nm of radar data will be displayed.
NOTE: The aircraft must be in the air in order for HSI Map airborne weather radar softkeys to become
available.
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Controlling of weather radar information on the HSI Map (GWX-70/75):
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
2) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
3) Press the Wx Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
4) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
5) To select a weather radar mode, press the Mode SEL Softkey
a) Press a softkey for the desired mode: Standby, Weather, or Ground.
b) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
6) Press the Gain- Softkey to decrease the gain setting or press the Gain+ Softkey to increase the gain setting in
increments of 0.5 with each press, or press and hold the softkey for continuous adjustment. A gain setting of
0.0 is equivalent to the calibrated gain setting.
7) Move the PFD Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick down to adjust
the antenna tilt angle upward.
8) Press the WX Alert Softkey to enable/disable the display of Weather Alerts.
9) Press the ACT Softkey to enable/disable the Altitude Compensated Tilt feature.
10) Press the GCS Softkey to enable/disable the optional Ground Clutter Suppression feature.
11) Press the TURB Softkey to enable/disable the optional Turbulence Detection feature.
12) When finished adjusting the HSI Map display of the airborne weather radar, press the Back Softkey.
The airborne weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page to
indicate the intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather
alert bands is exclusive to the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page. Because data link radar precipitation and relative
terrain present information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the navigation
amps disables the display of the data link radar and relative terrain information for this page.
Figure 6-76 HSI Map with Airborne Weather Radar Overlay and Softkeys
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SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
Additional information may be displayed in the center of the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page as a center banner
annunciation. Refer to the following tables for a list of annunciations and their locations for airborne weather
radar.
Radar Mode
Annunciation
Center Banner
Annunciation
Figure 6-77 Radar System Status Indications on ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
STANDBY
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
GROUND
None
Radar Failed*
FAIL
RADAR FAIL
* See Table 6-17 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-15 Radar Modes on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page
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The system displays the status of the weather radar features in the upper-right corner of the ‘Map - Weather
Radar’ Page.
Radar Feature Status
STAB INOP
Description
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The antenna
stabilization feature is inoperative.
ALTITUDE COMP TILT ON
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected on.
ALTITUDE COMP TILT OFF
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected off.
GND CLTR SUPPRESS ON
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected on.
GND CLTR SUPPRESS OFF
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected off.
GND CLTR SUPPRESS INACTIVE
The ground clutter suppression feature is enabled, but the radar is in a
mode which cannot support ground clutter suppression (e.g. vertical scan
or sector scan).
GND CLTR SUPPRESS UNAVAILABLE
The radar is missing data needed to suppress ground clutter.
TURB DETECTION ON
The turbulence detection feature is selected on. (GWX 70/75)
TURB DETECTION OFF
The turbulence detection feature is selected off. (GWX 70/75)
TURB DETECTION INACTIV
TURB DETECTION UNAVAILABLE
Turbulence detection is inactive when a radar is in a mode which cannot
support turbulence detection. (GWX 70/75)
The radar is missing data needed to detect turbulence. (GWX 70/75)
Table 6-16 Radar Feature Status Annunciations on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page
If the weather radar unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center
of the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Description
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
RADAR FAIL
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system should be serviced.
Table 6-17 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page
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6.4 TAWS-B
WARNING: Do not use TAWS-B information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS-B is intended only to
enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed if the aircraft is out of the installed terrain database coverage area.
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS-B databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) is an optional feature to increase situational
awareness and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-B provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts when terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed
alerts and warnings are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
TAWS-B requires the following information to operate properly:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database.
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution.
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b.
However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may still contain
inaccuracies.
TAWS-B uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS
altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea
level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to
determine TAWS-B alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations
in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local
altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude
provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-B are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and GSL
altitude, TAWS-B displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and
altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and “predict” the
aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-B can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
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RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
TAWS-B uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200 feet above
ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically adjusts these
colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the TAWS
On-Ground Legend shown in Figure 6-78. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain
information using red, yellow, green, and black, as shown on the TAWS In-Air Legend shown in Figure 6-78.
As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain
momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. If a TAWS alert occurs, the relative terrain colors transition
to the TAWS In-Air Legend if in the TAWS On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the flight crew
with the most information possible.
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Figure 6-78 Relative Terrain Legend
During an alert, the system shows potential impact areas over terrain or obstacles using bright yellow (caution)
or bright red (warning) on navigation maps and on the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page.
The colors and symbols in Figure 6-79 and Tables 6-18 and 6-19 and 6-20 represent terrain, obstacles, and
potential impact areas.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-79 In-Air Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS
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Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude.
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude.
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft
below aircraft altitude.
Table 6-18 TAWS Relative Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft
altitude.
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude.
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft
altitude.
Table 6-19 TAWS-B Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
Potential Impact Area
Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
PULL UP
Caution
TERRAIN
or
or
Table 6-20 TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
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The ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is the principal map page for viewing TAWS-B information. TAWS-B information
can be also displayed on the following maps and pages as an additional reference:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
Enabling/disabling relative terrain information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey to cycle through terrain options. The selected mode is displayed in cyan: Off, Topo, Rel.
Press the TER Softkey until ‘Rel’ is displayed on the softkey.
Displaying relative terrain information (PFD Maps):
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Rel Ter Softkey.
When TAWS-B is selected on maps other than the TAWS-B Page, an icon to indicate the feature is enabled
for display and a legend for TAWS-B terrain colors are shown. The legend appears without the icon on the
‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
Maps besides the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page. The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted
to below 20 nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted
proportionally.
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Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• Terrain Display – Selects the display of topo, relative terrain, or no terrain, and selects the maximum map
range at which terrain is shown.
• Obstacle Data – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
TAWS-B PAGE
The ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact area data in relation
to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. It is the principal page for viewing TAWS-B
information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be enabled for reference. If an obstacle
and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically zooms in to the closest potential
point of impact on the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-B Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state)
and press the ENT Key.
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GPS-GSL
Altitude
Red Terrain is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude)
Yellow Lighted
Obstacle is
between 100’
and 1000’ below
aircraft altitude
Red Lighted
Obstacle is
above or within
100’ below
aircraft altitude
Red Wind Turbine
Obstacle is above
or within 100’
below aircraft
altitude
Yellow Terrain is
between 100’
and 1000’ below
the aircraft
altitude)
Relative Terrain
Legend
TAWS Inhibited
Annunciation
Figure 6-80 ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page
TAWS-B ALERTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software algorithms.
TAWS-B alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, the system displays visual annunciations with voice alerts. Table 6-21 shows TAWS-B alert types with
corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert occurs, the system displays annunciations on the PFDs and MFD. The TAWS-B Alert
Annunciation is shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFDs and below the Terrain Legend on the
MFD. If the TAWS-B Page is not displayed at the time of the alert, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. When
a pop-up alert occurs, do one of the following:
• Press the CLR Key (removes the pop-up alert), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page).
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PFD Alert Annunciation
MFD
PopUp
Alert
Figure 6-81 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-82 ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page with Alert
(Shown after pressing the ENT Key during the MFD Pop-Up Alert)
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PFD/MFD**
MFD Pop-Up Alert (except
Alert
TAWS-B Page)
Annunciation
Alert Type
Excessive Descent Rate Warning
(EDR)
PULL UP
PULL-UP
TERRAIN - PULL-UP
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
PULL UP
or
TERRAIN AHEAD - PULL-UP
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning
(ITI)
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
TERRAIN - PULL-UP
PULL UP
or
TERRAIN AHEAD - PULL-UP
OBSTACLE - PULL-UP
PULL UP
or
OBSTACLE AHEAD - PULL-UP
OBSTACLE - PULL-UP
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
PULL UP
or
OBSTACLE AHEAD - PULL-UP
CAUTION - TERRAIN
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
TERRAIN
or
TERRAIN AHEAD
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution
(ITI)
CAUTION - TERRAIN
TERRAIN
or
TERRAIN AHEAD
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
TERRAIN
or
OBSTACLE AHEAD
CAUTION OBSTACLE
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
“Pull-Up”
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up; Terrain Ahead,
Pull-Up”
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up; Terrain Ahead,
Pull-Up”
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up; Obstacle Ahead,
Pull-Up”
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up; Obstacle Ahead,
Pull-Up”
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
OBSTACLE AHEAD
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
TERRAIN
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
TERRAIN
SINK RATE
“Sink Rate”
TERRAIN
Premature Descent Alert Caution
(PDA)
Altitude Voice Callout (VCO)
“500”
Excessive Descent Rate Caution
(EDR)
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CAUTION OBSTACLE
Voice Alert
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
PFD/MFD**
MFD Pop-Up Alert (except
Alert
TAWS-B Page)
Annunciation
Alert Type
Voice Alert
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
DONT SINK
Negative Climb Rate Caution
(NCR)
or
TERRAIN
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration when more than one option is available are indicated with asterisks.
** Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-21 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-83 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL-UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-83 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of TAWS-B compares the aircraft’s projected flight
path with known terrain and obstacles in their respective databases and issues four types of alerts as either a
caution or a warning:
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-84. When an RTC alert is issued, the system displays a potential impact area on
navigation maps and the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page.
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Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts are
accompanied by a potential impact area on the navigation maps and the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page. The alert is
annunciated when the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes
in Figure 6-84.
Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
Required
Terrain Clearance
(FT)
Required
Terrain
Clearance
(FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance
From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-84 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically suppresses FLTA alerts from occurring under any of the following conditions:
• The aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination elevation and within 0.5 nm of the destination.
• The aircraft is less than 50 feet above terrain or on the ground.
• The aircraft is between runway ends.
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PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-85 PDA Alerting Threshold
PDA and FLTA visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used
when inhibiting TAWS-B and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When TAWS-B is inhibited,
the alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and MFD.
Figure 6-86 TAWS PDA and FLTA Alerting Inhibited Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B alerting:
1) Select the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page.
2) Press the Inhibit Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS-B (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
While TAWS-B alerting is inhibited, is unavailable, or has failed, the system may show a ‘LOW ALT’
annunciation on the PFDs if all of these conditions are met:
• The aircraft is on a GPS SBAS approach.
• The Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint.
• The aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed FAF altitude.
Refer to the Flight Instruments for more information about the ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation.
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ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT (VCO) ALERT
The system provides a “Five-hundred” voice alert when the aircraft descends to within 500 feet above the
terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within five nautical miles of an airport, the “Five Hundred”
voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft is more than five nautical
miles from the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain, by
comparing the aircraft’s GPS-GSL altitude to the terrain database.
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the VCO alert. This alert cannot be
inhibited.
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual annunciations. NCR alerting is
only active when departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet.
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less.
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees.
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-87 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
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1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-88 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a system test of its alerting capabilities. The system test can also be
manually initiated. The system issues a voice alert when the test has concluded. TAWS-B System Testing is
unavailable when ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated
along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ visual annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-B Page. If in-flight, the voice alert
“TAWS Not Available” is also generated. When the GPS signal is restored and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the voice alert “TAWS Available” is generated.
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Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
TAWS System Test Fail;
Terrain, Airport Terrain
or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid on all
displays; software mismatch
among displays; TAWS audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid. TAWS operating
with PFD Terrain or Obstacle
databases
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS
signal, or out of database
coverage area
Sufficient GPS signal
reception restored
TAWS Alerting is inhibited‑
PFD/MFD TAWS-B
Page Annunciation
TAWS-B Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
TAWS TEST
None
None
None
“TAWS System Test
OK”
TAWS FAIL
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System
Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE
FAILURE
None
TAWS N/A
NO GPS POSITION
TAWS N/A
None
None
None
None
“TAWS Not
Available”
“TAWS Not
Available”
“TAWS Available”
(voice alert only in
flight)
None
TAWS Alert
Types
Not
Available
None Available
FLTA, PDA
FLTA, PDA,
VCO
FLTA, PDA
FLTA, PDA
Table 6-22 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
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6.5 VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles in an inset
window on the bottom of the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. Although the VSD does not display TAWS alerts and
potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors and symbols as TAWS to depict relative terrain
and obstacles within the VSD. Refer to the TAWS discussion for more information about relative terrain and
obstacle color correlation and symbols.
Enabling/Disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable or disable the VSD.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page also control the display of this information in the VSD.
Enabling/Disabling VSD Relative Terrain on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page (when VSD is enabled):
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. Each selection cycles though an option displayed in cyan: Off (disables terrain), Topo
(to show topographical data) or REL (to show relative terrain).
VSD DISPLAY
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough
or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain will be shown in gray if
the TER Softkey is selected off on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon
the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution, within
a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present position and the end of the map range.
The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as annunciated on the HSI, and is widest during
enroute or oceanic phases.
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Flight Phase
Approach
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Total VSD Width
0.6 nm
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 6-23 VSD Terrain Width Varies with Phase of Flight
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the top-left corner
of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan, and if no active flight
plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In Track Mode, the contour is based
on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based on the active flight plan, when available,
otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
Selecting a VSD Mode:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Inset Softkey.
3) Press the VSD Softkey displaying the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey cycles through a mode
selection: FPL (flight plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
When the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the
VSD is adjusted to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the ‘Map Navigation Map’ Page range is adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical mile.
When the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page range is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as
shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles from the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, these items are also removed
from the VSD; only an outline of the terrain will be displayed in black in the VSD Inset Window. Refer to the
TAWS discussions for more information about displaying terrain or obstacles on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page.
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Track Mode
Boundary
Relative Terrain
Legend
Selected VSD
Mode
Selected
Altitude
Figure 6-89 VSD on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with Relative Terrain Information
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL
is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for unusually tall obstacles), a vertical line
appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL.
Figure 6-90 VSD with Tall Obstacles
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TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The boundary is
shown as a white rectangle on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and is only available when the VSD is enabled
in Track Mode. White range markers both edges of the Track Mode Boundary rectangle match the range
markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window whenever the profile range is at least four
nautical miles (or 7.5 km if configured for metric units).
The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page range at which
the Profile Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘VSD’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• TRK Mode BNDRY – Enables/disables the display of the Track Mode Boundary and sets maximum range at
which Track Mode Boundary is shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
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6.6 TAWS-A
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS-A is intended only to enhance
situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS-A (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class A) is an optional feature to increase situational
awareness and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-A provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts when terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed
alerts and warnings are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-A satisfies TSO-C151b Class A and TSO-92c requirements for certification.
Class A TAWS requires the following components:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database.
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution.
• Valid flap and landing gear status inputs.
• A valid radar altimeter.
TAWS-A uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b.
However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and the data may still
contain inaccuracies.
TAWS-A uses information from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude, along with
additional altitude input from the radar altimeter. GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. The
system converts GPS altitude to a height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean seal level
(MSL) calculated geometrically. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by factors such as satellite geometry, but it is not
subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude devices. GSL altitude does
not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a highly accurate
and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-A are referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS
position and GSL altitude, TAWS-A displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the
position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and
“predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-A
can provide advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
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TAWS-A incorporates radar altimeter input with the GSL altitude to provide a more accurate position reference
when at lower altitudes for certain alert types, and to retain a level of ground proximity warning capability in the
unlikely event of a terrain or obstacle database failure.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GPS-MSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s true altitude
differing from the baro-corrected altitude.
TAWS-A provides the following alert types:
• Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) Alerting, which consists of:
• Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) / Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC) Alerting.
• Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) / Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) Alerting.
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA).
• Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) Alerting, which consists of:
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) Alerting.
• Excessive Closure Rate (ECR) to Terrain Alerting.
• Flight Into Terrain (FIT) Alerting.
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR) after takeoff Alerting.
• Excessive below Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation (GSD) Alerting.
• Altitude Voice Call Out (VCO) Alerting.
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
TAWS-A uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200 feet above
ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically adjusts these
colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the TAWS
On-Ground Legend shown in Figure 6-91. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain
information using red, yellow, green, and black, as shown on the TAWS In-Air Legend shown in Figure 6-91.
As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain
momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. If a TAWS alert occurs, the relative terrain colors transition
to the TAWS In-Air Legend if in the TAWS On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the flight crew
with the most information possible.
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On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Figure 6-91 Relative Terrain Legend
During an alert, the system shows potential impact areas over terrain or obstacles using bright yellow (caution)
or bright red (warning) on navigation maps and on the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page.
The colors and symbols in Figure 6-92 and Tables 6-24 and 6-25 and 6-26 represent terrain, obstacles, and
potential impact areas.
DISPLAYING TAWS-A DATA
TAWS-A uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-92 In-Air Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS
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Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below
the aircraft altitude.
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft
below the aircraft altitude.
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below
aircraft altitude.
Table 6-24 TAWS Relative Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude.
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft
altitude.
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude.
Table 6-25 TAWS-B Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
PULL UP
Caution
TERRAIN
or
or
Table 6-26 TAWS-B Potential Impact Areas with Annunciations
The ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page is the principal map page for viewing TAWS-A information. TAWS-A information
can be also displayed on the following maps and pages as an additional reference:
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• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
Enabling/disabling relative terrain information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey to cycle through terrain options. The selected mode is displayed in cyan: Off, Topo, Rel.
Press the TER Softkey until ‘Rel’ is displayed on the softkey.
Displaying relative terrain information (PFD Maps):
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Rel Ter Softkey.
When TAWS-A is selected on maps other than the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page, an icon to indicate the feature is
enabled for display and a legend for TAWS-A terrain colors are shown. The legend appears without the icon
on the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
Maps besides the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page. The maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20
nm, the highest obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• Terrain Display – Selects the display of topo, relative terrain, or no terrain, and selects the maximum map
range at which terrain is shown.
• Obstacle Data – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
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TAWS-A PAGE
The ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page shows terrain, obstacle, and potential impact area data in relation to the aircraft’s
current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be
displayed for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the system reduces
the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page map range if necessary to clearly show the potential impact area.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-A Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Red Terrain is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude)
Yellow Lighted
Obstacle is
between 100’
and 1000’ below
aircraft altitude
Red Lighted
Obstacle is
above or within
100’ below
aircraft altitude
Red Wind Turbine
Obstacle is above
or within 100’
below aircraft
altitude
Yellow Terrain is
between 100’
and 1000’ below
the aircraft
altitude)
Relative Terrain
Legend
TAWS Flap
Override
Annunciation
Figure 6-93 ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page
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TAWS-A ALERTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-A software algorithms.
TAWS-A alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, the system displays visual annunciations with voice alerts. Table 6-27 shows TAWS-A alert types with
corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-A Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter or upper right of the Airspeed indicator on the PFD and below the
Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page is not already displayed on the MFD, a pop-up alert
appears on the MFD while an alert is active. When a pop-up alert occurs, do one of the following:
• Press the CLR Key (removes the pop-up alert), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page).
TAWS System
Status
Annunciations
TAWS Terrain
Caution
Annunciation
PFD with TAWS-A Annunciations
MFD Pop-Up Alert (on non-TAWS-A pages)
‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page with Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-94 Example TAWS-A Annunciations
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Alert Type
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page
Annunciation
MFD Map Page
Pop-Up Alert
(Except TAWS-A Page)
PULL UP
TERRAIN - PULL-UP
or
Voice Alert
*
TERRAIN AHEAD - PULL-UP
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
PULL UP
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up”
TERRAIN - PULL-UP
or
TERRAIN AHEAD - PULL-UP
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
PULL UP
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up”
OBSTACLE - PULL-UP
or
OBSTACLE AHEAD - PULL-UP
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
PULL UP
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up”
OBSTACLE AHEAD - PULL-UP
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up”
OBSTACLE - PULL-UP
or
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
PULL UP
PULL-UP
“<whoop> <whoop> Pull-Up”
Excessive Closure Rate
Warning (ECR)
PULL UP
PULL-UP
“<whoop> <whoop> Pull-Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - TERRAIN
or
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
TERRAIN AHEAD
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
TERRAIN
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
OBSTACLE AHEAD
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
CAUTION - TERRAIN
or
TERRAIN AHEAD
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION OBSTACLE
or
OBSTACLE AHEAD
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
TERRAIN
CAUTION OBSTACLE
or
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
TERRAIN
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
“Too Low, Terrain”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
TERRAIN
SINK RATE
“Sink Rate”
Excessive Closure Rate
Caution (ECR)
TERRAIN
TERRAIN
“Terrain, Terrain”
Negative Climb Rate Caution (NCR)
TERRAIN
DONT SINK
or
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
Flight Into Terrain High
Speed Caution (FIT)
TERRAIN
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
*
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
“Too Low, Terrain”
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable. Alerts for the default configuration are indicated with asterisks.
Table 6-27 TAWS-A Alerts Summary
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PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page
Annunciation
MFD Map Page
Pop-Up Alert
(Except TAWS-A Page)
Voice Alert
Flight Into Terrain Gear
Caution (FIT)
TERRAIN
TOO LOW - GEAR
“Too Low, Gear”
Flight Into Terrain Flaps
Caution (FIT)
TERRAIN
TOO LOW - FLAPS
“Too Low, Flaps”
Flight Into Terrain Takeoff
Caution (FIT)
TERRAIN
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
“Too Low, Terrain”
Glide Slope Deviation Caution (GSD)
(depends on approach
type)
GLIDESLOPE
or
GLIDESLOPE
or
GLIDEPATH
GLIDEPATH
“Glideslope”
or
“Glidepath”
None
None
Alert Type
Altitude Voice Callout
(VCO)
“Five Hundred”, “Four Hundred”*, “Three Hundred”*,
“Two Hundred”*, “One Hundred”*
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable. Alerts for the default configuration are indicated with asterisks.
Table 6-27 TAWS-A Alerts Summary
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE (FLTA)
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of TAWS-A compares the aircraft’s projected flight
path with known terrain and obstacles in their respective databases and issues four types of alerts as either a
caution or a warning:
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact area is displayed on the ‘Map - TAWS-A’
Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts
are accompanied by a potential impact area displayed on the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page. The alert is annunciated
when the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes.
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Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
Required
Terrain Clearance
(FT)
Required
Terrain
Clearance
(FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-95 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically suppresses FLTA alerts from occurring under any of the following conditions:
• The aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination elevation and within 0.5 nm of the destination.
• The aircraft is less than fifty feet above terrain or on the ground.
• The aircraft is between runway ends.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-96 PDA Alerting Threshold
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PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
Inhibiting FLTA and PDA Alerts
NOTE: The ‘Inhibit TAWS’ function only inhibits FLTA and PDA alerts. Alerting for GPWS alerts (EDR, ECR,
NCR, FIT) and GSD is controlled independently from FLTA and PDA alerts.
FLTA and PDA visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used
when inhibiting alerts and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When PDA and FLTA alerts
are inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and on the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page
annunciation window of the MFD.
Figure 6-97 TAWS-A Page Menu and Inhibit Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling FLTA and PDA alerting:
1) Select the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page.
2) Press the TAWS INH Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS-A (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
If PDA and FLTA alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS
approach, a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft
altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments
Section for details.
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-98 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
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6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL-UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-98 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
EXCESSIVE CLOSURE RATE ALERT
The Excessive Closure Rate (ECR) alert provides suitable notification when the aircraft is determined to
be closing upon terrain at an excessive speed for a given aircraft gear and flap configuration.
Figures 6-99 and 6-100 show the ECR alerting criteria for flaps in the landing configuration and for all
other flight phases respectively.
ECR alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is five nautical miles from the nearest airport,
except when FLTA is not available (causing the TAWS N/A or TAWS FAIL annunciation to be displayed), in
which case ECR alerting will remain active until landing.
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Height Above Terrain (Feet)
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Closure Rate (FPM)
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
Figure 6-99 Excessive Closure Rate Alert Criteria (Flaps Up or Takeoff Configuration)
Closure Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-100 Excessive Closure Rate Alert Criteria (Flaps in Landing Configuration)
FLIGHT INTO TERRAIN ALERT
Flight Into Terrain (FIT) alerts occur when the aircraft is too low with respect to terrain based on landing
gear status, flap position, and groundspeed. FIT caution alerts are issued when flight conditions meet the
criteria shown in the following figure.
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Height Above Terrain (Feet)
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
*
*
Altitude Change Rate (FPM)
* Flap position will not trigger alert if Flap Override option is enabled; see discussion below.
Figure 6-101 Flight Into Terrain Caution Alert Criteria
To reduce nuisance FIT alerts on approaches where flap extension is not desired (or is intentionally delayed),
the pilot may override FIT alerting based on the flap position, while all other FIT alerting remains in effect.
Figure 6-102 TAWS-A Page Menu and FIT Flap Override Annunciation
Overriding Flaps-based FIT alerting:
1) Select the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page.
2) Press the Flap OVR Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Flap Override’ or ‘Disable Flap Override’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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When the Flaps Override option is enabled, the annunciation ‘FLAP OVR’ is annunciated on the PFD and
on the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page of the MFD. If GPWS alerts are also inhibited (which include FIT), the ‘FLAP
OVR’ annunciation is not shown.
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
FIT alerts also occur during takeoff or go-around if the aircraft’s height above ground level (as determined
by the radar altimeter) is too close to rising terrain. TAWS-A will issue the voice alert “Too Low - Terrain”
and visual annunciations when conditions enter the caution alert area.
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
Radio Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-103 FIT Alerting After Takeoff
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the MFD if the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page is not already displayed. NCR alerting for TAWS-A is only active
when departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet.
• Distance from the departure airport is five nautical miles or less.
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees.
• Landing gear or flaps are configured for takeoff.
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
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1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-104 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-105 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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Inhibiting GPWS Alerts (EDR, ECR, FIT, and NCR)
NOTE: The ‘Inhibit GPWS’ function only affects GPWS alerts (EDR, ECR, NCR, and FIT). Alerting for FLTA,
PDA, and GSD is controlled independently from the GPWS alerts listed below.
EDR, ECR, FIT, and NCR visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited as a group.
Discretion should be used when inhibiting alerts and the GPWS system should be enabled when appropriate.
When these alerts are inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘GPWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and on the TAWS-A
Page annunciation window of the MFD.
Figure 6-106 TAWS-A Page Menu and GPWS Inhibit Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling GPWS alerting:
1) Select the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page.
2) Press the GPWS INH Softkey to inhibit or enable GPWS alerts (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit GPWS’ or ‘Enable GPWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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EXCESSIVE BELOW GLIDESLOPE/GLIDEPATH DEVIATION ALERT
Radio Altitude (Feet)
A Glideslope Deviation or Glidepath Deviation (GSD) caution alert is issued when the system detects
that the aircraft is significantly below the glidepath for the selected approach in relation to the aircraft’s height
above terrain.
“GLIDESLOPE”
or
“GLIDEPATH”
Number of Dots Below Glideslope/Glidepath
Figure 6-107 Excessive Below Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation Alert Criteria
GSD alerting is only active after departure and the following conditions are met:
• An ILS approach is active or an FMS approach is active with one of the following SBAS approach service
levels: LPV, LP+V, or LNAV/VNAV.
• Aircraft is below 1000 feet AGL.
• Gear is configured for landing.
When a GSD caution alert occurs on an ILS approach, the visual annunciation ‘GLIDESLOPE’ is issued
with the ‘Glideslope’ voice alert. If a GSD caution alert occurs on an LNAV/VNAV, or LNAV+V approach, the
visual annunciation ‘GLIDEPATH’ is issued with the ‘Glidepath’ voice alert.
Inhbiting GSD Alerts
NOTE: GSD alerting may only be inhibited while a GSD alert is occurring. GSD alerts are inhibited
independently from all other FLTA, PDA, and GPWS alerts.
During a GSD alert, the PFD Softkeys are displayed to provide an option to inhibit the alert. A ‘GLIDESLOPE’
alert will display a GS INH Softkey to inhibit the alert. A ‘GLIDEPATH’ alert will display a GP INH Softkey to
inhibit the alert. When an inhibit Softkey is pressed, the PFD Softkeys return to the top-level display. Press
the Back Softkey to return to the top level of the PFD Softkeys without inhibiting the GSD alert.
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Or:
Or:
Figure 6-108 GSD Glideslope Alert and PFD Softkeys
GSD alerts may also be inhibited on the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page while a GSD alert is occurring.
Inhibiting/Enabling GSD alerting (only available during a GSD alert):
1) Select the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page.
2) Press the GS INH Softkey or the GP INH Softkey to inhibit or enable GSD alerts (softkey choice dependent on
present GSD alert type).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select the option to inhibit or enable the glideslope or glidepath alerting (choice dependent on present GSD
alert type) and press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-109 TAWS-A Page Menu and Glideslope Alerting Inhibited Annunciation
ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT (VCO)
TAWS-A provides voice alerts as the aircraft descends, beginning at 500 feet above the terrain, using radar
altitude (if greater than five nautical miles from the nearest airport), or 500 feet above the nearest runway
Touch Down Zone Elevation using GPS-GSL altitude (if less than five nm from the nearest airport. Upon
descent to this altitude, the system issues a ‘five hundred’ voice alert.
Additional VCO alerts occur as the aircraft descends through 450, 400, 350, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 50,
40, 30, 20, and 10 feet. There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alerts.
The ‘five hundred’ voice alert cannot be inhibited. If Touchdown Callouts are set to On, then each individual
callout can be selected On or Off.
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SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, TAWS-A conducts a system test of its alerting capabilities. The system test can also be
manually initiated. A voice alert occurs at the conclusion of the test. TAWS-A System Testing is disabled when
ground speed exceeds 30 knots. TAWS-A terrain alerts will not be issued while a test is in progress.
PFD/MFD TAWS-A Page
Annunciation
TAWS-A Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS System Fail.
TAWS FAIL
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TAWS Not Available.
TAWS N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
Alert Type
(if GPS position lost)
GPWS System Fail.
GPWS FAIL
None
“GPWS System Failure”
System Test in progress.
TAWS TEST
TAWS TEST
None
TAWS System Test pass.
TAWS PDA/FLTA Alerting
Inhibited.
GPWS Alerting Inhibited.
None
TAWS INH
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
None
GPWS INH
None
None
None
None
None
None
GS INH
GSD Alerting Inhibited.
or
GP INH
‘Too Low - Flaps’ FIT
alerting inhibited.
FLAP OVR
Table 6-28 TAWS-A System Test Status Annunciations
Manually testing the TAWS-A System:
1) Select the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
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TAWS-A ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
TAWS-A continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, flap and landing gear
position, radar altimeter input, and GPS status.
If no PFD or MFD contains Terrain, Airport Terrain, and Obstacle databases (or the databases are invalid), the
voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-A requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the ‘Map - TAWS-A’ Page. The voice alert “TAWS
Not Available” is also generated if airborne, and some TAWS-A terrain alerts will not be issued (Table 6-29),
while GPWS alerting (which are not dependent on GPS position) will continue to operate. When the GPS
signal is re-established and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the voice alert “TAWS Available”
is generated.
TAWS-A also requires radar altimeter input. Should the radar altimeter input fail or become degraded, the
annunciation ‘GPWS FAIL’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-A Page. The voice alert
“GPWS System Failure” is also generated. The ‘GPWS FAIL’ annunciation will also occur if both GPS altitude
and barometric altitude are unavailable. If only the GPWS system has failed, GPWS-based alerts will not be
available, while other TAWS-A alerting remains unaffected.
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PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page Annunciation
TAWS-A Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS Alert
Types
Not
Available
TAWS FAIL
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
FLTA, PDA
None
TERRAIN DATABASE
FAILURE
None
Not applicable
TAWS N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
Excessively degraded GPS
signal, or out of database
coverage area
Sufficient GPS signal
reception restored
TAWS N/A
None
“TAWS Not Available”
FLTA, PDA,
GSD†, VCO*
FLTA, PDA
None
None
Radar Altimeter invalid,
Vertical Speed Invalid, GPS
and Baro Altitude invalid,
Software mismatch among
GDUs, TAWS configuration
mismatch among GDUs,
TAWS audio fault
GPWS FAIL
“TAWS Available”
(voice alert only in
flight)
“GPWS System Failure”
Alert Type
TAWS System Test Fail;
Terrain, Airport Terrain
or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid on all
GDUs; software mismatch
among GDUs; TAWS audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid. TAWS operating
with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
No GPS position
*
*
None
EDR, ECR,
NCR, FIT, GSD
* VCO alerts are not issued if both TAWS and GPWS systems have failed or are not available
† GSD alert will be available if a valid ILS is being used for navigation, even in no valid GPS signal is being received.
Table 6-29 TAWS-A Abnormal Status Alerts
If the aircraft bank angle exceeds 30˚, TAWS-A will disable ECR alerts. ECR alert availability returns when
the bank angle is reduced for at least eight seconds.
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6.7 TAS/TCAS I TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of traffic system limitations. Traffic systems require transponders of other
aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due
to phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: If an optional Honeywell KTA 870 TAS is installed, refer to the applicable Pilot’s Guide from the
manufacturer for detailed information about that traffic system.
®
NOTE: Refer to the SKYWATCH (SKY497/SKY899) Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the TAS.
NOTE: If Garmin GTX 345R transponder is installed, refer to the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
(ADS-B) Traffic discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic displays.
NOTE: Traffic images depict Garmin Traffic Systems there are no Third Party Interface images included in this
documentation.
This section covers the optional Garmin GTS 825, Honeywell KTA 870, or L-3 Skywatch 497 Traffic Advisory
System (TAS) and Garmin GTS 855 or L-3 Skywatch 899 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance I System (TCAS I).
Differences in these traffic systems, when applicable, are also discussed in this section.
The Garmin traffic system enhances flight crew situational awareness by displaying traffic information for
transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual annunciations and a voice traffic alerts to assist
the flight crew visually acquire traffic.
The traffic system is capable of tracking up to 75 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruders equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest threat
potential can be displayed simultaneously. No traffic surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating
transponders.
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TAS THEORY OF OPERATION
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system interrogates the transponders of intruding aircraft
while monitoring for transponder replies. The system uses this information to derive the distance, relative
bearing, and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The
traffic system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach
(CPA). If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual
annunciations and voice alerts.
TRAFFIC SURVEILLANCE VOLUME
The traffic surveillance system actively monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude. Under
ideal conditions, the TAS system scans transponder traffic up to 22 NM in the forward direction. The TCAS
I system scans for transponder traffic up to 40 NM in the forward direction. The range is somewhat reduced
to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In areas of greater
transponder traffic density, the on-board traffic system automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter
power (and therefore range) in order to limit potential interference from other signals.
When the traffic system is paired with the optional GTX 335 1090 MHz ES (Extended Squitter)
transponder, the traffic system uses Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) position reports
from participating aircraft to enhance the positional accuracy of traffic displayed within the TAS or TCAS I
surveillance range.
NOTE: Do not confuse this functionality with full ADS-B capability, which can provide traffic information
from ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and ADS-B traffic outside of the TAS/TCAS I surveillance
volume.
When the traffic system is paired with the optional GTX 345R transponder, the traffic system also uses
Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) position reports from participating aircraft to enhance
the positional accuracy of traffic displayed within the TAS or TCAS I surveillance range, in addition to
broadcasts from traffic outside of the TAS/TCAS I surveillance range. It also receives information from ADS-B
Ground Based Transceivers (GBTs). This includes the Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) service
and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Rebroadcast (ADS-R) service; refer to the ADS-B Traffic section for
more information about these features.
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TRAFFIC DISPLAY SYMBOLOGY
NOTE: If an optional Honeywell KTA 870 TAS is installed, refer to the applicable Pilot’s Guide from the
manufacturer for detailed information about that traffic system.
The system displays traffic using the symbols shown in the following tables depending on the type of
equipment installed.
Traffic Symbol
Description
Other Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-30 TAS/TCAS I Symbol Description
Traffic Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in
the direction of the aircraft track.
Other Non-threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Points
in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Table 6-31 Traffic with ADS-B Symbology (GTX 33/335 Transponder)
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Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the
ground.
Table 6-32 ADS-B Traffic Symbology with GTX 345R Transponder
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A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as an amber circle or amber circle with an enclosed triangle, alerts the
crew to a potentially hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet
TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA
symbol at the edge of the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding aircraft
is within ±1200 feet and is within a six nautical mile range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
Other Non-Threat traffic, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond a six
nautical mile range that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet. When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus sign ‘-’
indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in
either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol.
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, a motion vector line extending beyond the
traffic symbol in the direction of the track may also be displayed when either absolute or relative motion
vectors are enabled.
Motion Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-110 Intruder Altitude and
Vertical Trend Arrow
Figure 6-111 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B
Directional Information and Motion Vector
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
NOTE: If an optional Honeywell KTA 870 TAS is installed, refer to the applicable Pilot’s Guide from the
manufacturer for detailed information about that traffic system.
®
NOTE: Refer to the SKYWATCH (SKY497/SKY899) Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the TAS.
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TAS/TCAS I TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of
nuisance TA alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. Level A (less) TA sensitivity is used when
the aircraft’s landing gear is extended, or when the radar altimeter (if equipped) indicates own aircraft is below
2000’ AGL. In all other conditions, Level B (greater) TA sensitivity is used to assess TA threats.
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Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.2 NM.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.55 NM.
Table 6-33 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
TRAFFIC ALERTS
NOTE: If an optional Honeywell KTA 870 TAS is installed, refer to the Pilot’s Guide from the manufacturer
for information about voice alerts for that traffic system.
®
NOTE: Refer to the SKYWATCH (SKY497/SKY899) Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the TAS.
When the traffic system detects a new TA, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic!” voice alert is generated, followed by additional voice information about the bearing, relative
altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-33). The voice alert,
“Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” indicates the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude,
and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the right of the Airspeed Indicator on the PFD, flashes for five seconds,
and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• If the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the map. Otherwise the Traffic
Map is shown on the PFD.
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If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, an amber text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate “TA”
followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-112 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-34 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
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SYSTEM TEST
NOTE: If an optional Honeywell KTA 870 TAS is installed, refer to the applicable Pilot’s Guide from the
manufacturer for information about applicable voice alerts for the system test.
®
NOTE: Refer to the SKYWATCH (SKY497/SKY899) Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the TAS.
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
test during flight.
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes approximately
ten seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on any
displayed traffic maps. The test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing TA is shown
to the west, level Other Non-Threat traffic shown to the northwest, and a descending Proximity Advisory is in
the northeast, relative to own aircraft.
The voice alert indicates the traffic system test is complete, and the system enters Standby Mode.
Traffic System
GTS 825 (TAS)
GTS 855 (TCAS I)
Voice Alert
“TAS System Test Passed.”
“TAS System Test Failed.”
“TCAS One System Test Passed.”
“TCAS One System Test Failed.”
Table 6-35 System Test Voice Alerts GTX 335R or GTX 3000
Traffic System
GTS 825 (TAS)
GTS 855 (TCAS I)
Voice Alert
“Traffic System Test Passed.”
“Traffic System Test Failed.”
“Traffic System Test Passed.”
“Traffic System Test Failed.”
Table 6-36 System Test Voice Alerts GTX 345R
When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters Standby Mode.
Testing the traffic system:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full traffic test pattern display.
4) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
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TAS/TCAS I Test Mode
Figure 6-113 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with Test Mode Enabled
OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic system automatically transitions from Standby to Operating mode eight seconds after
takeoff. The system also automatically transitions from Operating to Standby mode 24 seconds after
landing.
NOTE: If a Honeywell KTA 870 TAS is installed, the Normal Softkey appears on the Traffic Map Page, which
is used to select the TAS Operating Mode.
®
NOTE: Refer to the SKYWATCH (SKY497/SKY899) Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the TAS.
After power-up, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The system must be in Operating Mode for traffic to
be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Pressing the Operate Softkey allows the system to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
Pressing the Standby Softkey causes the system to enter Standby Mode.
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Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the Standby Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Standby Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the Operate Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Operate Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key. The traffic system switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick
(up to 40 nm) as indicated by the map range rings.
The system annunciates the traffic mode and altitude display mode in the upper right corner of the ‘Map Traffic Map’ Page.
TAS/TCAS I
Operating Mode
Annunciation
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, level
Traffic Advisory,
1200’ or 370
meters above,
climbing
Proximity
Advisory,
2600’ or 790
meters below,
descending
Off-scale Traffic
Advisory
Figure 6-114 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with TAS/TCAS I and ADS-B Traffic Displayed (Meters Overlay)
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Displaying traffic on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Press the TAS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘OPERATING’ is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Press the TAS STBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
Altitude Display Mode
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic is
displayed. TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Press one of the following Softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
•
Above.
•
Normal.
•
Below.
•
Unrestricted.
3) Press the ENT Softkey.
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Flight ID Display
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’
Page. When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol on the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page when this option is enabled.
NOTE: The Flight ID display traffic feature is not available in all installations.
Flight ID
Figure 6-115 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with Flight IDs Enabled
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the FLT ID Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state).
3) Press the ENT Key.
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Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable
with the Joystick, and rings on the map denote the ranges.
Changing the display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
750 ft (with optional ADS-B).
•
750 ft and 1500 ft (with optional ADS-B).
•
1500 ft and 0.5 nm (with optional ADS-B).
•
0.5 nm and 1 nm (with optional ADS-B).
•
1 nm and 2 nm (with optional ADS-B).
•
2 and 6 nm.
•
6 and 12 nm.
•
12 and 24 nm.
•
24 and 40 nm.
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
NOTE: If an optional Honeywell KTA 870 TAS is installed, refer to the applicable Pilot’s Guide from the
manufacturer for detailed information about that traffic system.
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the traffic system is operating:
• ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
• Nearest Pages
• ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Flight Instruments Section for details.
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD maps other than the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate
traffic is enabled for display.
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Proximity
Advisory
Traffic Advisory
Traffic
Advisory OffScale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic overlay
enabled icon and
Altitude Display
Mode
No Bearing
Traffic
Advisory
Annunciation
Figure 6-116 Displaying Traffic on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
Customizing the traffic display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic.
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories.
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only.
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown.
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls
the map range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range
larger than the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the ‘Map Traffic Map’ Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
A Traffic Map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. If no previous maps were displayed
on the PFD, a Inset Traffic map will be displayed. If a PFD navigation map was previously displayed either
Inset or HSI, pressing the TFC Map Softkey will display a traffic map in that location. When a traffic map is
displayed the map will be displayed in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with
navigation, topographic and optional datalink weather information on navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling Inset Traffic Map:
On the PFD, press the TFC Map Softkey.
Or:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information.
Showing the HSI Traffic Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Trfc Softkey.
A traffic-only inset map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map appears on
the PFD. This map resembles the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, and presents a heading up format.
Traffic information can also be overlaid on PFD navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling traffic overlay on PFD navigation maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Mode
Traffic System Test
Initiated
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page)
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page)
OPERATING
Operating
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
Standby
Traffic System Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-38 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-37 Traffic Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the ‘Map Traffic Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit.
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a
failure.
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit.
Table 6-38 Traffic Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display
range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds
of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly
formatted data).
Data is not being received from the traffic unit.
*Shown as symbol on ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
**Shown in center of ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Table 6-39 Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.8 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
The optional Garmin GTX 345 transponder sends and receives Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
(ADS-B) traffic information on the 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) frequency. It receives ADS-B traffic
and data link weather information on the 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) frequency. The system
provides visual annunciations and voice traffic alerts to help the pilot visually acquire potentially conflicting
traffic. This discussion covers the traffic features of the GTX transponder; refer to the Flight Information ServiceBroadcast (FIS-B) Weather section for more information about the UAT data link weather features of the GTX 345.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ADS-B is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic control system and is comprised of three segments:
ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R (Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).
ADS-B is the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on fixed
objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail Number,
ICAO registration number, etc), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status.
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Figure 6-117 ADS-B System
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For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking data from one link
and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground station,
and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other on 978 MHz, the ground station retransmits the data
from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each other.
Because the GTX 345R transponder sends and receives ADS-B traffic reports on the 1090 ES frequency,
but only receives traffic reports on the 978 MHz UAT frequency, the presence of an ADS-R ground station is
necessary for an aircraft with only UAT-capabilities to ‘see’ the aircraft with the GTX 345R transponder.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
TIS-B provides the bridge between the radar-based ATC system and the ADS-B-based system. When an
ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B ground station, the ground
station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is then included in the list of
aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in Secondary Surveillance
Radar coverage, and the other aircraft is also in Secondary Surveillance Radar coverage, and is transmitting
its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTX 345R-equipped aircraft according to
the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
Other Aircraft Equipment
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped Aircraft
1090ES Out Equipped
Yes
UAT Receive Only Capable
No
UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S Transponder
Yes*
* Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar coverage, or own
aircraft is equipped with a TAS/TCAS I system and traffic is within the TAS/TCAS I surveillance range.
Table 6-40 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
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ADS-B WITH TAS/TCAS I
When an optional active traffic system, such as a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) or Traffic Alert and Collision
Avoidance System (TCAS I) is also installed and operating with the GTX 345R transponder, the transponder
receives traffic from the active traffic system and attempts to match (or “correlate”) this traffic with ADS-B traffic
the transponder is tracking. When a correlation is made, the only the traffic with the most accurate information
is displayed to the flight crew. Any traffic that is not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the
other) is also displayed for the flight crew. This correlation of traffic by the transponder improves the accuracy
of the traffic displayed, while reducing the occurrence of the same aircraft being displayed twice.
NOTE: When operating on the edges of ATC radar coverage or when using an optional active traffic system
providing intermittent traffic data, a single aircraft may be briefly or periodically depicted as two aircraft on
the display.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TAS/TCAS I systems discussed previously.
The transponder issues a voice alert when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is displayed, for example “Traffic! Two
O’clock, Low, Two Miles.”
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Radar Altitude (if available), Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to
adjust the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm in accordance with the following table:
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Sensitivity
Level
Radar
Altitude
(Feet)
Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
GPS Phase
of Flight
Own Altitude
(Feet)
4
Up to 1000
(RA or HAT)
Any
Any
4
4
Unavailable
Unavailable
Any
Unavailable
5
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
5
Vertical
Threshold
for Alert
(feet)
850
Protected
Volume
(NM)
Any
Lookahead
time
(sec)
20
Any
Approach
Any
Any
20
20
850
850
0.20
0.20
Any
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Terminal
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Any
<=5000
25
30
850
850
0.20
0.35
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
5
6
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
7
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
8
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
0.20
Table 6-41 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
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When the system detects a new Traffic Advisory (TA), the following occur:
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-40). For example,
the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own
aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears to the right of the Airspeed Indicator on the PFD, flashes for five seconds,
and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• If the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the displayed map. Otherwise
the Traffic Map is shown on the PFD.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate ‘TA’
followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer a factor.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-118 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Zero miles”, “Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-42 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
NOTE: ADS-B traffic voice alerts are suppressed when below 500 feet.
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AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
The GTX 345R can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are
two ADS-B applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness
(SURF). The system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five NM and 1,500 feed above the nearest airport.
When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five NM and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation.
When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map
Page range of one nm or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to
traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for
more information about SafeTaxi displays.
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially
when runways are in close proximity to each other.
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic symbols
may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic to be displayed
in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Availability for
AIRB and SURF is depicted on the AUX-ADS-B Status Page, discussed later in this section.
SURF Application On
Aircraft in the air
descending
Aircraft on the
ground
Ground-based
vehicle
Figure 6-119 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with SURF Mode On
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TRAFFIC DESCRIPTION
The symbols used to display ADS-B traffic are shown in Table 6-43. Above or below the traffic symbol is the
traffic identifier, and altitude. A small up or down arrow next to the traffic symbol indicates that the traffic is
climbing or descending at a rate of at least 500 feet per minute.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the
ground.
Table 6-43 ADS-B Traffic Symbology
OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map
range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
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AIRB Application On
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 below,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ above,
descending
Proximity
Advisory, 1200’
feet below,
descending
Off-scale Traffic
Advisory
Figure 6-120 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with ADS-B Traffic Displayed
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic.
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test pattern display.
2) Ensure the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
3) If the optional TAS/TCAS I is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey or the TCAS STBY Softkey is enabled
(Garmin GTS 825/855 Only).
4) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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A test pattern of traffic symbols appears during the test, and a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears on the PFDs.
At the conclusion of the test, the system issues the voice alert “Traffic System Test”. If the test pattern is
displayed and the voice alert is heard, the system has passed the test.
ADS-B Test
Mode
Figure 6-121 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with Test Mode Enabled
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is displayed.
TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Press one of the following softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options (see softkey description in step 2 above):
•
Above.
•
Normal.
•
Below.
•
Unrestricted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future.
Absolute
Motion Vectors
Absolute Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-122 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
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Relative Motion
Vectors
Relative Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-123 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press one of the following softkeys:
• Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
• Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft.
• Off: Disables the display of the motion vector.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion Vector Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press the Duration Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, press the Back Softkey to return to the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
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Displaying Additional Traffic Information
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may
include the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service
vehicle, unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV)), course, track, groundspeed), and other information.
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The first selected traffic symbol is highlighted in cyan. Additional information appears in
a window in the upper-right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob to move the cyan bracket until the selected aircraft
traffic symbol is highlighted.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable
with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
750 ft .
•
750 ft and 1500 ft.
•
1500 ft and 0.5 nm.
•
0.5 nm and 1 nm.
•
1 nm and 2 nm.
•
2 and 6 nm.
•
6 and 12 nm.
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm.
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous TAS/TCAS I
discussions for information about these additional traffic displays.
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ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page)
‘Map - Traffic Map’
Page Center Banner
Annunciation
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B: AIRB
None
ADS-B: SURF
None
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
NO TRK/HDG
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
FAILED
ADS-B Mode
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-46 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-44 ADS-B Modes
The ‘Traffic Map’ Page displays a white antenna icon to indicate the successful reception of ADS-B traffic
services from a ground station. A white-X over this icon indicates reception of ADS-B services is unavailable.
ADS-B Ground Station Reception Status
Receiving ADS-B traffic services from a ground
station
Not receiving ADS-B traffic services from a
ground station
Traffic Map Page Icon
Table 6-45 ADS-B Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the ‘Map Traffic Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Description
Center Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit.
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure.
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit.
Table 6-46 Traffic Failure Annunciations
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude
trend arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data).
Data is not being received from the traffic unit.
*Shown as symbol on ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
**Shown in center of ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Table 6-47 Traffic Status Annunciations
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the ‘AUX - ADS-B Status’
Page.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX - ADS-B Status’ Page.
Figure 6-124 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page
Item
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface (SURF),
Airborne Alerts (CSA)
Status Message
Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does
not meet performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the
application has failed.
Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this
annunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
The system is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The system is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink from a ground station
occurred. If no uplink has been received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear
instead of a number of minutes.
Available to Run
Not Available
Fault
Not Configured
TIS-B/ADS-R Coverage
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Ground Uplink Status:
Last Uplink
---------------Available
Not Available
--------------External #1
External #2
--------Number of minutes, or
‘------’
Table 6-48 ‘AUX-ADS-B Status’ Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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6.9 TCAS II TRAFFIC
WARNING: Traffic information shown on system displays is provided as an aid in visually acquiring
traffic. Traffic avoidance maneuvers are based upon TCAS II Resolution Advisories, ATC guidance, or
positive visual acquisition of conflicting traffic.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the displays.
NOTE: If an optional Collins TCAS II is installed, refer to the applicable Pilot’s Guide from the manufacturer
for detailed information about that traffic system.
NOTE: Failure of the Radar Altimeter will result in the failure of TAS/TCAS II Traffic System.
A Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) improves flight safety by monitoring the airspace for
other aircraft with operating transponders in the vicinity. The TCAS II system provides traffic information to the
displays, and if separation from other aircraft is within certain limits, the system issues Traffic Advisories (TAs) to
assist the flight crew in the visual acquisition of traffic, or Resolution Advisories (RAs) to provide recommended
vertical guidance maneuvers to resolve a traffic conflict.
THEORY OF OPERATION
When the TCAS II system is operating in TA/RA or TA Only Mode, the system interrogates the transponders
of other aircraft in the vicinity, and monitors for replies from these transponders. Based on successive replies,
the system tracks the range, bearing, and if reported, the altitudes of other aircraft. For each detected aircraft
transponder, the system calculates the time to, and separation at, the closest point of approach (CPA) around
potential collision area surrounding own aircraft. Based on this time, the own aircraft altitude, and the selected
TCAS II system mode, the system determines if a TA or RA should be issued for the detected intruder traffic.
Altitude in Feet*
TA Time to CPA
in Seconds
RA Time to CPA in Seconds
Up to 1000
20
RA not issued below 1000’ AGL
1000-2350
2350-5000
5000-10000
10000-20000
20000 and above
25
30
40
45
48
15
20
25
30
35
* System uses pressure altitude except when Radar Altimeter altitude is displayed on the
PFDs, in which case Radar Altitude takes precedence.
Table 6-48 Altitude-based TCAS II TA and RA Alert Thresholds
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The TCAS II system categorizes detected traffic into four groups of increasing threat potential:
• Other Non-Threat Traffic, displayed as a hollow white diamond, is not currently a threat.
• Proximity Advisory (PA) Traffic, displayed as a filled white diamond, is not currently a threat, but is within
six nm and ±1200 feet of own-aircraft altitude.
• Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a filled amber circle, indicates traffic is within 20-48 seconds of a
potential collision area. If a Traffic Map is shown, and the TA traffic is beyond the selected map range, the
system displays a half-TA symbol at the edge of the map at the approximate relative bearing of the TA traffic.
If TA traffic subsequently meets the criteria for an RA, the system will issue an RA.
• Resolution Advisory (RA), displayed as a filled red square, indicates traffic is within 15-35 seconds of a
potential collision area. If a Traffic Map is shown, and the RA traffic is beyond the selected map range,
the system displays a half-RA symbol at the edge of the map at the approximate relative bearing of the RA
traffic.
Traffic Symbol
Description
Other Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Resolution Advisory (RA)
Resolution Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-49 TCAS II Traffic Symbol Description
TCAS II ALERTS
When the TCAS II unit issues a TA or RA, the following occur:
• The TCAS II system issues a voice alert.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears above the Roll Scale on the PFDs, flashes for five seconds, and remains
displayed until no TAs or RAs are detected in the area. RA TRAFFIC annunciations are white text with red
backgrounds; TA ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciations are black text with amber backgrounds. If a TA and RA occur
simultaneously, only the red and white RA ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation is shown.
• If the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the displayed map. Otherwise
the Traffic Map is shown on the PFDs.
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• During an RA only, voice alert(s) provide vertical guidance to resolve the traffic conflict. The Vertical Speed
Indicator displays a range of vertical speeds to fly to or avoid as applicable. Additional voice alerts may occur
to denote changes in the RA status, as necessary.
RA Annunciation
Fly-To Vertical
Speed Range
No-Fly Vertical
Speed Range
TA Annunciation
Inset Traffic Map
Displays When TA
or RA is Detected
Softkey Displays/
Removes Inset
Traffic Map
Figure 6-125 Traffic Annunciation with Resolution Advisory (PFD)
RESOLUTION ADVISORIES
Resolution Advisories (RAs) include recommended vertical guidance maneuvers to be flown in order to
resolve a traffic conflict. If other aircraft involved in the RA encounter are also equipped with a TCAS II
system, the traffic systems coordinate the recommended maneuvers using the Mode S data link in order to
produce complimentary responses to resolve the RA. While an RA is occurring, the system monitors the
status, and if necessary, strengthens, weakens, reverses the RA, or declares the aircraft is clear of the traffic
conflict.
RAs are categorized into the preventive and corrective types.
Preventive RAs
The system issues a preventive RA to indicate the present vertical speed will resolve the traffic conflict.
The system indicates a range of vertical speeds to be avoided, indicated by one or more red bands inside the
VSI. The current vertical speed is outside of the avoidance area during a preventive RA.
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Preventive RA Type
Do Not Climb
Required Vertical Speed (fpm)
<0
Do Not Climb > 500 fpm
< 500
Do Not Climb > 1000 fpm
< 1000
Do Not Climb > 2000 fpm
< 2000
Do Not Descend
>0
Do Not Descend > 500 fpm
> -500
Do Not Descend > 1000 fpm
> -1000
Do Not Descend > 2000 fpm
> -2000
Table 6-50 Preventive RA Types with Required Vertical Speeds
CORRECTIVE RA
A corrective RA indicates the current vertical speed must be changed to resolve a traffic conflict. The VSI
indicates a range of vertical speeds to be avoided on the VSI, and the current vertical speed appears in white
with a red background. The VSI also indicates a green “fly to” vertical speed range to be flown in order to
resolve the RA conflict. In some cases, the TCAS II system logic determines it will be necessary to for own
aircraft to cross through the intruder aircraft’s altitude to resolve the traffic conflict.
Corrective RA Type
Climb
Crossing Climb
Crossing Maintain Climb
Maintain Climb
Reduce Descent
Descend
Crossing Descend
Crossing Maintain Descent
Maintain Descent
Reduce Climb
Required Vertical Speed (fpm)
1500 to 2000
1500 to 4400
0
-1500 to -2000
-1500 to -4400
0
Table 6-51 Corrective RA Types with Required Vertical Speeds
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TCAS II VOICE ALERTS FOR TRAFFIC
The table below lists the voice alerts the TCAS II system issues in the course of a TA or RA.
Alert Type
TA
Voice Alert
“Traffic, Traffic”
Climb RA
“Climb, Climb”
Descend RA
“Descend, Descend”
Altitude Crossing Climb RA
“Climb, Crossing Climb; Climb, Crossing Climb”
Altitude Crossing Descend RA
“Descend, Crossing; Descend; Descend, Crossing; Descend”
Reduce Climb RA
“Level Off, Level Off”
Reduce Descent RA
“Level Off, Level Off”
RA Reversal to Climb RA
“Climb, Climb NOW; Climb, Climb NOW”
RA Reversal to Descend RA
“Descend, Descent NOW; Descend, Descend NOW”
Increase Climb RA
“Increase Climb, Increase Climb”
Increase Descent RA
“Increase Descent, Increase Descent”
Maintain Rate RA
“Maintain Vertical Speed, Maintain”
Altitude Crossing, Maintain
Rate RA (Climb and Descend)
Weakening of RA
“Maintain Vertical Speed, Crossing Maintain”
Preventive RA
“Monitor Vertical Speed”
RA Removed
“Clear of Conflict”
“Level Off, Level Off”
Table 6-52 TCAS II RA Voice Alerts
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Corrective Climb
Corrective Descend
Preventive Don’t Climb
Preventive Don’t Descend
Preventive Don’t Climb and Don’t Descent
Greater than 500 FPM
Level Off, Level Off
Figure 6-126 Example Resolution Advisory Displays
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SYSTEM TEST
The TCAS II system can be tested using softkeys on the PFD or MFD.
Testing the TCAS II system on the PFD:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the TCAS Softkey.
3) Press the Test Softkey.
Testing the TCAS II system on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full traffic test pattern display.
4) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key
b) Turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
During a TCAS II system test, the system displays a traffic test pattern appears on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
of the MFD, and on the PFD Inset Traffic Map (which appears if not already displayed.) The PFD displays a
Resolution Advisory (RA) alert annunciation, and vertical speed indicator indicating not to descend, and not
to climb greater than 2000 feet per minute. The system test takes approximately eight seconds to complete.
Condition
Voice Alert
System Test Passed
“TCAS Two System Test Passed”
System Test Failed
“TCAS Two System Test Failed”
Table 6-53 Garmin GTS 8000 System Test Voice Alerts
Visual annunciations will also indicate a system test has failed.
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PFD
MFD ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Figure 6-127 TCAS II System Test Displays
OPERATION
To display TCAS II Traffic, the system must be in TA Only or TA/RA Mode. These modes can be accessed on
the PFD or on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page of the MFD.
Switching from standby mode to TA Only or TA/RA mode on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Select the TA Only Softkey or the TA/RA Softkey
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS knob to select ‘TA Only Mode’ or ‘TA/RA Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The unit switches from Standby Mode to TA Only or TA/RA Mode as necessary.
Switching from standby mode to TA Only or TA/RA mode on the PFD:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the MODE Softkey.
3) Press the TA Only Softkey or the TA/RA Softkey
Switching from TA Only or TA/RA mode to standby mode:
On the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
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3) Press the TFC STBY Softkey
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Traffic Standby Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The GTS 8000 TCAS II system automatically selects TA ONLY Mode when the aircraft is below 1000’
AGL. After landing, the GTS 8000 automatically selects STANDBY Mode.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding TCAS II traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing TCAS II traffic.
Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic operating mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the ‘Map
- Traffic Map’ Page.
Operating Mode
Altitude Mode
Resolution Advisory, 300’
below, climbing
Proximity Advisory,
300’ Below, Level
“No-Bearing” (Bearing
Unknown) Traffic Advisory,
Distance 4 nm, 1500’
below, climbing
Traffic Advisory, 100’
below, descending
Traffic Map range
indications
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1800’ above,
descending
Figure 6-128 ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page for TCAS II
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Displaying traffic on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Press the TA Only Softkey or the TA/RA Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘TA ONLY’ or ‘TA/RA’ is displayed in
the Traffic mode field.
4) Press the Relative or Absolute Softkey to display the relative or absolute altitude of other aircraft. When
absolute altitude is displayed, the system may revert to displaying relative altitude after 30 seconds if the TCAS
II system is providing altitude which is not corrected for the local barometric pressure setting.
5) Press the TFC STBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
6) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
Altitude Display
The flight crew can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic is
displayed. Traffic Advisories (TAs) and Resolution Advisories (RAs) outside of these limits will always be
shown.
Changing the traffic altitude display range on the PFD:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the TCAS Softkey.
3) Press the ALT RNG Softkey.
4) Press one of the following altitude range softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All detected traffic in the air is displayed.
5) Press the Back Softkey.
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Changing the traffic altitude display range on the MFD:
1) On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, select the ALT RNG Softkey.
2) Press one of the following Softkeys (see softkey description in step 4 above):
•
Below
•
Normal
•
Above
•
UNREST
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 4 above):
•
Above.
•
Normal.
•
Below.
•
Unrestricted.
3) Press the ENT Softkey.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable
with the Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
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•
750 ft.
•
750 ft and 1500 ft.
•
1500 ft and 0.5 nm.
•
0.5 nm and 1 nm.
•
1 nm and 2 nm.
•
2 and 6 nm.
•
6 and 12 nm.
•
12 and 24 nm.
•
24 and 40 nm.
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ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the unit is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• Trip Planning Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Flight Instruments Section for details.
Displaying traffic information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate
traffic is enabled for display.
Other NonThreat Traffic
Resolution
Advisory
Proximity
Advisory
Traffic
Advisory
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
Traffic Altitude
Mode
No-Bearing
Traffic Advisory
Traffic overlay
enabled icon
Figure 6-129 TCAS II Traffic on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
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Customizing the traffic display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Settings highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off.
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic.
- TA/RA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories, Resolution Advisories, and Proximity Advisories.
- TA/RA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories and Resolution Advisories only.
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown.
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls
the map range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range
larger than the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map
Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map will
appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic and
optional datalink weather information.
Enabling/disabling the traffic overlay on the PFD inset navigation map:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
3) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
PFD Annunciation
Traffic Map Mode
Annunciation
TCAS II Self-test Initiated (TEST)
None
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ also
shown in white on top
center of page)
Traffic Advisory and Resolution Advisory (TA/
RA)
None
TA/RA
Operating Mode
Traffic Display
Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TA ONLY
Traffic Advisory Only (TA ONLY)
On the ground:
TCAS II Standby
(Shown if Altitude Reporting, On, or Standby
Mode Selected), or after landing or on-ground
power up.
In the air:
STANDBY
(also shown in white
in center of page on
ground, amber in the air)
NO DATA
or
DATA FAILED
or
UNIT FAILED
TCAS II Failed*
* See Table 6-55 for additional failure annunciations.
Table 6-54 TCAS II Modes
If the traffic system fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the ‘Map Traffic Map’ Page.
Traffic Map Center
Banner Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
TCAS FAIL
Description
Data is not being received from the TCAS II unit.
Data is being received from the TCAS II unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure.
Incorrect data format received from the TCAS II unit.
Table 6-55 TCAS II Failure Annunciations on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
When the display of traffic information is enabled on navigation maps, the following annunciations may
appear in the lower left corner of these maps.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
RA OFF SCALE
TA OFF SCALE
RA X.X ± XX <UP>
or <DN>
TA X.X ± XX <UP>
or <DN>
TCAS FAIL
NO TCAS DATA
Description
A Resolution Advisory is outside the selected display range*. Annunciation is removed when traffic
comes within the selected display range.
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Resolution Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
<UP> for climbing <DN> for descending traffic, if altitude trend is available.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
<UP> for climbing or <DN> for descending traffic, if altitude trend is available.
TCAS II unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data).
Data is not being received from the TCAS II unit.
*Shown as symbol on ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
**Shown in center of ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Table 6-56 TCAS II Traffic Status Annunciations
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS OVERVIEW
NOTE: The current version of the pertinent flight manual always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The Garmin Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is a digital, fully integrated within the system avionics
architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description.
Garmin AFCS functionality is distributed across the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1050A (2) PFD
• GDU 1550 (1) MFD)
• GIA 64E (2) or GIA 63W (2) (Optional) IAUs
•
•
•
•
• GSA 80 (4) Roll, Pitch, Yaw, and Pitch-Trim Servos (3)
• GSM 85A / GSM 86 (4) Servo Gearboxes
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
Flight Director (FD) — The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and referred to as
pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both PFDs. The flight
director provides:
-- Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance.
-- Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing.
-- Autopilot communication.
Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos. It also provides
servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering commands, Attitude and
Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed description
follows in Section 7.5.
• Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Controller.
Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to hold the
current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case, ‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will be
annunciated.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will smoothly
pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director modes remain unchanged.
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• Autopilot Disengagement — The most common way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the
AP/YD DISC Switch, which is located on the control stick. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and
annunciated on the PFD. Other ways to disconnect the autopilot include:
-- Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Controller.
-- Pressing the GA Switch (located on the left throttle).
-- Operating the MEPT Switch (located on each control wheel).
-- Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker.
-- In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP/YD DISC Switch will disconnect
the autopilot and remove all power to the servos.
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7.2 AFCS CONTROLS
AFCS CONTROLLER
The AFCS Controller is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
HDG Key
APR Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode.
4
NAV Key
FD Key
5
XFR Key
6
ALT Key
VS Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode.
Activates/deactivates the flight director only.
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral modes.
Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command Bars. If the autopilot
is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which flight director the
autopilot is tracking.
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode.
1
2
3
7
8
9
17
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
19
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Selects/deselects Approach Mode.
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode.
FLC Key
CRS Knobs
SPD Key
NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
VNV Key
ALT SEL Knob
YD Key
AP Key
BANK Key
BC Key
HDG Knob
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode.
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on the
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD.
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer directly TO
the bearing of the active waypoint/station.
Toggles Airspeed Reference between IAS and Mach for Flight Level Change Mode.
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes.
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control.
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is available
under approach conditions).
Engages/disengages the yaw damper.
Engages/disengages the autopilot.
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode.
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode.
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs).
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
Annunciator
Light
10
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Controller:
AP/YD DISC TRIM
INTRPT Switch
(Autopilot Disconnect/
Trim Interrupt)
CWS Button
(Control Wheel Steering)
GA Button
(Go Around)
MEPT Switch
(Manual Electric Pitch
Trim)
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Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director and interrupts pitch trim operation.
An AP/YD DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated
aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if not in a Vertical
Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold Mode).
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll references,
depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation details are discussed in the
respective mode sections of this manual.
Selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around (in air) Mode.
If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates the missed approach when the
selected navigation source is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC and a valid frequency
has been tuned. Unless a compatible lift computer is installed, pressing the GA Button disengages
the autopilot.
The GA Button is located on the left throttle.
Used to command manual electric pitch trim.
An MEPT Switch is located on each control wheel.
The pilot side MEPT Switch has priority over the copilot side MEPT Switch.
This composite switch is split into left and right sides. The left switch is the ARM contact and
the right switch controls the DN (forward) and UP (rearward) contacts. Pushing the MEPT ARM
Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged, but does not affect yaw damper operation.
The MEPT ARM Switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
associated aural tone.
Manual trim commands are generated only when both sides of the switch are operated
simultaneously. If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three seconds, MEPT
function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ is displayed as the AFCS Status Annunciation on the PFDs. The
function remains disabled until both sides of the switch are inactivated.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.3 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (−15°, +20°) and roll (25°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
NOTE: If the sensor information (other than attitude) required for a flight director mode becomes invalid or
unavailable, the flight director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis.
NOTE: If the attitude information required for the default flight director modes becomes invalid or
unavailable, the autopilot automatically disengages.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in following table (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side
flight director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from
the displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
FLC Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
GA Button
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
VOR
LOC
HDG
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Takeoff (on ground)
TO
Go Around (in air)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Flight Level Change
FLC
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course
before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press activates
flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Lateral Modes
Armed
Active
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status Status
Flight Director
Indicator Arrow
Vertical Modes
Active
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes. Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed or active.
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the FD Key is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic
transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation moving to the green
active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing amber mode annunciation and
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of GPS Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
FLIGHT DIRECTOR SELECTION
The Garmin AFCS has two flight directors, each operating within an Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU). The
autopilot follows the selected flight director only, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or
copilot side, in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR Key.
The annunciator light arrow for the selected flight director is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the
flight directors are switched, the vertical and lateral modes revert to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director Selected
Copilot-side Flight Director Selected
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
COMMAND BARS
SINGLE-CUE
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a single cue
or cross pointers. The Aircraft Symbol (in amber) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format; the
Command Bars do not override the Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars move together vertically
to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Single-cue Command Bars
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
CROSS-POINTER
Command Bars displayed as a cross pointer move independently to indicate pitch (horizontal bar) and roll
(vertical bar) commands. Both PFDs show the same Command Bar format. If a compatible lift computer is
installed, the cross-pointer option will be unavailable.
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-6 Cross-pointer Command Bars
Changing Command Bar format:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Active’ in the ‘Flight Director’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
’Single Cue’ to display Command Bars as a single cue.
Or:
’X Pointer’ to display Command Bars as a cross-pointer.
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
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7.4 AFCS MODES
The AFCS is capable of operating in a variety of independent Vertical Modes, Lateral Modes, and a Combination
of both the Lateral and Vertical Modes.
VERTICAL MODES
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode
reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes. The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while operating
under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode. Increments of change and acceptable ranges of
values for each of these references using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel are also listed in the table.
Vertical Mode
Description
Reference
Control Annunciation
Range
Holds the current aircraft pitch
-15° to
Pitch Hold
attitude; may be used to climb/ (default)
PIT
+20°
descend to the Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude Capture
Captures the Selected Altitude
*
ALTS
Altitude Hold
Holds the current Altitude Reference ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
-4000 to
Vertical Speed
speed; may be used to climb/descend VS Key VS nnnn fpm
+4000 fpm
to the Selected Altitude
100 to
Flight Level Change, IAS Hold Maintains the current aircraft
FLC nnn kt
259 kt
airspeed (in IAS or Mach) while the
FLC Key
aircraft is climbing/descending to the
M 0.15 to
Flight Level Change, Mach Hold Selected Altitude
FLC M .nnn
0.52
Reference
Change
Increment
0.5°
100 fpm
1 kt
M 0.01
*ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, TO, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured instead of VNV
Target Altitude
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch
Hold Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’
annunciation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter), since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to
the nose-up/down limit.
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Changing the Pitch Reference
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
ƒƒ Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel.
ƒƒ Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button.
Pitch Hold Mode
Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-7 Pitch Hold Mode
SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
»» Pitch Hold
»» Vertical Speed
»» Flight Level Change
»» Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at
least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
»» Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude
is to be captured instead of the VNV Target
Altitude)
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed. The ALT SEL Knob is
used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected Altitude Capture Mode becomes
active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green ‘ALTS’
annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The Selected
Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
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At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-8 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the Selected Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the
new Selected Altitude.
ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current
aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference,
shown in the AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter.
Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode.
Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when the altitude error is
less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude Reference.
Changing the Altitude Reference
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
The Altitude Reference (shown in the AFCS Status Box) may be changed by:
ƒƒ Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel.
ƒƒ Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Altitude Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button at the desired altitude (the new altitude is now the Altitude Reference).
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude to
Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-9 Altitude Hold Mode
VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current
aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical
Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is
selected.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS
Status Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the
Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is
shown on the indicator.
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
ƒƒ Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel.
ƒƒ Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button.
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
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Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb to Attain
Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-10 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference (in IAS or Mach) while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter). When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected
Altitude, airspeed, Mach, and altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the
Airspeed Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
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Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-11 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
Changing the Airspeed Reference
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
ƒƒ Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel.
ƒƒ Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button.
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Airspeed Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Airspeed Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Switching Between Indicated and Mach Airspeed
During climb, the pilot must select the Airspeed Reference (IAS or Mach), automatic switching does not
occur. For descent, if Mach airspeed reference is selected (above 16,000 ft), the aircraft descends in Mach
until the Mach airspeed reference reaches 250 KIAS, at which point the airspeed reference automatically
switches to IAS at that airspeed value. The system determines aircraft climb or descent by the relationship
between the current and Selected altitudes.
Airspeed Reference units can be manually toggled between IAS and Mach units using the SPD Key. When
the FLC Airspeed Reference is displayed in Mach, the Airspeed Reference Bug is displayed on the Airspeed
Indicator at the IAS corresponding to the selected Mach target speed and the current Mach number is shown
only in the AFCS Status Box.
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Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
(Mach)
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
(Mach)
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-12 Flight Level Change Mode (Mach)
LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer to the combination
modes section for information regarding Takeoff and Go Around modes.
Lateral Mode
Roll Hold
Low Bank
Heading Select
Description
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum
commanded roll angle
Captures and tracks the
Selected Heading
Navigation, GPS Arm/Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the
Navigation, VOR Enroute Arm/Capture/Track
selected navigation source (GPS,
Navigation, LOC Arm/Capture/Track
VOR, LOC)
(No Glideslope)
Control Annunciation
(default)
BANK
Key
HDG
Key
NAV
Key
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
ROL
25°
*
15°
HDG
25°
GPS
VOR
25°
25°
LOC
25°
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll Scale of the Attitude
Indicator.
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
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ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls the wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank
angle condition.
Figure 7-13 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 25°
> 25°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 25°
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
Changing the Roll Reference
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
Figure 7-14 CWS Annunciation
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low bank
arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select or
Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). Low Bank Mode is activated automatically above 20,500 feet. The flight
director deactivates Low Bank Mode when descending through 20,500 feet. The annunciator light next to
the BANK Key illuminates while Low Bank Mode is selected.
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Low Bank Arc
Figure 7-15 Low Bank Mode Limits
HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains
the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a cyan bug on the HSI and in the box to the upper
left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob. Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying
the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Heading upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading
changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
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Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-16 Heading Select Mode
NAVIGATION MODE
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
NOTE: If NAV is pressed to arm the GPS capture before activating a Direct-To, the GPS mode may not
capture the Direct-To course.
NOTE: When intercepting a flight plan leg, the flight director gives commands to capture the active leg at
approximately a 45° angle to the track between the waypoints defining the active leg. The flight director
does not give commands to fly to the starting waypoint of the active leg.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering
commands from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision
GPS and LOC approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the
selected mode is armed. If the CDI shows less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when
the NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active lateral mode.
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HDG Active VOR Armed
Figure 7-17 GPS Navigation Mode Active
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed prior
to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
-- Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
-- Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
-- During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic navigation
source switch from GPS to LOC
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when
the CWS Button is released.
COMBINATION MODES
The following table lists the modes that operating by using both Vertical and Lateral Modes with their
corresponding controls and annunciations.
Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Vertical Navigation Modes
Captures and tracks descent
VNAV Path Tracking Mode
legs of an active vertical
VNV Key
profile
Captures the Vertical
VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode Navigation (VNV) Target
*
Altitude
VOR Approach Mode
Captures and tracks VOR
VOR Arm/Capture/Track
APR Key
navigation source
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Command
Limit
Reference
Range
VPTH
ALTV
VAPP
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Mode
Description
GPS Arm/Capture/Track
Glidepath Mode
Approach, ILS Arm/Capture/Track
Glideslope
Backcourse Arm/Capture/Track
GPS Approach Mode
Captures and tracks GPS
navigation source
APR Key
Captures and tracks the
SBAS glidepath on approach
LOC Approach Mode
Captures and tracks the LOC
navigation source
APR Key
Captures and tracks the ILS
glideslope on approach
Captures and tracks the
LOC source for backcourse
BC Key
approaches
Commands a constant pitch
angle on the ground in
preparation for takeoff
Commands a constant pitch
angle in the air
Autopilot engages and
commands pitch angle
necessary to establish zero
vertical fpm
Takeoff
Go Around**
Level
Control Annunciation
Max Roll
Command
Limit
GPS
Reference
Range
25°
GP
LOC
25°
GS
BC
25°
GA
Button
TO
8.6°
GA
Button
GA
8°
***
LVL
N/A
*ALTV is armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude.
**Go Around mode disengages the autopilot unless a compatible lift computer is installed.
***Level mode can only become activated as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the Additional Features
section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
Table 7-5 Flight Director Combination Modes
VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active, or when waypoint sequencing
is suspended.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
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Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations any
time that VNV flight planning is available. Refer to the GPS Navigation Section for more information on VNV
flight plans. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
»» The selected navigation source is GPS
»» A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active
»» VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD)
»» Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits
»» Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits
»» The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight
control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon
reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and
cancels any armed VNV modes.
VNAV Path Tracking Mode (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (‘GP/V’ or ‘GS/V’ when Glidepath or
Glideslope Mode is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes.
If applicable, the appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude
(ALTV) or the Selected Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-18 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude
by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
ƒƒ Pressing the VNV Key.
ƒƒ Adjusting the Selected Altitude.
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If acknowledgment is not received within one minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and
the descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation
Status Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation,
and vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required
VNV Target
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-19 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile. An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as appropriate.
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Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-20 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path
(without commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV
vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV
Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director
to revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
44 Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition
44 Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in
the vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by
flight plan changes that affect the vertical profile.
44 Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD)
44 A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to)
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode
to allow profile re-capture.
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Figure 7-21 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
44 At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
44 Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected
Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target
Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded
from a database (see the GPS Navigation Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute”
is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator.
NOTE: When the Selected Altitude is set to the VNV Target Altitude, Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)
will be armed even though the altitude value is part of the active VNAV flight plan.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains
displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RSVI) is removed
once VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active,
the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to
indicate the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing
upcoming descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-22 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
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Changing the VNV Target Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes
the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude
capture mode are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude,
depending on which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the GPS Navigation Section
for details).
APPROACH MODE
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the
selected navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected
navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the
CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the active
lateral mode). If the CDI is less the 1 dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP)
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
ƒƒ Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
ƒƒ Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
ƒƒ During a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-23 VOR Approach Mode
GPS Approach Mode
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed. GPS Approach Mode can be utilized to
fly non-precision and precision approaches (Glidepath Mode).
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Selecting GPS Approach Mode Without a Glidepath:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the NAV Key.
Glidepath Mode (GP)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
Glidepath Mode utilizes GPS Approach mode with precision guidance. Glidepath Mode is used to
track the WAAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is annunciated in white in the
AFCS Status Box.
Figure 7-24 Glidepath Mode Armed
Selecting GPS Approach Mode with a Glidepath:
1) Ensure a GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP+V, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Some RNAV (SBAS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V are considered Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) and
are flown to an MDA even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture
and track the glidepath. Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
44 The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF)
44 Vertical deviation is valid
44 The CDI is at less than full scale deviation
44 Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
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GPS Approach Mode
Active
Glidepath
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
LPV Approach
Active
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 7-25 Glidepath Mode
Localizer Approach Mode
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC approach and an ILS approach with a glideslope.
When LOC Approach Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are
inhibited if the difference between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode Without a Glideslope:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the NAV Key.
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When
Glideslope Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral
flight director mode.
Glideslope Mode
Glideslope Mode utilizes LOC Approach mode with precision guidance.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode with a Glideslope:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
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1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching
the glideslope, the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the
glideslope.
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
Approach
Mode Active
NAV1 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Mode Active
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 7-26 Glideslope Mode
Once the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
44 Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
44 Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
44 During a LOC/ILS approach GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the
Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob.
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach or Backcourse Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS
flight plan) when the CWS Button is released.
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Backcourse Mode (BC) Mode
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may
be selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when
the mode is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when
the BC Key is pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and
deviation when in Backcourse Mode.
Selecting Backcourse Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the BC Key.
Backcourse
Mode Active
Figure 7-27 LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when
the CWS Button is released.
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Intercepting and Flying a DME Arc
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that GPS
Navigation Mode is engaged, GPS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is
the active flight plan leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS.
Thus, even if the APR key is pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides
vectors to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not
automatically intercept or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms GPS
Navigation Mode. The AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the
beginning of the arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects
GPS Navigation Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
TAKEOFF AND GO AROUND MODES
Takeoff and Go Around modes are coupled pitch and roll modes and are annunciated as both the vertical
and lateral modes when active. In these modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude and
wings level. The GA Button is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends
on whether the aircraft is on the ground. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when the
aircraft is at least 400 feet below the Selected altitude at the time Takeoff or Go Around Mode is selected.
Takeoff Mode (TO)
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the GA Button. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude. Autopilot engagement while Takeoff Mode is active is inhibited while the aircraft is on
the ground.
Takeoff Mode Active
Figure 7-28 Takeoff Mode Active
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Go Around Mode (GA)
Pressing the GA Button while in the air activates the flight director in wings-level, pitch-up attitude,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Attempts to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e.,
with the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or CWS Button) result in reversion to Pitch Hold Mode.
Go Around Mode
Active
Figure 7-29 Takeoff and Go Around Modes
Go Around Mode
Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Takeoff Mode Active
Figure 7-30 Takeoff and Go Around Modes
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LEVEL MODE (LVL)
Level (LVL) mode becomes active only as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to
the Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 20 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “ENGAGING
AUTOPILOT” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The
AFCS will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
Figure 7-31 Level Mode
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7.5 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for specific instructions regarding
emergency procedures.
The autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight control. The
autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the flight director. Pitch
autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch
servo. Autopilot operation is independent of the yaw damper.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
The pilot side MEPT Switch has priority over the copilot side MEPT Switch.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response. It also
uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns.
ENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
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When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are activated.
The annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight
director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Engaged Engaged
Figure 7-32 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Engaged
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot and the yaw
damper annunciator light is illuminated.
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING (CWS)
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-33 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. The CWS
Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach Mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
DISENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER
The Autopilot and Yaw Damper can be disengaged manually or automatically by the system.
MANUAL DISENGAGEMENT
The autopilot is manually disengaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Controller or the MEPT ARM
Switch. The Yaw Damper is manually disengaged by pushing the YD Key on the AFCS Controller. Manual
disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing amber ‘AP’ or ‘YD’ annunciation and a three-second
autopilot disconnect aural alert.
Figure 7-34 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
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Pushing the AP/YD DISC Switch disengages both the yaw damper and the autopilot simultaneously. When
the yaw damper and autopilot are manually disengaged, both the ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciation turn amber and
flash for 5 seconds and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert is generated.
Figure 7-35 Yaw Damper Disengagement
After manual disengagement, the autopilot disconnect aural alert may be cancelled by pushing the
MEPT ARM or AP/YD DISC Switch (AP/YD DISC Switch also cancels the flashing ‘AP’ annunciation).
AUTOMATIC AUTOPILOT DISENGAGEMENT
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation seen below
and by the autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP/YD DISC
or MEPT ARM Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
»» System failure.
»» Invalid sensor data.
»» Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically).
AUTOMATIC YAW DAMPER DISENGAGEMENT
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing amber ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic
yaw damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also
affecting the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the
autopilot automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also
cause yaw damper disengagement.
Figure 7-36 Automatic Autopilot and Yaw Damper Disengagement
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7.6 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS STATUS ALERTS
The annunciations in the following table (listed in order of increasing priority) can appear on the PFDs above
the Airspeed and Attitude indicators. Only one annunciation may occur at a time, and messages are prioritized
by criticality.
Alert Condition
Annunciation
Rudder Mistrim Right
RUD→
Rudder Mistrim Left
Aileron Mistrim Right
←RUD
AIL→
Aileron Mistrim Left
←AIL
Description
Yaw servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Roll servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Elevator Mistrim Down
Pitch servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Elevator Mistrim Up
Pitch Trim Failure
PTRM
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT Switches separately to unstick
Yaw Damper Failure
YAW
YD control failure
Roll Failure
ROLL
Roll axis control failure; AP and YD inoperative
Pitch Failure
PTCH
Pitch axis control failure; AP and YD inoperative
System Failure
AFCS
AP and MEPT are unavailable; FD may still be available, but YD inoperative
PFT
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Do not press the AP/YD DISC Switch during servo power-up and preflight system
tests as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos
fail their power-up tests). Power must be cycled to the servos to remedy the
situation.
PFT
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
(or stuck MEPT Switch)
Preflight Test
Table 7-6 AFCS Status Alerts
AFCS VOICE ALERTS
The voice alerts listed in the following table relate to AFCS; for a complete list of voice alerts, see Appendix A.
Voice Alert
Description
Warning – Autopilot is disengaged
“Autopilot”
Single alert for manual AP disengagement
Continuous alert for automatic AP disengagement; cancelled with AP DISC Switch
“Flight Director” Single warning – Flight director has reverted to a default mode
“Trim, Trim, Trim” Continuous advisory (stops after 6 seconds) – MEPT Switch malfunction
Table 7-7 AFCS Voice Alerts
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OVERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in ALT, GS or GP modes.
Airspeed is monitored by the Flight Director and pitch commands are limited for overspeed protection.
Overspeed protection is provided in situations where the Flight Director cannot acquire and maintain the mode
reference for the selected vertical mode without exceeding the certified maximum Autopilot airspeed.
When an Autopilot overspeed condition occurs, a flashing amber ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation appears above the
Airspeed Indicator. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference adjusted to slow the aircraft.
The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
Figure 7-37 MAXSPD Annunciation Example
UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system is
installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum established
airspeeds.
When the aircraft reaches a predetermined airspeed (specific to each flap setting), an amber ‘MINSPD’
annunciation will appear above the airspeed indicator.
Figure 7-38 MINSPD Annunciation Example
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If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical flight
director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can be divided
into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical
modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical modes).
ALTITUDE-CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change from
active to armed. The autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down to maintain an airspeed
no less than stall warning activation speed plus two knots, and the wings to level.
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference.
The vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active.
NON-ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (VS, VNAV, IAS,)
If the aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed will appear to
the right of the vertical speed indicator. The vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed,
and the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the
minimum commandable autopilot airspeed.
When sufficient power/thrust is available, the autopilot will recapture the previously selected vertical
reference and the flight director mode will change from armed to active.
NOTE: When the autopilot is outside normal operating limits, it uses more aggressive commands to return
to normal limits.
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7.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SUSPECTED AUTOPILOT MALFUNCTION
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as specifics that may
supplement or amplify this procedure.
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the following steps:
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
2) Press and hold the AP/YD DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed from the trim
motor. Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged solenoids. Note the visual and aural
alerting indicating autopilot disconnect.
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid components.
5) Release the AP/YD DISC Switch.
OVERPOWERING AUTOPILOT SERVOS
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied to the pitch controls
when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or force on the pitch controls can cause the autopilot
automatic trim to run to an out-of-trim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to the
controls should be avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to run, resulting in an outof-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is prolonged. In this case, larger than anticipated
control forces are required after the autopilot is disengaged.
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
SafeTaxi® Diagrams
ChartView, FliteCharts®, and IFR/VFR Electronic Charts
Satellite Telephone and SMS Messaging Services (Optional)
WiFi Connections (Optional)
SiriusXM® Satellite Radio Entertainment (Optional)
•
•
•
•
•
SurfaceWatch™
Flight Data Logging
Connext® Bluetooth Connections (Optional)
Auxiliary Video
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) (Optional)
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView, FliteCharts and IFR/VFR electronic charts provides on-board electronic terminal
procedures charts. Electronic charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Either
ChartView or FliteCharts may be configured in the system, but not both.
Iridium Telephone Services and SMS messaging is an optional subscription service offered through Garmin
®
Connext and Iridium Satellite LLC. Voice and SMS messaging communications are through the Iridium Satellite
Network. Data communications are through Iridium Data Services, or a wireless network (WiFi) when the
aircraft is on the ground.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the SiriusXM Datalink Receiver handles
more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment choices
and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides voice and visual annunciations to aid in maintaining situational awareness
and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport environment.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
Connext allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth connection between
the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The system provides a control and display interface to an auxiliary video system.
The optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside the normal
flight envelope.
Electronic checklists allow a pilot to quickly find the proper procedure for a particular phase of flight.
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8.1 SAFETAXI
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Navigation Map Page
Inset Map (PFD)
Weather Datalink Page
Airport Information Page
Intersection Information Page
NDB Information Page
VOR Information Page
•
•
•
•
User Waypoint Information Page
Trip Planning Page
Nearest Pages
Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
Airport
Features
Figure 8-1 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
Detail Softkey
Removes
Taxiway
Markings
The Detail Softkey (declutter) label advances to Detail All, Detail 3, Detail 2 and Detail 1 each time the
softkey is selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Pressing the Detail All Softkey removes the taxiway
markings and airport feature labels. Pressing the Detail 3 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol,
and intersection names if within the airport plan view. Pressing the Detail 2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Pressing the Detail 1 Softkey cycles back to
the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Settings Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
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Figure 8-2 Navigation Map Page Menu, Map Setup Option
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SafeTaxi.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
SafeTaxi
Option
SafeTaxi
Range
Options
Figure 8-3 Map Setup Menu, Aviation Group, SafeTaxi Range Options
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 CHARTS
Electronic charts that resemble the paper versions of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts (FliteCharts)
and Jeppesen terminal procedures charts (ChartView) can be displayed on the MFD.
When the databases for both chart types are purchased and loaded in the system, the desired charts brand, or
source, can be selected for viewing. The active chart source for a particular procedure is shown on the information
pane under Source.
Selecting preferred charts source:
1) While viewing a chart press the MENU Softkey to display the Page Menu options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Charts Setup’ menu option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Preferred Charts Source’ option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the available options (FliteCharts, ChartView).
Chart Setup Option
Preferred Charts Source Option
Figure 8-4 Preferred Charts Source
CHARTVIEW
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed in
full color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the plan
view of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The georeferenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes are not considered within the chart boundaries.
Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol is removed
from the display.
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading
is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale
areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position
of this information, as it relates to the chart plan view, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when
the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart plan
view, not to the off-scale area.
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Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-5 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the georeferenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
-- Arrivals (STAR).
-- Departure Procedures (DP).
-- Approaches (APR).
-- Airport Diagrams.
-- NOTAMs.
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting terminal procedures charts:
While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page,
press the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu and select Show Charts.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the charts.
4) Use the softkeys at the bottom of the screen to select the appropriate chart.
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Navigation Map Page Options Menu
Chart Softkeys
Figure 8-6 Selecting Charts
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner No Available Charts appears on the screen. The
banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart
selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-7 No Available Charts Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner Unable To Display Chart is then displayed.
Figure 8-8 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by pressing the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
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Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, press the Charts
Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Press the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Chart Scale
Figure 8-9 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
While the Approaches Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the system softkeys are blank. Once the
desired chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick.
Pressing the Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
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The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the
boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If
the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not
Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Pressing the Chart Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group.
The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is
within the chart boundaries.
Aircraft
Current
Position
Figure 8-17 Airport Information Page, Info View, Full Screen Width
Figure 8-10 Approach Information Page, Info View, Full Screen Width
In the example shown in following figure, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-11 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from Info View
The following options are available:
»» Pressing the SYNC Softkey displays the database linked chart associated with the current phase of flight.
»» Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
»» Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
»» Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
»» Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Datalink Receiver, when available. Weather information is available
only when a SiriusXM Datalink Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
»» Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Pressing
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When
NOTAMS are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM
Softkey may appear on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections. Pressing the
NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
NOTE: Only NOTAMs applicable to specific information conveyed on the displayed Jeppesen chart are
available when the NOTAM Softkey is pressed. There may be other NOTAMs available pertaining to the
flight that may not be displayed. Contact Jeppesen for more information regarding Jeppesen database
published NOTAMs.
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CHART OPTIONS
Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
»» Pressing the ROT CCW Softkey rotates the displayed chart counter clockwise in 90 degree increments.
»» Pressing the ROT CW Softkey rotates the displayed chart clockwise in 90 degree increments.
»» Pressing the All Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
»» Pressing the Header Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
»» Pressing the Plan Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
»» Pressing the Profile Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
»» Pressing the Minimums Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
»» If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, pressing the Fit WDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
»» Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Complete
Chart Shown
Figure 8-12 Approach Information Page, ALL View
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, press the Full SCN Softkey to display the information windows (Airport,
Info).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Airport, Info, Runways, or Frequencies Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
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Pressing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys. The full screen
view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Full Screen Off’ option and press the ENT Key..
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-13 Page Menus
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-14 Page Menu Chart Setup
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the Color Scheme Option.
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4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
Figure 8-15 Arrival Information Page, Day View
Figure 8-16 Arrival Information Page, Night View
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FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The georeferenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are georeferenced. These charts will display an
Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
Figure 8-17 Aircraft Not Shown Icon
An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas are
indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of this
information, as it relates to the chart plan view, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart plan view,
not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
-- Arrivals (STAR).
-- Departure Procedures (DP).
-- Approaches (APR).
-- Airport Diagrams.
Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-18 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the georeferenced aircraft symbol.
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TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting terminal procedures charts:
While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page,
press the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to ‘Show Charts.’
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
While on the Page Menu, Options Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key to display the
chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner No Available Charts appears on the screen.
The No Available Charts banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability of a
particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-19 No Available Charts Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner Unable To Display Chart is then displayed.
Figure 8-20 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by pressing the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The airport runway diagram is usually displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ page after the Info
Softkey is pressed. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
Page, press the Charts Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Charts’ Box. (Press the APR Softkey
if not already selected).
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4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Charts’ Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Figure 8-20 Selecting a Chart
Figure 8-21 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
While the Approach Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE,
and the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen (see above).
»» Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level (see below).
»» Pressing the SYNC Softkey displays the database linked chart associated with the current phase of flight.
»» Pressing the Info Softkey displays the Airport Diagram.
»» Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
»» Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
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»» Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
»» Pressing the Charts Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group.
CHART OPTIONS
»» Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level
»» Pressing the ROT CCW Softkey rotates the chart counterclockwise.
»» Pressing the ROT CW Softkey rotates the chart clockwise.
»» Pressing the Fit WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area.
»» Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
»» Pressing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Full Screen Off’ Option and press the ENT Key.
The full screen view can be turned back on by following the previous steps and selecting ‘Full Screen On’
Option.
Figure 8-22 Full Screen On or Off
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Charts Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting day, night, or automatic view:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu ‘Options.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Charts Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
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Figure 8-23 Page Menu Chart Setup
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, and ‘Night’ Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Charts Setup’ Menu.
IFR/VFR CHARTS
The system can display GPS navigation information on a VFR chart, a low altitude IFR chart, or a high altitude
IFR chart, if installed. The information overlaid on the IFR/VFR Charts is selected and setup on the Navigation
Map, but the IFR/VFR charts will not display some of the selected items. Only the following items will be
overlaid on the chart:
-- Map Pointer (distance and bearing to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other pertinent information)
-- Map Range (17 range choices from 1 nm to 150 nm)
-- Map Orientation (always North Up for IFR/VFR Charts)
-- Aircraft Icon (representing present position)
-- Wind Direction and Speed
-- Icons for enabled map features
-- Flight Plan Legs
-- Track Vector
-- Runway Extension
-- Missed Approach Preview
-- Intersections (only as part of active flight plan)
-- Visual Reporting Points
-- VNAV Constraints
-- Selected Altitude Intercept Arc
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Map panning on the IFR/VFR Charts works the same as on the Navigation Map. Map range selected on either
the Navigation Map or the IFR/VFR Charts applies to both. However, if the range selected on the Navigation
Map it is not a valid chart range, the chart is shown with a range of 7.5 nm.
When different VFR charts exist for the same area the chart type will automatically display according to the
range chosen. For example, in an area where both a Sectional and a Terminal Area Chart (TAC) are available, a
range of 7.5 nm or more will show the Sectional chart. Once the range is decreased below 7.5 nm, the system
will automatically change the displayed chart from the Sectional to the TAC.
Due to the potential error involved with the electronic depiction of maps, charts will display a gray ‘circle of
uncertainty’ centered upon the aircraft icon. The aircraft’s actual position can be anywhere within the range of
the gray circle. The range of the circle will change based on the chart displayed and current zoom range.
The georeferenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are georeferenced. IFR/VFR charts may be viewed
by selecting the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
Map Orientation
Map Range
VFR Chart
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 8-24 GPS Navigation Information on the VFR Chart
Selecting IFR Low, IFR High, VFR Charts:
1) Select the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
2) Press the VFR, IFR Low, or IFR High Softkey to display the desired chart.
Modifying the IFR Low, IFR High, VFR Charts settings:
1) Select the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey to display the Map Options.
3) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable traffic overlaid onto the charts displayed.
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Map Orientation
Active Flight Plan Leg
IFR Low Altitude Chart
Map Range
Circle of Uncertainty
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 8-25 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR Low Altitude Chart
Map Orientation
IFR High Altitude Chart
Active Flight Plan Leg
Map Range
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Circle of Uncertainty
Figure 8-26 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR High Altitude Chart
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8.3 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISIONS
CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation, ChartView,
SafeTaxi. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable during a period that extends from the
cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays the current
status of the databases. As an example, see the table below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page displays
and the definition of each. The expiration date and disables date varies for each database.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Table 8-1 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current. Amber text,
such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no longer viewable and
have expired.
Database time critical information can also be found on the ‘Aux - System Status’ page. The database Region,
Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either cyan or amber text.
Dates shown in cyan are current data. Dates shown in amber indicate the data is not within the current
subscription period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the Database window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the applicable database information is shown.
Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
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YYTI
»» YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
»» T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
»» I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
YYII
»» YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
»» II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Database Cycle Number Format
YYII
Revision Cycle
28 days
YYMI
Not Applicable
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
28 days
Table 8-2 Database Startup, Format and Cycle
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8.4 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
NOTE: An account must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice/SMS.
The Iridium Transceiver provides an airborne low speed datalink, Iridium Satellite Telephone service, and Short
Message Service (SMS). The Iridium Transceiver can also be paired with the optional WiFi Datalink, providing a
high speed (IEEE 802.11g) WiFi datalink between the aircraft and a ground computer network while the aircraft
is on the ground.
The telephone is available to the flight crew through the audio panel and headsets. An optional handset may be
installed in the aircraft cabin to be used for voice communication between the aircraft cabin and the cockpit and
for Iridium telephone service in the aircraft cabin.
Operation of these features in the cockpit is accomplished through the ‘Aux - Telephone’, ‘Aux - Text Messaging’,
and ‘Aux - Maintenance WiFi Setup’ Pages. For operation using the cabin handset, consult the instructions
provided with the handset.
REGISTERING WITH GARMIN CONNEXT®
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the
‘Aux - System Status’ Page. Setup can be completed by visiting www.flygarmin.com.
DISABLE/ENABLE IRIDIUM TRANSCEIVER
Iridium telephone and data communications may be turned on or off by performing these simple steps.
Disabling/enabling telephone and low speed data services:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the ‘Aux’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page.
Figure 8-27 Report Status Page
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3) Press the MENU Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’ in the menu list.
Figure 8-28 Select Disable Iridium Transmission
5) Press the ENT Key. The Iridium transceiver is now disabled.
6) To enable the Iridium transceiver, repeat steps 1 through 3, then select ‘Enable Iridium Transceiver.’
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network as well as to or from the
telephone handset in the cabin. Calls can also be answered or made from the optional cabin phone, however,
only actions initiated from the cockpit will be discussed here. See the cabin handset user guide for more
information. Control and monitoring of telephone functions are accomplished through the ‘Aux - Telephone’
Page.
Viewing the Telephone Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the ‘Aux’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Telephone’ or ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Phone Softkey to display the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page.
The phone status display gives a graphical representation of the current disposition of voice and/or data
transmissions.
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Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
Table 8-3 Telephone Symbols
CONTACTS
The names, telephone number, and email addresses can be saved in a list of contacts for easy use when
making telephone calls.
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Entering a new contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘New Entry.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves the ‘Name’ field of the ‘Contact Details’ window.
4) Enter the desired name of the new contact. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the
MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Phone Number’ field.
6) Enter the desired telephone number. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
7) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Email’ field.
8) Enter the desired email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
9) Press the ENT Key. The Save Button is highlighted.
10) Press the ENT Key. The new contact entry is added to the list of saved contacts.
Delete a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Press the Delete Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the selected contact.
Figure 8-29 Editing a Contact
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Editing a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Press the Edit Softkey. The cursor is placed in the ‘Name’ field. Enter the desired changes. Entry can be
accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the
MFD.
4) Press the ENT Key when each field is complete. The Save Button is now highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to save the changes.
INCOMING CALLS
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed and
an aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. If the call is from the cabin, Cabin will be displayed. If the
incoming call is an Iridium network call, Iridium will be displayed. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at
times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the pop-up alert, a ringing phone symbol will be displayed to the
right of the MFD page title. Also, the voice alert “Incoming Call” will be heard on the selected cockpit audio.
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk Switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active
after pressing the Answer Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the Answer Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
a) While viewing the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call.’
c) Press the ENT Key.
Pressing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the call unanswered. Pressing
the Phone Softkey will display the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page allowing additional call information to be viewed
before answering.
Muting incoming call alerts:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
OUTGOING CALLS
Voice calls can be made from the cockpit to the handset in the cabin, or to an external phone through the
Iridium Satellite Network.
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Making a call to the cabin:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the Dial Softkey on the MFD.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor will move from ‘Cabin’ to ‘OK.’
4) Press the ENT Key again. The cabin phone will now ring.
When the cabin phone is answered, the connection is established. To exit the call, press the Hangup
Softkey.
Making an external call from the cockpit using the Iridium satellite network:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the Dial Softkey on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Iridium.’
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor has now moved to the phone number entry field.
Figure 8-30 Enter Phone Number
5) Enter the desired telephone number (country code first) by pressing the number softkeys on the MFD or by
pressing the numeric keys on the MFD Control Unit.
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted.
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Figure 8-31 Make the Call
7) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number.
Figure 8-32 System is Making the Connection
When the phone is answered, the connection is established. To exit the call, press the Hangup Softkey.
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Figure 8-33 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
Making an external call from the cockpit by using the Contact List:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired contact name in the list of contacts.
4) Press the Call Softkey. The external call is initiated and the number associated with the contact name is dialed.
PLACING THE COCKPIT PHONE ON HOLD
Placing a call on hold:
Press the Hold Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold.’
3) Press the ENT Key.
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call. This figure illustrates a call between the cockpit and an
external phone in which the cockpit phone has been put on hold. Press the Hold Softkey again to resume
the call.
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Figure 8-34 Cockpit Phone on Hold
TRANSFERRING A CALL FROM THE COCKPIT
From the cockpit phone, a external call can be transferred to the cabin phone, or a call with the cabin phone
can be transferred to an external phone.
In this example, an active call to the cabin is transferred to an external number. Therefore, the window
shows the ‘Iridium’ option. If the active call is with an external phone, ‘Cabin’ would be the option.
Transferring a call:
1) Press the Trans Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Transfer Current Call.’
c) Press the ENT Key.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor now highlights the phone number entry field.
3) Enter the phone number to which the call is being transferred, as discussed earlier for making an external call
on the Iridium satellite network.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is now highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key again to place the call.
When the external phone is answered, the call connection is indicated.
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MAKING A CONFERENCE CALL FROM THE COCKPIT
The cabin or an external phone can be added to a call already in progress.
Adding another phone to an active call:
1) Press the Conf Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Conference Current Call.’
c) Press the ENT Key.
In this example, an external phone will be added to an active call to the cabin. Therefore, the window
shows the ‘Iridium’ option. If the active call is with an external phone, ‘Cabin’ would be the option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor now highlights the phone number entry field.
3) Enter the phone number to be added to the call, as discussed earlier for making an external call on the Iridium
satellite network.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is now highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key again to place the call.
When the external phone is answered, the call connection is indicated.
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the ‘Aux’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Telephone’ or ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the SMS Softkey to display the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
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Figure 8-35 Text Messaging Page
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
System is sending text message
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Predefined text message
Table 8-4 Text Message Symbols
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VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed
when a new text message is received.
New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-36 New Text Message Received
Press the View Softkey to view the message. Pressing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up
window and leave the text message unopened. Pressing the Ignore All Softkey will extinguish the popwindow and ignore all future incoming text messages. Pressing the SMS Softkey will display the ‘Aux - Text
Messaging’ Page.
Figure 8-37 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
1) With the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message Popups.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
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Figure 8-38 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
While viewing the text message, press the Reply Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message.’
3) Press the ENT Key.
SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
Text messages may be sent from the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
Sending a new text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the New Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message.’
c) Press the ENT Key.
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Figure 8-39 Composing a New Text Message
2) The SMS Text Message Draft Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the Numbers Softkey. Press
the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be accessed by
pressing the Symbols Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Confirm you wish to send the message by pressing the ENT Key with ‘Yes’ highlighted. Select ‘No’ to return to
the message entry field and either press the Cancel Softkey to delete the message or press the Save Softkey
to save the message as a draft.
Text messages and emails may also be sent to contacts from the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page.
Sending a new text message/email to a saved contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Press either the Text Email Softkey to send to the email address saved for the contact or the Text Phone
Softkey to send to the phone number saved for the contact. The cursor is placed in the ‘To’ field. Confirm the
contact you wish to send a message to by pressing the ENT Key.
4) Enter the desired message, then press the ENT Key.
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5) Confirm you wish to send the message by pressing the ENT Key with ‘Yes’ highlighted. Select ‘No’ to return to
the message entry field and either press the Cancel Softkey to delete the message or press the Save Softkey
to save the message as a draft.
PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Figure 8-40 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined Messages view is now displayed.
4) Press the New Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message.’
c) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed.
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Figure 8-41 Composing a Predefined Message
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘Title’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys
on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by
pressing the Numbers Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters.
Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the Save Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Pressing the Cancel
Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Cancel Drafting Message.’
12) Press the ENT Key.
Sending a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the New Softkey.
2) The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘TO’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the Numbers Softkey. Press
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the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be accessed by
pressing the Symbols Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
Figure 8-42 Predefined Message Softkey Shown When Composing a Message
4) Press the PREDEFD Softkey. The Predefined Message Menu Window is displayed.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the Send Softkey to transmit the message.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Showing Inbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Inbox Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
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Figure 8-43 Text Message Inbox
Showing Outbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Outbox Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Showing Draft messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Drafts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
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MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the type of
message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Time Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Type Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Address Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address.’
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, select the desired message box.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Press the View Softkey.
Or:
Press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message.’
c) Press the ENT Key.
Message content is displayed.
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Figure 8-44 Viewing Message Content
5) To close the text message, press the Close Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Close Message.’
c) Press the ENT Key.
Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Press the MRK Read Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read.’
c) Press the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
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Marking all messages as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read.’
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate all the message have
been opened.
Deleting a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Press the Delete Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message.’
c) Press the ENT Key.
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8.5 WIFI CONNECTIONS
The optional WiFi Datalink provides a high speed IEEE 802.11g WiFi datalink between the aircraft and a
ground computer network while the aircraft is on the ground and located within range of the network.
The system is capable of WEP64, WEP128,WPA-PSK, and WPA2-PSK encryption formats. WPA-Enterprise
and WPA2-Enterprise are not supported. Connections that require web proxies, captive portals, or other elements
that require user credentials, including a user name and password or a redemption or access code; or require
action such as accepting a user agreement, are not supported.
Control and monitoring of WiFi functions are accomplished through the ‘Aux - Maintenance WiFi Setup’ Page.
Viewing the WiFi Setup Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the ‘Aux’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Maintenance WiFi Setup’ Page.
Setting up a new WiFi connection:
1) Press the Avail Softkey on the MFD. A list of available networks will be displayed in the Available Networks
window. Signal strength is shown for each network, as well as security requirements and whether the network
has been saved in the system’s memory.
Figure 8-45 Available WiFi Networks
2)