Garmin | G1000 NXi: Beechcraft King Air 200/B200 | Garmin G1000 NXi: Beechcraft King Air 200/B200 Pilot's Guide, G1000 King Air 200/B200 Series - SSV 2286.00

Garmin G1000 NXi: Beechcraft King Air 200/B200 Pilot's Guide, G1000 King Air 200/B200 Series - SSV 2286.00
®
Pilot’s Guide
Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
Copyright © 2016 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2286.00 or later for the G1000 NXi Beechcraft 200/B200 Series. Some
differences in operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
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Website Address: www.garmin.com
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and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin®, G1000® NXi, WATCH®, FliteCharts®, and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries.
Garmin ESP™, Garmin SVT™, SurfaceWatch™, and Connext™ are trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. These
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Skywatch® and Stormscope® are registered trademarks of L-3 Communications. Ryan®, TCAD® and Avidyne® are registered trademarks of
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trademark of Jeppesen, Inc. Wi-Fi® is a registered trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio are
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AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
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incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
AOPA or an AOPA authorized representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and, to
the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
190-02041-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
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maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
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do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
September 2016
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and should not be relied
upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical
charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Always obtain qualified instruction prior to operational use of this equipment.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
190-02041-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
iii
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: When using the autopilot to fly an approach with vertical guidance, the autopilot will not level
the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the altitude preselect.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Traffic information shown on system displays is provided as an aid in visually acquiring traffic.
Traffic avoidance maneuvers are based upon TCAS II Resolution Advisories , ATC guidance, or positive visual
acquisition of conflicting traffic.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and
heading indications (GRS 77 installations only) in the following geographic areas: North of 72° North
latitude at all longitudes; South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between
longitude 75° W and 120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and
128° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern
Russia); South of 55° South latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and
New Zealand).
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may
appear as a partial symbol.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of
the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Repairs should only be made by an authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs or
modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
190-02041-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
v
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured
compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable
database and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: Operate G1000NXi system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days of continuous
operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The system supports approval of AC 120-76C Hardware Class 3, Software Type B Electronic Flight Bag
(EFB) electronic aeronautical chart applications. Possible additional requirements may make a secondary
source (traditional paper or additional electronic display) necessary onboard the aircraft. If the secondary
source is a Portable Electronic Device (PED), its use must be consistent with guidance in AC 120-76C.
NOTE: When operating the system with the magnetic sensor uncoupled from the AHRS, the displayed
heading and heading information used by some system components (e.g. traffic system, AFCS, and weather
radar) will be different from the heading calculated by the AHRS. The difference is an amount equal to the
difference between the current Magnetic Field Variation Database (MV DB) value, and the MV DB value
when the magnetic sensor was uncoupled. Due to the convergence of isogonic lines, this condition is most
noticeable at or near the north and south magnetic poles.
NOTE: System navigation utilities may not reliably calculate range and bearing information when the
aircraft is operating north of 80° North latitude or south of 80° South latitude. This may result in the system
displaying small gaps in racetrack holding pattern depictions (GRS 7800 installations only).
NOTE: The Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) may not operate reliably north of 89º North
latitude and south of 89º South latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and
the system’s ability to process the data representing the affected areas (GRS 7800 installations only).
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby thunderstorms
that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of two or more
discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after
the screen has been cleared.
190-02041-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
vii
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-02041-00
viii
Revision
A
Date
9/15/16
Page Range
Description
i – I-6
Initial Release for GDU 20.01
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................... 1
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).................................... 2
System Controls......................................................... 5
PFD Controls................................................................. 5
Controls Associated With the MFD.................................. 7
AFCS Controls............................................................... 9
Additional AFCS Controls............................................. 10
Audio Panel Controls................................................... 11
Secure Digital Cards................................................ 13
System Power-up...................................................... 14
System Operation.................................................... 15
Normal Operation........................................................ 15
Reversionary Mode...................................................... 15
ADAHRS Operation...................................................... 16
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 18
System Annunciations.................................................. 21
Softkey Function.......................................................... 22
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 34
Accessing System Functionality............................. 39
Menus........................................................................ 39
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 40
MFD System Pages...................................................... 44
Display Backlighting................................................ 59
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................... 64
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 64
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 67
Altimeter.................................................................... 70
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 74
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 74
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 76
Directional Gyro (DG) Mode (GRS 7800 Only)................. 78
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 81
2.2 Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology)............ 89
SVT Operation............................................................. 90
2.3 Supplemental Flight Data....................................... 97
Temperature Displays................................................... 97
Wind Data.................................................................. 99
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications.......................... 100
190-02041-00 Rev. A
2.4 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 101
Alerting System......................................................... 101
Marker Beacon Annunciations.................................... 102
Altitude Alerting........................................................ 102
Low Altitude Annunciation......................................... 103
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting..... 103
Radar Altimeter......................................................... 105
2.5 Abnormal Operations............................................ 107
Abnormal GPS Conditions.......................................... 107
Comparator Annunciations......................................... 108
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 108
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 EIS Display.............................................................. 112
Interstage Turbine Temperature................................... 114
Torque...................................................................... 114
Tachometer (RPM)..................................................... 115
Turbine Speed........................................................... 116
Fuel Flow.................................................................. 116
Oil Pressure............................................................... 117
Oil Temperature......................................................... 117
3.2 EIS Display in Reversionary Mode....................... 118
Reversionary Display.................................................. 119
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 Overview................................................................. 121
Audio Panel Volume Control....................................... 121
PFD Controls and Frequency Display............................ 122
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 124
Control Unit.............................................................. 126
4.2 COM Operation...................................................... 128
COM Transceiver Selection and Activation.................... 128
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 129
Quick-Tuning and Activating 121.500 MHz................... 131
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency................................. 131
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 135
Automatic Squelch..................................................... 136
Volume..................................................................... 137
4.3 NAV Operation....................................................... 138
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 138
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 139
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD............... 141
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 145
DME Tuning.............................................................. 146
4.4 Mode S Transponders............................................ 147
GTX 335/345/3000 Transponder Controls..................... 147
GTX 335/345/3000 Transponder Mode Selection........... 148
TCAS II Transponder Controls (optional)....................... 150
TCAS II Transponder Mode Selection (optional)............. 151
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 153
IDENT Function......................................................... 155
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions........................ 156
Power-Up.................................................................. 156
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 156
Speaker.................................................................... 156
Unmuted Inputs........................................................ 156
Intercom................................................................... 157
Passenger Address (PA) System................................... 158
Simultaneous COM Operation..................................... 158
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 159
4.6 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure........................ 160
4.7 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 162
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 162
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 162
PFD Failure, Dual System............................................ 163
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation.................................. 164
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 164
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction............................................................ 165
Navigation Status Box................................................ 167
5.2 Using Map Displays............................................... 169
Map Orientation........................................................ 169
Map Range............................................................... 171
Map Panning............................................................. 173
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 179
Topography............................................................... 180
Map Symbols............................................................ 184
Airways.................................................................... 189
Track Vector.............................................................. 191
Wind Vector.............................................................. 192
Fuel Range Ring........................................................ 193
Field of View (SVT)..................................................... 194
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc.................................... 195
IFR/VFR Charts.......................................................... 196
x
5.3 Waypoints............................................................... 199
Airports.................................................................... 200
Intersections............................................................. 207
NDBs........................................................................ 209
VORs........................................................................ 211
VRPs........................................................................ 213
User Waypoints......................................................... 215
5.4 Airspaces................................................................. 221
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ............................................ 226
5.6 Flight Planning....................................................... 232
Flight Plan Creation................................................... 233
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................. 243
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 245
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 248
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 255
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 257
Along Track Offsets.................................................... 261
Parallel Track............................................................. 262
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 265
Inverting a Flight Plan................................................ 266
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 267
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 269
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 270
5.7 Vertical Navigation................................................ 275
Altitude Constraints................................................... 277
5.8 Procedures.............................................................. 281
Departures................................................................ 281
Arrivals .................................................................... 285
Approaches .............................................................. 288
5.9 Trip Planning........................................................... 296
Trip Planning............................................................. 296
Weight Planning........................................................ 300
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions..................... 302
5.10 RAIM Prediction..................................................... 303
5.11 Navigating a Flight Plan........................................ 306
5.12 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 333
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 SiriusXM Weather................................................... 336
Activating Services..................................................... 336
Using SiriusXM Weather Products............................... 338
Weather Softkeys on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.342
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.2 Garmin Connext Weather...................................... 372
Connext Data Requests.............................................. 379
Garmin Connext Weather Products.............................. 383
Abnormal Operations................................................. 399
6.3 FIS-B Weather......................................................... 401
Using FIS-B Weather Products..................................... 401
FIS-B Weather Status................................................. 423
6.4 Airborne Color Weather Radar............................. 425
System Description.................................................... 425
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 425
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 429
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 430
Practical Application Using the Basic Tilt Setup............. 430
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 431
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 443
Additional Weather Radar Displays.............................. 444
System Status............................................................ 447
6.5 Stormscope............................................................. 450
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 451
Using the Stormscope Page........................................ 454
6.6 TAWS-B.................................................................... 456
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 457
TAWS-B Alerts........................................................... 461
System Status............................................................ 467
6.7 Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain.............. 469
VSD Display.............................................................. 469
6.8 TAWS-A.................................................................... 473
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 474
TAWS-A Page............................................................ 478
TAWS-A Alerts........................................................... 479
System Status............................................................ 492
TAWS-A Abnormal operations..................................... 493
6.9 Garmin TAS/TCAS I Traffic...................................... 495
Theory of Operation................................................... 495
Traffic Alerts.............................................................. 499
System Test............................................................... 500
Operation................................................................. 501
6.10 L-3 Skywatch Traffic............................................... 508
TAS Symbology.......................................................... 508
Operation................................................................. 509
Altitude Display......................................................... 512
190-02041-00 Rev. A
Traffic Map Page Display Range.................................. 512
TAS Alerts................................................................. 514
System Status............................................................ 514
6.11 Honeywell KTA 870 Traffic.................................... 516
TAS Symbology.......................................................... 516
Operation................................................................. 517
Altitude Display......................................................... 519
Traffic Map Page Display Range.................................. 520
TAS Alerts................................................................. 522
System Status............................................................ 523
6.12 ADS-B Traffic........................................................... 524
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 524
ADS-B with TAS/TCAS I............................................... 526
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting.................... 526
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 529
Traffic Description...................................................... 530
Operation................................................................. 530
ADS-B System Status................................................. 536
6.13 TCAS II Traffic.......................................................... 539
Theory of Operation................................................... 539
TCAS II Alerts............................................................ 540
System Test............................................................... 545
Operation................................................................. 546
System Status............................................................ 552
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Overview....................................................... 555
Additional AFCS Controls........................................... 557
Basic Autopilot Operation........................................... 558
7.2 Flight Director Operation...................................... 559
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 559
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 560
Flight Director Modes................................................. 561
Switching Flight Directors........................................... 561
Command Bars.......................................................... 562
7.3 AFCS Modes............................................................ 563
Vertical Modes.......................................................... 563
Lateral Modes........................................................... 570
Combination modes (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA).............. 575
7.4 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation................ 587
Flight Control............................................................ 587
Engagement.............................................................. 588
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 588
Disengagement......................................................... 589
Underspeed Protection............................................... 590
7.5 Example Flight Plan............................................... 592
Departure................................................................. 593
Intercepting a VOR Radial........................................... 595
Flying a Flight Plan/GPS Course.................................. 596
Descent.................................................................... 597
Approach.................................................................. 602
Go Around/Missed Approach...................................... 606
7.6 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts............................ 608
Overspeed Protection................................................. 608
7.7 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 609
Suspected Autopilot malfunction................................. 609
Overpowering Autopilot Servos................................... 609
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
xii
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)....................... 612
SVT Operation........................................................... 613
SVT Features............................................................. 615
Field of View............................................................. 624
SafeTaxi................................................................... 626
SafeTaxi Cycle Number and Revision........................... 629
FliteCharts............................................................... 632
FliteCharts Softkeys................................................... 634
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 635
Chart Options............................................................ 638
Day/Night View......................................................... 639
FliteCharts Cycle Number and Expiration Date.............. 639
Airport Directory.................................................... 642
Airport Directory Database Cycle Number and Revision.642
Satellite Telephone................................................ 645
®
Registering with Garmin Connext ............................. 645
Disable/Enable Iridium Transceiver.............................. 645
Telephone Communication......................................... 647
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 654
WIFI Connections................................................... 665
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment............................. 668
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 668
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 669
Scheduler................................................................ 673
8.9 SurfaceWatch.......................................................... 675
Information Box........................................................ 675
Alerts....................................................................... 676
8.10 Flight Data Logging............................................... 680
8.11 Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)............. 682
Roll Engagement....................................................... 683
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 685
Angle of Attack Protection.......................................... 686
High Airspeed Protection............................................ 686
8.12 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 687
SVT Troubleshooting.................................................. 687
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 687
Unusual Attitudes...................................................... 687
GSR 56 & GDL 59/69/69A Troubleshooting................... 687
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts................................................ 691
Alert Level Definitions................................................ 692
Aircraft Alerts............................................................ 693
Comparator Annunciations......................................... 696
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................. 697
System Annunciations................................................ 698
System Message Advisories........................................ 701
AFCS Alerts............................................................... 716
TAWS Alerts.............................................................. 717
Flight plan Import/Export Messages............................ 720
Pilot Profile Import/Export Messages........................... 720
GDL 69/69A SXM Data Link Receiver Messages............ 721
SurfaceWatch Alert Annunciations............................... 721
Database Management................................................... 723
Loading Updated Databases....................................... 723
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update................... 732
Garmin Aviation Glossary............................................... 735
Frequently Asked Questions........................................... 745
Map Symbols.................................................................... 749
INDEX
Index ................................................................................... I-1
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the G1000 NXi Integrated Avionics System as installed in the Beechcraft
200/B200 Series. The system is an integrated system that presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation,
communication, and identification information to the pilot through large-format displays.
In the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series, the Garmin Automated Flight Control System (AFCS) provides the flight
director (FD), autopilot (AP), and yaw damper (YD) functions of the system.
NOTE: Refer to the AFCS section for details on the Garmin AFCS.
The optional Flight Stream 510 device provides a Bluetooth® connection between the system and a mobile
device. GPS, ADAHRS, ADS-B, traffic, Sirius XM audio, and FIS-B weather data can then be shared with the
mobile device, and flight plans can be transferred to or from the mobile device. Also, database updates may also
be performed using the Flight Stream 510 WiFi link.
The system consists of the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1050A Primary Flight Display (PFD)
• GDL 59 (optional) WiFi Data Link
• GDU 1550 Multi Function Display (MFD)
• GWX 68/70 Weather Radar
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit
• GCU 477 MFD Control Unit
• GMU 44 Magnetometer
• GDL 69A SXM Data Link
• GSU 75B Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference
System (ADAHRS)
• GSR 56 (optional) Iridium Transceiver
• GDC 74B/7400 (optional) Air Data Computer
(ADC)
• GRS 77/7800 (optional) Attitude and Heading
Reference System (AHRS)
• GEA 71 Engine/Airframe Unit
• GMA 1347D Dual Audio System with Integrated
Marker Beacon Receiver
• GTS 820/850/8000 (optional) Traffic Avoidance
System/Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System
• GRA 5500 Radio Altimeter
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GTP 59 Outside Air Temperature (OAT) Probe
• GSA 80 AFCS Servos
• GSM 85A/86 Servo Gearboxes
• GTX 33D/335R/345R/3000 Extended Squitter
Mode S Transponder
A top-level system block diagram is shown in Figure 1-1 (it does not include the GSM 85A/86).
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
1
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
• GDU 1050A (2) – Each unit is configured as a PFD that features a 10.4-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution.
The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one installed on the right/copilot side
is designated as PFD2. These units communicate with each other, the MFD, and with the on-side GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics Unit through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
• GDU 1550 (1) – Features a 15-inch LCD with 1024 x 768 resolution and is configured as an MFD. This unit
is linked to both PFDs via HSDB connection.
• GIA 63W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the on-side PFD. Each
GIA 63W contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system
integration microprocessors. Each GIA 63W is paired with the on-side PFD via HSDB connection. The GIA
63Ws are not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
• GSU 75B (1) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe to provide pressure altitude,
airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system. This unit also provides aircraft attitude and heading
information via ARINC 429 to both GDU 1050A units and the GIA 63W unit. The GSU 75B contains advanced
sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the GMU 44 to obtain magnetic field
information, and with the GIA 63W to obtain GPS information. ADAHRS modes of operation are discussed
later in this document.
• GEA 71 (2) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit communicates
with both GIA 63Ws using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GDC 74B/7400 (2) (Optional) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit
provides pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system, and it communicates with
the on-side GIA 63W, on-side GDU 1050A, GDU 1550 MFD, and on-side GRS 77/7800, using an ARINC 429
digital interface (it also interfaces directly with the on-side GTP 59). The GDC 74B/7400 is designed to operate
in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.
• GRS 77/7800 (2) (Optional) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to both the onside GDU 1050A, the GDU 1550 MFD, and the on-side GIA 63W. The GRS 77/7800 contains advanced sensors
(including accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the on-side GMU 44 to obtain magnetic field
information, with the GDC 74B/7400 to obtain air data, and with both GIA 63Ws to obtain GPS information.
AHRS modes of operation are discussed later in this document.
• GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GRS 77/7800 for processing to determine
aircraft magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GRS 77 and communicates with the
GRS 77/7800, using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GMA 1347D (2) – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and marker beacon controls, and is
installed in dual configuration on the outboard side of PFD1 and PFD2. This unit also enables the manual
control of the display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP button) and communicates with the on-side
GIA 63W, using an RS-232 digital interface.
• GTX 33D/335R/345R/3000 (2) – Solid-state transponders that provide Modes A, C, S and ADS-B capability.
Both transponders can be controlled from either PFD, and only one transponder can be active at a time. Each
transponder communicates with the on-side GIA 63W through an RS-232 digital interface.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GDL 69A SXM / GDL 69A (1) – A satellite radio receiver that provides data link weather information to
the MFD (and, indirectly, to the inset map of the PFD) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL
69A communicates with the MFD via HSDB connection. Subscriptions to the SiriusXM Weather or SiriusXM
Satellite Radio services are required to enable the GDL 69A capability.
• GDL 59 (1) (Optional) – GDL 59 operation is performed with the MFD through HSDB. Connectivity with the
GSR 56 for the Iridium telephone feature is through the RS-232 bus.
• GSR 56 (1) (Optional) – The Iridium Transceiver operation for voice communication is by means of a telephone
handset in the cabin and pilot and copilot headsets in the cockpit. The transceiver can also send and receive data
provided by the GDL 59 through the RS-232 bus, and provide Garmin Connext Weather and SMS functions.
• GWX 68/70 (1) (Optional) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD, through
the GDL 69A, via HSDB connection.
• GCU 477 (1) – Provides the Flight Management System (FMS) controls for the MFD through an RS-232 digital
interface.
• GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the Garmin AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface allowing
communication with both PFDs.
• GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GSU 75B (GDC 74B/7400).
• GTS 820/850/8000 (Optional) – The GTS 820 Traffic Advisory System (TAS), GTS 850 Traffic Alert and
Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) and GTS 8000 (TCAS II) use active interrogations of Mode S and Mode
C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of the air traffic control system.
• GRA 5500 (1) (Optional) – Provides altitude above the ground (AGL) to the MFD, through the GIA 63W, via
HSDB connection.
• GSA 80 (3), and GSM 85A/GSM 86 (4) – The GSA 80 servos are used for the automatic control of roll, pitch,
and yaw, and pitch trim. These units interface with each GIA 63W. The servo gearboxes are responsible for
transferring the output torque of the servo actuator to the mechanical flight-control surface linkage.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GMC 710
(AFCS
Controller)
#1
GDU 1050A
(PFD1)
#3
GDU 1550
(MFD)
GCU 477
(Display
Controller)
GSR 56
(Iridium
Transceiver)
GTS 820/850/8000
(TAS or TCAS I/II)
#2
GDU 1050A
(PFD2)
GDL 69A SXM/
GDL 69A
(SiriusXM
Weather Datalink/
Datalink)
GDL 59
(Data Link)
GWX 68/70
(Weather Radar)
DME
42
GMA 1347D
(Audio Panel)
#1 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
GTP 59
(OAT Probe)
#2 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
GMA 1347D
(Audio Panel)
#1 GSU 75B
(ADAHRS)
#2 GSU 75B
(ADAHRS)
#1 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#2 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
ADF
60A
GTP 59
(OAT Probe)
VHF COM
Traffic
System
GPS/SBAS
VHF COM
#1 GRS 77/7800
(Attitude & Heading)
GPS/SBAS
#1 GRS 77/7800
(Attitude & Heading)
VOR/LOC
VOR/LOC
G/S
G/S
AFCS Mode
Logic
#1 GDC 74B / 7400
(Air Data
Computer)
AFCS Mode
Logic
Flight
Director
#2 GDC 74B / 7400
(Air Data
Computer)
Flight
Director
Servo
Management
#1 GSA 80 (Pitch)
Servo
Management
#2 GSA 80 (Yaw)
#3 GSA 80 (Roll)
GEA 71
(Engine & Airframe
1/2)
Stormscope
WX 500
#1 GTX 33D/
335R/345R/3000
(Transponder)
#2 GTX 33D/
335R/345R/3000
(Transponder)
Radar
Altimeter
GRA 5500
Radar Altimiter
Garmin Equipment
Non-Garmin Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 System (LRU Configuration)
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel (GMA 1347D) and AFCS controls (GMC 710) are described in the CNS & Audio Panel
and AFCS sections respectively.
The system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels, MFD Control Unit, AFCS Control Unit and audio
panel. The controls for the PFD and MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD CONTROLS
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
Figure 1-2 PFD Controls
9
13
10
14
11
15
12
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5
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the PFD bezel (see Figure 1-2).
6
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to toggle the Morse code identifier audio ON
and OFF. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Toggles the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
Dual NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed.
5
BARO Knob – Sets the altimeter barometric pressure. Press to enter standard pressure (29.92).
6
Dual COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small
knob for kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Toggles the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this
key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency
field as a percentage. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON and OFF.
9
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or
taken from the map pointer position).
10
FPL Key – Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan.
11
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus.
12
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor
ON and OFF. When the cursor is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small
and large knobs. The large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects individual
characters for the highlighted cursor location.
13
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
14
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. These procedures can then be loaded into the active flight plan.
If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
15
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
CONTROLS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MFD
The controls for the MFD (GDU 1550) are located on both the MFD bezel and the Control Unit (GCU 477).
The bottom portion of the MFD bezel features 12 softkeys that are designed to perform various functions
depending upon the specific page being displayed. These softkeys are discussed throughout the Pilot’s Guide
documentation.
The following list provides an overview of the controls located on the Control Unit (see Figure 1-3):
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
21
20
19
18
17
Figure 1-3 Control Unit (GCU 477)
1
Alphabetic Keys – Allow the user to enter letters quickly, without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob.
2
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed.
3
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus. Pressing and holding this key
displays the Navigation Map Page automatically.
4
FPL Key – Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan, or for
accessing stored flight plans.
5
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or
taken from the map pointer position).
6
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
7
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. Theses procedures can then be loaded into the active flight
plan. If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
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7
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
8
8
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
9
Dual FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. When the FMS Key is pressed, this knob selects the
MFD page to be viewed. The large knob selects a page group (MAP, WPT, AUX, NRST), while the small
knob selects a specific page within the page group. Pressing the FMS Knob turns the selection cursor ON
and OFF. When the cursor is ON, data may be entered in the applicable window by turning the small
and large knobs. In this case, the large knob moves the cursor on the page, while the small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location. This knob also has tuning capability for the COM
and NAV radios when the appropriate COM or NAV key is pressed. When the XPDR Key is pressed, the
transponder code may be entered using the FMS Knob.
10
Numeric Keys – Allow the user to enter numbers quickly, without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob.
11
FMS Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control FMS functions on the MFD. When pressed, an annunciator next
to the key illuminates indicating adjustment of the FMS Knob will now affect FMS functions.
12
COM Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the COM radios. The first press will select COM1,
as indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select COM2. This is annunciated
with a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the COM Key will switch between COM1 and
COM2. Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected COM.
13
Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Switches the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies. Press
and hold this key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into the
active frequency field.
14
NAV Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the NAV radios. The first press will select NAV1, as
indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select NAV2. This is annunciated with
a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the NAV Key will switch between NAV1 and NAV2.
Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected NAV.
15
XPDR Key – Sets the FMS Knob to enter transponders codes. When pressed, an annunciator next to the
key illuminates indicating the FMS Knob can now be used for transponder code entry.
16
IDENT Key – Activates transponder IDENT function.
17
Plus (+) Minus (-) Key – Toggles a (+) or (-) character.
18
SEL Key – The center of this key activates the selected MFD softkey, while the right and left arrows move
the softkey selection box to the right and left, respectively.
19
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
20
BKSP Key – Moves the cursor back one character space.
21
SPC Key – Adds a space character.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AFCS CONTROLS
NOTE: With the exception of the FD and SPD Keys, if a key is selected, its respective annunciator is illuminated.
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
9
Figure 1-4 AFCS Control Unit (GMC 710)
The Garmin AFCS is mainly controlled through the GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit. The AFCS Control Unit
consists of the following controls:
1
HDG Key – Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode.
2
APR Key – Selects/deselects Approach Mode.
3
NAV Key – Selects/deselects Navigation Mode.
4
FD Key – Activates/deactivates the flight director in the default pitch and roll modes. If the autopilot is
engaged, the FD Key is disabled.
5
XFR Key – Switches the autopilot between the pilot-side and the copilot-side flight directors. This selection
also selects which air data computer is communicating with the active transponder. Upon power-up, the
pilot-side FD is selected.
6
ALT Key – Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode.
7
VS Key – Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode.
8
FLC Key – Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode.
9
CRS2 Knob – Sets the copilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD2 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP
mode is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The copilot-selected
course provides course reference to the copilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation and
Approach modes.
10
SPD Key – Switches the Flight Level Change mode reference speed between IAS and MACH number.
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9
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
11
NOSE UP/DN Wheel – Controls the active mode reference for the Pitch, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes.
12
VNV Key – Selects/deselects Vertical Navigation mode.
13
ALT SEL Knob – Sets the selected altitude in the Selected Altitude Box. In addition to providing the
standard altitude alerter function, selected altitude provides an altitude setting for the Altitude Capture/
Hold mode of the AFCS.
14
YD Key – Engages/disengages the yaw damper.
15
AP Key – Engages/disengages the autopilot.
16
BANK Key – Selects/deselects Low Bank Mode.
17
CRS1 Knob – Sets the pilot-selected course on the HSI of PFD1 when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP mode
is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The pilot-selected course
provides course reference to the pilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation and Approach
modes.
18
BC Key – Selects/deselects Back Course Mode.
19
HDG Knob – Sets the selected heading on the HSI. When operating in Heading Select mode, this knob
provides the heading reference to the flight director.
ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
The AP DISC (Autopilot Disconnect) Switch, CWS (Control Wheel Steering) Button, GO AROUND
Switch, and MEPT (Manual Electric Pitch Trim) Switch are additional AFCS controls and are located in the cockpit,
separately from the AFCS Control Unit. These are discussed in detail in the AFCS section.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Figure 1-5 Audio Panel Controls (GMA 1347D)
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receiver audio
can be added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 is simultaneously selected when this key
is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 can be deselected by
pressing the COM2 Key, or COM1 can be added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
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11
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
12
5
COM3 MIC – Selects an optional transmitter for transmitting (if installed). COM3 is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the optional receiver to be heard. COM3
can be deselected by pressing the COM3 Key, or either COM1 or COM2 can be added by pressing the
COM1 or COM2 Key.
6
COM3 – When selected, audio from an optional COM can be heard.
7
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
8
TEL – When selected, activates the SATCOM transceiver.
9
MUSIC – Toggles the Music input on or off. Pressing and holding toggles music muting on or off.
10
SPKR – Pressing this key selects and deselects the corresponding cockpit speaker. With SPKR selected on,
the COM and NAV receiver audio, and alerts are heard on the speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver audio. Unmutes when new marker
beacon audio is received.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase Marker Beacon Receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to normal.
13
DME – Pressing turns optional DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Pressing turns on or off the audio from the optional ADF receiver.
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used on the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series.
18
MAN SQ – Press to enable manual squelch for the intercom. When active, press the ICS Knob to illuminate
‘SQ’. Turn the ICS Knob to adjust squelch.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded audio. Press again to stop playing. Press twice quickly while
audio is playing and the previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent two presses skips
back to the previously recorded block.
20
INTR COM – Pressing selects the pilot/copilot intercom on both audio panels. Press again to deselect the
intercom.
21
CABIN – Initiates intercom communications with passengers in the cabin.
22
ICS Knob – Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. Press to switch between volume and squelch
control as indicated by the ‘VOL’ or ‘SQ’ being illuminated. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow
squelch adjustment.
23
MSTR Knob – The Master Volume Control adjusts volume for the blended NAV, COM, and intercom
audio.
24
Reversionary Mode Button – Pressing manually selects Reversionary Mode.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The GDU 1050A and GDU 1550 data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top
right portion of the display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used
for aviation database and system software updates as well as terrain database storage. Also, flight plans may be
imported or exported from an SD card in the MFD.
Install an SD card
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel.
Remove an SD card
Gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch and eject the card.
PFD
MFD
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-6 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
190-02041-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
13
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.5 SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for AHRS initialization bank angle limitations.
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM/POH) for specific
procedures concerning avionics power application and emergency power supply operation.
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical busses.
The PFDs, MFD and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features that
exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
During system initialization, test annunciations are displayed, as shown in Figure 1-7. All system annunciations
should disappear typically within one minute of power-up. Upon power-up, key annunciator lights also become
momentarily illuminated on the audio panels, the control units and the display bezels.
On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize and displays ‘AHRS/DG ALIGN: Remain Stationary’. The AHRS
should display valid attitude and heading fields typically within one minute of power-up. The AHRS can align
itself both while taxiing in a straight line and during level flight.
When the MFD powers up (Figure 1-8), the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
• System version
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Airport Directory name and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
• IFR/VFR charts database information
• Crew Profile
• Copyright
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted
to continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the Auxiliary (AUX) Weight
Planning Page.
Figure 1-7 PFD Initialization
14
Figure 1-8 MFD Power-up Page
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.6 SYSTEM OPERATION
The displays are connected together via multiple data busses, thus allowing for high-speed communication.
As shown in Figure 1-1, each GIA 63W is connected to the on-side PFD. This section discusses the normal and
reversionary modes of operation as well as the various AHRS modes of the system.
NORMAL OPERATION
PFD
In normal mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed, altitude
and vertical speed), thereby replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster. The PFD also offers control for
COM and NAV frequency selection.
MFD
In normal mode, the right portion of the MFD displays a full-color moving map with navigation information,
while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System (EIS).
Figure 1-9 gives an example of the displays in normal mode.
PFD1
PFD2
MFD
Figure 1-9 Normal Operation
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices for
further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically
on at least one of the remaining displays (see Figure 1-10). Transition to reversionary mode should be
straightforward for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
When a display fails, the system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode as follows:
• PFD1 failure – MFD and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
• MFD failure – PFD1 automatically switches to reversionary mode.
• PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-10 Reversionary Mode
Reversionary mode can be activated manually by pressing the dedicated DISPLAY BACKUP button at the
bottom of the audio panel (see Figure 1-11 and refer to the Audio Panel section for further details). Pressing
this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
Pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP
button activates/deactivates
reversionary mode for both the
on-side PFD and the MFD.
Figure 1-11 DISPLAY BACKUP Button
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
• PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left audio panel.
• MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left or the right audio panel.
• PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the right audio panel.
Should the connection between a PFD and the on-side GIA 63W become inoperative, the on-side GIA 63W
can no longer communicate with the remaining PFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM
functions provided to the failed PFD by the on-side GIA 63W are flagged as invalid (red “X”) on the remaining
PFD (see Figure 1-12).
Figure 1-12 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
ADAHRS OPERATION
In addition to using internal sensors, the GSU 75B ADAHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and
air data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the ADAHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic
field measurements. In Heading Preset Mode, the magnetometer data is replaced by a heading value set by the
pilot. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the ADAHRS uses air data information
for attitude determination. Six ADAHRS modes of operation are available (see Table 1-1) and depend upon the
combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated
to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific ADAHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while the ADAHRS is not operating normally can degrade ADAHRS accuracy.
ADAHRS Mode
GPS Data
Available
Magnetometer
Data Available
Air Data
Available
Attitude Indicator
Condition
ADAHRS Normal
Yes
Yes
Yes
Valid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
ADAHRS no-GPS
No
Yes
Yes
Valid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
ADAHRS no-GPS/
no-Mag
No
No
Yes
Valid Pitch/Roll.
Heading will coast-on-gyros until
it becomes invalid.
ADAHRS coast-ongyros until invalid
No
No
No
Invalid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
ADAHRS no-Mag
Data
Yes
No
Yes
Valid Pitch/Roll.
Heading Invalid.
ADAHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Data
Yes
No
No
Invalid Heading.
ADAHRS coaston-gyros until
invalid
No
Yes
No
Invalid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
ADAHRS no-Air
Data
Yes
Yes
No
Valid Pitch/Roll/Heading.
Table 1-1 ADAHRS Operation
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
17
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) (optional) performs attitude, heading, and vertical
acceleration calculations for the system, using GPS, magnetometer, air data, and internal inertial sensors.
Attitude and heading information are updated on the PFD(s) while the AHRS receives appropriate combinations
of information from the external sensor inputs.
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic Field
Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field and
its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every five years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when
an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being
displayed to the pilot.
GRS 77 OPERATION
In normal mode, the GRS 77 AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field measurements (air data is not used).
If one or more of these three external inputs is unavailable or unreliable, the AHRS uses the remaining inputs
for attitude/heading determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available (Figure 1-13) and depend
upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is
communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS Normal
Mode
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
Heading Invalid
NO
YES
Air Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
Heading Invalid
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-13 AHRS Modes (GRS 77)
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS Failure
Failure of the internal AHRS inertial sensors may result in loss of attitude and heading information
(indicated by red ‘X’ flags over the corresponding flight instruments).
GPS Input Failure
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the information
provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using the other
GPS receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs
fail, the AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and magnetometer
inputs are available and reliable. Unavailable or unreliable air data or magnetometer data in addition to
GPS failure results in loss of all attitude and heading information.
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
Magnetometer Failure
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
Air Data Input Failure
Failure of the air data input has no effect on the AHRS output while AHRS is receiving valid GPS
information. A failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode
results in invalid attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
GRS 7800 OPERATION
In primary mode, the GRS 7800 AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field measurements (air data is not
used). If either GPS or magnetometer data is unavailable or unreliable, the AHRS uses the remaining inputs
for attitude/heading determination. In DG Free Mode, the magnetometer data is replaced by a heading value
set by the flight crew. Four AHRS modes of operation are available (Figure 1-14) and depend upon the
combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of GPS or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated to the
pilot by message advisory alerts. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for further discussion of DG Free
Mode.
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19
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available & Reliable?
Mag Data Available & Reliable?
YES
NO
NO
YES
Manual DG Selection?
10
10
YES
NO
AHRS
Primary Mode
AHRS
No-Magnetometer Mode
10
10
10
10
360‘
AHRS
DG Free Mode
10
10
10
10
360‘
Heading Invalid,
DG Free Mode Available
FREE
AHRS
Classical Mode
10
10
10
10
360‘
10
10
360‘
Heading Entered by Pilot
Figure 1-14 AHRS Modes (GRS 7800)
GPS Input Failure
Two GPS inputs are provided to the AHRS. If GPS information from one of the inputs fails, the AHRS
uses the remaining GPS input and an alert message is issued to inform the pilot. If both GPS inputs fail,
the AHRS can continue to provide attitude and heading information to the PFD(s) as long as magnetometer
data is available and reliable (air data will be used to aid calculations during speed changes and extended
turns).
Magnetometer Failure
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS continues to output valid attitude information; however, the
heading output on the PFD(s) is shown in yellow. The pilot can select DG Free mode to provide heading
inputs.
Air Data Input Failure
Failure of the air data input has no effect on the AHRS output.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: For a detailed description of all annunciations and alerts, refer to Appendix A. Refer to the (AFM/
POH) for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red “X” is typically displayed on windows associated with the
failed data (Figure 1-15 displays all possible flags and responsible LRUs). Upon power-up, certain windows
remain invalid as equipment begins to initialize. All windows should be operational within one minute of
power-up. If any window remains flagged, the system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
GIA 63W
Integrated
Avionics Units
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
GSU 75B ADAHRS
Or
GDC 74B/7400 AHRS
GSU75B ADAHRS
Or
GRS77/7800 AHRS
Or
GMU 44
Magnetometer
GEA 71 Engine
Airframe Unit
Or
GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics
Unit
GIA 63W
Integrated Avionics
Units
GDC 74B Air
Data Computer
190-02041-00 Rev. A
GTX 33 Transponder
Or
GIA 63W Integrated
Avionics Units
Figure 1-15 System Failure Annunciations
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
21
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey
level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to select the appropriate softkey.
There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an annunciator on the softkey
label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects among several options, indicated by
the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option.
The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also,
these softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled,
the softkey label is subdued (dimmed)
Softkey On
Softkey Names (displayed)
Bezel-Mounted Softkeys (press)
Figure 1-16 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
Another means of selecting softkeys on the MFD is by using the GCU 477 Control Unit:
Selecting a softkey using the Control Unit
1) Move the softkey selection box to the desired softkey using the arrows of the SEL Key.
2) Press the center of the SEL Key to select the desired softkey.
PFD SOFTKEYS
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions, including
GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back Softkey which can be
pressed to return to the previous level. If messages remain after acknowledgement, the Alerts Softkey is black
on white. The Alerts Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the transponder
(XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
(With TCAS II )
Or
Or
(Only available with GWX70)
Figure 1-17 PFD Map/HSI (Map Opt) Softkeys
190-02041-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
23
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
(With TCAS II )
OR
OR
(See Sensors Softkeys Figures)
Figure 1-18 PFD Opt Softkeys
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-18 Sensor Softkeys with GSU 75B (ADAHRS) or GRS 77 (Legacy AHRS)
Figure 1-18 Sensor Softkeys with GRS 7800 (AHRS)
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
25
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-19 XPDR Softkeys without TCAS II
Figure 1-19 XPDR Softkeys with TCAS II
26
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Description
Map/HSI
Or
Map Opt
Displays the PFD Map display settings softkeys.
Layout
Map Off
Inset Map
HSI Map
TFC Map
Wx LGND
Detail
Traffic
Topo
Rel Ter
NEXRAD
Displays the PFD Map selection softkeys.
Removes the PFD map from display (Inset, HSI, or Traffic)
Displays the Inset Map
Displays the HSI Map
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Displays/removes the name of the selected data link weather provider
(SiriusXM, Connext) and the weather product icon and age box (for
enabled weather products).
Selects desired amount of map detail:
All (No Declutter): All map features visible
Detail 1: Declutters land data
Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA data
Detail 3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
Displays traffic information on PFD Map.
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and
elevation scale on PFD Map
Displays relative terrain information on the PFD Map
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on PFD Map (subscription
optional)
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (subscription optional)
METAR
Adds/removes the display of SiriusXM or Connext lightning information
Lightning
(based on data link weather source selection) on the PFD Map.
Disables lightning function on PFD Map. The softkey annunciator is green
LTNG Off
when the lightning function is off.
Selects the data link weather source for the PFD Map
Datalink
Adds or removes the display of Stormscope information on the PFD Map.
STRMSCP
The softkey annunciator is green when the function is on. When the
function is off, the annunciator is gray.
When enabled, displays the airborne weather radar overlay on HSI Map
Wx Radar
(WX 70 only).
Displays softkeys for airborne weather radar options (WX 70 only).
RDR Opt
Displays softkeys for weather radar mode selection (WX 70 only).
Mode SEL
Disables weather radar mode (WX 70 only).
Off
Standby Selects Standby weather radar mode (WX 70 only).
Weather Activates Weather radar mode (WX 70 only).
Ground Activates Ground Map weather radar mode (WX 70 only).
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Description
Gain Gain +
Stab
ACT
TFC Map
PFD Opt
SVT
Pathways
Terrain
HDG LBL
APT Sign
Wind
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
Off
DME
Bearing 1
Sensors
ADC
AHRS
HDG
28
Decreases weather radar gain setting (WX 70 only).
Increases weather radar gain setting (WX 70 only).
Activates antenna stabilization feature (WX 70 only).
Activates Altitude Compensated Tilt feature (WX 70 only).
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD options.
Displays additional SVT overlay softkeys
Displays Pathway Boxes on the Synthetic Vision Display.
Enables synthetic terrain depiction.
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line.
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the
current aircraft position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport
is within approximately 9 nm.
Displays the wind option softkeys
Headwind/Tailwind and crosswind components.
Wind direction arrow and speed.
Wind direction arrow with direction and speed.
Wind information not displayed.
Displays DME Information Window
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency,
and Off.
Displays the sensor selection softkeys.
Displays ADC selection softkeys.
ADC 1 Selects the #1 ADC.
ADC 1 Selects the #2 ADC.
Displays the AHRS selection softkeys.
AHRS 1 Selects the #1 AHRS.
AHRS 2 Selects the #2 AHRS.
Displays the softkeys for selecting one of the two DG modes (GRS 7800
only).
Selects desired DG Mode: (GRS 7800 only).
DG
Slave: Slaves the DG to the AHRS.
Free: Allows the DG to enter FREE mode.
HDG - Slews heading counterclockwise (GRS 7800 only).
HDG + Slews heading clockwise (GRS 7800 only).
HDG Sync Synchronizes heading to the selected heading (GRS 7800 only).
TRK Sync Synchronizes heading to the current track (GRS 7800 only).
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Description
Bearing 2
ALT Units
Meters
IN
HPA
STD Baro
OBS
CDI
DME
Transponder Softkeys without TCAS II
Displays the transponder selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 transponder as active.
Selects the #2 transponder as active.
Selects transponder Standby Mode (transponder does not reply to any
interrogations).
XPDR
XPDR 1
XPDR 2
Standby
On
ALT
VFR
Code
0-7
Ident
BKSP
Ident
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency, and
Off.
Displays softkeys to select altitude unit parameters.
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters.
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopacals.
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are
selected)
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with
active leg). When OBS is on, the softkey annunciator is green.
Cycles through FMS, NAV1, and NAV2 navigation modes on the CDI.
Displays the DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of the
DME (optional).
Activates transponder (transponder replies to identification interrogations).
Altitude Reporting Mode (transponder replies to identification and altitude
interrogations).
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only)
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7.
Use numbers to enter code.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Removes numbers entered, one at a time.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Transponder Softkeys with TCAS II
XPDR/TFC
XPDR1
XPDR2
Mode
190-02041-00 Rev. A
Selects the #1 transponder as active
Selects the #2 transponder as active
Displays transponder mode selection softkeys
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
29
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Description
Standby
On
ALT
TA Only
TA/RA
TCAS
Relative
Absolute
ALT RNG
Above
Normal
Below
UNREST
Test
Code
0-7
Ident
BKSP
Ident
Ident
Tmr/Ref
Nearest
30
Selects transponder Standby Mode (transponder does not reply to any
interrogations). When the transponder is set to standby, the TCAS II
system is also set to standby.
Activates transponder (transponder replies to identification interrogations).
When the transponder is set to ON, the TCAS II system is set to standby.
Altitude Reporting Mode (transponder replies to identification and altitude
interrogations). When the transponder is set to ALT, the TCAS II system is
set to standby.
Activates the TCAS II system in TA Only Mode and sets the transponder to
ALT.
Activates the TCAS II system in TA/RA Mode and sets the transponder to
ALT.
Displays the TCAS control softkeys.
Displays intruder altitude as altitude relative to own aircraft altitude.
Displays intruder MSL altitude.
Displays the altitude display range softkeys.
Displays non-threat traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
Displays non-threat traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
Displays non-threat traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
All traffic is displayed.
Activates Test Mode and displays test intruder symbols.
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7.
Use numbers to enter code.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Removes numbers entered, one at a time.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Displays Timer/References Window.
Displays Nearest Airports Window.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD SOFTKEYS
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and
weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back Softkey which can be pressed to return to the previous
level.
Figure 1-20 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
190-02041-00 Rev. A
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31
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3 Description
Map Opt
Traffic
Inset
Off
VSD
TER
AWY
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
METAR
Legend
WX Radar
Detail
32
Displays traffic information on Navigation Map Page.
Displays inset window second level softkeys.
Removes VSD inset from Navigation Map Page.
Displays VSD profile information of terrain/obstacles along the current track,
vertical track vector, and selected altitude.
Auto: Automatically displays either VSD profile information for
active flight plan information or along current track with no
active flight plan.
FPL: Displays VSD profile information for active flight plan.
TRK: Displays VSD profile information along current track.
Displays terrain on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No terrain information shown on MFD Map.
Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes)
and elevation scale on MFD Map.
REL: Displays relative terrain information on the MFD Map.
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No airways are displayed.
On: All airways are displayed.
Low: Only low altitude airways are displayed.
High: Only high altitude airways are displayed.
Displays Stormscope information on Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Navigation Map Page
(optional).
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (subscription optional).
Displays legends for the displayed XM Weather products (optional).
Displays XM weather radar information on Navigation Map Page (optional).
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through the following levels:
Detail All: All map features visible.
Detail-1: Declutters land data.
Detail-2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Detail-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series
190-02041-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Charts
190-02041-00 Rev. A
Level 2
Level 3 Description
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts.
Displays chart display settings softkeys.
CHRT Opt
Displays the entire chart on the screen.
All
Header Displays the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
Displays the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
Plan
Profile Displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
Minimums Displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
Fit WDTH Changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Full SCN Removes data window to display chart on screen.
Displays the WPT–Airport Information page.
Show Map
Displays airport information:
Info
Info 1:
Info 2:
Displays departure procedure chart.
DP
Displays standard terminal arrival procedure chart.
STAR
Displays approach procedure chart.
APR
WX
Displays NOTAM information for selected airport, when available.
NOTAM
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the AUX - GPS Status Page.
GPS1 provides information to the pilot-side PFD and GPS2 provides data to the copilot-side PFD. Internal
system checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFDs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing a better
GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better solution is automatically
coupled to both PFDs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” is displayed in the Reversionary Sensor
Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning
properly, but one receiver is performing better than the other at that particular time.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Viewing GPS receiver status information
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.7 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select GPS Status Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - GPS Status Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection
Softkeys
RAIM Softkey
Selected
SBAS Softkey
Selected
Figure 1-21 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
The GPS Status Page provides the following information:
• Satellite constellation diagram
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
• Satellite signal information status
The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution
of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a
circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying.
EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual error measurement.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
• GPS receiver status
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active GPS
receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is in the
process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data (collected
continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be in view.
‘Acquiring’ is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired for computing
a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates ‘Inactive’. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS
indicates ‘Active’.
• RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) Prediction (RAIM Softkey is selected)
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended
approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key.
Refer to Section 1.7 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the system.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is
populated only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or User waypoints, if
required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system automatically fills in the
identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is selected)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable EGNOS, WAAS or MSAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the
SBAS field in the GPS Status box indicates Disabled. There may be a small delay for the GPS Status box to be
updated upon WAAS and MSAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling SBAS
1) Select the GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
• GPS Satellite Signal Strengths
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS) below
each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Light blue bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.7 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
MENUS
The system has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently
displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional
submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘No Options’ when there are
no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group
operations are described in section 1.3. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
Navigating the Page Menu Window
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on PFD
Options with
FPL Window
Displayed on MFD
Figure 1-22 Page Menu Examples
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The page group and active
page title are displayed in the upper center of the screen, below the Navigation Status Box. In the bottom right
corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are
displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs. The
current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan. For some of these pages (Airport/
Procedures/Weather Information, XM, Procedure Loading), the active title of the page changes while the page
name in the list remains the same.
Page Group Active Page Title
MFD
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-23 Page Title and Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
There are also several pages (Airport/Procedures/Weather Information and XM pages) selected first from
within a main page group with the FMS Knob, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page (or
from the page menu). In this case, the page remains set to the selected page until a different page softkey is
selected, even if a different page group is selected.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MAP PAGE GROUP (MAP)
• Navigation Map
• IFR/VFR Chart pages
- VFR chart
(VFR Softkey)
- Low IFR chart
(IFR Low Softkey)
- High IFR chart
(IFR High Softkey)
• Traffic Map
• Weather Radar
• Stormscope®(optional)
• Weather Data Link (service optional)
• TAWS
WAYPOINT PAGE GROUP (WPT)
• Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
- Airport Information
(Info-1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information
(Info-2 Softkey)
- Departure Information
(DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information
(STAR Softkey)
- Approach Information
(APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional)
(WX Softkey)
• Intersection Information
• NDB Information
• VOR Information
• VRP Information
• User Waypoint Information
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AUXILIARY PAGE GROUP (AUX)
• Weight Planning
• Trip Planning
• Utility
• GPS Status
• System Setup 1/2
• XM Radio Pages
- XM Information
(Info Softkey)
- XM Radio
(Radio Softkey)
• Satellite Phone pages
- Telephone
(Phone Softkey)
- Text Messaging
(SMS Softkey)
• Maintenance WiFi Setup
• System Status
• ADS-B Status
• Connext Setup
• Databases
FLIGHT PLAN PAGE GROUP (FPL)
• Active Flight Plan
- Wide View, Narrow View (View Softkey)
• Flight Plan Catalog
- Stored Flight Plan (via New Softkey)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NEAREST PAGE GROUP (NRST)
• Nearest Airports
• Nearest Intersections
• Nearest NDB
• Nearest VOR
• Nearest VRP
• Nearest User WPTS
• Nearest Frequencies
• Nearest Airspaces
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages
• Departure Loading
• Arrival Loading
• Approach Loading
Figure 1-12 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD SYSTEM PAGES
In the Auxiliary (AUX) Page Group, there are three system pages: System Setup 1, System Setup 2, and System
Status. The System Setup pages allows management of various system parameters, while the System Status Page
displays the status of all system LRUs.
SYSTEM SETUP PAGES
The System Setup pages allows management of the crew profiles. Also, fields shown in cyan text may be
edited for following system parameters:
• Time display format (local or UTC )
• Displayed measurement units
• GPS Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) range
(see the Flight Instruments Section)
• Barometric Transition Alert (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• COM transceiver channel spacing (see the Audio Panel and CNS Section)
• Airspace alerts (see the Flight Management Section)
• Displayed nearest airports (see the Flight Management Section)
• CDI / Baro Synchronization
• Arrival alert
(see the Flight Instruments Section)
• Flight Director Format (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• MFD Data Bar (Navigation Status Box) fields
(see the Flight Management Section)
• Stability & Protection (see the AFCS & Additional Features Sections)
• Page Navigation
• Audio Voice Format
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Select the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
The message ‘Restore Setup X Page Defaults?’ is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-30 System Setup Page
Date/Time
The system obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the AUX - GPS Status Page). System time (displayed in the lower right corner of
the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is set by adding/
subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
Figure 1-31 System Time (Local 24-hr Format)
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. If local time
format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ field is highlighted.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection.
Figure 1-32 Date/Time Settings (System Setup Page)
Crew Profiles
System settings may be saved under a crew profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected
crew profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Splash Screen (Figure 1-8). The system can store up to 25
profiles; the currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are
shown at the top of the System Setup Page in the box labeled ‘Crew Profile’. From here, crew profiles may
be created, selected, renamed, or deleted. Crew profiles may also be exported from the system to an SD
card, or imported from an SD card into the system.
Figure 1-33 Crew Profile Management (System Setup Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Creating a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Create’ in the Crew Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Crew profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or other previously created profile settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Create’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Create & Activate’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘Cancel’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Selecting an active profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the Crew Profile Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the crew profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The system loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
Renaming a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Rename’ in the Crew Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Rename’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a profile:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete’ in the Crew Profile Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘Delete’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the crew profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
3) Select the Import Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) The system displays the Crew Profile Importing window with ‘Import’ highlighted. Turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight the ‘Profile Name’ field, then scroll to the desired profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs,
then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘Import’ highlighted.
5) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system displays an ‘Overwrite
existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace profile on the system with the profile
imported from the SD card, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
Crew Profile Importing window.
6) If successful, the system displays ‘Crew profile import succeeded.’ in the window below. With ‘OK’ highlighted,
press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup Page. The imported
profile becomes the active profile.
Crew Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Crew Profiles Available for Import
from SD Card
Import Successful
Figure 1-34 Pilot Profile Import (AUX - System Setup Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Crew Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page.
3) Select the Export Softkey. The system displays the Crew Profile Exporting window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) To export the crew profile using the current selected profile, press the ENT Key with ‘Export’ highlighted. To
change the selected profile, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Profile Name’ field, then scroll to the
desired profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with
‘Export’ highlighted.
5) If the selected profile to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the SD card, the system
displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on
the SD card with the profile to be exported, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key
to return to the Pilot Profile Exporting window without exporting the profile.
6) If successful, the window displays ‘Crew profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR
Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the AUX - System Setup Page.
Crew Profile Exporting Window, Enter
a Name to Use for Exported Profile
Export Successful
Figure 1-35 Pilot Profile Export on the AUX - System Setup Page
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Display Units
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system screens are listed on the System Setup Page.
The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set from here.
Category
Navigation Angle
Settings
Affected Quantities
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Distance and Speed** Metric
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Nautical*
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Status Box)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
Altitude and Vertical Feet
All altitudes on MFD
Speed***
All elevations on MFD
Temperature
Fuel and Fuel
Flow***
Weight**
Position
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
Pounds
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
Fuel parameters (Trip Planning Page)
Pounds*
N/A
Kilograms
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
MGRS 1m
MGRS 10m
UTM/UPS
Exceptions
Airspeed Indicator
True Airspeed (PFD)
Wind speed vector
Map range (Traffic Page, Terrain
Proximity/TAWS Page)
CDI scaling (System Setup)
Fuel range calculation (EIS)
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
*** Not configurable
Table 1-2 Display Units Settings (System Setup Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Changing a display unit setting
1) While on the System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Display Units Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
Arrival Alerts
The Arrival Alert Box on the System Setup Page allows the Alerts Window arrival alerts to be turned
‘On/Off’ and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the Alerts Window and the PFD
Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching a
user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight
plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘On’, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message
is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is
displayed in the Alerts Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘Off’, only the PFD Navigation Status Box
message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is
approximately ten seconds.
Figure 1-36 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Enabling/disabling the Alerts Window arrival alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
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Audio Alerts
The Audio Box on the System Setup 2 Page allows the audio alert voice to be set to male or female.
Changing the audio alert voice
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 2 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice in the Audio Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and highlight the desired voice and press the ENT Key.
Surfacewatch
The optional SurfaceWatch™ feature alerts to the flight crew in certain potentially unsafe conditions
during taxi, takeoff, and landing. SurfaceWatch also displays an Information Box on the PFD. The flight
crew can inhibit the SurfaceWatch alerts and displays using the Avionics Settings Screen. Refer to the
Additional Features section for more information on the SurfaceWatch feature.
Enabling/disabling SufaceWatch:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ field in the SurfaceWatch Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the SurfaceWatch alerts On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
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SYSTEM STATUS PAGE
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system LRUs.
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green check
marks and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin
dealer informed.
Figure 1-37 Example System Status Page
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (LRU Information
or Airframe window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
Selecting the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected) places
the cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Selecting the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Selecting the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2
DB. PFD 2 database information is now displayed in the database window.
The ANN Test Softkey, when selected, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
The RA Test Softkey, when selected, initiates the Radar Altimeter test mode. For more information, see the
Flight Instruments section.
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UTILITY PAGE
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the AUX Utility Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a
record of the time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum
groundspeeds—are displayed from the time of the last reset. Refer to the Additional Features section for a
discussion on the Scheduler feature.
Figure 1-38 Utility Page
Timers
The system timers available include:
• Stopwatch-like generic timers (available from the PFD References Window and on the MFD AUX - Utility
Page)
• Total-time-in-flight timer (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
• Time since departure (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the
countdown on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before
reaching zero on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when
reset, the digits return to zero.
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Setting the generic timer (PFD):
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (HH:MM:SS).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
4) With the ‘Up/Dn’ field highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and
press the ENT Key.
5) With ‘Start?’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
8) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Figure 1-39 Generic Timer (PFD Timer/References Window)
Setting the generic timer (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
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Figure 1-40 Timers (MFD AUX - Utility Page)
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled
from the System Setup Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
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Trip Statistics
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are reset
to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
Scheduler
The system’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”,
“Switch fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”) in the Alerts Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based
on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or
recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting
automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled,
messages are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Figure 1-41 Scheduler (Utility Page)
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the AUX - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
Scheduler messages appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD and cause the Alerts Softkey label to change
to ‘Advisory’. Pressing the Advisory Softkey opens the Alerts Window and acknowledges the scheduler
message. The softkey reverts to the ‘Alerts’ label and when pressed, the Alerts Window is removed from the
display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 1-42 PFD Alerts Window
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1.8 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
• Using the PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from the PFDs. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from any remaining displays.
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
If desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to ‘MFD Display’ or ‘PFD2 Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD1 Display’, ‘MFD Display’, or ‘PFD2 DSPL’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 Key’, ‘MFD Key’, or ‘PFD2 Key’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Figure 1-43 PFD Setup Menu
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on selected flight
instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts, as they appear on the display
during certain AFCS modes.
Increased situational awareness is provided by replacing the traditional instruments on the panel with easyto-scan pilot and copilot Primary Flight Displays (PFD) that features a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, altitude,
vertical speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication,
terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the PFD and explained in other sections of this
Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFDs:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– True Airspeed
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Ground Speed
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Mach number
– DME Information Window (optional)
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
– Reference flags
• DME Tuning Window
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
• Altimeter, showing
– Barometric setting
• International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
temperature deviation
– Selected Altitude
• System time
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and
Glidepath Indicators
• Wind data
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Radar altimeter (optional)
• Vertical Navigation indications
The PFDs also display various alerts and annunciations.
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23
22
21
20
19
1
18
17
2
16
15
3
14
4
5
13
6
12
7
11
8
10
9
1
NAV Frequency Box
13
Turn Rate Indicator
2
Airspeed Indicator
14
Altimeter Barometric Setting
3
Ground Speed
15
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
True Airspeed
16
Selected Altitude Bug
5
Current Heading
17
Altimeter
6
Selected Heading Bug
18
Selected Altitude
7
19
COM Frequency Box
8
International Standard Atmosphere
(ISA) temperature deviation
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
20
AFCS Status Box
9
Softkeys
21
Navigation Status Box
10
System Time
22
Slip/Skid Indicator
11
Transponder Data Box
23
Attitude Indicator
12
Horizontal Situation Indicator ( HSI)
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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15
14
1
13
12
11
2
10
3
9
8
4
6
5
7
1
Traffic Annunciation
9
Annunciation Window
2
Selected Heading
10
Selected Course
3
Wind Data
11
Radar Altimeter (optional)
4
Inset Map
12
Current Vertical Speed
5
DME Information Window (optional)
13
Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)
6
Bearing Information Windows
14
AFCS Status Annunciation
7
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height
Flight Plan Window
15
Terrain Annunciation
16
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
8
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
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2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for
speed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed (TAS)
is displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. When displayed, the Mach number appears above the
Airspeed Indicator. The ground speed is displayed to the left of the TAS. The numeric labels and major tick
marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots, while minor tick marks on the moving tape are
indicated at intervals of 5 knots. Speed indication starts at 40 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed viewable at any
time. The actual airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until reaching the
high airspeed limit, at which point it turns red.
The Mach number appears above the Airspeed Indicator. During climb, the pilot must select the Airspeed
Reference (IAS or Mach), automatic switching does not occur. For descent, if Mach airspeed reference is
selected (above 16,000 ft), the aircraft descends in Mach until the Mach airspeed reference reaches 250 KIAS, at
which point the airspeed reference automatically switches to IAS at that airspeed value. Refer to AFCS Section
for more information on Airspeed Reference.
Mach Number
VYSE
Blue Line
Actual
Airspeed
Vspeed
References
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
VMCA
Red Line
True
Airspeed
Ground
Speed
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
Figure 2-4 Overspeed/Minimum Speed Indications
Speeds above the maximum operating speed, VMO or MMO depending on aircraft altitude, appear in the high
speed warning range, represented on the airspeed tape by red/white “barber pole” coloration.
A red low speed awareness range extends up to the low speed awareness velocity, VLSA. An aural stall warning
is generated as the aircraft approaches a stall condition.
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The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VMO/
MMO, the text of the actual airspeed readout changes to amber while the pointer remains black. The trend
vector is absent if the speed remains constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to
a system failure.
Landing Takeoff
Vspeeds can be changed and their flags turned on/off from the Timer/References Window. When active (on),
the Vspeeds are displayed at their respective locations to the right of the airspeed scale. All Vspeed values are
reset and all Vspeed flags are turned off during power up.
Vspeed
Flag
VR
R
V2
2
VREF
RF
Table 2-1 Vspeed Flag Labels
Vspeeds are categorized as either takeoff or landing. The order in which the categories are displayed is
determined by whether the aircraft is on the ground or in the air. If the aircraft is on the ground, the takeoff
Vspeeds are displayed at the top of the Vspeed list. If the aircraft is in the air, the landing Vspeeds are displayed
at the top.
The maximum speed with approach flaps is displayed as a solid white triangle to the right of the airspeed
scale. This indication is always displayed and cannot be turned off by the pilot.
Maximum
Approach
Flaps Speed
Figure 2-5 Maximum Flaps Extended Speed Reference
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Changing Vspeeds and turning Vspeed flags on/off:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired Vspeed.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to change the Vspeed in 1-kt increments (when a speed has been changed from a
default value, an asterisk appears next to the speed).
4) Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘ON/OFF’ field
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Figure 2-6 Takeoff and Landing Vspeeds
(Timer/References Window)
Vspeed flags can be turned on or off and values restored all at once or by category (takeoff and landing).
Modifying Vspeeds (on, off, restore defaults):
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired selection.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Figure 2-7 Page Menu
(Timer/References Window)
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ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
1
2
8
7
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-8 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚. When the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) is activated, the pitch scale is reduced to 10˚ up
and 7.5˚ down; refer to the Additional Features section for more information about SVT.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
Figure 2-9 Slip/Skid Indication
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
When the optional Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™) system is available, the Pitch
Limit Indicator will appear on the Attitude Indicator at the corresponding pitch attitude, if the angle of attack
is within six degrees of a stall condition. The Pitch Limit Indicator is subsequently removed when the angle of
attack is seven degrees or greater from a stall condition. The indicator appearance is based on the selected flight
director Command Bar/aircraft symbol format. Refer to the Additional Features and AFCS Sections for more
information about ESP.
Single Cue Pitch Limit Indicator
Dual Cue Pitch Limit Indicator
Figure 2-10 Pitch Limit Indicator
NOTE: The Pitch Limit Indicator will continue to be displayed if the autopilot envelope protection fails.
The amber symbolic aircraft on the Attitude Indicator changes appearance based on selection of AFCS Flight
Director Command Bar format (see the AFCS Section for details). Both PFDs show the same Command Bar
format and Aircraft Symbol. The Command Bar format (single-cue or cross-pointer) may be selected from the
AUX - System Setup 1 Page (Figure 2-11). If a compatible lift computer is installed, the cross-pointer option
will be unavailable.
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Changing Command Bar format:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Active’ in the ‘Flight Director’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
’Single Cue’ to display Command Bars as a single cue (Figure 2-11).
Or:
’X Pointer’ to display Command Bars as a cross-pointer (Figure 2-11).
Cross-pointer
Single-cue
Figure 2-11 Flight Director Format
(AUX - System Setup 1 Page)
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ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge.
Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box between the Selected and Indicated Altitudes (Figure 2-12). See the AFCS Section for more
information about Selected Altitude.
The Altitude Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the left of the altitude range strip when
the aircraft is either climbing or descending. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the tip of the altitude
pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down according to the rate of vertical speed. For any
constant rate of vertical speed, the moving end of the line shows approximately what the indicated altitude
value will be in six seconds. The trend vector is absent if the altitude remains constant or if data needed for
calculation is not available due to a system failure.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
Turn the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments.
If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available for the Selected Altitude.
When the altimeter is configured for metric units, the selected altitude is adjusted in 50 meter increments.
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
(Meters)
Indicated
Altitude
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting
Figure 2-12 Altimeter
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
Displaying altitude in meters:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the Meters Softkey to turn on metric altitude readouts.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
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The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNAV vertical deviation, moving
the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the
descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNAV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not
re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
NOTE: Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNAV vertical deviation, moving
the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the
descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNAV Target Altitude, the aircraft may
not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure:
Press the BARO Knob to select standard pressure; STD BARO is displayed in barometric setting box.
Or:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD Baro Softkey; STD BARO is displayed in barometric setting box.
Figure 2-13 Standard Barometric Altimeter Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or, press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa; see Figure 2-13).
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between PFD’s by more than 0.02 Hg, the readouts turn amber
(Figure 2-14). The settings can be synchronized from the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD. Once the
settings are synchronized, the readouts will turn from amber to cyan.
Barometric Settings
not Synchronized on PFDs
Displayed in Amber
Figure 2-14 Barometric Setting on PFDs not Synchronized
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘BARO’ in the ‘Synchronization’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
7) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
BAROMETRIC TRANSITION ALTITUDE ALERT
A Baro Transition Alert is provided to alert the pilot to change the barometric pressure setting when crossing
the transition altitude in either direction. This is displayed by the flashing cyan barometric pressure setting
when crossing the transition altitude.
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Altitude’ in the ‘Baro Transition Alert’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to turn the alert OFF or ON and press the ENT Key.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude and press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
Figure 2-15 Baro Transition Alert
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance when
SBAS is available.
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape labeled at 2000
and 4000 fpm with minor tick marks every 1000 fpm. The current vertical speed is displayed in the pointer
along the tape. Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate
of ascent/descent exceeds 4000 fpm, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape and the rate
appears inside the pointer.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a VNV
Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more
information about VNV indications on the PFD.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI; Figure 2-16) uses a magenta chevron to indicate the baro-VNV vertical
deviation when Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used; the VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within
1 minute” alert. Full-scale deflection (two dots) is 1000 feet. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical
deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features, and refer
to Section 2.3, Supplemental Flight Data, for more information about VNV indications on the PFD.
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-17) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned
in the active NAV field and the aircraft heading and selected course are within 107˚. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Vertical
Speed
Pointer
Figure 2-16 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 2-17 Glideslope Indicator
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the
active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC clearance, the aircraft may be
centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath Indicator appears.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for RNAV approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LPV, LP+V). When one of these RNAV approaches is loaded into the flight
plan, GPS is the selected navigation source, and SBAS is used for vertical approach guidance, the Glidepath
Indicator appears as a magenta diamond (Figure 2-18). Full-scale deflection (two dots), is angular with upper
and lower limits. The upper limit is +/-492 feet (150 meters) and lower limits depend on approach service level.
•
LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, and LP+V, is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
•
LPV is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
If the approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
diamond.
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach, and between the FAF and MAP, the Vertical Deviation Limit
Indicators appear as vertical white lines (Figure 2-18) indicating the area where deviation exceeds allowable
limits for the glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator provides a scaled representation of +/- 75 feet
of the calculated glidepath. The “window” between the lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The
length of the lines will change while progressing through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator
enters an excessive deviation area, the Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators are amber (Figure
2-19).
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach and SBAS is unavailable, baro-VNAV (barometric vertical
navigation) is used for vertical guidance. This occurs due to any of the following conditions:
•
SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
•
The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
•
SBAS is manually disabled on the GPS Status page
Baro-VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV procedure does not support
SBAS vertical guidance.
While baro-VNAV is being utilized, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta pentagon (Figure 2-19). If
the approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the pentagon.
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 2-18 Glidepath Indicator
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Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
(excessive
deviation)
Figure 2-19 Glidepath Indicator (Baro-VNAV)
and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points and numeric labels occur every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor
tick marks at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and the current
ground track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond indicator. The HSI also presents turn rate, course
deviation, bearing, and navigation source information.
The 360˚ HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a
sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC1) or a double
line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From arrow rotates with
the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
1
15
14
2
13
3
4
12
5
11
6
10
9
7
8
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
To/From Indicator
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Course Pointer
3
Lateral Deviation Scale
11
Heading Bug
4
Navigation Source
12
Flight Phase/Approach Service Level
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Lubber Line
6
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
14
Turn Rate/Heading Trend Vector
7
Rotating Compass Rose
15
Current Heading
8
OBS Mode Active
Figure 2-20 Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
NOTE: When OBS mode is active to a VOR waypoint, the course pointer and current track indicator are
relative to the published magnetic variation of the VOR which can be outdated with respect to the current
magnetic variation. Consequently, in OBS mode a slight offset may exist between indicated heading and
selected course and track indicator even when there is no crosswind.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The Selected Heading is shown to the upper left of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted The cyan bug
on the compass rose corresponds to the Selected Heading.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
NOTE: System navigation utilities may not reliably calculate range and bearing information when the
aircraft is operating north of 80° North latitude or south of 80° South latitude. This may result in the system
displaying small gaps in racetrack holding pattern depictions (GRS 7800 installations only).
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station (see OBS Mode for adjusting a GPS course).
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected Heading
Selected Course
Selected Heading Bug
Figure 2-21 Heading and Course Indications
The Current Track Indicator, represented by a magenta diamond on the HSI, is the current over the ground
track the aircraft is flying.
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (‘Mag
Var’) or referenced to true north (denoted ‘T’), set on the AUX - System Setup 1 Page. When an approach
referenced to true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change the
navigation angle setting to ‘True’ at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-22 Heading and Course Indications (True)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Changing the navigation angle setting:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Nav Angle’ in the ‘Display Units’ box (Figure 2-23).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• TRUE - References angles to true north (denoted with ‘T’)
• MAGNETIC - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (‘Mag Var’)
Figure 2-23 System Setup Page, Navigation Angle Settings
DIRECTIONAL GYRO (DG) MODE (GRS 7800 INSTALLATIONS ONLY)
DG Mode allows the pilot to manually input a heading value. While DG Mode is not active, a amber heading
value annunciation indicates that reliable magnetic variation data is unavailable.
Selecting DG Mode:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Sensors Softkey.
3) Press the HDG Softkey.
4) Press the DG Slave Softkey to activate DG mode. Press the DG Free Softkey to deactivate DG mode.
5) Press the Back Softkey three times to return to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 2-24 DG Mode Softkeys
Figure 2-25 DG Mode
NOTE: When operating the system with the magnetic sensor uncoupled from the AHRS, the displayed
heading and heading information used by some system components (e.g. traffic system, AFCS, and weather
radar) will be different from the heading calculated by the AHRS. The difference is an amount equal to the
difference between the current Magnetic Field Variation Database (MV DB) value, and the MV DB value
when the magnetic sensor was uncoupled. Due to the convergence of isogonic lines, this condition is most
noticeable at or near the north and south magnetic poles.
Once active, ‘FREE’ is annunciated to the left of the heading value on the HSI. While in DG Mode and reliable
magnetic variation data is not available, the heading value is cyan. While in DG Mode and reliable magnetic
variation data is available, the heading value is amber. The HDG-, HDG+, HDG SYNC, and TRACK SYNC keys
are enabled, and can be operated as follows:
• Pressing the HDG- or HDG+ softkey to slew the heading up or down.
• Pressing the HDG SYNC Bug softkey to synchronize the heading to the current selected heading
• Pressing the TRACK SYNC softkey to synchronize the heading to the current track
NOTE: HDG SYNC does not apply magnetic variation correction to true GPS tracks.
TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6 seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than
4 deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Half Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
Standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-26 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and GPS sources.
The pointers are cyan and are single- (BRG1) or double-lined (BRG2); an icon is shown in the respective
information window to indicate the pointer type. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are
visually separated from the CDI by a white ring (shown when bearing pointers are selected but not necessarily
visible due to data unavailability).
Bearing 1
Pointer
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Bearing 2
Pointer
Distance
DME Information Window
(optional)
Distance to
Bearing Source
Bearing Pointer
Icon
Source
Bearing 2
Information
Window
Bearing 1 Information Window
Figure 2-27 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
When a bearing pointer is displayed, its associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows (Figure 2-27) are displayed to the lower sides of the HSI and show:
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS, ADF)
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• Frequency (NAV)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
If the NAV radio is the bearing source and is tuned to an ILS frequency (refer to the Audio Panel and CNS
Section for information on tuning the radios), the bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and the frequency
is replaced with “ILS”. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the
station identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier
is displayed in lieu of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and “NO DATA” is displayed in the information window if:
• The NAV radio is not receiving the tuned VOR
station
80
• GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint
is not selected
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window
with a NAV source.
3) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
4) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey a third time to change the bearing source to ADF (note: ADF radio
installation is optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
NOTE: DME radio installation is optional.
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “–.– – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1 Information Window.
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
Flight
Phase
Navigation
Source
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
CDI
Figure 2-28 Course Deviation Indicator
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The CDI can display two sources of navigation: GPS or NAV (VOR, localizer). Color indicates the current
navigation source: magenta (for GPS) or green (for VOR and LOC); the Selected Course readout also follows
these color indications. When coupled to GPS, the full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPS-derived
distance. When coupled to a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI has the same angular limits as a mechanical CDI.
If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots) while coupled to GPS, the crosstrack error
(XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol.
Figure 2-29 Navigation Sources
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
LOC1
Selected
GPS
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-30 Selecting a Navigation Source
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation turns
amber on both displays (unless synchronized). Once the CDIs are synchronized (CDI SYNC turned on), they
remain synchronized until the setting is turned off.
Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘CDI Sync’ in the Synchronization box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ON or counterclockwise to OFF.
Figure 2-31 System Setup Page, CDI Synchronization
The system automatically switches from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating
a Vector-to-Final (VTF; see the Flight Management Section) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation
source; GPS steering guidance is not provided after this switch.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to
the FAF (see Figure 2-32), it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from GPS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
Figure 2-32 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
GPS CDI SCALING
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the AUX - System Setup 1 Page and the
full-scale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page (Figure
2-33). If the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is
scaled accordingly and the selected setting is be displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Selected’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
7) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Figure 2-33 System Setup Page, GPS CDI Settings
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Terminal
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
When set to ‘Auto’ (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-34, 2-35, 2-36, Table 2-2).
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-34 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is active, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not CA or FA
• At 30 nm from the departure airport the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport)
or the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm; except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (see Figures 2-35 and 2-36). This transition
normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling
automatically once the approach procedure is activated or if Vector-to-Final (VTF) is selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
FAF
Figure 2-35 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach CDI Scaling
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
2 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
angle set
by system
350 ft
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-36 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LP, and LPV Approach CDI Scaling
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal scaling under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not CA or FA
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Annunciation
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
Approach
(Non-precision with
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LP)
Approach
(LP+V)
Approach
(LPV)
Missed Approach
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (see Figure 2-35)
LNAV + V
L/VNAV
LP
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (see Figure 2-36)
LPV
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to amber.
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to” waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected (see Figure 2-37).
GPS
Selected
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-37 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
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While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving map.
If desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line.
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in Figure 2-38. Pressing the SUSP Softkey deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-38 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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2.2 GARMIN SVT (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
NOTE: Do not use the flight path marker as a flight director.
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is a visual enhancement to the system. SVT depicts a forwardlooking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The vertical field of view is 48
degrees. The horizontal field of view is 71 degrees in full screen and 50 degrees in split mode. SVT information
is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The
depicted imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arcsecond database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of 4.9 arc-seconds,
meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds on each side, is
required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal,
will cause SVT to be disabled (although the softkeys will still appear functional) until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
TAWS is integrated within SVT to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and
obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and amber shading on
the PFD.
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If SVT is enabled when
switching to Reversionary Mode, it will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD
display will be shown in the interim.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
• Flight Path Marker
• Terrain Alerting
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Obstacle Alerting
• Airport Signs
• Pathways
• Runway Display
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Figure 2-39 Synthetic Vision Imagery
NOTE: The terrain feature is not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation information provided
by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The softkeys
are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, APT Sign. The Back Softkey returns to the previous level of
softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated. A green annunciator
on the softkey label indicates the feature is activated.
The APT Sign softkey is only available when the Terrain Softkey is activated (softkey annunciator is green).
When the Terrain Softkey is activated the Flight Path Marker is automatically displayed on the PFD.
• Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HDG LBL Softkey enables the display of heading marks and digits on the zero pitch line.
• Airport Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
The crew profile defines the state (on or off) of these features.
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with each press of the Terrain Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
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Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathways display will cycle on or off with each press of the Pathways Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The Horizon Heading display will cycle on or off with each press of the HDG LBL
Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of Airport Signs will cycle on or off with each press of the APT Sign
Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
SVT FEATURES
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Synthetic
Terrain
SVT
Softkeys
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FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always displayed when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 2-41 Flight Path Marker Position is Affected by Wind
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows the compass heading in 30‑degree increments
on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing on the zero pitch line are not visible
behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used for general heading awareness, and is
activated and deactivated by pressing the HDG LBL Softkey.
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TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a
partial symbol.
NOTE: In situations where a TA is occurring in close proximity to the aircraft, such as while taxiing, a large
amber TA symbol may appear on the SVT display.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not appear on the SVT display.
Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed on the navigation maps and the
Traffic Map Pane. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For
more details, refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display.
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 2-42 Airport Signs
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RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Other
Runway on
Airport
Runway
Figure 2-43 Airport Runways
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TAWS ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts. In addition to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning alert,
terrain alerting will also indicate potential impact points. A potential impact point is depicted as a red or
yellow X symbol on the PFD Inset Map (as shown in Figure 2-44), MFD Navigation Map page, and MFD
Terrain Page. For more detailed information regarding Terrain Alerting, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVS field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
Terrain
Annunciation
Terrain
Caution
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 2-44 Terrain Alert
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Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols
found on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. To depict obstacles from the pilot’s perspective, the
synthetic terrain display determines the size of each obstacle symbol using the obstacle’s relative height above
terrain and distance from the aircraft. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not
shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
During a terrain obstacle alert, the obstacle symbol on the synthetic terrain display is yellow (for an obstacle
caution) or red (for an obstacle warning).
PULL UP
Annunciation
Obstacle
Warning
Obstacle
Caution
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 2-45 Obstacle Alert
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2.3 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
The Outside Air Temperature display (OAT), which is adjusted for compressibility effects, and the deviation
from International Standard Atmosphere Temperature display (ISA) are shown in degrees Celsius (°C) by default
in the lower left of the PFD under normal display conditions and in reversionary mode.
Normal Display
Reversionary Mode
Figure 2-46 Outside Air Temperature
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Changing temperature display units:
1) Select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the TEMP field in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Celsius or Fahrenheit’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the
selection.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Figure 2-47 Temperature Selection Setting
(AUX - System Setup Page)
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WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed in a window to the upper left of the HSI. When the
window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window shows “NO WIND
DATA”. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways:
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-48 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data below the Selected Heading.
3) Press one of the Option softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• Option 1: Wind direction arrow and speed
• Option 2: Wind direction arrow with true digital direction and speed
• Option 3: Wind direction arrows with headwind, tailwind, and crosswind speed components
4) To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD
according to the criteria listed in Table 2-3.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Phase of
Flight
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 2-49 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
VNV Indication Removed
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey selected on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint cannot be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
X
Last altitude-constrained waypoint in active flight plan reached
X
X
(30 sec before)
Criteria
Table 2-3 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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2.4 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
ALERTING SYSTEM
Messages appear in the Alerts Window (in the lower right corner of the PFD; Figure 2-50) when a warning,
caution, advisory alert, or a system alert message advisory occurs. System alert messages are provided for
awareness of the system problems or status and may not require pilot action. The Alerts Window allows system
alerts to be displayed simultaneously. The FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the alert messages. The
Alerts Window is enabled/disabled by selecting the Alerts Softkey. If the window is already open when a new
message is generated, selecting the Alerts Softkey to acknowledge the message causes it to turn gray.
The Annunciation Window appears to the right of the Vertical Speed Indicator and displays abbreviated
annunciation text for aircraft alerts. Text color is based on alert level: warnings appear in red, cautions in amber,
advisory alerts in white. New alerts, regardless of priority, are displayed at the top of the Annunciation Window,
separated by a white line from acknowledged alerts. Once acknowledged, they are sequenced based on priority.
Reversionary
Sensor
Alerts
Annunciation
Window
Alerts
Window
Figure 2-50 Alerting System
Softkey
Annunciation
The Advisory Softkey provides general information to the pilot that may not need immediate attention. A
flashing Advisory Softkey annunciation (no aural tone) indicates the presence of a message advisory. The
flashing Advisory Softkey annunciation continues to flash until acknowledged (by pressing the Advisory
Softkey).
Figure 2-51 Softkey Annunciation
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Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated on the upper left center of the PFD. These annunciations
reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the PFD Opt Softkey accesses the Sensors
Softkey. Pressing the Sensors Softkey accesses the ADC and AHRS softkeys These softkeys allow switching of
the sensors being viewed on each PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the system may make some sensor
selections automatically. The GPS sensor cannot be switched manually.
Figure 2-52 Reversionary Sensor Annunciation
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in cyan, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-53 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ALTITUDE ALERTING
The Altitude Alerting function provides the pilot with visual and aural alerts when approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The Altitude Alerter is
independent of the Garmin AFCS, but aural and visual alerts are generated only when the Garmin AFCS is
installed. The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter)
changes to black text on a cyan background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 ft of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to cyan text on
a black background and flashes for 5 seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude), the Selected Altitude changes to amber text on a black background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an
aural tone is generated.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-54 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when an SBAS signal (such as WAAS, EGNOS, or
MSAS) is available and the pilot has inhibited TAWS alerts.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation appears to the left of the Altimeter, flashing for
several seconds then remaining displayed until the condition is resolved.
TAWS Inhibited
Annunciation
Glidepath
Indicator
Low Altitude
Annunciation
Figure 2-55 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a barometric, radar altimeter, or temperature compensated Minimum Descent Altitude
(MDA) or Decision Height (DH) can be set in the Timer/References Window and is reset when the power is
cycled. When active, the altitude setting is displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter. Once the altitude
is within the range of the tape, a bug appears at the reference altitude on the Altimeter. The following visual
annunciations occur when approaching the MDA/DH:
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, the BARO MIN, RA MIN, or
COMP MIN box appears with the altitude in cyan (or magenta for COMP MIN) text. The bug appears on the
altitude tape in cyan (or magenta for COMP MIN) once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn white.
• Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text turn amber and the aural alert, “Minimums. Minimums”,
is heard.
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Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-56 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the MDA.
If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA, once it reaches 50 feet above the MDA, alerting
is disabled.
The MDA/DH may be set from either PFD and is synchronized on both PFDs. The function is reset when the
power is cycled or a new approach is activated.
Setting the barometric Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select BARO, TEMP COMP, or RAD ALT. OFF is selected by default. Press the ENT
Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet when ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’
is selected, or up to 2,500 feet when ‘RAD ALT’ is selected).
5) If TEMP COMP was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field and then
enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Figure 2-57 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
NOTE: For temperature compensated minimums to be displayed on the PFDs, the active flight plan must
contain an airport.
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NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered on the Minimums Screen on the Touchscreen
Controller. There is only one compensation temperature for the system, therefore, changing the temperature
will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums. Refer to the Flight Management section
for information about applying temperature compensation to approach altitudes
RADAR ALTIMETER
When the radar height (the aircraft altitude above ground level detected by the radar altimeter) is between
zero and 2500 feet, the current value is displayed in white to the right of the current aircraft heading (Figure
2-58). Display of radar height becomes more sensitive as the height above ground decreases (Table 2-4).
Radar Altimeter
Figure 2-58 Current Radar Height
Radar Height Range
Shown to Nearest
0 to 200 feet
5 feet
200 to 1500 feet
10 feet
1500 to 2500 feet
50 feet
Table 2-4 Radar Altimeter Sensitivity
When the radar altimeter is selected as the altitude source for the minimum descent altitude alerting function
(Figure 2-59), the color of the radar height changes to amber upon reaching at or below the MDA/DH (Figure
2-60).
Figure 2-59 RAD ALT Setting
(Timer/References Window)
Figure 2-60 RA as Altitude Source for MDA/DH
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A ground line (Figure 2-61) is shown on the Altimeter to display the aircraft’s height relative to the ground. If
the data becomes invalid, the message “RA FAIL” is displayed in amber in the RA box (Figure 2-62). The Radar
Altimeter test is done on the MFD but is displayed on the PFDs to the right of the current heading (Figure 2-63).
Radar
Altimeter
Ground
Line
Radar Altimeter
Minimums Box
Figure 2-61 Altimeter Displaying the Ground Line (RAD ALT)
Figure 2-62 Radar Altimeter with Invalid Data
Testing the Radar Altimeter (KRA 405B only):
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
3) Press the RA Test Softkey to enable or disable the test.
The ‘RA TEST’ annunciation is displayed above the RA box (Figure 2-62). To cancel the test, press the RA TEST
Softkey again, or turn the FMS Knob to exit the AUX - System Status Page.
When test mode is active, ‘RA TEST’ is annunciated above the RA box and 40 feet will be displayed in the
RA box.
Figure 2-63 Radar Altimeter with Test Annunciation
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2.5 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-5 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur; see Figure
2-64 for examples. Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning (DR)
Mode.
Annunciation
Location
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
GPS LOI
Right of HSI
phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits
GPS INTEG OK Right of HSI
(annunciation displayed for 5 seconds)
Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS
Lower left of
DR
position to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan
aircraft symbol
waypoints
Table 2-5 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-64 Example HSI Annunciations
DR Mode causes the following items on the PFD to be shown in amber:
• CDI (when GPS is the selected navigation source; removed after 20 minutes in DR mode operation)
• Current Track Indicator
• Wind data and pointers in the Wind Data Box on the PFD
• GPS bearing pointers
• Distances in the Bearing Information windows
• Active Flight Plan distances, bearings, and ETE values
The accuracy items should be verified when operating in DR Mode.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, a comparator annunciation is displayed in black text on an amber background. If one or
both of the sensed values are unavailable, the comparator annunciation is black text on a white background
(Figure 2-65). Refer to the Appendix A Section for more information about Comparator Annunciations.
Comparator
Annunciation
Figure 2-65 Sensor Comparator Annunciations on the PFD
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red extreme pitch warning chevrons pointing toward the
horizon are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon line.
Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-66 Pitch Attitude Warnings
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from the PFD (and corresponding softkeys are disabled) when the aircraft
experiences unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• Transponder Status Box
• AFCS Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• Flight Director Command Bars
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• Inset Map
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
– Timer/References
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• International Standard
Atmosphere Temperature (ISA)
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• DME Information Window
(optional)
– Alerts
• System Time
• Wind data
– DME Tuning (optional)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
The G1000 NXi Engine Indication System (EIS) displays critical engine and fuel flow parameters on the left
side of the Multi Function Display (MFD) during normal operations (Figure 3-1). In Reversionary Mode, the
display(s) are configured to combine the Primary Flight Display (PFD) symbology with the EIS (Figure 3-12).
EIS Display
Figure 3-1 MFD (Normal Mode)
EIS information is presented using gauges and digital readouts. Green bands on the instrument scales indicate
normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution and warning, respectively. White or uncolored
bands indicate areas outside of normal operation not yet in the caution or warning ranges (except for the Fuel
Flow gauges, which do not display bands). During normal operating conditions, an instrument’s pointer appears
in white and the readout text is green.
When an unsafe operating condition occurs, the pointer and readout color change to amber or red, indicating
a caution or warning. If a cautionary time limit is exceeded, the pointers and digits may flash red, even if the
parameter is still within the cautionary range. If the sensor data for a parameter becomes invalid or unavailable, a
red ‘X’ is displayed across the indicator and/or readout. If the sensor data for a parameter is out of range, dashes
‘---’ are displayed instead of a readout.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 EIS DISPLAY
NOTE: The gauges displayed and the values shown in this section are taken from an example Beechcraft
200/B200 configuration. Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual (AFM) for specific values and operating limitations.
1 Interstage Turbine
Displays Interstage Turbine Temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
Temperature (ITT)
2 Torque (FT-LB)
Displays torque in foot-pounds
3 Tachometer (PROP RPM)
5 Turbine Speed (% RPM)
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm); the red band
indicates propeller overspeed
Displays a diamond when propellers are in sync. Indicates when propellers
are out of sync by the diamond transitioning to an arrowhead. The
arrowhead points towards the propeller turning at a higher-speed.
Displays turbine speed in a percentage of the revolutions per minute (rpm)
6 Fuel Flow
Displays current fuel flow in pounds per hour (pph)
4 Propeller Sync
(FFLOW PPH)
7 Oil Pressure (OIL PSI)
8 Oil Temperature (OIL °C)
112
Displays pressure of oil supplied to the engines in pounds per square inch
(psi)
Displays the oil temperature in degrees Celsius (°C)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
200/B200 Example Configuration
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
Figure 3-2 EIS Display (Normal Mode)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
INTERSTAGE TURBINE TEMPERATURE
The Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) Gauge is located at the top of the EIS display. This gauge differs for
engine start and running conditions. Values between 200 and 1200 degrees Celsius (°C) are shown at engine
start; values change to 200 to 900 °C once the engine has stabilized. A red triangle is displayed at 1000 °C
during engine start to indicate maximum starting ITT. If the ITT remains above 750 °C (red tick mark) for more
than 5 seconds, a warning condition occurs.
ITT Engine Running
ITT Engine Start
Figure 3-3 ITT Gauge
TORQUE
The Torque Gauge displays engine power in foot-pounds and is located beneath the ITT gauge. The values
range from 0 FT-LB to 2600 FT-LB If the torque remains above 2230 FT-LB for more than 5 seconds, a warning
condition occurs.
Figure 3-4 Torque Gauge
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
TACHOMETER (RPM)
The Tachometer is located beneath the Torque gauge and displays the propeller speed in revolutions per
minute (RPM) from 0 to 2500. A propeller overspeed is indicated if the propeller speed exceeds the maximum
safe operating speed (red tick mark). The Tachometer is equipped with a propeller sync indicator, which
points towards the higher-speed propeller when propellers are out of sync. The indicator changes linearly
with RPM difference between the left and right propellers. A full diamond is displayed when the propellers are
synchronized and transitions to a full arrowhead when the difference is greater or equal to 50 rpm.
Figure 3-5 Propellers Synchronized
Figure 3-6 Propellers Out of Sync (less than 50 rpm)
Figure 3-7 Propellers Out of Sync
(greater than or equal to 50 rpm)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
TURBINE SPEED
The Turbine Speed Gauge is located beneath the Tachometer. The gauge range is from 0 to 110%.
Figure 3-8 Turbine Speed Gauge
FUEL FLOW
The Fuel Flow Gauge is displayed beneath the Turbine Speed gauge. Fuel Flow is displayed in pounds per
hour (pph) from 0 to 600 pph.
Figure 3-9 Fuel Flow Gauge
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
OIL PRESSURE
The Oil Pressure Gauge is located beneath the Fuel Flow gauge. Oil pressure is displayed in pounds per square
inch (psi) from 0 to 200 psi. Safe operating pressure is more than 90 psi and less than 135 psi (varies based on
altitude above FL210 and type of engines installed; refer to the AFM). A red triangle represents the maximum oil
transient pressure at 200 psi.
Below FL210
Above FL210
Figure 3-10 Oil Pressure Gauge
OIL TEMPERATURE
The Oil Temperature Gauge is located beneath the Oil Pressure gauge. Oil temperature is displayed in
degrees Celsius (°C).
Figure 3-11 Oil Temperature Gauge
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 EIS DISPLAY IN REVERSIONARY MODE
PFD1 will revert to reversionary (or backup) mode automatically during an MFD failure in flight. In the event
of PFD1 or PFD2 failure, the Display Backup button must be pressed to enter reversionary mode. Reversionary
mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically on at least one
of the operating displays (see Figure 3-12). Transition to reversionary mode should be straightforward for the
pilot. Flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode (refer to the System Overview for
information about display Reversionary Mode).
EIS Display
Figure 3-12 Reversionary Mode (200/B200)
In the event of display failure, the display modes are as follows:
• PFD1 failure – Press the Display Backup button on the left Audio Panel. MFD enters reversionary mode; PFD2
remains in normal mode.
• MFD failure – Press the Display Backup buttons on both Audio Panels. PFD1 and PFD2 enter reversionary
mode.
• PFD2 failure – Press the Display Backup button on the right Audio Panel. MFD enters reversionary mode;
PFD1 remains in normal mode.
Figure 3-13 Display Backup Button
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
REVERSIONARY DISPLAY
The EIS Reversionary Mode Display gauges have a different shape and share one title (i.e. ITT, TORQUE)
for each pair of gauges. White tick marks are displayed only at the minimum and maximum values. Green
bands on the instrument scales indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution and
warning, respectively. No minor tick marks or numeric labels are displayed. Prop Synchronization information
is not displayed while in Reversionary Mode.
NOTE: The gauges displayed and the values shown in this section are taken from an example Beechcraft
200/B200 configuration. Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual (AFM) for specific values and operating limitations.
200/B200 Example Configuration
Figure 3-14 EIS Reversionary Mode Display
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the Beechcraft 200/B200 Series is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units
(LRUs):
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
• Audio Panel (2)
• Multi Function Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder (2)
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
• Control Unit
The PFD and Control Unit controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The two Audio Panels provide the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio
selection. Each Audio Panel includes a two position intercom system (ICS) between the pilot and copilot, a
marker beacon system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a
feature called Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces
the amount of background noise from the radios.
The Mode S Transponders are controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knobs. The Transponder Data Box is
located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the selected transponder, the active four-digit
code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
AUDIO PANEL VOLUME CONTROL
Adjusting the master volume control affects all radio audio volume and airframe type warnings that are heard
in the headsets (not the speaker) for the pilot or copilot side Audio Panel. Radio adjustments made on the PFD
controls to compensate for the master volume change on the Audio Panel also affect the radio levels for the other
pilot. Independent radio volume adjustments made using the Audio Panel Master Volume controls affect only
the audio heard in the corresponding crew position headset.
Radio volume adjustments may be overridden by each crew position independently using the master volume
control on the Audio Panel for the respective crew position. In addition, the master volume control for each
Audio Panel affects all other system audio output to its designated crew position headset much like volume
adjustments found on many aviation headsets.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9
10
11
13
12
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and DME Tuning Window
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue numbers) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected and
decoded COM transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue numbers) and the Frequency Transfer
Arrow between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
DME Tuning Window – Displays DME frequency pairing mode. Display by selecting the DME Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME pairing mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes, select DME modes, and
Auto-tune entries when DME Tuning Window or NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn
the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
13
DME Softkey – Displays the DME Tuning Window.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
124
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be
added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be
added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
5
COM3 MIC – Reserved for optional COM radio.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
6
COM3 – Reserved for optional COM radio.
7
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
8
TEL – When selected, activates the SATCOM transceiver enabling telephone audio and MIC.
9
MUSIC – Toggles the Music 1 input on or off. Pressing and holding toggles music muting on or off.
10
SPKR – Selects and deselects the on-side flight deck speaker. COM and NAV receiver audio can be heard
on the speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is received.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low sensitivity.
13
DME – Turns optional DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used in Beechcraft 200/B200 Series aircraft.
18
MAN SQ – Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the ICS Knob to
illuminate SQ. Turn the ICS Knob to adjust squelch.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again to stop playing. Press twice within 0.5
second while audio is playing and the previous block of recorded audio will be played. Each subsequent
two presses within 0.5 second plays each previously recorded block.
20
INTR COM – Selects and deselects the pilot/copilot intercom on both Audio Panels.
21
CABIN – Initiates intercom communications with passengers in the cabin.
22
ICS Knob – Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. Press to switch between volume and squelch
control as indicated by illumination of VOL or SQ. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow squelch
adjustment.
23
MSTR Knob – The Master Volume Control adjusts volume for the blended NAV, COM, intercom audio,
and alert warnings.
24
DISPLAY BACKUP Button – Manually selects PFD/MFD Reversionary Mode.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
CONTROL UNIT
The Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted interface allowing MFD operation, data entry, COM and NAV tuning,
and transponder control. Many procedures can be performed using the Control Unit rather than the display
bezel controls. Annunciators beside the FMS, XPDR, COM, and NAV keys illuminate when their respective
control modes are selected. The unit is in FMS control mode by default on system power-up.
The appropriate frequency box on the selected display is outlined by a light blue selection box, which flashes
for a few seconds to indicate control unit activity. Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode
results in cancelation of the previous radio tuning mode.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
14
10
13
12
11
Figure 4-3 Control Unit
Tuning Selection
Box
Figure 4-4 Frequency Tuning with the Control Unit
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus. Press and hold to activate the Navigation
Map Page on the MFD
2
MENU Key – Displays a list of options for accessing additional features or making setting changes.
3
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
4
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. This knob provides tuning capability for the COM and
NAV radios when the appropriate COM or NAV key is pressed. When the XPDR Key is pressed, the
transponder code may be entered using the FMS Knob. The large knob moves the cursor in the window.
The small knob selects individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
5
FMS Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control FMS functions on the MFD. When pressed, an annunciator next
to the key illuminates indicating adjustment of the FMS Knob will now affect FMS functions.
6
COM Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the COM radios. The first press will select COM1,
as indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select COM2. This is annunciated
with a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the COM Key will switch between COM1 and
COM2. Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected COM The COM Tuning Selection Box is outlined with a
light blue line when the COM frequency is active on the control unit (Figure 4‑4).
7
Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Transfers the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies. Press
and hold for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the COM
active frequency field.
8
NAV Key – Sets the FMS Knob to control tuning of the NAV radios. The first press will select NAV1, as
indicated by an illuminated “1” to the left of the key. Press again to select NAV2. This is annunciated with
a “2” to the right of the key. Each subsequent press of the NAV Key will switch between NAV1 and NAV2.
Use the FMS Knob to tune the selected NAV. The NAV Tuning Selection Box is outlined with a light blue
line when the NAV frequency is active on the control unit.
9
XPDR Key – Sets the FMS Knob to enter transponder codes. When pressed, an annunciator next to the
key illuminates indicating the FMS Knob can now be used for transponder code entry. Transponder code
entry can be performed with either the number keypad or FMS Knob.
10
IDENT Key – Press to activate the IDENT function of the transponder. When the IDENT Key is pressed,
a green IDNT indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for 18 seconds.
11
SEL Key – The center of this key activates the selected MFD softkey, while the right and left arrows move
the softkey selection box to the right and left, respectively.
12
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
13
BKSP Key – Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
14
Alphanumeric Keys – Allows data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/
numbers).
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TRANSCEIVER SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
NOTE: During PA Mode, the COM MIC Annunciator is extinguished and the COM active frequency color
changes to white, indicating that neither COM transmitter is active.
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the left side and the
two standby frequencies are on the right. The COM transceiver is selected for transmitting by pressing the
COM MIC Keys on the Audio Panel. During reception of audio from the COM radio selected for transmission,
audio from the other COM radio is muted.
An active COM frequency displayed in green indicates that the COM transceiver is selected on the Audio
Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white indicate that no COM
radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency selected for
tuning is white and outlined in cyan. The other standby frequency is gray.
Active
Fields
Standby
Fields
Top Section of
the Audio Panel
Selected for Tuning
COM1 Radio is Selected on the Audio Panel
Figure 4-5 Selecting a COM Radio for Transmit
COM3 is reserved for an optional COM radio.
TRANSMIT/RECEIVE INDICATIONS
During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM frequency. On the Audio Panel, when
the active COM is transmitting, the active transceiver COM MIC Key Annunciator flashes approximately once
per second.
During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by the active COM frequency.
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Transmit and
Receive Indicators
Annunciator
Flashes During
Transmission
Figure 4-6 COM Radio Transmit and Receive Indications
When the same COM radio is selected on both Audio Panels, the pilot has transmit priority on COM1, the
copilot has transmit priority on COM2.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust
volume. Press the Knob to Turn
Automatic Squelch On or Off
Press the Frequency Transfer
Key to Transfer COM
Frequencies Between Active
and Standby Frequency
Turn the COM Knob
to Tune the Selected
Frequency
Figure 4-7 COM Frequency Tuning
Manual COM frequency tuning from the Control Unit
1) Press the COM Key to enable the FMS Knob for COM tuning. The COM Tuning Selection Box is shown.
2) Press the COM Key again, if needed, to select the desired COM radio (1 or 2).
3) Turn the FMS Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
Or:
Press the numeric keys on the keypad to enter a Frequency.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
If an error is made during frequency entry with the numeric keypad, pressing the BKSP Key moves the
cursor back one space. If an incorrect frequency is entered, reenter the correct one using the same procedure.
First, Press the COM Key to activate COM
tuning from the FMS Knob or Numeric
Keypad
Third, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field.
Second, Turn the FMS Knob or Press
the Numeric Keys to Enter a Frequency
into the COM Standby Frequency Box
Figure 4-8 Frequency Tuning from the Control Unit
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SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small COM Knob to move the COM Tuning Box and the Frequency Transfer Arrow between the
COM radios.
Press the COM Knob to Switch
the Tuning Selection From One
COM Radio to the Other
Figure 4-9 Switching COM Tuning Boxes
QUICK-TUNING AND ACTIVATING 121.500 MHZ
Pressing and holding the COM Frequency Transfer Key for two seconds automatically loads the emergency
COM frequency (121.500 MHz) in the active field of the COM radio selected for tuning (the one with the
transfer arrow). In the example shown, pressing the Audio Panel COM2 MIC Key activates the transceiver.
Press for Two Seconds to
Load 121.500 MHz
Figure 4-10 Quickly Tuning 121.500 MHz
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window on
the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the NRST Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport identifiers
and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Figure 4-11 Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
Select the NRST
Softkey to Open
the Nearest
Airports Window
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-12, 4-13, and 4-14).
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency (Figure 4-12).
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on either PFD to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency
Field.
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Press the ENT Key to Load a
Highlighted Frequency into the
COM Standby Frequency Box.
Turn the FMS Knob to Scroll Through a
List of Frequencies.
Figure 4-12 Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu (Figure 4-13).
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-13 Nearest Pages Menus
On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
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Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to
load frequency
into PFD1 COM
Standby Field.
Cursor then
advances to the
next frequency.
Select INFO
1 Softkey
for AIRPORT,
RUNWAYS, and
FREQUENCIES
Windows
Figure 4-14 WPT – Airport Information Page
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Frequencies,
and NRST – Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU
Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
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Figure 4-15 NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Airports, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages
FREQUENCY SPACING
The G1000 COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing
is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup 1 Page of the AUX Page Group.
8.33-kHz Channel
Spacing
25-kHz Channel
Spacing
Figure 4-16 COM Channel Spacing
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the AUX – System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the G1000 softkeys are blank.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-17 AUX – System Setup 1 Page
AUTOMATIC SQUELCH
Automatic Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no radio transmission is received, while still providing
good sensitivity to weak COM signals. To disable Automatic Squelch, press the VOL/SQ Knob. When Automatic
Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the headsets and
speaker, if selected. Pressing the VOL/SQ Knob again enables Automatic Squelch.
When Automatic Squelch is disabled, a white RX appears next to the COM frequency.
Press the COM VOL/
SQ Knob to turn off
Automatic Squelch.
Press again to restore
Automatic Squelch.
Manual Squelch
Indication
Figure 4-18 Overriding Automatic Squelch
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VOLUME
COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume. When adjusting volume,
the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after
the change.
COM Volume
Level Remains
for Two Seconds
Figure 4-19 COM Volume Level
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4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by selecting the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Selecting the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Selecting the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Selecting the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Selecting the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for tuning,
the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active NAV frequency
color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the previously selected NAV
standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
Standby
Fields
Selected for
Tuning
Active
Fields
The NAV Radio is
Selected by Selecting
the CDI Softkey
Figure 4-20 Selecting a NAV Radio for Navigation
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
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NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, ADF, or DME Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard over
the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
Figure 4-21 Selecting a NAV Radio Receiver
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
Turn VOL/ID Knob to adjust
volume. Press Knob to Turn
Morse Code On or Off.
Press the Frequency Transfer Key to
Transfer NAV Frequencies Between
Active and Standby Frequency Fields
Turn the NAV Knob to
Tune the Frequency in
the Tuning Box
Figure 4-22 NAV Frequency Tuning
Manual NAV frequency tuning from the Control Unit
1) Press the NAV Key to enable the FMS Knob for NAV tuning. The NAV Tuning Selection Box is shown.
2) Press the NAV Key again, if needed, to select the desired NAV radio (1 or 2).
3) Turn the FMS Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
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Or:
Press the numeric keys on the keypad to enter a Frequency.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
If an error is made during frequency entry with the numeric keypad, pressing the BKSP Key moves the cursor
back one space. If an incorrect frequency is entered, reenter the correct one using the same procedure.
Third, Press the Frequency
Transfer Key to Move the
Frequency to the Active Field.
First, Press the NAV Key to activate NAV
tuning from the FMS Knob or Numeric
Keypad
Second, Turn the FMS Knob or Press
the Numeric Keys to Enter a Frequency
into the NAV Standby Frequency Box
Figure 4-23 Frequency Tuning from the Control Unit
SELECTING THE RADIO TO BE TUNED
Press the small NAV Knob to transfer the frequency tuning selection and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
Press the NAV Knob to Switch
the tuning selection from one
NAV Radio to the other
Figure 4-24 Switching NAV Tuning Boxes
VOR/LOC ID
When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio, a white ID appears to the left of the active
NAV frequency.
In the example shown, in order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns off the Morse code audio only in the radio selected for tuning
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(light blue numbers). To turn off both NAV IDs, transfer the tuning selection between NAV1 and NAV2 with
the small NAV Knob and press the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
The Morse Code Identifier
for both VORs is On
Figure 4-25 NAV Radio ID Indication
Station
Identifier
VOLUME
NAV Radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID Knob. Turning the knob
clockwise increases volume, counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication remains
for two seconds after the change.
NAV Volume Level
Remains for Two
Seconds
Figure 4-26 NAV Volume Level
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key (Figures 4-27, 4-28, and 4-29).
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or the
appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor on the NAV
frequency (Figure 4-25).
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
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5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
Press the ENT Key to Load a
Highlighted Frequency into the
NAV Standby Frequency Box.
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies.
Figure 4-27 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD control unit to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-28 Nearest Pages Menus
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
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Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
Figure 4-29 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
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Figure 4-30 NRST – Nearest Frequencies, WPT – VOR Information, WPT – Airport Information, and
NRST – Nearest Airports Pages
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency field on approach activation, on both
PFD1 and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
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MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of an ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
Outer Marker
Indication
Middle Marker
Indication
Inner Marker
Indication
Figure 4-31 Marker Beacon Annunciations on the PFD
Figure 4-32 Marker Beacon Keys
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations (Figure 4-31). The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The
MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker
beacon signal is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while
marker beacon audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
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DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME tuning
and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The G1000 System tunes the optional DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a
VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The DME Tuning Window is located to the right of the HSI in the lower right corner of the PFD. The DME
transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the DME Tuning Window. Pressing the DME
Softkey switches the DME Tuning Window on and off.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-33 DME Tuning Window
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV frequency.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the tuning entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor in
the DME Tuning Window.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME information window.
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4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDERS
The GTX 335R, GTX 345R and GTX 3000 (optional) Mode S Transponders provide Mode A, Mode C, and
Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the
following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
GTX 335/345/3000 TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is pressed, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1,
XPDR2, STBY, ON, ALT, VFR, CODE, IDENT, BACK.
When the CODE Softkey is pressed, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Pressing the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Pressing the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Pressing the BACK Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Pressiing the BACK
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Pressing the IDENT Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 4-34 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the desired transponder.
When turning on the G1000 NXi for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit, regardless of
which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder 1 and Transponder 2,
the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active transponder, switching transponders
does not bring back the previous code.
GTX 335/345/3000 TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Ground and Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The STBY, ON, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select the active transponder.
2) Press the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder
is powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted.. When Standby is
selected, a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data
Box.
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STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-35 Standby Mode
Manual ON Mode
ON Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode S replies
will not include altitude information. Mode C altitude reporting is inhibited.
The ON indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne
and white while on the ground.
ON Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
On-Ground (White Indication)
Airborne (Green Indication)
Figure 4-36 ON Mode
ALTITUDE MODE (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
The white Altitude Reporting Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground.
White Altitude Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while on the ground. White
Altitude Mode generates Mode S replies to discrete interrogations as well as transmission of acquisition and
extended squitters, including ADS-B out. Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call replies are inhibited.
If Altitude Mode is selected while on the ground, a white ALT indication and transponder code appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
On-Ground ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting Inhibited)
Figure 4-37 Altitude Mode
The green Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Green Altitude
Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while airborne. Green Altitude Mode
generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies as well as transmissions of acquisition and extended squitters
including ADS-B out.
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If Altitude Mode is selected while airborne, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are
provided with pressure altitude information.
Airborne ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-38 Altitude Mode
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to
Interrogation
Figure 4-39 Reply Indication
TCAS II TRANSPONDER CONTROLS (OPTIONAL)
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Transponder/Traffic
Selection, and Mode Selection or Code Entry. When the top-level XPDR/TFC Softkey is selected, the Function
Select softkeys appear: XPDR1, XPDR2, MODE, TCAS, CODE, IDENT, BACK.
When the MODE Softkey is pressed, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: STBY, ON, ALT, TA ONLY, TA/
RA, BACK.
When the CODE Softkey is pressed, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Pressing the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Pressing the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Pressing the BACK Softkey returns to the previous level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the IDENT Softkey while in Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 4-40 Transponder Softkeys (with TCAS II option)
TCAS II TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION (OPTIONAL)
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Mode) or manual (Standby, On, and Altitude Modes). The STBY,
ON, ALT, TA ONLY, and TA/RA Softkeys can be accessed by pressing the XPDR/TFC Softkey, then the MODE
Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the MODE Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
3) Press the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode (STBY, ON, or ALT).
Selecting a TCAS II mode:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the MODE Softkey to display the TCAS II Mode Selection Softkeys.
3) Press the desired softkey to activate the TCAS II mode (TA ONLY or TA/RA).
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited. TCAS II is switched to Standby Mode, because the
transponder is not capable of supporting TCAS II operation in Standby Mode.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the STBY Softkey. In Standby, the transponder does
not reply to interrogations, but new codes can be entered. When Standby is selected, a white STBY indication
and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
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STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-41 Standby Mode
NOTE: TCAS II is switched to Standby Mode, because the transponder is not capable of supporting TCAS II
operation in On Mode.
ON Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ON Softkey. ON Mode generates Mode A and Mode S
replies as well as transmission of acquisition and extended squitters, including ADS-B out (if equipped).
Mode S replies will not include altitude information. Mode C altitude reporting is inhibited.
The ON indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne
and white while on the ground.
ON Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
On-Ground (White Indication)
Airborne (Green Indication)
Figure 4-42 ON Mode
ALTITUDE MODE (AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL)
NOTE: TCAS II is switched to Standby Mode when the altitude mode is manually selected using the ALT
Softkey.
The white Altitude Reporting Mode is normally selected automatically when the aircraft is on the ground.
White Altitude Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while on the ground. White
Altitude Mode generates Mode S replies to discrete interrogations as well as transmission of acquisition and
extended squitters, including ADS-B out (if equipped). Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call replies are
inhibited.
If Altitude Mode is selected while on the ground, a white ALT indication and transponder code appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
On-Ground ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting Inhibited)
Figure 4-43 Altitude Mode
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The green Altitude Mode is automatically selected when the aircraft becomes airborne. Green Altitude
Mode may also be selected manually by pressing the ALT Softkey while airborne. Green Altitude Mode
generates Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S replies as well as transmissions of acquisition and extended squitters
including ADS-B out (if equipped).
If Altitude Mode is selected while airborne, a green ALT indication and transponder code appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box, and all transponder replies requesting altitude information are
provided with pressure altitude information.
Airborne ALT Mode
(Mode C Altitude
Reporting)
Figure 4-44 Altitude Mode
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Press the XPDR or XPDR/TFC Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be selected within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Pressing the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering
a Code
Figure 4-45 Entering a Code
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR or XPDR/TFC and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
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Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
Figure 4-46 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
Manual code entry from the Control Unit
1) Press the XPDR Key to select the transponder code field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits, turn the large FMS Knob to select the
last two digits, and turn the small FMS Knob to enter the last two code digits.
Or:
Press the numeric keys on the keypad to enter a code.
If an error is made during code entry with the numeric keypad, pressing the BKSP Key moves the cursor
back one space. If an incorrect code is entered, reenter the correct one using the same procedure.
Third, Press ENT Key to
Complete Code Entry
Second, Turn the FMS Knob, Small
Knob to Enter Two Code Digits at a
Time, Large Knob to Move the Cursor
to the Next Code Field, or Press the
Numeric Keys to Enter a Code into the
Transponder Data Box
First, Press the XPDR Key to
Activate Code Entry from the
FMS Knob or Numeric Keypad
into the Transponder Data Box
Figure 4-47 Transponder Code Entry from the Control Unit
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VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by pressing the XPDR or XPDR/TFC Softkey, then the VFR
Softkey. When the VFR Softkey is pressed, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the
code field of the Transponder Data Box. Pressing the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification
code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-48 VFR Code
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
Pressing the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The Ident Softkey
appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is pressed, a green Ident indication is
displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the Ident Softkey is pressed while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level softkeys.
IDNT
Indication
Select the
Ident Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
Figure 4-49 Ident Softkey and Indication
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panels perform a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off. The exceptions are the speaker and intercom, which are always
selected during power up.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
NOTE: When the oxygen mask switch on the instrument panel is selected, each pilot’s microphone audio is
heard on the cross-side speaker. The on-side speaker is also enabled and cannot be deselected.
Each Audio Panel is connected to a separate flight deck speaker for listening to all of the radios. Each SPKR
Key controls the on-side speaker unless oxygen masks are in use. During oxygen mask use the on-side speaker
is always enabled.
Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects the speaker. Except for oxygen mask use, speaker audio is
muted when the PTT Key is pressed.
Figure 4-50 Speaker Key
UNMUTED INPUTS
Aural alerts are always present on the headset and are on the speaker when the SPKR is selected. These
warnings and the aircraft radios are not heard on the passenger headphones.
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INTERCOM
Pressing the INTR COM Key on either Audio Panel selects and deselects the intercom on both Audio Panels.
The annunciator is lit when the intercom is active. The intercom connects the pilot and copilot together. Either
the pilot or copilot may select or deselect the intercom.
The CABIN Key initiates two way communication between the pilot or copilot and the passengers in the
cabin. The annunciator is lit when the cabin intercom is active on either Audio Panel.
When the flight crew wants to communicate with the passengers, the pilot or copilot presses the CABIN
Key to signal that communication is desired. The cabin signal must be acknowledged to begin intercom
conversation.
The MAN SQ Key allows either automatic or manual control of the intercom squelch setting. Pressing the
MAN SQ Key enables manual squelch control, indicated by the MAN SQ annunciator.
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished (Automatic Squelch is on), the ICS Knob controls only the
volume (pressing the ICS Knob has no effect on the VOL/SQ selection).
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated (Manual Squelch), the ICS Knob controls either volume or
squelch (selected by pressing the ICS Knob and indicated by the VOL or SQ annunciation).
Manual Squelch
Annunciator; Off
for Automatic
Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
Cabin Annunciator; On for
Cabin Intercom, Flashes for
Cabin to Flight Deck Hail
Selects and Deselects
Cabin Intercom
Pilot/Copilot
ICS
Press to switch
between VOL and SQ.
Turn to adjust Squelch
when SQ Annunciation
is lit, Volume when
VOL Annunciation is lit.
Master Volume
Control for Pilot
Side or Copilot
Side
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
Figure 4-51 Intercom Controls
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PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM
A passenger address system is provided by pressing the PA Key to deliver messages to the passengers. The
message is heard by the other pilot on the headset only if the INTR COM Key is enabled. PA messages are one
way from the flight deck to the passengers.
A Push-to-talk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA announcements to the passengers over their headphones.
When PA is selected on the Audio Panel, the annunciator flashes about once per second while pressing the
PTT, the COM MIC annunciator is no longer lit, and the active COM frequency for that Audio Panel changes to
white, indicating that there is no COM selected.
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
Figure 4-52 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
SIMULTANEOUS COM OPERATION
Both the pilot and the copilot can transmit and receive simultaneously over separate COM radios. The
selected COM MIC Annunciator flashes when either pilot’s microphone PTT is pressed.
If both pilots select the same COM radio, the pilot has priority on COM1 and the copilot has priority on
COM2.
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CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
NOTE: Pressing the play key on the pilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Pilot. Pressing the play
key on the Copilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Copilot.
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that continually records up to 2.5 minutes of the
selected COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from
the oldest block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. The PLAY annunciator remains lit to indicate when play is in
progress. The PLAY annunciator turns off after playback is finished.
Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory block and then returns to normal operation.
Pressing the PLAY Key again during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Pressing the PLAY Key twice within one-half second while audio is playing plays the previous block of
recorded audio. Each subsequent two presses of the PLAY Key within one-half second backtracks through the
recorded memory blocks to reach and play any recorded block.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
PLAY Key
Controls the
Play Function
Figure 4-53 Play Key
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4.6 AUDIO PANELS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the flight crew is using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob, verify that
the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at max volume setting. On
single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the audio
system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the flight crew is now able to set the ICS squelch manually. If
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the small knob turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the G1000 NXi system the following steps aid the flight crew in maximizing the use of the
Audio Panels as well as prevent flight crew induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each
time a flight crew boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panels and radios.
Automatic/Manual
Squelch
Pilot/Copilot
ICS
Cabin ICS
Master Volume
Control
ICS Volume and
Squelch Control
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
Reversionary Mode
for PFD1 and MFD
Reversionary Mode
for PFD2 and MFD
Pilot Side
Copilot Side
Figure 4-54 Audio Panel Controls
Independent radio volume adjustments made using the PFD controls affect only the audio output for each
radio selected for adjustment. Radio volume adjustment affects both crew positions equally for each radio that
is adjusted. Turning the master volume control located on either Audio Panel affects only the audio heard in the
corresponding crew position headset. Thus, radio volume adjustments may be overridden by each crew position
independently using the master volume control on the Audio Panel for the respective crew position. The master
volume control for each Audio Panel affects all other system audio output for the pilot or copilot headset.
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Setting the Audio Panels during preflight:
1) Verify that the INTR COM Key is selected.
2) Verify manual squelch is set to minimum.
3) Turn the MSTR Knob (Master Volume Control) on both Audio Panels clockwise two full turns. This sets the
headset audio level to max volume (least amount of attenuation).
4) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
5) Adjust the ICS volume Knob on each Audio Panel to the desired intercom level.
6) Reset squelch to automatic, or adjust to the appropriate level manually.
Once this procedure has been completed, the master volume controls on both Audio Panels may now be
adjusted. The flight crew can change settings, keeping in mind the notes above.
Pilot Master
Volume Control
Radio Volume
Knobs Adjust
Radio Level
Master Volume
Knobs Adjust
Headphone
Volume Level
COM Radio
Audio
NAV Radio
Audio
Copilot Master
Volume Control
Figure 4-55 Radio and Headphone Volume Controls
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4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the G1000 includes equipment failures of the G1000 components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck microphone.
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
Figure 4-56 Stuck Microphone Alert
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred.
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-57 COM Tuning Failure
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PFD FAILURE, DUAL SYSTEM
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1
automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency frequency is available
to both the copilot and pilot.
Emergency Channel
Loaded Automatically
Figure 4-58 Frequency Section of PFD2 Display after PFD1 Failure
If PFD2 fails, COM2 and NAV2 display a red X on the remaining PFD display. NAV2 is unavailable. COM2
tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM2 emergency frequency is available to both the
copilot and pilot.
Figure 4-59 PFD1 Display after PFD2 Failure
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AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on
the speakers.
If there is a failure of one Audio Panel, the remaining one does not have access to the others side’s COM and
NAV. For example, if the pilot side Audio Panel fails, the copilot side Audio Panel has access to all the radios
except for COM1 and NAV1.
REVERSIONARY MODE
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the PFD/MFD Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview
Section for more information on Reversionary Mode.
Figure 4-60 Reversionary Mode Button
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the three full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and
a Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD. See examples in Figure 5-1, Figure 5-2 and Figure 5-3. Detailed descriptions
of GPS navigation functions are discussed later in this section.
A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/
VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels are only
available with SBAS. L/VNAV will be flown as Baro VNAV when SBAS is not available.
The Inset Map is a small version of the Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD.
When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is displayed in the lower right corner. The Inset Map is
displayed by pressing the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey with TCAS II), pressing the Layout Softkey, then
pressing the Inset Map Softkey. Selecting the Map Off Softkey removes the Inset Map.
The HSI Map is also a small version of the Navigation Map and is displayed in the center of the HSI. The
HSI Map is displayed by pressing the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey with TCAS II), pressing the Layout
Softkey, then pressing the HSI Map Softkey. Selecting the Map Off Softkey removes the HSI Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the Inset Map or the HSI Map can be reduced by
pressing the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey with TCAS II) on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey.
The amount of displayed data for the Navigation Map can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the
MFD. The Navigation Map can be oriented three different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or
Heading Up (HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. The current range is indicated in the
lower right corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
The Direct-to Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Current Track Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD (Inset Map)
Navigation Status Box
Navigation Mode
Current Track Indicator
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
HSI Map
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD (HSI Map)
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Navigation Status Box
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Map Range
Flight Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Map Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1
minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status bar are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Right Holding Pattern
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The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
BRG
DEST
DIS
DTG
DTK
END
ENR
ESA
ETA
ETE
FLT
FOB
FOD
GS
ISA
LDG
MSA
TAS
TKE
TRK
VSR
XTK
Bearing
Destination Airport Identifier
Distance
Distance to Go
Desired Track
Endurance
ETE to Final Destination
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
Flight Timer
Fuel on Board
Fuel over Destination
Ground Speed
Temperature at Standard Pressure
ETA at Final Destination
Minimum Safe Altitude
True Airspeed
Track Angle Error
Track
Vertical Speed Required
Cross-Track Error
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Status Box
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the Aux-System Setup 1 Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Status Box:
1) Select the System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the desired data.
5) Press the ENT Key. Selecting the Defaults Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system maps
can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.)
with names
• Map range
•Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Obstacle data
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing
to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other
pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
The information in this section applies to any displays that show the navigation map.
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper left corner of the map.
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
• North up (North up) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (Track up) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Heading up (HDG up) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other displays that show
navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map Page.
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Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the Navigation Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Map Settings Window.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘Orientation’ field.
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
North Up Above Field
Figure 5-8 Map Settings Menu Window - Map Group
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
The map can be configured to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the map range reaches a
minimum range.
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
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3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘North Up Above’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 500 feet to 2000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. When the map range
is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to accurately represent the map, a magnifying
glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick counter-clockwise
to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
Auto Zoom On
Figure 5-9 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on Map Settings Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact points If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any map page capable of
displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic
advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the
active waypoint.
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The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFDs and MFD. Control of the
ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times
(set on the Map Settings Window for the Map Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum
distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Map Settings Page for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available
(2000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Auto Zoom:
Off, On, MFD, PFD, All
Manual Range Override
Time Out
Maximum Look Forward Time
Minimum Look Forward Time
Figure 5-10 Map Settings Menu Window - Map Group, Auto Zoom
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Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ on/off field, and select ‘Off’ or ‘On’ using the small FMS Knob.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Auto Zoom’ display selection
field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max Look FWD’ field. Times
are from zero to 999 minutes.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99 minutes).
11) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
When the panning function is selected by pressing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
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Map Pointer Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
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When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
Information about Point
of Interest
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
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When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet above Mean Sea Level
(MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Information about
Airspace
Map Pointer on
Airspace
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Airspace
Panning the map:
1) Press the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
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Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) Place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Waypoint Information Page for the selected waypoint.
3) Select the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Waypoint Information Page and return to
the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
NAVAID
Information
Go Back Softkey
Figure 5-14 Navigation Map - Information Window - NAVAID
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Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) Place the Map Pointer on the boundary of an airspace.
2) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and center the map on the aircraft.
Airspace
Information
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map - Airspace Information
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MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, press the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page
Menu and press the ENT Key.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures. Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable profile map at the bottom of the navigation
map (the profile map is not available if TAWS-A is configured).
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
TER SoftkeyOff Selected
Topographic Data
on Profile Map
TER SoftkeyTopo Selected
TOPO Off
TOPO On
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Select the MAP Opt Softkey.
2) Select the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Select the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map:
1) Select the Map/HSI Softkey .
2) Select the Topo Softkey.
3) Select the Topo Softkey again to remove topographic data from the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map. When
topographic data is removed from the PFD Map or HSI Map, all navigation data is presented on a black
background.
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Topo Data On
Topo Data Off
Figure 5-18 PFD Inset Map - Topographic Data
Topo Data On
Topo Data Off
Figure 5-19 HSI Map - Topographic Data
Displaying/removing topographic data using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ field.
6) Select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Terrain Display
On/Topo/REL
Terrain Display
Range
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map Settings Menu - Terrain Display Setup
The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data is displayed.
NOTE: Since the PFD Inset Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are removed on the
PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map Settings pages (e.g., a setting
of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation maps, while the PFD Inset Map
removes the same item at 50 nm).
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range field. Ranges are from 1 nm to 1000 nm.
6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the
map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Topo Scale
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group and select the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ field.
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Topo Scale
On/Off
Figure 5-22 Navigation Map Settings Menu - Topo Scale Setup
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MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land, aviation, and airspace symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type
of symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering
of the symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
Symbol
User Waypoint
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
25
40
Highways and Roads
Interstate Highway (Freeway)
50
400
International Highway (Freeway)
50
400
US Highway (National Highway)
15
150
State Highway (Local Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads (RAILROAD)
7.5
25
Large City (> 200,000)
100
1000
Medium City (> 50,000)
Small City (> 5,000)
50
25
400
100
State/Province
400
1000
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
1
1000
Local Road (Local Road)
N/A
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
Symbol
Large Airport (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airport (8100 ft > Longest Runway ≥ 5000 ft)
Small Airport (Longest Runway < 5000 ft)
(Medium Airport if it has a tower frequency)
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Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
200
500
150
300
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Aviation Symbols
Symbol
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
Runway Extension
Missed Approach Preview On/Off (Missed APPR)
See Additional Features
N/A
N/A
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
3
20
Off
100
N/A
N/A
Intersection (INT)
15
30
Non-directional Beacon (NDB)
15
30
VOR
150
300
N/A
N/A
25
1000
1000
1000
VOR Compass Rose On/Off
N/A
Visual Reporting Point (VRP)
VNAV Constraints
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Smart Airspace On/Off
Airspace Altitude Labels (Airspace ALT LBL) On/Off
N/A
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
N/A
N/A
Class B Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
N/A
N/A
Class C Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
N/A
N/A
Class D Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling)
N/A
N/A
Class B Airspace/TMA (CLASS B/TMA)
200
500
Class C Airspace/TCA (CLASS C/TCA)
200
500
Class D Airspace (CLASS D)
150
300
Restricted Area (RESTRICTED)
200
500
Military Operations Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
200
500
Other/Air Defense Interdiction Zone (OTHER/ADIZ)
200
500
Table 5-3 Airspcae Symbol Information
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SYMBOL SETUP
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway extensions,
railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which items appear on the
display.
Setting up the ‘Land’, ‘Aviation’ or ‘Airspace’ group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Item On or Off
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-23 Navigation Map Settings Menu - Land Group Setup
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Item On or Off
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-24 Navigation Map Settings Menu - Aviation Group Setup
Item On or Off
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-25 Navigation Map Settings Menu - Airspace Group Setup
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
Detail Level
Detail Softkey
(MFD or PFD)
Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 5-26 Navigation Map - Detail Level Indications
Decluttering the MFD navigation map:
Select the Detail Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown. With
each softkey selection, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Decluttering the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Select the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
Table 5-4 lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Detail 3
Detail 2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Detail 1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-4 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
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AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Figure 5-27 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
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Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY Softkey
selections, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also
be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Select the MAP Opt Softkey.
2) Select the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
3) Select the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (AWY LO).
4) Select the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (AWY HI).
5) Select the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed (AWY Off).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ On/Off field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Item On or Off
Maximum Display Range
Figure 5-28 Navigation Map Settings Menu - Airways Group Setup
The airway range is the maximum map range on which airways are displayed.
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Airways Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airways (V Routes and T Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways (J Routes and Q Routes)
50
100
Table 5-5 Airways Symbol Information
TRACK VECTOR
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is selectable (30
sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track vector. The track
vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always a straight line for
the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-29 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Displaying/removing the track vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Setting’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Track Vector’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the look
ahead time field. Use the FMS Knob to select the desired time. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Selected Altitude Arc On/Off
Track Vector
- On/Off
- Look Ahead Time
Wind Vector On/Off
Fuel Range Ring
- On/Off
- Fuel Reserve Time
SVT Field of View On/Off
Figure 5-30 Navigation Map Settings Menu - Wind Vector On/Off, Field of View On/Off,
Select ALT Arc On/Off, Track Vector Setup, Fuel Range (RSV) Setup
WIND VECTOR
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater than
or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-31 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
Displaying/removing the wind vector:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Wind Vector’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-32 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
Displaying/removing the fuel range ring and selecting a fuel range time:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Fuel Range (RSV)’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Highlight the fuel reserve time field. This time should be set to the amount of flight time equal to the amount
of fuel reserve desired.
8) To change the reserve fuel time, enter a time (00:00 to 23:59; hours:minutes). The default setting is 00:45
minutes.
9) Press the ENT Key.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVt) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This is
only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-33 Navigation Map - Field of View
Displaying/removing the field of view:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Field of View’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected altitude.
The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actuallly climbing or descending.
Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
Figure 5-34 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Displaying/removing the selected altitude intercept arc:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Sel ALT Arc’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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IFR/VFR CHARTS
The system can display GPS navigation information on a VFR chart, a low altitude IFR chart, or a high altitude
IFR chart. The information overlaid on the IFR/VFR Charts is selected and setup on the Navigation Map, but
the IFR/VFR charts will not display some of the selected items. Only the following items will be overlaid on
the chart:
• Map Pointer (distance and bearing to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other pertinent information)
• Map Range (17 range choices from 1 nm to 150 nm)
• Map Orientation (always North Up for IFR/VFR Charts)
• Aircraft Icon (representing present position)
• Wind Direction and Speed
• Icons for enabled map features (Traffic only)
• Flight Plan Legs
• Track Vector
• Runway Extension
• Missed Approach Preview
• Intersections (only as part of active flight plan)
• Visual Reporting Points
• VNAV Constraints
• Selected Altitude Intercept Arc
Navigation Status Box
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
VFR Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-35 GPS Navigation Information on the VFR Chart
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Navigation Status Box
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
IFR Low Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-36 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR Low Altitude Chart
Navigation Status Box
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
IFR High Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-37 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR High Altitude Chart
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Map panning on the IFR/VFR Charts works the same as on the Navigation Map. Map range selected on either
the Navigation Map or the IFR/VFR Charts applies to both, with the exception that if a range is selected on the
Navigation Map is not valid for a chart range, the chart is shown with a range of 7.5 nm.
Modifying the chart settings:
1) Press the MENU Key with the IFR/VFR Charts Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Color Scheme’ setting.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, or ‘Night’. The IFR/VFR Chart display changes to reflect the
setting.
4) If ‘Auto’ was selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the backlight threshold field (sets value for automatic
day/night switching).
Selecting the chart to display:
1) Press the MENU Key with the IFR/VFR Charts Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Settings’ option.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Display VFR’ field, the ‘Display IFR Low’ field, or the ‘Display IFR High’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. The selected chart is displayed.
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the system. As a
waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the Spell’N’Find™ feature scrolls through the database,
displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation
leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Identifier Entry Field
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
Entered Waypoint on
Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-38 Waypoint Information Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Duplicate
Waypoints Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
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Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
AIRPORTS
Figure 5-39 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs to be
aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information Page
Map.
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport information,
load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be
involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies
(auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is
located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple
airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport Information
Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘Airport’, ‘Runways’, and ‘Frequencies’. For airports
with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on the Airport
Information Page by pressing the Info softkey until 1 is displayed.
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Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Airport/Runway
Diagram
Softkeys
Figure 5-40 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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Airport Directory
Information
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Softkeys
Figure 5-41 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the Info Softkey until
2 is displayed. The following are types of airport directory informantion shown (if available) on the Airport
Directory Page:
• Airport:
Identifier, Site
Number, Name, City, State
• Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
• Hours: Facility Hours, Light
Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon
Hours
• Location: Sectional, Magnetic
Variation
• Frequencies: Type/Frequency
• Transportation:
Ground
Transportation Type Available
• Approach: Approach Facility
Name, Frequency, Frequency
Parameter
202
• Traffic Pattern Altitudes
(TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
• Weather:
Service Type,
Frequency, Phone Number
• Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
• Runway: Headings, Length,
Width, Obstructions, Surface
• Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
• Special
Operations
at
Airport
• Instrument
Approaches:
Published Approach, Freq.
• NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
• Noise:
Noise Abatement
Procedures
• Charts: Low Altitude Chart
Number
• Services Available: Category,
Specific Service
• Notes: Airport Notes
• Pilot Controlled Lighting:
High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
• FBO:
Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit
Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
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Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the Airport Information Page, press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the Airport Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the Airport Information Page press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination
Airport is displayed.
The Airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
Gate
Terminal *
AWOS
Ground
TMA *
Center
Helicopter
Tower
Class B *
Multicom
TRSA *
Class C *
Other
Unicom
Clearance
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-6 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page. See the
Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for display (see
the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The Nearest Airports Window displays a list of
up to 25 of the nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they
are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
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Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-42 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD Airport Information Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing the
ENT Key again returns to the Nearest Airports Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list. Continued
presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-43 Airport Information Window on PFD
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use in
the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and
surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘Nearest Airports’,
‘Information’, ‘Runways’, ‘Frequencies’, and ‘Approaches’.
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation map
from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one runway, up to eight frequencies,
and up to eight approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled.
If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
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Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
Nearest Airport
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
Approaches Available
Window Selection
Softkeys
Figure 5-44 Nearest Airport Page
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Select the Nearest Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the Airport Information
Window.
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘Back’) or press the CLR Key.
The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key moves
through the airport list, alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the NRST page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Nearest Airports Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may already
be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
3) Select the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list
is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the Nearest Airports Page displayed, select the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select
Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 3000 feet (or meters) for runway length
and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airports Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, Hard/Soft).
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Selecting nearest airport minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Nearest Airport Criteria
- Type of Runway Surface
- Minimum Runway Length
Figure 5-45 System Setup Page - Nearest Airport Selection Criteria
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INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to displaying
a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection Information Page displays
intersection information in three boxes labeled ‘Intersection’, ‘Information’, and ‘Nearest VOR’.
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Intersection
Figure 5-46 Intersection Information Page
Selecting an intersection:
1) With the Intersection Information Page displayed, enter an identifier in the Intersection Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest Intersections Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest Intersection Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path. In addition
to displaying a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest intersections in
three boxes labeled ‘Nearest INT’, ‘Information’, and ‘Reference VOR’.
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow. Up to 21 intersections are visible at a time. If there
are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display, text indicating that fact
is displayed.
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Intersection Information
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
Nearest
Intersection
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
Figure 5-47 Nearest Intersections Page
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NDBS
The NDB Information Page is used to view information about NDBs. In addition to displaying a map of
the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, the page displays NDB information in four boxes labeled
‘NDB’, ‘Information’, ‘Frequency’, and ‘Nearest Airport’.
NDB Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
NDB Information
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Selected NDB
Figure 5-48 NDB Information Page
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon installed in
conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is at the Outer Marker;
when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
Selecting an NDB:
1) With the NDB Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the NDB, or the city in which it’s
located in the NDB Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest NDB Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find a NDB close to the flight path. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs in three boxes labeled
‘Nearest NDB’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
A white arrow before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. Up to 21 NDBs are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. The list only includes waypoints that are within
200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no nearest NDBs is displayed. If there are
no nearest NDBs in the list, the information and frequency fields are dashed.
NDB Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
Nearest NDB
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Figure 5-49 Nearest NDB Page
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VORS
The VOR Information Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS navigation signals, or to
quickly auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency. Localizer information cannot be viewed on the VOR Information
Page. If a VOR station is combined with a TACAN station it is listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information
Page and if it includes only DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, the VOR Information
Page displays VOR information in four boxes labeled ‘VOR’, ‘Information’, ‘Frequency’, and ‘Nearest Airport’.
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected VOR
VOR Information
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Selected VOR
Figure 5-50 VOR Information Page
The VOR classes used in the VOR information box are: Low Altitude, High Altitude, and Terminal.
Selecting a VOR:
1) With the VOR Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the VOR, or the city in which it’s
located in the VOR Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or press the VOR Softkey.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) With the Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. Also, a NAV
frequency from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations
in three boxes labeled ‘Nearest VOR’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’. The list only includes waypoints that
are within 200 nm.
A white arrow before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Up to 21 VORs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no VORs in the list, text indicating
that there are no nearest VORs is displayed. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information is dashed.
VOR Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
VOR
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR
VOR Frequency
Figure 5-51 Nearest VOR Page
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VRPS
The VRP Information Page is used to view information about visual reporting points (VRPs). In addition to
displaying a map of the currently selected VRP and surrounding area, the VRP Information Page displays VRP
information in two boxes labeled ‘VRP’ and ‘Information’’.
Selected VRP
Navigation Map Showing Selected VRP
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- VRP Name
VRP Information
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-52 VRP Information Page
Selecting a VRP:
1) With the VRP Information Page displayed, enter the identifier or the name of the VRP in the VRP Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest VRP Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VRP Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest VRP Page can be used to quickly find a VRP close to the aircraft. In addition to displaying a
map of the surrounding area, the Nearest VRP Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VRPs in two
boxes labeled ‘Nearest VRP’ and ‘Information’. The list only includes VRPs that are within 200 nm.
A white arrow before the VRP identifier indicates the selected VRP. Up to 21 VRPs are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no VRPs in the list, text indicating
that there are no nearest VRPs is displayed. If there are no nearest VRPs in the list, the information is dashed.
Navigation Map Showing Nearest VRP
Nearest VRP
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-53 Nearest VRP Page
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USER WAYPOINTS
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from any
map page (except PFD Inset Map, AUX-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position on the
map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a bearing/distance from
an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and longitude. Once a waypoint has
been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased upon system power
down.
User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
User Wpt Comment
Reference Wpt/Info
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
User Waypoint List
Selected User
Waypoint
- Identifier
- Comment
# User Wpts Used
Displayed if User Wpt
was created on map
page
Softkeys
Figure 5-54 User Waypoint Information Page
Selecting a User Waypoint:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, enter the name of the User Waypoint, or scroll to the
desired waypoint in the User Waypoint List using the large FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest User Waypoints Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest USR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Nearest User Wpt List
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-55 Nearest User Waypoint Page
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the User Waypoint Information Page:
1) Select the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the Information window using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
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6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “Temporary” or “Normal” by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the Information window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “Temporary” or “Normal” by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Figure 5-56 User Waypoint Information Page Menu
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Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The User Waypoint Information Page is displayed with the captured position.
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is highlighted.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the Information window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to “Temporary” or “Normal” by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List, if required, and press the ENT Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Renaming user waypoints:
1) Highlight a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List. Select the Rename Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a new name.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA to BBBBBB?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
A system generated comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing,
and distance. If a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
1) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to define the waypoint.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint information
page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the User Waypoint Information Page.
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DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Select the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints.’
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR).
Class D Airspace
MOA (Military)
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
Class C Airspace
Alert Area
ADIZ
Warning Area
Figure 5-57 Airspaces
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The Nearest Airspaces Page, Airspace Alerts Window, and Airspace Alerts on the PFD provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them.
The Airspace Alerts Box allows the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off.
This does not affect the alerts listed on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the
Navigation Map Page. It simply turns on/off the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert ON or counterclockwise to turn the alert OFF.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Airspace Alerts Box
- Airspace Altitude Buffer
- Alert On/Off
(Default Settings Shown)
Defaults Softkey
Figure 5-58 System Settings Page - Airspace Alerts
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected from the Airspace Group in the Map Settings Menu. See
Table 5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace
area.
The Nearest Airspaces Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In addition, a selected
frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In addition to displaying
a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page displays airspace information in
four boxes labeled ‘Airspace Alerts’, ‘Airspace Agency’, ‘Vertical Limits’, and ‘Frequencies’.
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Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace 1
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace 2
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Airspace 3
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Softkeys
Figure 5-59 Nearest Airspaces Page
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest Airspaces Page. The
Alerts and FREQ softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled only if one or more
frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Select the Nearest Airspaces Page.
2) Select the Alerts Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’,
and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Pressing the PFD Alerts Softkey displays the message window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts are
displayed in the message window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less than
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-7 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
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The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The function
does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the airspace. If the
current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is
shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace,
the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
Figure 5-60 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Group’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ in the ‘Group’ Box and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ field in the Aviation Map Setup Window.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace ‘On’ or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on either the MFD Controller or the
PFD, is quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The Direct-to Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
Figure 5-61 Direct-to Window - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-62 Direct-to Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the Direct-to Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan wayoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Any waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the Direct-to
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Active Flight Plan Window.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
Figure 5-63 Waypoint Submenu
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Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the
active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, or the Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD.
2) Select the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Any Nearest, Recent or User waypoint can be selected as a direct-to destination in the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the
default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
The Direct-to Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation.
If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active flight plan
waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page defaults to the
displayed waypoint.
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to
destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
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Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the Nearest Airports Page and press
the FMS Knob.
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no airport,
NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is automatically
created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, press the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the system resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
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Page Menu
- Cancel Direct-To NAV
- Hold At Present Position
Figure 5-64 Direct-to Window - Cancelling Direct-to Navigation
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the course field (‘Course’) on the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Highlight the course field.
3) Enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from the
aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint, or at the
specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior to the directto destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of a direct-to destination that is
part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on
Vertical Navigation for more information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
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Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ altitude field.
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key. The option to select MSL or AGL is now displayed.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now flashing in the VNV offset distance field.
7) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
8) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
9) Press the ENT Key to activate.
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Page Menu
- Clear Vertical Constraints
Figure 5-65 Direct-to Window - Clearing Vertical Constraints
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The system allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A roll steering path is a computed transition between two disconnected legs.
‡ A roll steering path in the flight plan that is beyond the next leg appears as a future roll steering path. When a future roll
steering path becomes the next leg in the flight plan, it appears as a roll steering path.
Table 5-8 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. One flight plan can
be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan is erased when the system is turned
off and overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
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When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Vertical Deviation
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-66 Active Flight Plan Page
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Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Figure 5-67 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
Figure 5-68 Flight Plan Catalog Page
The active flight plan is listed on the active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Active Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is shown
on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
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Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the small FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
3) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays
a blank Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information
Window with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or user
waypoints).
b) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The Set Runway Window is displayed with the Runway field highlighted.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway and press the ENT Key.
d) Press the ENT Key again to add the runway to the flight plan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the destination airport identifier field.
5) Select the destination airport and runway.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays
a blank Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information
Window with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or user
waypoints).
b) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The Set Runway Window is displayed with the Runway field highlighted.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway and press the ENT Key.
d) Press the ENT Key again to add the runway to the flight plan.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the the Enroute Headerm, an enroute waypoint, or the dashes below the
header. (If the header is selected, the new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or
the dashes are selected, the new waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item.)
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays
a blank Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information
Window with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or user
waypoints).
b) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu
of waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
8) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Select the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays
a blank Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information
Window with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or user
waypoints).
b) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The Set Runway Window is displayed with the Runway field highlighted.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway and press the ENT Key.
d) Press the ENT Key again to add the runway to the flight plan.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the destination airport identifier field.
6) Select the destination airport and runway.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays
a blank Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information
Window with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or user
waypoints).
b) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key. The Set Runway Window is displayed with the Runway field highlighted.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway and press the ENT Key.
d) Press the ENT Key again to add the runway to the flight plan.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the the Enroute Headerm, an enroute waypoint, or the dashes below the
header. (If the header is selected, the new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or
the dashes are selected, the new waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item.)
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays
a blank Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information
Window with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, or user
waypoints).
b) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu
of waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
8) Repeat step number 7 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
9) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to return to the Flight Plan Catalog Page. The new
flight plan is now in the list.
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Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “CANCEL” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Import/Export Softkeys
List of Flight Plans to Import &
Details for the Selected File
Import Successful
Figure 5-69 Flight Plan Import
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NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a flight plan to an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Import/Export Softkeys
Stored Flight Plan to be Exported &
Exported Flight Plan Name
Export Successful
Figure 5-70 Flight Plan Export
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Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Flight Stream 510 Bluetooth wireless
connection. Transfer of a flight plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device.
Previewing a flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight Plan pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
Or:
Select the Preview Softkey to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Preview Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
Ignoring a flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight Plan pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan will
still be available on the Flight Plan Catalog page.
Or:
Select the Ignore Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight
plan will still be available on the Flight Plan Catalog page.
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Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
Ignore Softkey
Preview Softkey
Figure 5-71 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Store? or Activate?
Selection
Delete Softkey
Activate Softkey
Store Softkey
Figure 5-72 Preview Flight Plan Page
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Storing a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
6) Select the Store Softkey to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store?’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Activating a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the Preview Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
4) Select the Activate Softkey. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
5) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to activate the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan becomes
the active flight plan and is removed from the Flight Plan Catalog Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
5) Select the Delete Softkey. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
Press the CLR Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan is removed
from the Flight Plan Catalog Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press
the ENT Key.
Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All Pending’.
5) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
6)
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With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select the
desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight plans are
limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of waypoints in
the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the
new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Softkeys
Figure 5-73 Stored Flight Plan Page
Flight Plan Full Message
Figure 5-74 Active Flight Plan Page - FPL Full
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Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the Flight Plan Catalog Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press
the ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window
with a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway
waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a Duplicate Waypoint
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
Figure 5-75 Duplicate Waypoints Window
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
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5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
1) Press the Joystick to activate the panning function on the Active Flight Plan Page and pan to the map location
of the desired user waypoint.
2) Select the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the end of
the active flight plan.
ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the desired
airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway entry point,
select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be loaded if there is a
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure.
The system also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on loaded flight plan waypoints.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of
Selected Airway
Figure 5-76 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and select the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select “Load Airway”. The Select Airway Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu
item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor
position).
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is
highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
Airway Exit Points
Available
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Figure 5-77 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
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Inserted Airway Header
- Airway Identifier: [airway
identifier].[exit waypoint identifier]
(e.g., V4.SLN)
Figure 5-78 Active Flight Plan Page - Airway Inserted
RESTRICTIONS ON ADDING AIRWAYS
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a directional
restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction.
For example, airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the
list of airway waypoints. That is, each waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to another
waypoint.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
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ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures section for more details.
Flight Plan Name
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
Load Departure Load Arrival Load Approach Activate Flight Plan
Figure 5-79 Stored Flight Plan Page
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DEPARTURE (DP)
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Departures Available at
KMKC
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-80 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Select the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Select the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The
Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
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Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Selected Runway
Selected Transition
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Departure Transition Points
Available
Selected
Departure End
Point
Figure 5-81 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
Inserted Departure Header
- Departure Identifier: [departure
airport]-[departure runway].
[departure transition].
[departure end point]
(e.g., KMKC-ALL.WLDCT2.SLN)
Figure 5-82 Stored Flight Plan Page - Departure Inserted
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ARRIVAL (STAR)
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Selected Runway
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-83 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Select the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Select the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The Arrival
Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
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Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
DBRY3
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-84 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Arrival Header
- Arrival Identifier:
[arrival airport]-[arrival transition].
[arrival].[arrival runway]
(e.g., KCOS-TBE.DBRY3)
Figure 5-85 Stored Flight Plan Page - Arrival Inserted
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APPROACH (APPR)
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by designating
transition waypoints.
Destination Airport
Selected
Approach
Approaches Available at
KCOS
Barometric Minimum
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-86 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach Channel field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
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5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Destination Airport
Selected
Approach
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Load?
Figure 5-87 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Inserted Approach Header
- Approach Identifier: [approach
airport].[runway and approach type]
(e.g., KCOS-RNAVGPS Y 35R LPV)
Figure 5-88 Stored Flight Plan Page - Approach Inserted
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FLIGHT PLAN STORAGE
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased when
the system is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored flight plan can be
viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
5) Select the Edit Softkey to open the Stored Flight Plan Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Selected Flight Plan
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
Stored Flight Plan Info
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
Figure 5-89 Stored Flight Plan Information
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight Plan Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
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ACTIVATE A FLIGHT PLAN
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the Activate Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Stored Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
COPY A FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows copying a flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without
affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating
a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the Copy Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
DELETE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
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3) Select the Delete Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN EDITING
The active flight plan or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the active flight plan affect
navigation as soon as they are entered.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows deleting an active flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by the
system.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
DELETING FLIGHT PLAN ITEMS
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
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4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
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7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the airway to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the white header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
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7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
CHANGING FLIGHT PLAN COMMENTS (NAMES)
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification
and sorting.
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Select the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-90 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Select the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
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4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the
current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
While flying a parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to will cancel the parallel track and fly direct-to the selected waypoint.
• Initiating a hold at the present position will cancel the parallel track and fly the holding pattern.
• Initiating a hold at a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is required to fly
to the hold waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the parallel track will be
resumed. Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be resumed upon exiting the hold.
Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a
result of the course change.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Active Flight Plan
prior to Parallel Track
Selecting Parallel
Track
Figure 5-91 Active Flight Plan Window - Selecting Parallel Track
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with the ‘Direction’ field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘Distance’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Parallel Track’ is
highlighted.
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5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
Offset Direction
Offset Distance
Activation Prompt
Figure 5-92 Parallel Track Window
Parallel Track Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Parallel Track
Original Track
Figure 5-93 Parallel Track Active
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation prompt
is displayed, but disabled. If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the
parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’. If the offset direction and distance
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results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp turn of more than 120 degrees), the status indicates
that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable
Invalid Route Geometry’). If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’). Parallel track is also unavailable for a
leg if there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active
Parallel track will be cancelled if the active leg changes to a leg where one of the preceding is true.
Activation of parallel track will apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that does not
meet the criteria for parallel track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track at the beginning
of that leg.
Subdued Prompt (Unavailable)
Unavailable Status
Active Leg Incompatible
Unavailable Status
Approach Active
Figure 5-94 Parallel Track Unavailable
Unavailable Status
Invalid Geometry
Offset Direction &
Distance Subdued
(Unavailable)
Cancel Prompt
Active Status
Figure 5-95 Cancelling Parallel Track
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Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The system allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently
used for navigation guidance).
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Select the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Current
Active Leg
Selected Destination
Waypoint
Activate Leg Softkey
Figure 5-96 Active Flight Plan Page - Selecting the Leg Destination Waypoint
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New Active
Flight Plan Leg
Confirmation Window
Figure 5-97 Active Flight Plan Page - New Active Leg
INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point.
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Select the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key.
The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be configured
to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan;
and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view, additional information is
displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and
Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Switching between leg-to-leg waypoint distance and cumulative waypoint distance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Select the View Softkey to display the CUM and Leg-Leg Softkeys.
3) Select the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or select the Leg-Leg Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Select the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Active Flight Plan Leg to Leg Distance
Active Flight Plan Cumulative Distance
Wide Softkey, Narrow Softkey, Leg-Leg Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-98 Active Flight Plan - Leg to Leg vs. Cumulative Distance
Switching between wide and narrow view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Select the View Softkey to display the Wide and Narrow Softkeys.
3) Select the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or select the Narrow Softkey to display the narrow view.
4) Select the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
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Active Flight Plan Narrow View
Active Flight Plan Wide View
Wide Softkey, Narrow Softkey, Leg-Leg Softkey, CUM Softkey
Figure 5-99 Active Flight Plan - Wide vs. Narrow View
COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Active Flight Plan
Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
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All Airways
Collapsed View
V4.SLN Airway
Expanded View
Figure 5-100 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The system displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user
waypoint at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The HOLD AT window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
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Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-101 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ window appears
with the course field highlighted.
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3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘Hold?’ instead of ‘Activate?’
when finished (MFD or PFD).
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the entry course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined
at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to wayoint is part of the active flight plan, the HOLD is inserted into
the active flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is
created.)
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the HOLD waypoint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the Direct To Window (PFD or MFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
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Hold At
Present
Position
Menu
Selection
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Activate Hold
Figure 5-102 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at the Aircraft Present Position
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To
Waypoint selection
Figure 5-103 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF,
CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The system system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute
and teminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a
direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a
linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
Enabled (valid data)
Cncl VNV Softkey
Figure 5-104 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Select the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the Active VNV Profile box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., HABUK)).
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Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Select the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is disabled.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and
time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TOD items
displayed in the Active VNV Profile box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually enabled. Vertical
guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to to any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Selecting the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass
flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Prior to VNV Direct-to
VNV Direct-To Softkey
After VNV Direct-to
VNV PROF Softkey
Figure 5-105 Vertical Navigation Direct-To
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Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
3) Select the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT) and/or flight
path angle (FPA) in the Active VNV Profile box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Select the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the Active VNV Profile box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database.
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Displayed Text
Examples
5OOOFT
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
White Text
Cyan Text with Pencil Icon
23OOFT
Cross AT 2,300 ft
Cyan Text
Temperature
Compensated
3OOOFT
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Figure 5-106 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
5OOOFT
Altitude calculated by the system estimating the altitude of the aircraft
as it passes over the navigation point. No white line above or below to
indicate a potential constraint.
5OOOFT
Altitude is designated for use in determining
vertical guidance. A pencil icon indicates manual
designation or manual data entry.
5OOOFT
Altitude retrieved from the navigation database. White line above or
below indicates the type of constraint, as shown in the preceding figure.
These altitudes are provided as a reference, and are not designated to be
used in determining vertical guidance.
The system cannot use this altitude in
determining vertical guidance because of an
invalid constraint condition.
Table 5-9 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
Altitudes associated with arrival and approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means the system
automatically uses the altitudes loaded with the arrival or approach for giving vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Note that these altitudes are displayed as cyan text up to, but not including, the FAF. The FAF is
always a “reference only” altitude and cannot be designated, unless the selected approach does not provide
vertical guidance. In this case, the FAF altitude can be designated.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the CLR Key.
The altitude is now displayed only as a reference. It is not used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed
altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude
to a non-designated altitude.
Designating a waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Designating a procedure waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
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Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest hundred. An
altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports. When a database altitude
restriction is displayed, the system allows entry of a different altitude when creating a waypoint, effectively
overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or
ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical
profile.
An altitude constraint is invalid if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle (6° down) or maximum vertical speed (-6000
fpm) to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
• The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS or GPS
SBAS approach)
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF.
Entering/modifiying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the system displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude
can be provided. The system also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude constraint that has been
edited.
Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude constraint?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
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Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is replaced by a system
calculated altitude, if available).
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APPRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using any
Procedures (PROC) Key.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and destination airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate”
is given. “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds
the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually intitiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Figure 5-107 Procedure Leg Identifiers
DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
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LOADING A DEPARTURE INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Departure Airport
Departure Preview
Departure Choices
Figure 5-108 Departure Selection
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Selected Departure
Loaded Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-109 Departure Loading
Viewing available departures at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
7) Press the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the Departure Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the DP Softkey. The Departure Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Sequence box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Departure Information Page Menu.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING A DEPARTURE FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active
flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING AN ARRIVAL INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘LOAD?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
Figure 5-110 Arrival Selection
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Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-111 Arrival Loading
Viewing available arrivals at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), select the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor moves
to the Transition box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
7) Press the INFO-1 Softkey or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
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Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the Arrival Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the STAR Softkey. The Arrival Information
Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the Transition box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Runway box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the Sequence box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information Page Menu.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
REMOVING AN ARRIVAL FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APPR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “Load” or “Load & Activate” is given (“Load &
Activate” is only available for the active flight plan). “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan
without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate
waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure available for quick activation when needed.
“Activating” also adds the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance
to the first waypoint in the approach.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels
according to the published chart. LNAV+V is an LNAV with advisory vertical guidance provided for assistance
in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is
displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. In all cases
where LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV minima are used. The active approach
service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
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HSI Annunciation
Description
LNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV minima
LNAV+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV minima. Advisory
vertical guidance is provided
L/VNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV/VNAV minima
(available only if (downgrades to L/VNAV (Baro VNAV) if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
LP
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima (downgrades
(available only if to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
LP+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
(available only if Advisory vertical guidance is provided (downgrades to LNAV if
SBAS available) SBAS unavailable)
LPV
RNAV GPS approach using published LPV minima (downgrades
(available only if to L/VNAV (Baro VNAV) if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
Example on HSI
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
Table 5-10 Approach Service Levels
LOADING AN APPROACH INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach Channel field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’ or ‘RAD ALT’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
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NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED
FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
Available Procedure Actions
Destination Airport
Loaded Procedures
Approach Preview
Figure 5-112 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Approach Choices
Loaded Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-113 Approach Loading
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Viewing available approaches at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group), press the APR Softkey. The Approach
Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Approach. The approach is previewed on
the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available approaches. Press the ENT Key to select the approach. The
cursor moves to the Transition box. The approach is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The cursor
moves to the Minimums box. The approach is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select minimums on or off. Press the ENT Key.
a) When minimums are selected on, the cursor moves to the minimum altitude field . Use the small FMS Knob
to select the altitude. Press the ENT Key.
b) If temperature compensated minimums was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Use the
small FMS Knob to select the temperature. Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the Sequence box. The
approach is previewed on the map.
Or:
When minimums are selected off, the cursor moves to the Sequence box. The approach is previewed on the
map.
7) Press the INFO-1 or the INFO-2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the Nearest Airports Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed with the transitions field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
a) To set ‘MINIMUMS’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT Key.
Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
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8) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure. The system continues
navigating the current flight plan until the approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected
final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
A previously loaded approach can be activated from the Procedures Window.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps above to select ‘Activate Vector-To-Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
2) Highlight ‘ACTIVATE VECTOR-TO-FINAL’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) From the Approach Loading Page, press the MENU Key. The page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate
Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to
a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
REMOVING AN APPROACH FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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MISSED APPROACH
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Press the Go-Around Button.
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6600ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,600 feet is reached. After reaching 6,600 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
MOGAL). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (MOGAL) to begin the missed approach procedure.
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-114 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the
aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied temperature
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is displayed in slanted text.
Activating temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Temperature Compensation Window is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the temperature at the <airport>. The compensated altitude is computed as
the temperature is selected.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the Temperature Compensation Window on the
MFD, or in the References Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for the system,
therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums.
Refer to the Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation to the
MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-115 Temperature Compensation
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CANCEL
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
ACTIVATE
COMPENSATION?
Highlighted
Figure 5-116 Activating/Cancelling Temperature Compensation
Compensated
Altitudes
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Figure 5-117 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
Cancelling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Temperature Compensation Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitude at the FAF is cancelled.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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5.9 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on manually entered fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining
fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Page
located in the AUX Page Group.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
Figure 5-118 Trip Planning Page
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure Time - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are from the
aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated Airspeed - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of information
is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated Altitude - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of information
is GPS altitude.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track - Desired Track is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints.
It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected,
then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current
leg being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to
and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the
last leg of the flight plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes
and are the local time at the destination.
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FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (Efficiency) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the current
fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (Total Endurance) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (Remaining Fuel) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (Remaining Endurance) - This value is calculated by taking
the time of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (Fuel Required) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel
flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow (Total Range) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density Altitude
• True Airspeed
The pilot may select Automatic or Manual page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs) mode. In
automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTs selection).
Selected Leg(s)
Selected Flight Plan NN -
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-119 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-120 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
Select the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Select the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) Select the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) Select the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the Departure Time field and enter the desired value. Press the
ENT Key. The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat
until all desired values have been entered.
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WEIGHT PLANNING
NOTE: All weight planning page data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds or 5 kilograms.
A/C Payload Calculator
Fuel Weight Calculator
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Weight Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Empty Weight Softkey
(selects Basic Empty Weight)
Figure 5-121 Weight Planning Page
Entering basic empty weight:
1) Select the Empty WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘Basic Empty Weight’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Pilot & Stores’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
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Entering the number of passengers:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Passengers #’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight.
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Cargo’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘Zero Fuel Weight’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo weights.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel on Board’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel Reserves’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
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When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated landing weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight.
• Estimated landing fuel weight = fuel on board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess fuel weight = estimated landing fuel weight - fuel reserves weight
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of six dashes:
• Estimated landing weight
• Estimated landing fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
WEIGHT CAUTION AND WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is displayed
in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the following
values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
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5.10 RAIM PREDICTION
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to calculate
a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic, 2.0 nm for enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal,
and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is
available nearly 100% of the time. The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a
specified date and time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival
date and time. Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. RAIM prediction must be initiated manually if there is concern over SBAS coverage at the destination
or some other reason that compromises navigation precision. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the
final approach course, the approach does not become active. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the
missed approach procedure must be flown.
RAIM Prediction Box
- Prediction Waypoint
- Arrival Time (ARV Time)
- Arrival Date (ARV Date)
- RAIM Status
RAIM Softkey
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
Figure 5-122 RAIM Prediction
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘Waypoint’ field is highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
4) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the departure waypoint; or select a waypoint from the submenu of
waypoints and press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
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5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘Compute RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Predicting RAIM availability at the aircraft present position:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The RAIM Prediction ‘Waypoint’ field is highlighted.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set WPT to Present Position’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knobs to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key with ‘Compute RAIM?’ highlighted to begin the computation.
Status of the RAIM computation for the selected waypoint, time, and date is displayed at the bottom of the
RAIM Prediction Box as follows:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’ - RAIM has not been computed.
• ‘Computing Availability’ - RAIM calculation is in progress.
• ‘RAIM Available’ - RAIM is predicted to be available.
• ‘RAIM Not Available’ - RAIM is predicted to be unavailable.
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) provides increased navigation accuracy when available. SBAS
can be enabled or disabled manually on the GPS Status Page.
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
Figure 5-123 SBAS Display - Active
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Enabling/Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the AUX-GPS Status Page.
2) Press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to disable SBAS. Press the ENT Key again to enable SBAS.
SBAS Status
SBAS SELECTION Box
- EGNOS Enable/Disable
- MSAS Enable/Disable
- WAAS Enable/Disable
RAIM Softkey
SBAS Softkey
(displays SBAS Selection)
(displays RAIM
PREDICTION)
Figure 5-124 SBAS Display - Disabled
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5.11 NAVIGATING A FLIGHT PLAN
The following discussion is an example of navigating a flight plan with the SBAS capable GPS system while the
system provides vertical guidance through descents. A lateral flight plan (LNAV) would be navigated in much the
same way, but would not include vertical guidance when the final approach course is active.
NOTE: The following example flight plan is for instructional purposes only. All database information depicted
should be considered not current.
The example is a flight plan from KMKC to KCOS filed using the TIFTO4 departure, various Victor Airways,
and the DBRY3 arrival with the transition at TBE. The flight plan includes an enroute altitude of 12,000 feet, an
RNAV LPV (WAAS) approach selected for runway 35R, and a missed approach executed at the Missed Approach
Point (MAP). A few enroute changes are demonstrated.
1) Prior to departure, the TIFTO4 departure, the airways, and the DBRY3 arrival at KCOS are loaded. See the
Procedures section for loading departures and arrivals. Note the magenta arrow in Figure 5-125 indicating the
active departure leg.
After takeoff, ATC assigns a heading of 240º.
2) Figure 5-125 shows the aircraft on the assigned heading of 240º. ‘TERM’ (Terminal) is the current CDI flight
phase displayed on the HSI indicating 1.0 nm CDI scaling.
Figure 5-125 Assigned Heading of 240º
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3) ATC now assigns routing to join V4. A heading of 290º is assigned to intercept V4. The aircraft turns to heading
290° as seen in Figure 5-126.
Figure 5-126 Assigned Heading of 290º
4) Enter V4 into the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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b) The desired entry point for V4 (TOP) must be entered. Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired
flight plan insertion point (SLN) as shown in Figure 5-127. When the V4 entry point (TOP) is inserted, it is
placed immediately above the highlighted waypoint (SLN).
Figure 5-127 Begin Adding V4 to the Flight Plan
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. Enter the desired entry point for
V4, Topeka VOR (TOP), as shown in Figure 5-128.
Figure 5-128 Entering V4 Entry Point
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d) Press the ENT Key. TOP is inserted into the flight plan as in Figure 5-129.
Figure 5-129 TOP Inserted into the Flight Plan
e) With SLN still highlighted as in Figure 5-129, turn the small FMS Knob clockwise. The Waypoint Information
Page is displayed and the LD AIRWY Softkey is now available.
f) Select the LD AIRWY Softkey to display the list of available airways for TOP as seen in Figure 5-130.
Figure 5-130 List of Available Airways for TOP
g) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight V4 in the list as seen in Figure 5-130.
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h) Press the ENT Key. The list of available exits for V4 is now displayed as in Figure 5-131.
Figure 5-131 List of Available Exits for V4
i)
If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to select the desired exit. In this case Salina VOR (SLN) is selected as in
Figure 5-131.
j)
Press the ENT Key. The selected airway and exit are displayed, and the prompt “Load?” highlighted as in
Figure 5-132.
Figure 5-132 Ready to Load V4
k) Press the ENT Key.
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l)
V4 is now loaded into the flight plan as shown in Figure 5-133.
Figure 5-133 V4 is Loaded in the Flight Plan
5) Making V4 the active leg of the flight plan.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ULNAZ. The TO waypoint of the leg is selected in order to activate
the leg.
c) Select the ACT Leg Softkey. The confirmation window is now displayed as in Figure 5-134. Note the TOP
to ULNAZ leg is actually part of V4.
Figure 5-134 Comfirm Active Leg
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d) Verify the displayed leg is the desired leg and press the ENT Key. Note in Figure 5-135, the magenta arrow
in the flight plan window and magenta line on the map indicating V4 is now the active flight plan leg. Note
the phase of flight remained in Terminal (TERM) mode up to this point because a departure leg was active.
Since a leg after the departure is now active, the current CDI flight phase is ENR (Enroute) and CDI scaling
has changed to 2.0 nm.
Figure 5-135 V4 Now Active Leg
6) The aircraft continues on heading 290º. When crosstrack distance is less than 2.0 nm, the XTK disappears from
the HSI and the CDI is positioned on the last dot indicating a 2.0 nm distance from the centerline of the next
course.
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7) As the CDI approaches center, the aircraft turns onto the active leg as seen in Figure 5-136.
Figure 5-136 Turn on to Active Leg
8) At SLN, Victor Airway 244 (V244) is intercepted. Turn prompts are displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box
as seen in Figure 5-137.
Figure 5-137 Turn to Intercept V244
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9) As seen in Figure 5-138, V244 is now the active flight plan leg.
Figure 5-138 V244 Now Active Leg
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10) At Lamar VOR (LAA) V263 is intercepted. See Figure 5-139.
Figure 5-139 WIZGE to LAA Leg Active
11) ATC grants clearance to proceed direct to the OPSHN intersection to begin the arrival procedure. ATC advises
to expect an altitude of 10,000 feet at OPSHN.
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to select OPSHN in the flight plan list.
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c) Press the Direct-to (
) Key. The Direct-to Window is now displayed as shown in Figure 5-140.
Figure 5-140 Direct To OPSHN
d) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the VNV altitude field as shown in Figure 5-141.
Figure 5-141 Enter VNV Altitude
e) An altitude of 10,000 feet is entered as requested by ATC.
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f) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the VNV offset field as shown in Figure 5-142.
Figure 5-142 Enter VNV Offset Distance
g) Enter the offset, or distance from the waypoint at which to reach the selected altitude. In this case, three
miles prior to OPSHN is entered. In other words, the system gives vertical guidance so the aircraft arrives
at an altitude of 10,000 feet three miles prior to OPSHN.
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h) Press the ENT Key twice to activate the direct-to. Note, in Figure 5-143, the magenta arrow indicating
the direct-to OPSHN after the offset waypoint for OPSHN. The preceding offset waypoint indicates the
offset distance and altitude that were previously entered. The remaining waypoints in the loaded arrival
procedure have no database specified altitudes, therefore, dashes are displayed. Keep the CDI centered
and maintain a track along the magenta line to OPSHN.
NOTE: If the loaded arrival procedure has waypoints with altitude constraints retrieved from the database
to be used as is, the altitude must be manually accepted by placing the cursor over the desired altitude, then
pressing the ENT Key. The altitude is now displayed as cyan meaning it is used by the system to determine
vertical speed and deviation guidance.
Figure 5-143 Direct-to Active
12) The aircraft is proceeding to OPSHN. The expected approach is the RNAV LPV approach to runway 35R, so it is
selected.
a) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
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b) ‘Select Approach’ should be highlighted as shown in Figure 5-144.
Figure 5-144 Procedures Window
c) Press the ENT Key. A list of available approaches for the destination airport is displayed as in Figure 5-145.
Figure 5-145 List of Available Approaches
d) Turn either FMS Knob to select the RNAV LPV approach for 35R as shown in Figure 5-145.
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e) Press the ENT Key. A list of available transitions for the selected approach is displayed as in Figure 5-146.
Figure 5-146 List of Available Transitions
f) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired transition. In this case, the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) at HABUK
is used.
g) Press the ENT Key.
h) Barometric Minimums
To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, and press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
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Figure 5-147 Barometric Minimums Set
i)
With ‘Load?’ highlighted, again press the ENT Key. The selected approach is added to the flight plan as
seen in Figure 5-148.
Figure 5-148 Loaded Approach
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13) Note the altitude constraints associated with each of the approach waypoints as seen in Figure 5-149. These
altitudes are loaded from the database and are displayed as cyan text, indicating these values are “designated”
for use in computing vertical deviation guidance.
Note: To no longer use the displayed altitude for calculating vertical deviation guidance, perform the
following:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired altitude.
c) Press the CLR Key.
d) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
After making the altitude “non-designated”, it is displayed as white text.
Altitude constraint values associated with the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and waypoints beyond the FAF
cannot be designated for vertical guidance. These altitude values are always displayed as white text, as in
Figure 5-149. Vertical guidance from the FAF and on to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) is given using
the SBAS GPS altitude source, therefore, the displayed altitude values are for reference only.
Figure 5-149 Vertical Guidance is Active to the FAF
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14) As the aircraft approaches OPSHN, it may be desirable to adjust the speed, or steepness of the upcoming
descent. The default Flight Path Angle (FPA) is -3.5 degrees and a required vertical speed is computed to
maintain the -3.5 FPA. To change the vertical flight path, perform the following steps.
a) Select the VNV PROF Softkey to place the cursor in the target vertical speed field (VS TGT) as shown in
Figure 5-150.
b) At this point, the descent vertical speed can be selected, or the FPA can be selected. Turn the large FMS
Knob to select the desired selection field, then turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired value.
Note the information now displayed in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ box. Also, note the offset waypoint (orange
box) and gray circle are now displayed on the map. The gray circle marks the Top of Descent (TOD). In this
example, vertical guidance is provided at the TOD that results in a -3.0 degree FPA descent to an altitude
of 10,000 feet upon reaching the offset waypoint.
Figure 5-150 Adjusting the Descent
c) Press the ENT Key.
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15) As seen in Figure 5-151, the aircraft is approaching TOD. Note the target vertical speed required to reach the
selected altitude. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and the Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) are
now displayed on the PFD as shown in Figure 5-152. When the aircraft is within one minute of the TOD, it is
annunciated as shown in Figure 5-152, and an aural alert ‘Vertical track’ will be heard.
Figure 5-151 Approaching Top of Descent (TOD)
Target Altitude
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Required Vertical
Speed Indicator
(RVSI)
Figure 5-152 VDI & RVSI Upon Reaching Top of Descent (TOD)
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16) Upon reaching TOD, a descent vertical speed is established by placing the VSI pointer in line with the RVSI as
shown in Figure 5-153.
Keep Vertical Deviation
Indicator Centered
Align Actual Vertical Speed
with
Required Vertical Speed
Figure 5-153 VDI & RVSI Showing Established Descent
17) Approaching the bottom of descent (BOD) as shown in Figure 5-154. Upon reaching the offset waypoint for
OPSHN, the aircraft is at 10,000 feet.
Figure 5-154 Approaching Bottom of Descent (BOD) at OPSHN Offset Waypoint
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18) The aircraft is approaching OPSHN. The upcoming turn and next heading are annunciated at the top left of the
PFD as seen in Figure 5-155. Initiate the turn and maneuver the aircraft on a track through the turn radius to
intercept the magenta line for the OPSHN to FSHER leg and center the CDI.
Figure 5-155 Turn to intercept OPSHN to FSHER Leg
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19) After passing OPSHN, the next leg of the arrival turns magenta as shown in Figure 5-156. The magenta arrow
in the flight plan list now indicates the OPSHN to FSHER leg of the arrival procedure is now active.
Figure 5-156 Tracking the OPSHN to FSHER Leg
20) The flight continues through the arrival procedure to FSHER. At a point 31 nm from the destination airport, the
phase of flight scaling for the CDI changes to Terminal Mode and is annunciated by displaying ‘TERM’ on the
HSI.
Annunciations for the upcoming turn and descent, as well as the VDI and RVSI, appear on the PFD as the flight
progresses.
21) The approach may be activated at any point to proceed directly to the IAF. After FSHER, ATC approves approach
activation. Manually activate the approach procedure:
a) Press the PROC Key.
b) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Approach’ as shown in Figure 5-157.
c) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Figure 5-157 Manually Activate Approach
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22) The active leg is now the course direct to HABUK iaf (see Figure 5-158).
Figure 5-158 Approach is Now Active
23) A descent to FALUR is in the next leg. Note the TOD point on the map. Annunciations for the upcoming turn
and descent, as well as the VDI and RVSI, appear on the PFD as the flight progresses.
Figure 5-159 Descending Turn to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)
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24) After crossing FALUR the next waypoint is the FAF. The flight phase changes to LPV on the HSI indicating the
current phase of flight is in Approach Mode and the approach service level is LPV. CDI scaling changes accordingly
and is used much like a localizer when flying an ILS approach. The RVSI is no longer displayed and the VDI
changes to the Glidepath Indicator (as shown in Figure 5-160) when the final approach course becomes active.
Figure 5-160 Descending to the FAF
The descent continues to the FAF (CEGIX) using the Glidepath Indicator, as one would use a glideslope indicator,
to obtain an altitude of 8,100 feet at the FAF (Figure 5-160).
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25) After crossing CEGIX, the aircraft continues following the glidepath to maintain the descent to “AT or ABOVE”
6,600 feet at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) (RW35R) as seen in Figure 5-161.
Figure 5-161 Descending to the Missed Approach Point
26) Upon reaching the MAP, it is decided to execute a missed approach. Automatic waypoint sequencing is
suspended past the MAP. Press the Go Around Button, or press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD, to resume
automatic waypoint sequencing through the missed approach procedure.
A Course to Altitude leg is initiated and the CDI flight phase now changes from LPV to MAPR as seen on
the HSI in Figure 5-162.
Figure 5-162 Missed Approach Active
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After reaching 6,600 feet, a direct to is initiated to ADANE, which is the Missed Approach Hold Point
(MAHP) as seen in Figure 5-163.
Figure 5-163 Direct To MAHP
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27) The aircraft continues climbing to “AT or ABOVE” 9,000 feet at ADANE. A holding pattern is established at the
MAHP (ADANE) as shown in Figure 5-164.
Figure 5-164 Establishing the Holding Pattern
28) The aircraft maintains 10,000 feet while following the magenta line through the hold as in Figure 5-165.
Figure 5-165 Hold Established
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5.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the system
stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the system
uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the system through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the
‘own aircraft’ symbol as shown in Figure 5-166. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI
slightly above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in Figure 5-166. The CDI deviation
bar remains, but is removed from the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled
in DR mode as long as the deviation info is available (20 min.) Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’
alert message appears on the PFD. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once
a valid GPS solution is restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in Figure
5-166.
Also, while the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the accuracy of
all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
Ground
Speed
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Wind Data
Course Deviation
Indicator
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Wind Data
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg, TAS,
and DTK are in
amber
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
Figure 5-166 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard avoidance features available for the G1000 are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69/69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
• GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
• Flight Information Services-Broadcast (Optional)
• GWX 68/70 Airborne Color Weather Radar
• L-3 Stormscope® WX-500 Lightning Detection System (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
• TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B)
• TAWS-A (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class A) (Optional)
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
• Garmin GTS 820/825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
• Garmin GTS 850/855 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) (Optional)
• Garmin GTS 8000 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) (Optional)
• L-3 SKYWATCH® SKY 497 TAS (Optional)
• L-3 SKYWATCH® HP SKY 899 TAS/TCAS I (Optional)
• Honeywell® KTA 870 TAS (Optional)
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6.1 SIRIUSXM WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
The optional GDL69/69A and 69/69A SXM is a remote-mounted data link satellite receiver. Differences
in the receiver models, where applicable, are discussed throughout this section; refer to appropriate aircraft
documentation to determine the receiver model installed in this aircraft. Received graphical weather information
and associated text is displayed on the Multi Function Display (MFD) and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset
Map. The GDL 69A and GDL 69A SXM can also receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services. Both
weather data and audio entertainment programming operate in the S-band frequency range to provide continuous
reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America.
Services from SiriusXM are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit www.
siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SERVICES
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s customer service
the coded IDs unique to the installed data link receiver. The SiriusXM Weather service has a coded Data Radio
ID. The Data Radio ID must be provided to activate the weather service. This ID is in the following locations:
• The AUX - XM Information Page on the MFD (Figure 6-1)
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
Contact the installer if the Audio and Data Radio IDs cannot be located.
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display weather data and/
or provide audio entertainment programming through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Press the Info Softkey to display the Aux - XM Information Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website, www.siriusxm.com.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and the desired weather product subscription package.
After SiriusXM has been contacted, it may take approximately 15 minutes until the activation occurs.
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Verifying the SiriusXM Weather service activation:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Select the Info Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
3) Observe the list of supported Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather
product; a green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several
minutes for weather products in the selected subscription package to become available.
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Satellite Radio)
Data Radio ID (for
SiriusXM Weather)
Weather
Products
(Available
Products for
Service Class
Indicated in
Green)
Select INFO
Softkey to
Display XM
Information Page
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USING SIRIUSXM WEATHER PRODUCTS
The principal map page for viewing SiriusXM Weather data is the Weather Data Link (XM) Page in the Map
Page Group. This is the only map display capable of showing information for all available SiriusXM Weather
products.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT or FIS-B) Page.
3) If the page title does not contain ‘(XM)’, it will be necessary to change the data link weather source to SiriusXM
Weather. Refer to the next procedure to change the source.
NEXRAD
Weather
Product Icon
and Age
(U.S.)
NEXRAD Weather
Product Selected
for Display
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Changing the data link weather source to SiriusXM:
1) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT or FIS-B) Page.
3) Press the MENU Key (Figure 6-3).
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’. Weather Data Link Page title and
softkeys change to correspond to selected data link weather source.
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Figure 6-3 Changing the Data
Link Weather Source
For each enabled SiriusXM Weather product, the system displays a weather product icon and product age.
The product age is the elapsed time (in minutes) since the weather data provider compiled the weather product.
The product age display does not indicate the age of the information contained within the weather product,
which can be significantly older than the displayed weather product age.
The weather product icon and age may be enabled/disabled on the PFD Inset Map.
Enabling/disabling Weather Product Information on the PFD maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the NEXRAD or METAR Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the Lightning Softkey.
b) Press the Datalink Softkey to enable/disable the display of SiriusXM Lightning.
c) Press the Back Softkey.
Enabling/disabling weather product age information on the PFD maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the Wx LGND Softkey to enable/disable the display of weather product age information.
The SiriusXM Weather service broadcasts weather products at specific intervals (defined in the Broadcast
Rate column in Table 6-1). If for any reason, a product is not refreshed within the Broadcast Rate intervals
(see Table 6-1), the system removes the expired data from the display, and shows dashes instead of the product
age. This ensures the displayed information is consistent with what is currently being transmitted by the
SiriusXM Weather service. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
changes to amber. If data for a weather product is not available, the system displays ‘N/A’ next to the weather
product symbol instead of the product age.
Table 6-1 shows the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates. The broadcast
rate represents the interval at which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not
contain updated weather products. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated
or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. SiriusXM and its weather data suppliers define and control
the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
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Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
15 (69/69A)
30 (69/69A SXM)
7.5
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
30
5
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
30
1.25
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
60
12
METARs
90
12
City Forecast (CITY)
90
12
Surface Analysis (SFC)
60
12
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
120
12
Winds Aloft (WIND)
90
12
County Warnings (COUNTY)
60
5
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
60
12
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
(ICNG)
90
22
90
12
90
12
180
12
30
60
60
5
12
12
SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
NEXRAD
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Air Report
(AIREPs)
Turbulence
(TURB)
Radar Coverage Not Available
TFRs
TAFs
No product image
No product image
No product image
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
+
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
+
SitiusXM Lightning (LTNG)
+
Cell Movement (CELL MOV)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
+
METARs
+
+
+
City Forecast (CITY)
+
Surface Analysis (SFC)
+
Freezing Levels (FRZ LVL)
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+*
+
+
County Warnings (COUNTY)
+
Cyclone Warnings (CYCLONE)
+
Icing Potential (ICNG)
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Trip Planning Page
+
Weather Information Page
Weather Data Link (XM)
Page
NEXRAD
Navigation Map Page
SiriusXM Weather
Product
PFD Inset Map/HSI Map
Table 6-2 shows which SiriusXM Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
maps.
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-2 Weather Product Display Maps
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WEATHER SOFTKEYS ON THE WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure
6-4 shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (XM) Page). When a weather product
is selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product is enabled.
Unavailable weather products have subdued softkey labels (softkeys are disabled from selection).
Cyclone
NEXRAD
Echo Top
CLD Top
XM LTNG
Cell MOV
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
SFC
FRZ LVL
Wind
ICNG
TURB
AIREPS
PIREPS
County
Back
Checklist
SFC Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
Wind/Icng/Turb Softkey labels
change to reflect current selection.
Off
Current
12 HR
24 HR
36 HR
48 HR
Select the Back Softkey
to move up one level.
Legend
Back
PREV and Next Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft,
Icing, and Turbulence altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
Off
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
36000
39000
42000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
1000
3000
6000
9000
12000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
39000
42000
45000
Next
Legend
Back
15000
36000
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Weather Product Softkeys
Displaying SiriusXM Weather products on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the INSET Softkey (in non-TCAS II installations) or the TRFC/MAP Softkey (TCAS II
installations).
2) If the PFD Inset Map is showing the traffic map, press the TFRC-2 Softkey to display the navigation map.
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3) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of SiriusXM Weather products on the
Inset Map.
4) To display or remove the weather product icon and age box for displayed weather products on the inset map,
press the WX LGND Softkey.
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (XM) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key (Figure 6-5).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-6).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-5 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Menu
Figure 6-6 Weather Data Link (XM) Page Setup Menu
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Restoring default Weather Data Link (XM) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (XM) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map
Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-7).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-8).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-9).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-7 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-9 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
Figure 6-8 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the XM Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the
FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Echo Tops
• METARs
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional Information on Weather
Feature Selected
with Map Pointer
METAR flag
selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-10 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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NEXRAD
NOTE: NEXRAD data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, icing, or turbulence data.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity image.
This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various altitudes. For radar
sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from the lowest antenna tilt angle,
known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes
and the type of precipitation, if known.
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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Displaying NEXRAD weather information:
1) Select the MAP Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the INSET Softkey). This step is not necessary on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown. All weather product legends can
be viewed on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page. For the NEXRAD legend (Figure 6-12), press the Legend
Softkey when NEXRAD is selected for display.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in gray shade of purple.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
• An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
• Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar beam
overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site, the radar beam
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is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any precipitation occurring
below the beam at this distance and altitude.
• At smaller map ranges, the smallest square block on the display represents an area of approximately
four square kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of radar
reflectivity sampled within the area.
• Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Weather Product at a 10 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless of
actual precipitation type.
• If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of actual
precipitation type.
No Coverage
Above 55°N
Precipitation Above
52°N Displays as
Mixed
Figure 6-14 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
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ECHO TOPS
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is displayed.
The Echo Tops weather product (Figure 6-15) shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest
radar echo. The highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the
highest altitude at which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Altitude for
selected Echo Top
Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
To display the Echo Tops legend (Figure 6-16), press the Legend Softkey when Echo Tops is selected for
display. Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are
removed.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-16 Echo Tops Legend
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CLOUD TOPS
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver is installed, the broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30 minutes. As with
all SiriusXM Weather products, the product age becomes amber when it reaches half of the expiration time,
which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops. Therefore, this weather product age may be amber during routine
operation.
The Cloud Tops weather product (Figure 6-17) depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite
imagery.
Altitude for selected
Cloud Top
Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Weather Product
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the CLD Top Softkey.
To display the Cloud Tops legend (Figure 6-18), select the Legend Softkey when Cloud Tops is selected for
display. Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Figure 6-18 Cloud Tops Legend
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SIRIUSXM LIGHTNING
NOTE: SiriusXM Lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as information
from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
The SiriusXM Lightning weather product (Figure 6-19) shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground
lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact
location of the lightning strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-19 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information on Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the XM LTNG Softkey.
To display the Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page (Figure 6-20), select the Legend
Softkey when SiriusXM Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-20 SiriusXM Lightning Legend
Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the XM LTNG Softkey.
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Displaying SiriusXM Lightning information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the Datalink Softkey.
4) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
CELL MOVEMENT
The Cell Movement weather product (Figure 6-21) shows the location and movement of storm cells as
identified by the ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement
indicated with short, orange arrows.
Storm Cells
Additional
information for
selected Storm Cell
Figure 6-21 Cell Movement Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated CEL MOV
softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69 SXM or 69A SXM data link receiver is installed.
In this case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
Displaying Cell Movement information on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Select the Cell MOV Softkey.
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To display the Cell Movement legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, (Figure 6-22), select the Legend
Softkey when Cell Movement is selected for display.
Figure 6-22 Cell Movement Legend
For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the NEXRAD
Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map Settings menu
of the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation maps:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When set to ‘On’, Cell Movement
is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement
is not displayed on navigation maps.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to remove the menu.
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling the
NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the NEXRAD
Softkey.
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition
occurring at a localized geographical position.
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver installed, the SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available
unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no
SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
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AIRMET for
Turbulence
AIRMET for
Icing conditions
AIRMET for IFR
conditions
SIGMET
Figure 6-23 SIGMET/AIRMET Weather Product
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-24 shows sample SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-24), press the Legend Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-24 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
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METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Additional Information on Weather
Feature Selected
with Map Pointer
METAR flag
selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-25 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information is displayed only in its original form when TAFs are available.
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Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the XM Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
Decoded
METAR
Text
Original
METAR Text
Original
TAF Text
Figure 6-26 METAR and TAF Information on the Weather Information Page
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To display the METAR legend (Figure 6-27) on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the Legend Softkey
when METARs are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the information available.
Figure 6-27 METAR Legend
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MF.D.
The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated with a METAR flag next
to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map pointer
is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on the map.
5) When finished, press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST
NOTE: Surface Analysis and City Forecast data are displayed only within the installed Aviation Database
service area.
Surface Analysis and City Forecast (Figure 6-28) information is available for current and forecast weather
conditions. Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
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Figure 6-28 Surface Analysis Data - 24-Hour
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the SFC Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey
label changes to show the forecast time selected.
Or:
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
To display the Surface Analysis and City Forecast legend (Figure 6-29), press the Legend Softkey when
Surface Analysis and City Forecast are selected to be displayed.
Figure 6-29 Surface Analysis Legend
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FREEZING LEVEL
The Freezing Level weather product (Figure 6-30) shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and
location at which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that
altitude has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears
when it becomes available.
Figure 6-30 Freezing Levels Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the FRZ LVL Softkey.
To display the Freezing Level legend (Figure 6-31), select the Legend Softkey when Freezing Level data is
enabled for display.
Figure 6-31 Freezing Levels Legend
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WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product (Figure 6-32) shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface
and at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up to
42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the Wind Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the Next or Prev Softkey
to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-32 Winds Aloft Weather Product with 27,000 Feet Selected
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-33), select the Legend Softkey when Winds Aloft is
selected for display.
Figure 6-33 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
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Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on the
Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-34). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and
track, but not to aircraft speed.
Track Mode
Boundary of VSD
Winds Aloft
information
Figure 6-34 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data in the VSD
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-3.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-3 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
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3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the VSD is enabled by default when the VSD is displayed on the Navigation Map
Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-35).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-36).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field. (Figure 6-37).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-35 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-36 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-37 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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COUNTY WARNINGS
The County warning weather product (Figure 6-38) provides specific public awareness and protection
weather warnings from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes,
severe thunderstorms, and flood conditions.
Additional information
for selected
Thunderstorm Warning
Tornado Warning
Flood Warning
Figure 6-38 County Flood and Severe Weather Warnings
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the County Softkey.
To display the County Warnings legend (Figure 6-39), select the Legend Softkey when County Warnings
are enabled for display.
Figure 6-39 County Warnings Legend
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CYCLONE
The Cyclone weather product (Figure 6-40) shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical
storms, and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of
DD/HH:MM.
Cyclone
Figure 6-40 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the Cyclone Softkey.
To display the Cyclone legend (Figure 6-41), select the Legend Softkey when Cyclones are enabled for
display.
Figure 6-41 Cyclone Legend
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver is installed, the Cyclone weather product is not available unless at
least one cyclone or tropical storm has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no
cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
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ICING (CIP & SLD)
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product (Figure 6-42) shows a graphical view of the current icing
environment. Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific
to aircraft type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time
of the analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the ICNG Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Select the Next or PREV Softkey to
cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selected.
Severe Icing Potential
Light Icing Potential
Moderate Icing
Potential
Supercooled Large
Droplet Threat
Figure 6-42 Icing Weather Product, 12,000 Feet Selected
To display the Icing Potential legend (Figure 6-43), press the Legend Softkey when Icing is selected for
display.
Figure 6-43 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE
The Turbulence weather product (Figure 6-44) identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude
air mass associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between
21,000 and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs, SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the TURB Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selection.
Severe Turbulence
Moderate Turbulence
Light Turbulence
Figure 6-44 Turbulence Weather Product with 27,000 Feet Selected
To display the Turbulence legend (Figure 6-45), press the Legend Softkey when Turbulence is enabled
for display.
Figure 6-45 Turbulence Legend
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PIREPS AND AIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) (Figure 6-46) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots.
When significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required
to solicit PIREPs. A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing
conditions, wind shear, and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
PIREP selected with
Map Pointer
Urgent PIREP
AIREP
Figure 6-46 AIREPs and PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the AIREPS or PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not present in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
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Decoded PIREP Text
Decoded PIREP Text
Figure 6-47 PIREP Text on the Weather
Data Link (XM) Page
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-48), press the Legend Softkey when PIREPs or AIREPs are
selected for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-48 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
TFRS
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where flight is
restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement,
natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on the
system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS),
and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
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Information for
selected TFR
Figure 6-49 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
Figure 6-50 Full Text for Selected TFR
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The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the TFR
product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-51).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-52).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting (Figure 6-53).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-51 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-52 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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6.2 GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext Weather products varies by region. For product coverage
information, refer to http://sites.garmin.com/connext.
The optional GSR 56 Iridium satellite data link receiver provides extensive weather information to the G1000.
The system displays graphical weather information and its associated text on the Multi Function Display (MFD)
and the Primary Flight Display (PFD) Inset Map.
The system provides weather information after the flight crew selects either a manual or automatic Connext
Data Request on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page on the MFD.
Garmin Connext Weather requires an active subscription to both the Iridium satellite telephone and Garmin
Connext weather data services. Refer to the Additional Features section for information on registering for Garmin
Connext services.
ACCESSING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
The principal map for viewing Garmin Connext Weather information is the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
in the Map Page Group (Figure 6-54). This is the only map display capable of showing information for all
available Garmin Connext Weather products. No weather data is displayed until the system completes the first
crew-initiated Connext Data Request.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (CNXT or XM or FIS-B) Page. If the page title
does not contain , continue with this procedure to change the data link weather source from SiriusXM to Garmin
Connext.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display Connext Weather’, then press the ENT Key. Page
title displays ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’.
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Weather Product
Age
Icon for enabled
Weather Product
Precipitation
Weather
Product enabled
Figure 6-54 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (After Connext Data Request)
When a weather product is selected for display on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, a box containing a
symbol for the product and its age (in minutes) are shown in the upper right (Figure 6-54). If weather data has
not been requested yet or is not available, ‘N/A’ is shown next to the product symbol instead of age. The age of
the weather product is based on the time difference between when the data was assembled on the ground and
the current GPS time.
The Garmin Connext weather service updates its available weather products either continuously or at specific
intervals, depending on the weather product. Refer to the Refresh Rate column in Table 6-4. The flight crew
determines when and how often to access the data from Garmin Connext.
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the defined Expiration Time intervals (see Table
6-4), the data is considered expired and is removed from the display. The age of the expired product is replaced
by dashes. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age changes to amber.
As an additional reference, the Garmin Connext Weather product symbol and age can be enabled/disabled
for display on the PFD Inset Map.
Enabling/disabling Weather Product Information on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey (or Map Opt Softkey in TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the WX LGND Softkey to display or remove weather product icon and age data when a data link weather
product is shown on the PFD Inset Map.
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Table 6-4 shows the Garmin Connext Weather product symbols, the expiration time and the refresh rates.
The refresh rate represents the interval at which the Garmin Connext ground-based infrastructure makes
available the most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rate at which new content
is received from weather sources.
NOTE: The availability of specific Garmin Connext Weather products varies by region. For product coverage
information, refer to http://sites.garmin.com/connext.
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
Radar Precipitation
(PRECIP)
30
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
60
30
Datalink Lightning
(DL LTNG)
30
Continuous
60
Continuous
90
Continuous
90
Continuous
90
Continuous
no product image
60
Continuous
no product image
60
Continuous
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Temporary Flight Restrictions
(TFRs)
Terminal Aerodrome Reports
(TAFs)
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take
between 3 and 10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
Table 6-4 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
Table 6-5 shows which Garmin Connext Weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on
specific maps.
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Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
+
Weather Information
Page
Weather Data Link
CNXT) Page
Precipitation (PRECIP)
Navigation Map Page
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
PFD Inset Map
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+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Datalink Lightning (LTNG)
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
+
METARs
+
Winds Aloft (WIND)
+
+
+*
+
PIREPs
+
+
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the Vertical Situation Display Inset Window when VSD is
enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-5 Garmin Connext Weather Product Display Maps
Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map. Figure
6-55 shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page. When a weather product
is selected for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray to indicate the product display is
enabled.
PRECIP
IR SAT
DL LTNG
SIG/AIR
Wind
METAR
Legend
More WX
Checklist
Back
PIREPS
WIND Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
Press the BACK Softkey
to move up one level.
PREV and Next Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft
altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
Off
SFC
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
33000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
36000
39000
42000
Next
Legend
Back
Figure 6-55 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Softkeys (MFD)
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The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-56).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-57).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, maximum map range settings,
etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-56 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
Figure 6-57 Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
If both Garmin Connext Weather and SiriusXM weather services are installed, customizing the display settings
for the corresponding weather products shown in Table 6-6 will result in identical settings for both services.
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
Precipitation
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD)
(PRECIP)
Cloud Top
Infrared Satellite
(CLD TOP)
(IR SAT)
SiriusXM Lightning
Data Link Lightning
(DL LTNG)
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
SiriusXM Weather Product
Table 6-6 Corresponding SiriusXM and Garmin Connext Weather Products
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-58).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-59).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-60).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-58 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-59 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-60 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
Each active weather product (with the exception of TFRs) has an associated legend which can be displayed
on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page. If no weather product softkeys are selected, the Legend Softkey is
subdued.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following can be displayed by panning over the display on the map:
• Infrared Satellite (IR SAT)
• METARs
• SIGMETs
• TFRs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
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Map Pointer on
METAR flag symbol
Additional
information for
selected METAR
Figure 6-61 Panning with the Map Pointer to get additional
information on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
The Connext Data Request Menu provides the flight crew with the options to define the requested weather
coverage area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or cancel
weather data requests. A ‘REQUEST STATUS’ window inside the menu shows the status of the Connext Data
Request.
Before a Connext Data Request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all
currently available Garmin Connext Weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field)
must be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window indicates ‘INVALID COVERAGE
AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a
flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
Manually Requesting Garmin Connext Weather information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-62).
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4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to show or hide a
green check mark to select one of more of the following coverage selections (Figures 6-63, 6-64):
• Present Position – Requests data based on current location.
• Destination – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded).
See the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one currently exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select
the desired flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘Remaining FPL’ to request weather data for the
remainder of the flight plan), then press the ENT Key.
• Waypoint – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘Diameter / Route Width’ distance field and turn the small FMS Knob
to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page without requesting
weather data.
Figure 6-62 Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page Menu
Figure 6-63 Connext Data Request Window
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Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-64 Garmin Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Data Displayed
During a Connext Data Request, the Request Status Window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”. Once
a connection is established, the Request Status Window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time Remaining:” with
an estimated data transfer time (either minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext Data Request Menu may
be removed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the data request will continue
to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between 1 to 4 minutes to complete
depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area, the amounts of weather activity present, and the
Iridium signal strength.
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext Weather products within the selected coverage area during
an initial Connext Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for display. On
subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs and TAFS) if it has
not expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and all graphical weather data
is transferred to the aircraft during every data request.
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At the completion of a successful weather data request, the Request Status Window indicates ‘OK’ if the
Connext Data Request menu is still within view.
Cancelling a Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Cancel Request’ field and press the ENT Key. The request status box
indicates ‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Automatic requests remain
enabled until the flight crew them, or the system power is removed. The Request Status Window indicates the
number of minutes or seconds until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
the automatic weather data requests will continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data
Request Window and its associated options will not be available in Reversionary Mode.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Update Rate’ field. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min), then press
the ENT Key.
6) The ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘Request Status’ Window
based on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext
Data Request.
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
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GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER PRODUCTS
PRECIPITATION
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain data.
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically, the
Garmin Connext Weather service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns
a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
Precipitation
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary of
weather data
request
Precipitation
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-65 Precipitation Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey (for PFD maps, press the Map/HSI or Map Opt Softkey). This step is not necessary
on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the PRECIP Softkey.
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The system displays either base or composite radar imagery, depending on the region.
Region
Radar Reflectivity Type
United States
Composite Reflectivity
Canada, Europe, Australia
Base Reflectivity
The base reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a single
antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the highest radar energy
received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the
intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
All weather product legends can be viewed on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page. For the Precipitation
legend (Figure 6-66), select the Legend Softkey when Precipitation is selected for display.
No radar coverage
Boundary of
weather data
request
Figure 6-66 Precipitation Weather Product Legend
The display of radar coverage is enabled active when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple. A white boundary line depicting the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request encloses the
precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
• Radar composite reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• An individual radar site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about
storms directly over the site.
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of radar data are viewable. Each block of radar information
represents approximately four square kilometers and depicts the highest level of reflectivity detected
within that area.
Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-67 Precipitation Weather Product at 10 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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INFRARED SATELLITE
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product (Figure 6-68) depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite
imagery. Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
Figure 6-68 Infrared Satellite Weather Product on the Weather Data Link
(CNXT) Page
Displaying Intrared Satellite information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the IR SAT Softkey.
To display the Infrared Satellite legend (Figure 6-69), select the Legend Softkey when the Infrared Satellite
weather product is selected for display.
Figure 6-69 Infrared Satellite Legend
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DATA LINK LIGHTNING
The Data Link Lightning (DL LTNG) weather product (Figure 6-70) shows the approximate location of
cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer
region. Neither cloud-to-cloud nor the exact location of the lightning strike is displayed.
If the aircraft is also equipped with the optional on-board lightning detection system, only one lightning
source may be enabled on a Navigation Map at a time.
Lightning Strikes
Figure 6-70 Data Link Lightning Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Data Link Lightning information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the DL LTNG Softkey.
To display the Datalink Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-71), select the
Legend Softkey when Datal Link Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-71 Data Link Lightning Legend
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the DL LTNG Softkey.
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Displaying Data Link Lightning information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the Datalink Softkey.
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is displayed as long as any portion of it is issued within the coverage area
of the Connext Data Request.
AIRMET for IFR
Conditions
AIRMET for Icing
AIRMET for
Turbulence
AIRMET for
Mountain
Obscuration
Figure 6-72 SIGMET/AIRMET Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the SIGMET
or AIRMET until the desired item is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-73 shows sample SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-73), select the Legend Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
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Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-73 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed aviation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud base heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an
airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and
other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the
report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Original METAR text
for selected METAR
symbol
Figure 6-74 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
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TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information is displayed only in its original form when TAFs are available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page, select the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
METAR Text
TAF Text
Figure 6-75 METAR and TAF Text on the Waypoint - Weather Information Page
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To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page (Figure 6-76), select the Legend
Softkey when METARs are selected for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. A gray METAR flag is displayed
when the METAR text does not contain adequate information.
Figure 6-76 METAR Legend
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MF.D.
The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated with a METAR flag next
to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map pointer
is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
3) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on the map.
4) When finished, press the Joystick to remove the map pointer.
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WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product (Figure 6-77) shows the predicted wind speed and direction at the
surface and at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3,000-foot increments from the surface up to
42,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the Wind Softkey.
4) Select the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the Next or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-77 Winds Aloft Weather Product with 24,000 Feet Selected
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-78), press the Legend Softkey when Winds Aloft is
selected for display.
Figure 6-78 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on the
Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-79). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and
track, but not to aircraft speed.
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Track Mode
Boundary of VSD
Winds Aloft
information
Figure 6-79 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on the VSD
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-7.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-7 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Enabling/disabling the VSD (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Select the VSD Softkey.
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Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on current state) and press
the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the VSD is enabled by default when the VSD is displayed on the Navigation Map
Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display on the VSD:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-80).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘VSD’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-81).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Winds’On/Off field. (Figure 6-82).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-80 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-81 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-82 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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PIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather encountered by pilots. A PIREP may contain
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Urgent PIREP
Selected PIREP
Figure 6-83 PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying PIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The PIREP text is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note
the original text may contain additional information not present in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to close the PIREP text window and return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT)
Page.
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PIREP age in hours +
minutes
Decoded PIREP Text
Original PIREP Text
Figure 6-84 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
To display the PIREP or AIREP legend (Figure 6-85), select the Legend Softkey when PIREPs are selected
for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-85 PIREPs Legend
TFRS
NOTE: Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) data from Garmin Connext is only available in the United States (not
including any U.S. territories.) Refer to http://sites.garmin.com/connext for product coverage information.
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where
flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law
enforcement, natural disasters., airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and
TFR data displayed on the system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from
Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
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Information for
selected TFR
Figure 6-86 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
Figure 6-87 Full Text for Selected TFR
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the TFR
product data is removed from the map.
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Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-88).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-89).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting (Figure 6-90).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-88 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-89 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-90 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the Request
Status Window.
Weather Request
Status Message
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to
reset.
Auto update retry: ##
Seconds
Connext Comm Error [1]
Connext Comm Error [2]
Connext Comm Error [3]
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors. Automatic
weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to resume automatic
updates.
The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred during the
previous request. Timer counts down until the next automatic request occurs.
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
A communications error has occurred with the GDL59 or GIA. The system should be serviced.
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [4] This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or the GDL 59 or a GIA
is off-line.
Connext Comm Error [5] This can occur if the GDL 59 is off-line or not configured, or the Iridium or Garmin Connext services
are not accessible. Check Iridium signal strength. If this error persists, the system should be
serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6] A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [7] A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal strength and re-send the data request.
Connext Comm Error [8] A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
Connext Comm Error [9] An error occurred while reading or writing data. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Login Invalid
Connext Server Temp
Inop
Connext Server Inop
Invalid Coverage Area
No Connext
Subscription
Reduce Request Area
Request Canceled
Request Failed - Try
Again
Transfer Preempted
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. Contact Garmin at 1-866-739-5687
in the United States or 913-397-8200, wait for the operator, and request Extension 1135 for
assistance.
The Garmin Connext Weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to return to
service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext Weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least one of the following: a
waypoint, a flight plan, or a flight plan destination. Verify at least one of the coverage options is
enabled (checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data request.
The system is not be currently subscribed to Garmin Connext services or the access code is incorrect.
Verify the access code. Contact Garmin at 1-866-739-5687 in the United States or 913-397-8200,
wait for the operator, and request Extension 1135 for assistance.
The size of the received weather data has exceeded system memory limits. Reduce the size of the
coverage area and issue another Connext Data Request to ensure all available weather data has
been received.
The user has cancelled a Connext Data Request.
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
The GDL 59 is busy. Retry request later.
Table 6-8 Abnormal Garmin Connext Data Request Status Messages
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GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER IN REVERSIONARY MODE
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD maps will be available for display (see Table 6-5 for a list of weather products and their associated
map availability).
If manual Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new weather data
will be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled
prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary
Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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6.3 FIS-B WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
The optional GDL 88 is a Universal Access Transceiver (UAT). It receives Flight Information Services - Broadcast
(FIS-B) weather data from a network of UAT ground-based transceivers (GBTs). The system displays FIS-B
graphical weather information and associated text on the Weather Data Link Page and on navigation
FIS-B weather data reception requires the aircraft being within range and line-of-sight of an operating GBT
broadcasting FIS-B weather data. Reception may be affected by factors including altitude or terrain.
Reception of FIS-B weather data occurs automatically without any pilot action. FIS-B broadcasts provide
weather data in a repeating cycle which may take approximately ten minutes to transmit all available weather
data. Therefore, not all available weather data may be available immediately upon initial FIS-B signal acquisition.
USING FIS-B WEATHER PRODUCTS
The primary map for viewing FIS-B Weather data is the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page in the Map Page
Group.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B, XM, or CNXT) Page.
3) If the page title displays a weather data link weather source other than ‘FIS-B’, such as ‘XM’ or ‘CNXT’, proceed
to the following steps to change the data link weather source.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Display FIS-B Weather’ and press the ENT Key. The page title will display
‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ to indicate FIS-B is now the selected data link weather source.
On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature, which includes
all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B Weather’, and press the ENT Key.
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Weather Product Ages
for SIGMET and AIRMET
Weather Products.
Figure 6-91 Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page with SIGMETs/AIRMETs Displayed
When a FIS-B weather product is active on a map, the age of the data is displayed on the screen to the right
of the product symbol (Figure 6-91). The age of the product is based on the time difference between when
the data was assembled on the ground and the current GPS time. Weather products are transmitted at specific
intervals (defined in the Broadcast Rate column in Table 6-9).
If for any reason, a weather product is not refreshed within the Expiration Time intervals (see Table 6-9), the
data is considered expired and is removed from the display. This ensures that the displayed data is consistent
with FIS-B broadcast data. If more than half of the expiration time has elapsed, the color of the product age
displayed changes to yellow. The system displays dashes instead of a product age when a product has expired.
If a weather product is not available or has not been received, the system displays ‘N/A’ instead of a product age.
Table 6-9 shows the FIS-B weather product symbols, the expiration times, and broadcast rates. The broadcast
rate represents the interval at which FIS-B GBTs broadcast new signals that may or may not contain new weather
data. It does not represent the rate at which weather data is updated or new content is received by the UAT.
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FIS-B Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
(Minutes)
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
90
5
90
10
90
10
60
5
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
No Radar Coverage
no product image
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
no product image
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
no product image
10
Table 6-9 Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
METARs
+
+
+
+
+
+
PIREPs
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs (SIG/AIR)
+
TAFs
+
+
+
+
+
+*
+
TFRs
+
Winds Aloft* (WIND)
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
AUX - Video Page
Weather Data Link
(XM) Page
+
AUX - Trip Planning
Page
Navigation Map Page
NEXRAD
FIS-B Weather Product
Weather Information
Page
PFD Maps
Table 6-10 shows which FIS-B weather products can be displayed (indicated with a ‘+’ symbol) on specific
maps.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
* Winds Aloft information appears inside the VSD Inset Window on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-10 FIS-B Weather Product Display Maps
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Softkeys control the display of weather information on most MFD pages and the PFD Inset Map (Figure
6-92) shows the weather product softkeys for the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page). When a weather product
is enabled for display, the corresponding softkey label changes to gray.
SIG/AIR
NEXRAD
METAR
Legend
More WX
US
RGNL
US/RGNL
Wind
Back
PIREPS
Wind Softkey label changes
to reflect current selection.
Press the Back Softkey
to move up one level.
PREV and Next Softkeys cycle through Winds Aloft
altitude selection softkeys.
PREV
Off
1000
1500
2000
3000
6000
9000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
12000
15000
18000
24000
30000
34000
Next
Legend
Back
PREV
Off
39000
45000
53000
Next
Legend
Back
Figure 6-92 Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Weather Product Softkeys
Maps besides the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map
Page.
Setting up and customizing FIS-B weather data for the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-93).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-94).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-95).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-93 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-94 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-95 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu,
Weather Group
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The menus
also provide a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling display of weather products.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-96).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’, and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-97).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-96 Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page Menu
Figure 6-97 Weather Data Link (FIS-B)
Page Setup Menu
Restoring default Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Weather Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’, and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-97).
5) If restoring an individual weather product setting to its default value, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
desired field to restore.
6) Press the MENU Key.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob if needed to highlight ‘Restore Selection Default’ (to restore only the highlighted field)
or ‘Restore All Defaults’ (to restore all products within the selected product group to their default settings), and
press the ENT Key.
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If multiple data link weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in Table 6-11 will result in identical settings for all services.
SiriusXM Weather Product
and Softkey
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar
Coverage
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
Garmin Connext Weather
Product
FIS-B Weather Product
Precipitation
(PRECIP) and No Radar Coverage
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar Coverage
Infrared Satellite
(IR SAT)
Garmin Connext Data Link
SiriusXM Lightning
Lightning
(XM LTNG)
(DL LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
(PIREPs)
Not Available
Not Available
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Table 6-11 Weather Data Link Map Settings Shared for Multiple Weather Data Link Sources
When a FIS-B weather product is enabled for display on the PFD Inset Map, the weather product information
box (with the product icon and age) can be displayed inside the PFD Inset Map.
Displaying/removing the weather product information box on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey in TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the WX LGND Softkey.
Each active weather product has an associated legend which can be displayed on the Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page. A weather product legend can also be displayed on the Navigation Map Page for active FIS-B
weather products displayed on that page.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Select the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) To remove the Legend Window, select the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
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Viewing legends for displayed weather products (on the Navigation Map Page):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the Legend Softkey (available if one or more FIS-B weather products are enabled for display).
4) To remove the Legend Window, select the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Additional information about METARs or TFRs can be displayed by panning over a METAR flag or TFR on
the map:
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Information for
selected TFR
TFR Selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-98 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
NEXRAD
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to FIS-B compiles
the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time
to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual
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images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD
weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for
maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-99 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the
Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
On the Weas, the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher
resolution, updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution, updated
less frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display on the same map.
When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display precedence where data is available,
and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional NEXRAD coverage area. On PFD maps,
only the combined option is available when NEXRAD is shown.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey. Each selection cycles though a coverage option as the softkey name changes (US,
RGNL, or US/RGNL.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey.
3) To change the type of NEXRAD displayed, press the MENU Key.
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4) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘CONUS’ (continental United States), ‘RGNL’ (regional), or ‘Combined’,
then press the ENT Key. This selection also affects the PFD maps.
8) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey (in TCAS II installations, press the Map Opt Softkey).
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD.
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received from
ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white hashed boundary
rectangle encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being displayed.
The system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this boundary area.
If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey enabled),
the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
No radar coverage
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-100 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather
Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the
information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed
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on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page. For the NEXRAD legend (Figure 6-101), select the Legend Softkey
when the NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
No radar coverage
Boundary of radar
coverage area
Figure 6-101 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar data
is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple.
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during initial FIS-B signal
acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system may display areas of no radar
coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is received. It may take up to approximately ten
minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when adequate reception is available.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional version
of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm tall. For the
continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5 nm wide by 5 nm
wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected within that area.
• The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of latitude.
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The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMETs (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMETs (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET can be displayed when significant
weather conditions are not widespread.
The entire SIGMET or AIRMET is shown as long as any portion of it is issued within the selected coverage
area of the Connext Data Request.
AIRMET for IFR
Conditions
AIRMET for Icing
AIRMET for
Turbulence
AIRMET for
Mountain
Obscuration
Figure 6-102 SIGMET/AIRMET Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
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Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. Figure 6-103 shows sample SIGMET text.
To display the SIGMET and AIRMET legend (Figure 6-103), select the Legend Softkey when SIGMETs and
AIRMETs are selected for display.
Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-103 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: The system will begin to display METAR flags as it receives reports; however it may take approximately
ten minutes for all available METAR and TAF data to be received over a FIS-B broadcast.
Aviation Routine Weather Reports or METARs typically contain current information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect routine hourly observations. An Aviation Selected Special Report or SPECI includes
the code “SPECI” in the report, and may be issued if critical information has changed after the issuance of a
METAR. The system displays colored flags at airports with report(s) available.
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METAR
Flag Selected
with Map
Pointer
Original text
for selected
METAR
Figure 6-104 METARs on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are predications of expected weather conditions for an area within
five statute miles of the center of an airport’s runway complex. The National Weather Service issues scheduled
TAFs four times each day, and additional amended TAFs if conditions warrant. TAFs typically span a forecast
period of 24 hours, but may be scheduled for a longer period. TAFs may include forecast wind, visibility,
significant weather phenomena, and sky conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are available on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information, when available, appears only in its original text.
Displaying METAR and TAF text:
1) On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
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3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
Decoded METAR
Text
Original METAR
Text
Original TAF Text
Figure 6-105 METAR and TAF Information on WPT - Weather Information Page
Original METAR text is also accessible while panning the map cursor over a METAR flag on any map page
on which a METAR is displayed. The METAR text is shown in a box near the METAR flag.
In addition, METAR flags and their associated text are displayed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
METAR flags appears next to waypoints in the flight plan with an associated METAR. A solid METAR flag
indicates the METAR observations are available for specific waypoint; a hollow METAR flag indicates an offroute METAR is available near the waypoint.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint. The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected
Waypoint Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page (Figure 6-106), select the Legend
Softkey when METARs are selected for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the METAR text does not contain adequate classification information.
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Figure 6-106 METAR Legend
WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT
The Winds and Temperatures Aloft weather product (Figure 6-107) shows the predicted temperature,
wind speed and direction at selected altitudes. Winds and temperatures aloft are available in various altitudes
between 1,000 feet and 53,000 feet MSL.
Displaying Winds Aloft information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Wind Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired altitude. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to cycle through the altitude softkeys.
A cyan indication appears on the Wind Softkey to show the selected winds aloft altitude.
Figure 6-107 Winds Aloft Weather Product with 24,000 Feet Selected
To display the Winds Aloft legend (Figure 6-108), select the Legend Softkey when Winds Aloft is
selected for display.
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Figure 6-108 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available in the VSD Inset Window on the Navigation Map
Page (Figure 6-109). The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to
aircraft speed.
Track Mode
Boundary of VSD
Winds Aloft
information
Figure 6-109 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data in the VSD
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right, as
shown in Table 6-12.
Headwind
Symbol
Tailwind
Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind
Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-12 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
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Enabling/disabling the VSD (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the Inset Softkey.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on current state) and press
the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the VSD Inset Window is enabled by default when the VSD is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display in the VSD:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Settings highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-110).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the VSD Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-111).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Winds’ (Figure 6-112).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-110 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-111 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-112 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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PIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) describe in-flight weather encountered by pilots. A PIREP may contain
adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, turbulence, and type
of aircraft flown. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Urgent PIREP
PIREP selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-113 PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
Displaying PIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS Softkey.
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The PIREP text is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note
the original text may contain additional information not shown in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to close the PIREP text window and return to the Weather Data Link (FIS-B)
Page.
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PIREP Age in
Hours + Minutes
Decoded PIREP Text
Original PIREP Text
Figure 6-114 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
To display the PIREP legend (Figure 6-115), select the Legend Softkey when PIREPs are selected for display.
The PIREP color is determined by the report type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-115 PIREPs Weather Product Legend
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TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
to designate areas where flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including
national security, law enforcement, natural disasters, airshows, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued
at any time, and TFR data displayed is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from
Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
Information for
selected TFR
Figure 6-116 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
Information Window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the Information Window.
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Figure 6-117 Full Text for Selected TFR
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the TFR
product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for navigation maps:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Settings highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-118).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-119).
5) Turn the large FMS knob to highlight the TFR On/Off setting.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-118 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-119 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-120 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the AUX - ADS-B Status
Page.
Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - ADS-B Status Page.
Figure 6-121 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page Item
FIS-B Weather Status:
FIS-B Processing
Weather Products:
AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD
METAR
METAR GRAPHICAL
NOTAM/TFR
PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD
SIGMET
TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
Status
Message
ENABLED
DISABLED
---------------AVAILABLE
Description
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process and display FIS-B weather
products.
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled.
No data received from the GDL 88 UAT.
FIS-B weather data is available for display for the weather product.
NOT AVAILABLE FIS-B weather data is not available for the weather product, and/or the system is
not receiving the FIS-B weather service.
AWAITING DATA The system is receiving the FIS-B weather service, and is waiting to receive the
weather product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
Table 6-13 AUX-ADS-B Status Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
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6.4 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a four-color digital pulsed radar with 6.5 kilowatts
of output power. It combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The pulse width is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except the 2.5 nm range. The GWX 68 uses a
one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing together on the display for better target definition
at close range.
The Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed radar with forty watts of output
power. The radar combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The GWX 70 has an effective pulse length of 27.31 microseconds (µs), and the system optimizes the
pulse length to maximize resolution at each range setting.
Differences between the GWX 68 and GWX 70 are discussed throughout this section, where applicable.
The KingAir 200/B200 Series uses a 12-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º
of pitch and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles. A
vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell buildup activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH™ (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range
cell activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation
(or large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
If a GWX 70 is installed, the following features may also be available:
• Altitude-Compensated Tilt (ACT) management, which automatically adjusts the antenna tilt angle as the
aircraft altitude changes.
• Independent weather radar scans for each PFD HSI Map while the aircraft is in the air.
• Optional Turbulence Detection presents areas of turbulence associated with precipitation using Doppler
measurements.
• Optional Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS), to remove ground clutter from the displays.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving. The system processes the returned signal and displays it on the MFD.
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Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for entering areas of severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Airborne weather radar detects rain or hail, not clouds or mist. The display
may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly between
them. The GWX 68 cannot detect turbulence. The GWX 70, if equipped with the optional Turbulence Detection
feature, can detect turbulence associated with precipitation. Neither airborne weather radar can detect clear
air turbulence.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The figure below depicts a radar
beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the same holds
true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that it is possible to
miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the antenna tilt set
to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
8°
0
0
15
Half Power at
s
Beam Sidelobe
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-122 Radar Beam from a 12 inch Antenna
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The curvature of the Earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings
of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
320 nm
Figure 6-123 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the radar system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH™ feature can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas in question appear as shadowed or
gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount of
wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the Earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
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signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog or
drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
Figure 6-124 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
Ground Returns
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well-defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
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Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
Figure 6-125 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the
semicircular area of at least 12 feet from the 12-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this
zone. This recommendation slightly exceeds the calculation methods defined in Advisory Circular 2068B. With a scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly
reduced.
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MPEL
Boundary
12’ for 12”
antenna
Figure 6-126 MPEL Boundary
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes of 2,000 feet AGL or higher. If the displayed target advances on the screen to within 5 nautical
miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000 feet or less below the
aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help separate ground returns from weather returns in relatively
flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground. Return the antenna tilt to the
previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles. This is
likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
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4000
3000
Change in Antenna Tilt
2000
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
10 nm
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for possible
threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals 100 feet of
altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-127 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with
the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet;
at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being
displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. When the ground target
return moves to 5 nm, maximum distance below the aircraft is 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the airborne weather radar. There are many
other factors to consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT (ACT)
The Altitude Compensated Tilt feature of the GWX 70 enables the system to automatically adjust the
antenna beam tilt angle setting based on aircraft altitude changes. For example, if the ACT feature is enabled
and the aircraft climbs, the system compensates by adjusting the tilt downward. As the aircraft descends with
ACT enabled, the system adjusts the antenna tilt upward.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
Weather Mode Color
Intensity
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
Approximate
Precipitation Rate (in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
Magenta
50 dBZ and greater
>2
Table 6-14 Precipitation Intensity Levels in Weather Mode (GWX 68)
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NOTE: The color magenta only represents turbulence when the turbulence detection option is installed.
Weather Mode Color
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
(Optional)
Approximate
Precipitation Rate (in/hr.)
< 23 dBZ
< .01
23 dBZ to < 33 dBZ
.01 - 0.1
33 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
0.1 - 0.5
41 dBZ and greater
greater than 0.5
TURB- (Optional) Turbulence Detection uses the color magenta
to show areas of rain or hail that may also contain turbulence
Intensity (in dBz)
Table 6-15 Precipitation Intensity Levels in Weather Mode (GWX 70)
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation.
Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-128 Cell Irregularities
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Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-129 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
The Blind Alley at Close Range
Figure 6-130 The Blind Alley
The Large Storm Behind
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (9 in the southern hemisphere), especially
if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern hemisphere) of
a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
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These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 12 feet of the antenna.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
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Antenna Stabilization Status
Weather Radar
Mode
Altitude Compensated Tilt
Status
Antenna Tilt Angle,
Bearing, Sector Scan
and Gain Settings
Figure 6-131 Weather Radar Page with a Horizontal Scan Selected
Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the Mode Softkey.
3) While on the ground, select the Standby Softkey. For the GWX 68 only, a one-minute warm-up period is
initiated (countdown is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar enters the Standby
Mode. The warm-up period is not applicable to the GWX 70.
a) Select the Weather Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
Figure 6-132 Confirming Activating Radar
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
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If the aircraft is airborne, select the Weather Softkey. For the GWX 68 only, a one-minute warm-up period is
initiated (countdown is displayed on the screen). After the warm-up is complete, the radar begins transmitting.
The warm-up period is not applicable to the GWX 70.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed. If desired, select the Vertical Softkey to change to vertical scanning.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, select the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
Bearing Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-133 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
4) Select the Vertical Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is now displayed (Figure 6-134).
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, select the Horizon Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
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The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
Figure 6-134 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the TILT field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
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Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Select the Tilt Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line.
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
Tilt Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-135 Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle on a Vertical Scan Display
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Enabling/disabling manual gain adjustment:
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Select the Gain Softkey to activate the cursor in the Gain field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the Gain field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Select the Gain Softkey again to return to the calibrated gain setting. ‘Calibrated’ is displayed in the Gain field.
Calibrated Gain Setting
Manual Gain Set Greater than Calibrated Gain Setting
Figure 6-136 Gain Calibration
Enabling/disabling Sector Scanning:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, select the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
BEARING field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Sector Scan field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired scan. Selecting ‘Full’ enables a 90º scan (GWX 68) or 120º
scan (GWX 70).
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6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
7) Select the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
Figure 6-137 40° Sector Scan
Antenna Stabilization
When radar stabilization is active, the radar tilt is corrected for pitch and roll, and therefore is kept steady
with respect to an earth fixed reference. The commanded tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the
earth. When the stabilization is turned off, corrections are no longer made for pitch and roll, and the radar
tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the aircraft reference system.
Enabling/disabling antenna stabilization:
1) On the Weather Radar Page, select the Mode Softkey.
2) Select the STAB Softkey to enable/disable antenna stabilization. The current stabilization condition is, ‘STAB
ON’ or ‘STAB OFF’ is shown in the upper right of the Weather Radar Page.
TURBULENCE DETECTION
The optional Turbulence Detection feature, available with the GWX 70, identifies areas of turbulence
associated with precipitation using the color magenta during a horizontal scan. These magenta areas represent
precipitation moving at a high rate of speed either toward or away from the radar antenna, using Doppler
radar measurements. This feature cannot detect areas of Clear Air Turbulence.
The Turbulence Detection feature is only available in Weather Mode while a horizontal scan is selected.
The system can detect turbulence up to 40 nm in front of the the aircraft. At radar ranges of less than 200
nm, the system displays turbulence information when the feature is enabled. While Turbulence Detection
is enabled, if the radar range is 200 nm or greater, or a vertical scan is selected, the system automatically
removes turbulence information and shows a ‘TURB Detection Inactive’ annunciation on the Weather Radar
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Page and the Turbulence Detection Button is subdued on the Touchscreen Controller. If the system is
missing information needed to detect turbulence, a ‘TURB Detection Unavailable’ annunciation appears on
the Weather Radar Page (Table 6-18).
Enabling/Disabling Turbulence Detection during a Horizontal Scan:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page.
2) To activate or deactivate the turbulence detection feature, select the TURB Softkey. Turbulence detection is
enabled when the softkey annunciator is green; turbulence detection is disabled when the softkey annunciator
is gray. The system indicates the current turbulence detection feature status in the upper right of the Weather
Radar Page (Table 6-18).
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH™)
While in horizontal scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies
in displayed intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The
radar energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation,
and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy
of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions
with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the
extent of attenuation in a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH feature, select the WATCH Softkey.
Areas of Attenuated Signal
Precipitation
intensity is
questionable.
Potentially
stronger than
displayed
Figure 6-138 Horizontal Scan with WATCH Enabled
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REMOVING GROUND CLUTTER
With the GWX 70 and the optional Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) feature, the system can distinguish
between reflected ground returns (such as terrain features and buildings) and airborne weather phenomena.
Ground clutter may be most pronounced when using a low antenna tilt angle, or when approaching
mountainous terrain.
The Ground Clutter Suppression feature is available while the weather radar Sector Scan is set to Full.
When Ground Clutter Suppression is enabled, the system removes echoes determined to be ground clutter
from the display. While viewing a map with GCS enabled, adjustment of the map range or antenna tilt angle
will momentarily cause the display of ground clutter to return.
NOTE: The GCS feature of the airborne weather radar may remove the display of low-intensity precipitation
in addition to ground returns when the feature is enabled.
Enabling/disabling Ground Clutter Suppression:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page.
2) Select the Mode Softkey.
3) To enable or disable the ground clutter suppression feature, select the GCS Softkey. Ground clutter suppression
is enabled when the softkey annunciator is green; ground clutter suppression is disabled when the annunciator
is gray.
Weather Alert
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alerts are displayed as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is enabled
on the Weather Radar Page, the system also displays an alert on the PFD in the Alerts Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey.
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Weather Alert Bands
Figure 6-139 Weather Alert Bands on the Weather Radar Page
To enable or disable the Weather Alert Bands and the Weather Alerts which appear in the Alerts Window
on the PFD, select the WX ALRT Softkey.
Figure 6-140 Weather Alert on PFD
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
Gain and Tilt Softkeys help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
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Ground Map
Mode Color
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
Table 6-16 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operation in Ground Map Mode:
1) Select the Mode Softkey.
2) Select the Ground Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Select the Back Softkey.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Tilt field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ADDITIONAL WEATHER RADAR DISPLAYS
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Airborne weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page. For the
GWX 70 only, the airborne weather radar is also available on the HSI Map with independent weather radar
controls for each PFD, allowing for different settings and modes for each PFD.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled on a navigation map, a weather radar information box
appears on the map. It indicates the selected radar mode, radar range, antenna tilt angle, and gain setting. The
navigation map overlay uses a horizontal scan. For the GWX 68 only, the weather radar must be in horizontal
scan mode on the Weather Radar Page in order for the weather radar to display data on the Navigation Map
Page, otherwise the system indicates ‘N/A’ in the information box until horizontal scan mode is selected on the
Weather Radar Page. The GWX 70 allows either horizontal or vertical scan to be selected on the Weather Radar
Page, and shows a horizontal scan on the navigation maps with the weather radar overlay.
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Weather Radar Mode
Weather Radar Range
Antenna Tilt Angle
Gain Setting
Scan Line
Tilt and
Bearing
Legend
Figure 6-141 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the WX Radar Softkey.
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the ‘Weather Radar’ overlay
selection (‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range, bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges between 1.5
and 500 nautical miles. At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the weather radar information
from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously adjusts the range of the weather
radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated in the weather radar information box that appears when
the overlay is enabled. When the radar range is adjusted on the Navigation Map Page, system synchronizes the
same range to the Weather Radar Page.
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The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the Navigation Map Page using the Joystick
when the overlay is enabled. The bearing line appears on the Navigation Map Page as a white dashed line, and
is displayed during and momentarily after adjustment.
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page using the
Joystick. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna tilt
angle.
Adjusting the bearing and antenna tilt angle on the Navigation Map Page:
1) With the weather radar overlay enabled, push the Joystick twice. The bearing and tilt legend is displayed.
2) Move the Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick up to adjust the
antenna tilt angle upward.
3) Move the Joystick left or right to adjust the bearing line in the desired direction. The bearing line is displayed
during and momentarily after adjustment.
If a GWX 70 is installed and the aircraft is in the air, PFD softkeys control the airborne weather radar overlay
when the HSI Map is displayed. These softkeys are subdued if the aircraft is on the ground. The pilot and
copilot can select a weather radar mode for each PFD (Off, Standby, Weather, Ground), make adjustments to
antenna gain, antenna tilt angle, or enable/disable antenna stabilization or Altitude Compensated Tilt features.
Weather radar settings on the HSI Map are independent for each PFD. For example, the pilot’s PFD may have
Weather Mode selected while the copilot’s PFD may have Standby Mode selected. The GWX 70 weather radar
performs multiple scans as necessary to accommodate displays of weather radar data among the PFDs and MFD.
Controlling of weather radar information on the HSI Map:
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
2) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey (in TCAS II installations, press the Map Opt Softkey).
3) Press the Wx Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
4) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
5) To select a weather radar mode, press the Mode SEL Softkey
a) Press a softkey for the desired mode: Off, Standby, Weather, or Ground. The selected mode only affects
the PFD on which the softkey is selected.
b) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
6) Press the Gain- Softkey to decrease the gain setting or press the Gain+ Softkey to increase the gain setting in
increments of 0.5 with each press, or press and hold the softkey for continuous adjustment. A gain setting of
0.0 is equivalent to the calibrated gain setting.
7) Move the PFD Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick down to adjust
the antenna tilt angle upward.
8) Press the STAB Softkey to enable/disable antenna stabilization feature.
9) Press the ACT Softkey to enable/disable the Altitude Compensated Tilt feature.
10) When finished adjusting the HSI Map display of the airborne weather radar, press the Back Softkey.
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The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate the
intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert bands
is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and relative terrain present
information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the navigation amps disables
the display of the data link radar and relative terrain information for this page.
SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. Additional
information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a center banner annunciation. Refer to
the following tables for a list of annunciations and their locations for airborne weather radar.
Radar Feature
Status
Annunciations
Radar Mode
Annunciation
Center Banner
Annunciation
Figure 6-142 Radar System Status Indications on Weather Radar Page
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Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
GROUND
OFF
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
* See Table 6-19 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-17 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
The system displays the status of the weather radar features in the upper-right corner of the Weather Radar
Page.
Radar Feature Status
STAB ON
STAB OFF
STAB INOP
ALTITUDE COMP TILT ON
ALTITUDE COMP TILT OFF
GND CLTR SUPPRESS ON
GND CLTR SUPPRESS OFF
GND CLTR SUPPRESS INACTIVE
GND CLTR SUPPRESS UNAVAILABLE
TURB DETECTION ON
TURB DETECTION OFF
TURB DETECTION INACTIVE
TURB DETECTION UNAVAILABLE
Description
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The antenna
stabilization feature is inoperative.
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected on.
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected off.
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected on.
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected off.
The ground clutter suppression feature is enabled, but the radar is in a
mode which cannot support ground clutter suppression (e.g. vertical scan
or sector scan).
The radar is missing data needed to suppress ground clutter.
The turbulence detection feature is selected on.
The turbulence detection feature is selected off.
Turbulence detection is inactive when map range is greater than 160 nm,
or radar is in a mode which cannot support turbulence detection.
The radar is missing data needed to detect turbulence.
Table 6-18 Radar Feature Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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If the weather radar unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center
of the Weather Radar Page.
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Description
Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system
RADAR FAIL
should be serviced.
Table 6-19 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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6.5 STORMSCOPE
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as lightning
information from data link lightning sources.
The Map - Stormscope Page is the principal map page for viewing Stormscope data. The following pages can
also display Stormscope data as an additional reference:
• PFD Inset Map
• Navigation Map
• AUX - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest Pages
Displaying Stormscope information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the STRMSCP Softkey.
Displaying Stormscope information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey (in TCAS II installations, press the Map Opt Softkey.)
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
Lightning Age
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-20 Lightning Age and Symbols
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SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected (Figure 6-143), press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections (Figure 6-145).
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page (Figure 6-146).
The following options are available (Figure 6-145):
• Stormscope On/Off field – Enables/disables the display of Stormscope lightning symbols.
• Stormscope maximum display range – Selects the maximum map range to display Stormscope symbols.
Stormscope data is removed when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
• Stormscope Mode – Selects the Cell or Strike mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters or
cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
Figure 6-143 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-144 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity. Stormscope identifies clusters of
electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Mode field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘Cell’ and ‘Strike’ options. When the desired item is selected, press
the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Stormscope Navigation Map
Overlay Enabled Icon
Figure 6-146 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope Lightning Overlay Enabled
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn. This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
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Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’ (Figure 6-147).
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-147 Navigation Map Page Menu
ZOOM RANGE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Stormscope lightning data can be displayed up to 800 nm zoom range (in North Up orientation) on the
Navigation Map Page. However, in Track Up orientation at the 500 nm range, a portion of Stormscope lightning
data can be behind the aircraft and therefore not visible on the Navigation Map. Since the range for Stormscope
data is 400 nm diameter total (200 nm in front and 200 nm behind), the 500 nm range in North Up orientation
shows all the data.
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the select the ‘Weather’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope maximum map display range distance.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope maximum map display range distance.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map
range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
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USING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
On the Stormscope Page, lightning information can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm,
and 200 nm.
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Figure 6-148 Stormscope Page with Cell Mode Selected
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Selecting ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the Mode Softkey. The Cell and Strike softkeys are displayed.
3) Select the Cell Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or select the Strike Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper right corner of the Stormscope Page.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level softkeys for the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Stormscope Page Menu. Either ‘Cell Mode’ or ‘Strike Mode’ is highlighted
in cyan to indicate the mode to be selected.
3) Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode and remove the menu. To remove the menu without changing
modes, press the MENU Key or the CLR Key, or push the FMS Knob.
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn . This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays on the system.
Manually clearing Stormscope cell or strike information:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the Clear Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Lightning Data’, then press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’, then press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-149 Navigation Map Page Options Menu
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6.6 TAWS-B
WARNING: Do not use TAWS-B information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS-B is intended only to
enhance situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed if the aircraft is out of the installed terrain database coverage area.
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS-B databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) is an optional feature to increase situational
awareness and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-B provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts when terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed
alerts and warnings are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-B satisfies TSO-C151b Class B requirements for certification.
TAWS-B requires the following information to operate properly:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
TAWS-B uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b.
However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may still contain
inaccuracies.
TAWS-B uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude. GPS
altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above geodetic sea
level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. GSL altitude is used to
determine TAWS-B alerts. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations
in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local
altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widely-used MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude
provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-B are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position and GSL
altitude, TAWS-B displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the position and
altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and “predict” the
aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-B can provide
advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
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RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
TAWS-B uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200 feet above
ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically adjusts these
colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the TAWS
On-Ground Legend shown in Figure 6-150. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain
information using red, yellow, green, and black, as shown on the TAWS In-Air Legend shown in Figure 6-150.
As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain
momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. If a TAWS alert occurs, the relative terrain colors transition
to the TAWS In-Air Legend if in the TAWS On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the flight crew
with the most information possible.
TAWS On-Ground Legend
TAWS In-Air Legend
Figure 6-150 TAWS Relative Terrain Legends
During an alert, the system shows potential impact areas over terrain or obstacles using bright yellow (caution)
or bright red (warning) on navigation maps and on the TAWS-B Page.
The colors and symbols in Figure 6-151 and Tables 6-21 and 6-22 and 6-23 represent terrain, obstacles, and
potential impact areas.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-151 In-Air Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS
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Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-21 TAWS Relative Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft
altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-22 TAWS-B Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
or
Caution
or
Table 6-23 TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
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The Map - TAWS-B Page is the principal map page for viewing TAWS-B information. TAWS-B information
can be also displayed on the following maps and pages as an additional reference:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
Enabling/disabling relative terrain information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the TER Softkey to cycle through terrain options. The selected mode is displayed in cyan: Off, Topo, Rel.
Press the TER Softkey until ‘Rel’ is displayed on the softkey.
Displaying relative terrain information (PFD Maps):
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Rel Ter Softkey.
When TAWS-B is selected on maps other than the TAWS-B Page, an icon to indicate the feature is enabled
for display and a legend for TAWS-B terrain colors are shown. The legend appears without the icon on the
TAWS-B Page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
Maps besides the TAWS-B Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-152).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-153).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-154).
• Terrain Display – Selects the display of topo, relative terrain, or no terrain, and selects the maximum map
range at which terrain is shown
• Obstacle Data – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
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7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-152 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-153 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-154 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
TAWS-B PAGE
The TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain, obstacle, and potential impact area data in relation to the
aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. It is the principal page for viewing TAWS-B
information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be enabled for reference. If an obstacle
and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically zooms in to the closest potential
point of impact on the TAWS-B Page.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-B Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-B Page.
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Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-B Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state)
and press the ENT Key.
GPS-GSL
Altitude
Red Terrain is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude)
Yellow Lighted
Obstacle is
between 100’
and 1000’ below
aircraft altitude
Red Lighted
Obstacle is
above or within
100’ below
aircraft altitude
Red Wind Turbine
Obstacle is above
or within 100’
below aircraft
altitude
Yellow Terrain is
between 100’
and 1000’ below
the aircraft
altitude)
Relative Terrain
Legend
TAWS Inhibited
Annunciation
Figure 6-155 TAWS-B Page
TAWS-B ALERTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-B software algorithms.
TAWS-B alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, the system displays visual annunciations with voice alerts. Table 6-24 shows TAWS-B alert types with
corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert occurs, the system displays annunciations on the PFDs and MFD. The TAWS-B Alert
Annunciation is shown to the upper left of the Altimeter on the PFDs and below the Terrain Legend on the
MFD. If the TAWS-B Page is not displayed at the time of the alert, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. When
a pop-up alert occurs, do one of the following:
• Press the CLR Key (removes the pop-up alert), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-B Page)
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PFD Alert Annunciation
MFD
PopUp
Alert
Figure 6-156 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-157 TAWS-B Page with Alert
(Shown after pressing the ENT Key during the MFD Pop-Up Alert)
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PFD/MFD**
Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Voice Alert
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
“Pull-Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
*
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
or
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
Negative Climb Rate Caution
(NCR)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up”
or
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Voice Callout (VCO)
“500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
*
or
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable at installation and are installation-dependent. Alerts for the default
configuration when more than one option is available are indicated with asterisks.
** Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-24 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-158 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL-UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-158 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of TAWS-B compares the aircraft’s projected flight
path with known terrain and obstacles in their respective databases and issues four types of alerts as either a
caution or a warning:
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-159. When an RTC alert is issued, the system displays a potential impact area
on navigation maps and the TAWS-B Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts
are accompanied by a potential impact area on the navigation maps and the TAWS-B Page. The alert is
annunciated when the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes
in Figure 6-159.
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Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
Required
Terrain Clearance
(FT)
Required
Terrain
Clearance
(FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-159 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically suppresses FLTA alerts from occurring under any of the following conditions:
• The aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination elevation and within 0.5 nm of the destination.
• The aircraft is less than 50 feet above terrain or on the ground.
• The aircraft is between runway ends.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-160).
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-160 PDA Alerting Threshold
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PDA and FLTA visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used
when inhibiting TAWS-B and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When TAWS-B is inhibited,
the alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and MFD (Figure 6-161).
Figure 6-161 TAWS PDA and FLTA Alerting Inhibited Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Select the Inhibit Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS-B (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
While TAWS-B alerting is inhibited, is unavailable, or has failed, the system may show a ‘LOW ALT’
annunciation on the PFDs if all of these conditions are met:
• The aircraft is on a GPS SBAS approach.
• The Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint.
• The aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed FAF altitude.
Refer to the Flight Instruments for more information about the ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation.
ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT (VCO) ALERT
The system provides a “Five-hundred” voice alert when the aircraft descends to within 500 feet above the
terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within five nautical miles of an airport, the “Five Hundred”
voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft is more than five nautical
miles from the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain, by
comparing the aircraft’s GPS-GSL altitude to the terrain database.
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the VCO alert. This alert cannot be
inhibited.
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual annunciations. NCR alerting is
only active when departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss (Figure 6-162) or sink rate (6-163).
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1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-162 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-163 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a system test of its alerting capabilities. The system test can also be
manually initiated. The system issues a voice alert when the test has concluded. TAWS-B System Testing is
unavailable when ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection. (Figure
6-164)
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Figure 6-164 TAWS-B Page Menu
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated
along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ visual annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-B Page. If in-flight, the voice alert
“TAWS Not Available” is also generated. When the GPS signal is restored and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the voice alert “TAWS Available” is generated.
PFD/MFD
TAWS-B Page
Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
None
TAWS System Test Fail; Terrain,
Airport Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid
on all displays; software mismatch
among displays; TAWS audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid. TAWS
operating with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS signal, or
out of database coverage area
Sufficient GPS signal reception
restored
TAWS Alerting is inhibited‑
None
TAWS-B Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE
FAILURE
None
None
FLTA, PDA
None
“TAWS Not Available”
FLTA, PDA,
VCO
FLTA, PDA
None
“TAWS Available”
(voice alert only in
flight)
None
FLTA, PDA
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS Alert
Types
Not
Available
None Available
None
Table 6-25 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
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6.7 VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles in an
inset window on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. Although the VSD does not display TAWS alerts and
potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors and symbols as TAWS to depict relative terrain
and obstacles within the VSD. Refer to the TAWS discussion for more information about relative terrain and
obstacle color correlation and symbols.
Enabling/Disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the Inset Softkey.
4) Select the VSD Softkey to enable or disable the VSD.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the Navigation Map Page
also control the display of this information in the VSD.
Enabling/Disabling VSD Relative Terrain on the Navigation Map (when VSD is enabled):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the Terrain Softkey. Each selection cycles though an option displayed in cyan: Off (disables terrain), Topo
(to show topographical data) or REL (to show relative terrain).
VSD DISPLAY
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough
or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain will be shown in gray if
the TER Softkey is selected off on the Navigation Map Page).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon
the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution, within
a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present position and the end of the map range.
The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as annunciated on the HSI, and is widest during
enroute or oceanic phases.
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Flight Phase
Approach
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Total VSD Width
0.6 nm
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 6-26 VSD Terrain Width Varies with Phase of Flight
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the top-left corner
of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan, and if no active flight
plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In Track Mode, the contour is based
on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based on the active flight plan, when available,
otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
Selecting a VSD Mode:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Inset Softkey.
3) Select the VSD Softkey displaying the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey cycles through a mode
selection: FPL (flight plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the VSD is adjusted
to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the Navigation Map range is
adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical mile. When Navigation Map range is
adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles from
the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the VSD; only an outline of the terrain will be displayed
in black in the VSD Inset Window. Refer to the TAWS discussions for more information about displaying terrain
or obstacles on the Navigation Map Page.
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Track Mode
Boundary
Relative Terrain
Legend
Selected VSD
Mode
Selected
Altitude
Figure 6-165 VSD on the Navigation Map Page with Relative Terrain
Information
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL
is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for unusually tall obstacles), a vertical line
appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as shown
in Figure 6-166.
Figure 6-166 VSD with Tall Obstacles
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TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The boundary
is shown as a white rectangle on the Navigation Map Page and is only available when the VSD is enabled
in Track Mode. White range markers both edges of the Track Mode Boundary rectangle match the range
markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window whenever the profile range is at least four
nautical miles (or 7.5 km if configured for metric units).
The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-167).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘VSD’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-168).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-169).
• TRK Mode BNDRY – Enables/disables the display of the Track Mode Boundary and sets maximum range at
which Track Mode Boundary is shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-167 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-168 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-169 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Weather Group
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6.8 TAWS-A
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS-A is intended only to enhance
situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
TAWS-A (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class A) is an optional feature to increase situational
awareness and aid in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS-A provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts when terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed
alerts and warnings are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-A satisfies TSO-C151b Class A and TSO-92c requirements for certification.
Class A TAWS requires the following components:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
• Valid flap and landing gear status inputs
• A valid radar altimeter
TAWS-A uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b.
However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and the data may still
contain inaccuracies.
TAWS-A uses information from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude, along with
additional altitude input from the radar altimeter. GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. The
system converts GPS altitude to a height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean seal level
(MSL) calculated geometrically. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by factors such as satellite geometry, but it is not
subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude devices. GSL altitude does
not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a highly accurate
and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-A are referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS
position and GSL altitude, TAWS-A displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the
position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and
“predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-A
can provide advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
TAWS-A incorporates radar altimeter input with the GSL altitude to provide a more accurate position reference
when at lower altitudes for certain alert types, and to retain a level of ground proximity warning capability in the
unlikely event of a terrain or obstacle database failure.
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Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GPS-MSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s true altitude
differing from the baro-corrected altitude.
TAWS-A provides the following alert types:
• Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) Alerting, which consists of:
• Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) / Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC) Alerting
• Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) / Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) Alerting
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
• Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) Alerting, which consists of:
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) Alerting
• Excessive Closure Rate (ECR) to Terrain Alerting
• Flight Into Terrain (FIT) Alerting
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR) after takeoff Alerting
• Excessive below Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation (GSD) Alerting
• Altitude Voice Call Out (VCO) Alerting
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
TAWS-A uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200 feet above
ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically adjusts these
colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the TAWS
On-Ground Legend shown in Figure 6-170. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain
information using red, yellow, green, and black, as shown on the TAWS In-Air Legend shown in Figure 6-170.
As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain
momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. If a TAWS alert occurs, the relative terrain colors transition
to the TAWS In-Air Legend if in the TAWS On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the flight crew
with the most information possible.
TAWS On-Ground Legend
TAWS In-Air Legend
Figure 6-170 TAWS Relative Terrain Legends
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During an alert, the system shows potential impact areas over terrain or obstacles using bright yellow (caution)
or bright red (warning) on navigation maps and on the TAWS-A Page.
The colors and symbols in Figure 6-171 and Tables 6-21 and 6-22 and 6-23 represent terrain, obstacles, and
potential impact areas.
DISPLAYING TAWS-A DATA
TAWS-A uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in Figure 6-171 and Tables 6-27 and 6-28 and 6-29 are used
to represent terrain, obstacles, and potential impact areas.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-171 In-Air Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-27 TAWS Relative Obstacle Symbols and Colors
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Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft
altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-28 TAWS-B Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
or
Caution
or
Table 6-29 TAWS-B Potential Impact Areas with Annunciations
The Map - TAWS-A Page is the principal map page for viewing TAWS-A information. TAWS-A information
can be also displayed on the following maps and pages as an additional reference:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
Enabling/disabling relative terrain information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the TER Softkey to cycle through terrain options. The selected mode is displayed in cyan: Off, Topo, Rel.
Press the TER Softkey until ‘Rel’ is displayed on the softkey.
Displaying relative terrain information (PFD Maps):
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Rel Ter Softkey.
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When TAWS-B is selected on maps other than the TAWS-A Page, an icon to indicate the feature is enabled
for display and a legend for TAWS-A terrain colors are shown. The legend appears without the icon on the
TAWS-A Page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
range setting also affects the PFD Inset Map.
Terrain data can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles for which warnings
and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting
limit.
Maps besides the TAWS-A Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation
Map. If the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest
obstacle display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-172).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-173).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-174).
• Terrain Display – Selects the display of topo, relative terrain, or no terrain, and selects the maximum map
range at which terrain is shown
• Obstacle Data – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Figure 6-172 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-173 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-174 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Map Group
TAWS-A PAGE
The TAWS-A Page shows terrain, obstacle, and potential impact area data in relation to the aircraft’s current
altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be displayed
for reference. If an obstacle and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the system reduces the
TAWS-A Page map range if necessary to clearly show the potential impact area.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are available
relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display. Map range
is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-A Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-A Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-A Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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Red Terrain is
above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude)
Yellow Lighted
Obstacle is
between 100’
and 1000’ below
aircraft altitude
Red Lighted
Obstacle is
above or within
100’ below
aircraft altitude
Red Wind Turbine
Obstacle is above
or within 100’
below aircraft
altitude
Yellow Terrain is
between 100’
and 1000’ below
the aircraft
altitude)
Relative Terrain
Legend
TAWS Flap
Override
Annunciation
Figure 6-175 TAWS-A Page
TAWS-A ALERTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-A software algorithms.
TAWS-A alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, the system displays visual annunciations with voice alerts. Table 6-30 shows TAWS-A alert types with
corresponding annunciations and voice alerts.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-A Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter or upper right of the Airspeed indicator on the PFD and below the
Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TAWS-A Page is not already displayed on the MFD, a pop-up alert appears
on the MFD while an alert is active. When a pop-up alert occurs, do one of the following:
• Press the CLR Key (removes the pop-up alert), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-A Page)
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TAWS System
Status
Annunciations
TAWS Terrain
Caution
Annunciation
PFD with TAWS-A Annunciations
MFD Pop-Up Alert (on non-TAWS-A pages)
MFD TAWS-A Page with Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-176 Example TAWS-A Annunciations
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MFD Map Page
PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page
Pop-Up Alert
Annunciation
(Except TAWS-A Page)
Alert Type
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
or
Voice Alert
*
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up”
*
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull-Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up”
*
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull-Up, Pull-Up”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull-Up”
Excessive Descent Rate Warning (EDR)
“<whoop> <whoop> Pull-Up”
Excessive Closure Rate Warning (ECR)
“<whoop> <whoop> Pull-Up”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
or
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
or
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
or
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
or
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”*
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
or
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
*
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”*
or
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
Premature Descent Alert Caution (PDA)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Excessive Descent Rate Caution (EDR)
“Sink Rate”
Excessive Closure Rate Caution (ECR)
“Terrain, Terrain”
Negative Climb Rate Caution (NCR)
or
“Don’t Sink”*
or
“Too Low, Terrain”
*
Flight Into Terrain High Speed Caution
(FIT)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Flight Into Terrain Gear Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Gear”
Flight Into Terrain Flaps Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Flaps”
Flight Into Terrain Takeoff Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Glide Slope Deviation Caution (GSD)
(depends on approach type)
Altitude Voice Callout (VCO)
or
or
“Glideslope”
or
“Glidepath”
None
None
“Five Hundred”, “Four Hundred”*, “Three Hundred”*,
“Two Hundred”*, “One Hundred”*
* Alerts with multiple messages are configurable. Alerts for the default configuration are indicated with asterisks.
Table 6-30 TAWS-A Alerts Summary
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FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE (FLTA)
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of TAWS-A compares the aircraft’s projected flight
path with known terrain and obstacles in their respective databases and issues four types of alerts as either a
caution or a warning:
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain, yet is projected to come within the minimum
clearance values in Figure 6-177. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact area is displayed on the
TAWS-A Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is below the elevation of a terrain or obstacle cell in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI alerts
are accompanied by a potential impact area displayed on the TAWS-A Page. The alert is annunciated when
the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes in Figure 6-177.
Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
Required
Terrain Clearance
(FT)
Required
Terrain
Clearance
(FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance
From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-177 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically suppresses FLTA alerts from occurring under any of the following conditions:
• The aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination elevation and within 0.5 nm of the destination.
• The aircraft is less than fifty feet above terrain or on the ground.
• The aircraft is between runway ends.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway (Figure 6-178).
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
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800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-178 PDA Alerting Threshold
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
Inhibiting FLTA and PDA Alerts
NOTE: The ‘Inhibit TAWS’ function only inhibits FLTA and PDA alerts. Alerting for GPWS alerts (EDR, ECR,
NCR, FIT) and GSD is controlled independently from FLTA and PDA alerts.
FLTA and PDA visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be used
when inhibiting alerts and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When PDA and FLTA alerts are
inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and on the TAWS-A Page annunciation
window of the MFD (Figure 6-179).
Figure 6-179 TAWS-A Page Menu and Inhibit Annunciation
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Inhibiting/enabling FLTA and PDA alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Select the TAWS INH Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS-A (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
If PDA and FLTA alerts are inhibited when the Final Approach Fix is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS
approach, a ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation may appear on the PFD next to the Altimeter if the current aircraft
altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed altitude at the Final Approach Fix. See the Flight Instruments
Section for details.
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. Figure 6-180 shows the
parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL-UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-180 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
EXCESSIVE CLOSURE RATE ALERT
The Excessive Closure Rate (ECR) alert provides suitable notification when the aircraft is determined to
be closing upon terrain at an excessive speed for a given aircraft gear and flap configuration.
Figures 6-181 and 6-182 show the ECR alerting criteria for flaps in the landing configuration and for all
other flight phases respectively.
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Height Above Terrain (Feet)
ECR alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is five nautical miles from the nearest airport,
except when FLTA is not available (causing the TAWS N/A or TAWS FAIL annunciation to be displayed), in
which case ECR alerting will remain active until landing.
Closure Rate (FPM)
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
Figure 6-181 Excessive Closure Rate Alert Criteria (Flaps Up or Takeoff Configuration)
Closure Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-182 Excessive Closure Rate Alert Criteria (Flaps in Landing Configuration)
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FLIGHT INTO TERRAIN ALERT
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
Flight Into Terrain (FIT) alerts occur when the aircraft is too low with respect to terrain based on landing
gear status, flap position, and groundspeed. FIT caution alerts are issued when flight conditions meet the
criteria shown in Figure 6-183.
*
*
Altitude Change Rate (FPM)
* Flap position will not trigger alert if Flap Override option is enabled; see discussion below.
Figure 6-183 Flight Into Terrain Caution Alert Criteria
To reduce nuisance FIT alerts on approaches where flap extension is not desired (or is intentionally delayed),
the pilot may override FIT alerting based on the flap position, while all other FIT alerting remains in effect.
Figure 6-184 TAWS-A Page Menu and FIT Flap Override Annunciation
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Overriding Flaps-based FIT alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page
2) Select the Flap OVR Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Flap Override’ or ‘Disable Flap Override’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
When the Flaps Override option is enabled, the annunciation ‘FLAP OVR’ is annunciated on the PFD and
on the TAWS-A Page of the MFD (Figure 6-184). If GPWS alerts are also inhibited (which include FIT), the
‘FLAP OVR’ annunciation is not shown.
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
FIT alerts also occur during takeoff or go-around if the aircraft’s height above ground level (as determined
by the radar altimeter) is too close to rising terrain. TAWS-A will issue the voice alert “Too Low - Terrain”
and visual annunciations when conditions enter the caution alert area (Figure 6-185).
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
Radio Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-185 FIT Alerting After Takeoff
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the MFD if the TAWS-A Page is not already displayed. NCR alerting for TAWS-A is only active when
departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is five nautical miles or less
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• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
• Landing gear or flaps are configured for takeoff
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss (Figure 6-186) or sink rate (6-187).
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-186 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-187 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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Inhibiting GPWS Alerts (EDR, ECR, FIT, and NCR)
NOTE: The ‘Inhibit GPWS’ function only affects GPWS alerts (EDR, ECR, NCR, and FIT). Alerting for FLTA,
PDA, and GSD is controlled independently from the GPWS alerts listed below.
EDR, ECR, FIT, and NCR visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited as a group.
Discretion should be used when inhibiting alerts and the GPWS system should be enabled when appropriate.
When these alerts are inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘GPWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and on the TAWS-A
Page annunciation window of the MFD (Figure 6-188).
Figure 6-188 TAWS-A Page Menu and GPWS Inhibit Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling GPWS alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Select the GPWS INH Softkey to inhibit or enable GPWS alerts (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit GPWS’ or ‘Enable GPWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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EXCESSIVE BELOW GLIDESLOPE/GLIDEPATH DEVIATION ALERT
Radio Altitude (Feet)
A Glideslope Deviation or Glidepath Deviation (GSD) caution alert is issued when the system detects
that the aircraft is significantly below the glidepath for the selected approach in relation to the aircraft’s height
above terrain (Figure 6-189).
“GLIDESLOPE”
or
“GLIDEPATH”
Number of Dots Below Glideslope/Glidepath
Figure 6-189 Excessive Below Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation Alert Criteria
GSD alerting is only active after departure and the following conditions are met:
• An ILS approach is active or an FMS approach approach is active with one of the following SBAS approach
service levels: LPV, LP+V, or LNAV/VNAV.
• Aircraft is below 1000 feet AGL.
• Gear is configured for landing.
When a GSD caution alert occurs on an ILS approach, the visual annunciation ‘GLIDESLOPE’ is issued
with the ‘Glideslope’ voice alert. If a GSD caution alert occurs on an LNAV/VNAV, or LNAV+V approach, the
visual annunciation ‘GLIDEPATH’ is issued (Figure 6-190) with the ‘Glidepath’ voice alert.
Inhbiting GSD Alerts
NOTE: GSD alerting may only be inhibited while a GSD alert is occurring. GSD alerts are inhibited
independently from all other FLTA, PDA, and GPWS alerts.
During a GSD alert, the PFD Softkeys are displayed as shown in Figure 6-190 to provide an option to
inhibit the alert. A ‘GLIDESLOPE’ alert will display a GS INH Softkey to inhibit the alert. A ‘GLIDEPATH’
alert will display a GP INH Softkey to inhibit the alert. When an inhibit Softkey is pressed, the PFD Softkeys
return to the top-level display. Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level of the PFD Softkeys without
inhibiting the GSD alert.
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Or:
Or:
Figure 6-190 GSD Glideslope Alert and PFD Softkeys
GSD alerts may also be inhibited on the TAWS-A Page while a GSD alert is occurring.
Inhibiting/Enabling GSD alerting (only available during a GSD alert):
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Select the GS INH or GP INH Softkey to inhibit or enable GSD alerts (softkey choice dependent on present GSD
alert type).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select the option to inhibit or enable the glideslope or glidepath alerting (choice dependent on present GSD
alert type) and press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-191 TAWS-A Page Menu and Glideslope Alerting Inhibited Annunciation
ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT (VCO)
TAWS-A provides voice alerts as the aircraft descends, beginning at 500 feet above the terrain, using radar
altitude (if greater than five nautical miles from the nearest airport), or 500 feet above the nearest runway
Touch Down Zone Elevation using GPS-GSL altitude (if less than five nm from the nearest airport. Upon
descent to this altitude, the system issues a ‘five hundred’ voice alert.
Additional VCO alerts occur as the aircraft descends through 400, 300, 200, and 100 feet. There are no
display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alerts. VCO alerts cannot be inhibited.
SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, TAWS-A conducts a system test of its alerting capabilities. The system test can also be
manually initiated. A voice alert occurs at the conclusion of the test. TAWS-A System Testing is disabled when
ground speed exceeds 30 knots. TAWS-A terrain alerts will not be issued while a test is in progress.
TAWS-A Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS System Fail
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
GPWS System Fail
None
“GPWS System Failure”
System Test in progress
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test pass
None
Table 6-31 TAWS-A System Test Status Annunciations
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Manually testing the TAWS-A System:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection (Figure
6-192).
Figure 6-192 TAWS-A Page Menu
TAWS-A ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
TAWS-A continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, flap and landing gear
position, radar altimeter input, and GPS status.
If no PFD or MFD contains Terrain, Airport Terrain, and Obstacle databases (or the databases are invalid), the
voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-A requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-A Page. The voice alert “TAWS Not
Available” is also generated if airborne, and some TAWS-A terrain alerts will not be issued (Table 6-32), while
GPWS alerting (which are not dependent on GPS position) will continue to operate. When the GPS signal is reestablished and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the voice alert “TAWS Available” is generated.
TAWS-A also requires radar altimeter input. Should the radar altimeter input fail or become degraded, the
annunciation ‘GPWS FAIL’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-A Page. The voice alert
“GPWS System Failure” is also generated. The ‘GPWS FAIL’ annunciation will also occur if both GPS altitude
and barometric altitude are unavailable. If only the GPWS system has failed, GPWS-based alerts will not be
available (Table 6-32), while other TAWS-A alerting remains unaffected.
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PFD/MFD
TAWS-A Page
Annunciation
Alert Type
TAWS System Test Fail;
Terrain, Airport Terrain
or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid on all
GDUs; software mismatch
among GDUs; TAWS audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid. TAWS operating
with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS
signal, or out of database
coverage area
Sufficient GPS signal
reception restored
*
None
Voice Alert
TAWS Alert
Types
Not Available
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
FLTA, PDA
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
“TAWS Not Available”
NO GPS POSITION
None
Radar Altimeter invalid,
Vertical Speed Invalid, GPS
and Baro Altitude invalid,
Software mismatch among
GDUs, TAWS configuration
mismatch among GDUs,
TAWS audio fault
TAWS-A Page Center Banner
Annunciation
*
FLTA, PDA,
GSD†, VCO*
FLTA, PDA
None
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Available”
(voice alert only in
flight)
“GPWS System Failure” EDR, ECR, NCR,
FIT, GSD
None
* VCO alerts are not issued if both TAWS and GPWS systems have failed or are not available
† GSD alert will be available if a valid ILS is being used for navigation, even in no valid GPS signal is being received.
Table 6-32 TAWS-A Abnormal Status Alerts
If the aircraft bank angle exceeds 30˚, TAWS-A will disable ECR alerts. ECR alert availability returns when
the bank angle is reduced for at least eight seconds.
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6.9 GARMIN TAS/TCAS I TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
NOTE: If a Garmin GTX 345R transponder is installed with this traffic system, refer to the ADS-B traffic
discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic displays.
This section covers the optional Garmin GTS 820/825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) and Garmin GTS 850/855
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance I System (TCAS I). Differences in these traffic systems, when applicable, are
also discussed in this section.
The Garmin traffic system enhances flight crew situational awareness by displaying traffic information for
transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual annunciations and a voice traffic alerts to assist
the flight crew visually acquire traffic.
The traffic system is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruders equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest threat
potential can be displayed simultaneously. No traffic surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating
transponders.
THEORY OF OPERATION
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system interrogates the transponders of intruding aircraft
while monitoring for transponder replies. The system uses this information to derive the distance, relative
bearing, and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The
traffic system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach
(CPA). If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual
annunciations and voice alerts.
TRAFFIC SURVEILLANCE VOLUME
The traffic surveillance system actively monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude, and up
to 40 nm in the forward direction. Range is somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the
directional interrogation signal patterns. In areas of greater transponder traffic density or when Traffic Alert
and Collision and Alerting Systems II (TCAS II) systems are detected, the traffic system automatically reduces
its interrogation transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to limit potential interference from other
signals.
When the traffic system is paired with the optional GTX 33/335 1090 MHz ES (Extended Squitter)
transponder, the traffic system uses Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) position reports
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from participating aircraft to enhance the positional accuracy of traffic displayed within the TAS or TCAS I
surveillance range.
NOTE: Do not confuse this functionality with full ADS-B capability, which can provide traffic information
from ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and ADS-B traffic outside of the TAS/TCAS I surveillance
volume.
When the traffic system is paired with the optional GTX 345R transponder, the traffic system also uses
Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) position reports from participating aircraft to enhance
the positional accuracy of traffic displayed within the TAS or TCAS I surveillance range, in addition to
broadcasts from traffic outside of the TAS/TCAS I surveillance range. It also receives information from ADS-B
Ground Based Transceivers (GBTs). This includes the Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) service
and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Rebroadcast (ADS-R) service; refer to the ADS-B Traffic section for
more information about these features.
TRAFFIC DISPLAY SYMBOLOGY
The system displays traffic using the symbols shown in the following tables depending on the type of
equipment installed.
Traffic Symbol
Description
Other Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-33 TAS/TCAS I Symbol Description
Traffic Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in
the direction of the aircraft track.
Other Non-threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Points
in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Table 6-34 Traffic with ADS-B Symbology (GTX 33/335 Transponder)
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Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the
ground.
Table 6-35 ADS-B Traffic Symbology with GTX 345R Transponder
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as an amber circle or amber circle with an enclosed triangle, alerts the
crew to a potentially hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet
TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA
symbol at the edge of the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding aircraft
is within ±1200 feet and is within a six nautical mile range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
Other Non-Threat traffic, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond a six
nautical mile range that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet (Figures 6-193, 6-194). When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’
symbol; a minus sign ‘-’ indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in
either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol (Figures 6-193, 6-194).
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If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, a motion vector line extending beyond the
traffic symbol in the direction of the track may also be displayed (Figure 6-194) when either absolute or
relative motion vectors are enabled.
Motion Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-193 Intruder Altitude and
Vertical Trend Arrow
Figure 6-194 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B
Directional Information and Motion Vector
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TAS/TCAS I TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of
nuisance TA alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. Level A (less) TA sensitivity is used when
the aircraft’s landing gear is extended, or when the radar altimeter (if equipped) indicates own aircraft is below
2000’ AGL. In all other conditions, Level B (greater) TA sensitivity is used to assess TA threats.
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within
600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and
horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal
separation and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within
800 feet.
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
Table 6-36 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria for TAS/TCAS I
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TRAFFIC ALERTS
When the traffic system detects a new TA, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic!” voice alert is generated, followed by additional voice information about the bearing, relative
altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-37). The voice alert,
“Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” indicates the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude,
and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the right of the Airspeed Indicator on the PFD, flashes for five seconds,
and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-195).
• If the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the map. Otherwise the Traffic
Map is shown on the PFD.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined (Figures 6-197 and 6-198), an amber text banner will be
displayed in the center of the Traffic Map and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol.
The text will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA
traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-195 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-37 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
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SYSTEM TEST
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
test during flight.
The traffic system provides a test mode to verify it is operating normally. The test takes ten seconds to
complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols is displayed on the Traffic Map Page
(Figure 6-196). The system issues a voice alert when the test is complete.
Traffic System
GTS 820/825 (TAS)
GTS 850 (TCAS I)
GTS 855 (TCAS I)
Voice Alert
“TAS System Test Passed.”
“TAS System Test Failed.”
“TCAS System Test Passed.”
“TCAS System Test Failed.”
“TCAS One System Test Passed.”
“TCAS One System Test Failed.”
Table 6-38 System Test Voice Alerts
When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters Standby Mode.
Testing the traffic system:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full traffic test pattern display.
4) Select the Test Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
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TAS/TCAS I Test Mode
Figure 6-196 Traffic Map Page with Test Mode Enabled
OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic system automatically transitions from Standby to Operating mode eight seconds after
takeoff. The system also automatically transitions from Operating to Standby mode 24 seconds after
landing.
After power-up, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The system must be in Operating Mode for traffic to
be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Selecting the Operate Softkey allows the system to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as
necessary. Selecting the Standby Softkey causes the system to enter Standby Mode.
Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
On the Traffic Map Page, select the Standby Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Standby Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
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Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
On the Traffic Map Page, select the Operate Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Operate Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key. The traffic system switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Map - Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick
(up to 40 nm) as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
TAS/TCAS I Operating
Mode Annunciation
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 below,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ above,
descending
Proximity
Advisory, 1200’
feet below,
descending
Off-scale Traffic
Advisory
Figure 6-197 Traffic Map Page with TAS/TCAS I and ADS-B Traffic Displayed
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the TAS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘OPERATING’ is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Select the TAS STBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
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Altitude Display Mode
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic is
displayed. TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 2 above):
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Select the ENT Softkey.
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Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick, and rings on the map denote the ranges.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the traffic system is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• Trip Planning Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
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When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-198).
Proximity
Advisory
Traffic Advisory
Traffic
Advisory OffScale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic overlay
enabled icon and
Altitude Display
Mode
No Bearing
Traffic
Advisory
Annunciation
Figure 6-198 Displaying Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-199).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-200).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-201).
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Figure 6-199 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-200 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-201 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
A Traffic Map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map will appear in
heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic and optional
datalink weather information on navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling traffic information on the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page)
Traffic System Test
Initiated
OPERATING
Operating
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
Standby
FAIL
Traffic System Failed*
* See Table 6-40 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-39 Traffic Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the
unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-40 Traffic Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation
in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/
descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or
sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-41 Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.10 L-3 SKYWATCH TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
®
NOTE: Refer to the SKYWATCH (SKY497/SKY899) Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the TAS.
NOTE: If a Garmin GTX 345R transponder is installed with this traffic system, refer to the ADS-B traffic
discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic displays.
TAS SYMBOLOGY
The optional Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TAS
uses an on-board interrogator-processor and an altitude reporting transponder for the air-to-air traffic data link.
Traffic is displayed using the symbology shown in Table 6-42.
Traffic Symbol
Description
Other Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-42 Traffic Symbol Description
NOTE: If a GTX 345R transponder is installed, additional ADS-B traffic symbols may appear. Refer to the
ADS-B Traffic discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic and alerts.
Other Non-Threat traffic, shown as an open white diamond, indicates that an intruding aircraft is at greater
than ±1200 feet relative altitude or the distance is beyond 5 nm.
A Proximity Advisory indicates that the intruding aircraft is within ±1200 feet and is within 5 nm range, but
is still not considered a threat.
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A Traffic Advisory (TA) alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous intruding aircraft. Closing rate, distance,
and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory that is beyond the selected display range is indicated
by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
OPERATION
The unit must be in operating mode for traffic to be displayed. The ability to switch from standby to operating
mode on the ground is especially useful for scanning the airspace around the airport before takeoff.
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
1) On the Traffic Page, select the Operate Softkey or press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select
Operating Mode.
2) If using the FMS menu, press the ENT Key to place the traffic system in the operating mode.
3) To switch to Standby Mode from the Traffic Page, select the Standby Softkey.
Testing the system:
1) Set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern display.
2) Select the Standby Softkey.
3) Select the Test Softkey. ‘TEST MODE’ is annunciated on the MFD.
4) Self test takes approximately eight seconds to complete. When completed successfully, traffic symbols display
and a voice alert is heard to indicate the system test passed.
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps when the unit is operating:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
• Traffic Map Page
• Nearest Pages
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFDs when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the Operate Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘Operating’ is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Select the ALT Mode Softkey to change the altitude volume.
5) Select the Standby Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘Standby’ is displayed in the Traffic mode
field.
6) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
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Operating
Mode
Altitude Display
Mode
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, altitude
not available
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Proximity
Advisory, 900’
above, level
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
distance 4.0
nm, 500’ above,
descending
Off Scale Traffic
Advisory, 300’
below, level
Figure 6-202 Traffic Map Page
The Map - Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick,
as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner.
Displaying traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate TAS is
enabled for display.
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Proximity
Advisory
Traffic Advisory
Traffic
Advisory OffScale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic overlay
enabled icon and
Altitude Display
Mode
No Bearing
Traffic
Advisory
Annunciation
Figure 6-203 Displaying Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/disabling traffic information on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
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ALTITUDE DISPLAY
Changing the altitude display mode:
1) On the Traffic Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
•
Below
•
Normal
•
Above
•
UNREST (unrestricted)
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the BACK Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following:
•
Below
•
Normal
•
Above
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Softkey.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE DISPLAY RANGE
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm*
•
24 and 40 nm*
* Range available only on the SKY899 TAS.
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Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Settings highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-204).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-205).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-206).
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Alerts and Proximity Advisories
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Figure 6-204 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-205 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-206 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
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TAS ALERTS
NOTE: Refer to the TAS documentation for information on alerts generated by the TAS equipment.
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• The traffic system generates a voice alert.
• A TRAFFIC Annunciation appears above the Roll Scale on the PFDs, flashes for five seconds, and remains
displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• If the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the displayed map. Otherwise
the Traffic Map is shown on the PFD.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-207 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Mode
TAS Self-test Initiated
TAS Operating
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ also shown in white in
top center of page)
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
OPERATING
TAS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-44 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-43 TAS Modes
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If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-44 TAS Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-45 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.11 HONEYWELL KTA 870 TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the displays.
NOTE: Refer to the Honeywell® KTA 870 Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the KTA 870 TAS.
NOTE: If a Garmin GTX 345R transponder is installed with this traffic system, refer to the ADS-B traffic
discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic displays.
TAS SYMBOLOGY
The optional Honeywell KTA 870 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance
of other aircraft. TAS uses an on-board interrogator-processor and the Mode S transponder for the air-to-air traffic
data link. Traffic is displayed using four different symbols.
TAS Symbol
Description
Other Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-46 TAS Symbol Description
NOTE: If a GTX 345R transponder is installed, additional ADS-B traffic symbols may appear. Refer to the
ADS-B Traffic discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic and alerts.
Other Non-Threat traffic, shown as an open white diamond, indicates that an intruding aircraft is at greater
than ±1200 feet relative altitude or the distance is beyond five nautical miles.
A Proximity Advisory indicates that the intruding aircraft is within ±1200 feet and is within a five nautical
mile range, but is still not considered a threat.
A Traffic Advisory (TA) alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous intruding aircraft. Closing rate, distance,
and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory that is beyond the selected display range is indicated
by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
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OPERATION
The KTA 870 must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be displayed. The unit starts in Operating Mode upon
power-up.
Selecting the Standby Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode. Selecting the Normal Softkey allows the
KTA 870 to switch from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
Switching from operating mode to standby mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the Standby Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select Standby Mode.
2) Press the ENT Key.
Switching from standby mode to operating mode:
On the Traffic Page, select the Normal Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select Normal Mode.
2) Press the ENT Key. The KTA 870 switches from Standby Mode to Operating Mode as necessary.
System Self Test
1) Set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern display.
2) Select the Test Softkey.
3) Self test takes approximately eight seconds to complete. When completed successfully, traffic symbols are
displayed and a voice alert “TAS System Test OK” is heard. In the event that the system test fails, the
system reverts to Standby Mode and a voice alert “TAS System Test Fail” is heard.
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the Normal Softkey to begin displaying traffic. OPERATING is displayed in the Traffic mode field.
4) Select the Alt Mode Softkey to change the altitude volume.
5) Select the Standby Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
6) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
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Operating
Mode
Altitude Display
Mode
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, altitude
not available
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Proximity
Advisory, 900’
above, level
“No Bearing”
Traffic (Bearing
Undetermined),
distance 4.0
nm, 500’ above,
descending
Off Scale Traffic
Advisory, 300’
below, level
Figure 6-208 Traffic Map Page
The Map - Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick
from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner.
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps when the KTA 870 unit is operating:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the Map Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate the
traffic system is enabled for display.
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Displaying traffic on the Navigation Map
1) Ensure the TAS system is operating. With the Navigation Map displayed, select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map as shown in the figure.
Non-Threat
Traffic, 2500’
Above,
Descending
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
Proximity Traffic,
900’ Above,
Level
Non-Threat
Traffic, Altitude
Not Available
Traffic Advisory
Off-Scale
Traffic Display
Enabled Icon
“Non-Bearing”
Traffic Advisory
Figure 6-209 TAS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/disabling traffic information on the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey (Map Opt Softkey for TCAS II installations).
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
ALTITUDE DISPLAY
The flight crew can select the volume of airspace for which traffic is displayed. Traffic Advisories (TAs)
outside of these limits will still be shown. Refer to the KTA 870 Pilot’s Guide for specific display thresholds.
Changing the altitude display mode:
1) On the Traffic Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
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•
Below
•
UNREST (unrestricted)
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following:
•
Below
•
Normal
•
Above
•
Unrestricted
3) Select the ENT Softkey.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE DISPLAY RANGE
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols
and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those selected for the
Navigation Map Page.
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Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-210).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-211).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections (Figure 6-212).
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays only Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Figure 6-210 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-211 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
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Figure 6-212 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
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The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
TAS ALERTS
NOTE: Refer to the KTA 870 documentation for information on alerts generated by the TAS equipment.
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A “Traffic, Traffic” voice alert is generated when the first TA is displayed.
• A TRAFFIC Annunciation appears at the top right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds and
remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated when the number of TAs increases.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-213 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
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SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Mode
TAS Self-test Initiated
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ also shown in white in
top center of page)
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
OPERATING
TAS Operating
TAS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TAS Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-48 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-47 TAS Modes
If the unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-48 TAS Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude
trend arrow (climbing/descending)
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-49 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.12 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
The optional Garmin GTX 345 transponder sends and receives Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
(ADS-B) traffic information on the 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) frequency. It receives ADS-B traffic
and data link weather information on the 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) frequency. The system
provides visual annunciations and voice traffic alerts to help the pilot visually acquire potentially conflicting
traffic. This discussion covers the traffic features of the GTX transponder; refer to the Flight Information ServiceBroadcast (FIS-B) Weather section for more information about the UAT data link weather features of the GTX 345.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ADS-B is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic control system and is comprised of three segments:
ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R (Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).
ADS-B is the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on fixed
objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail Number,
ICAO registration number, etc), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status.
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Figure 6-214 ADS-B System
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For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking data from one link
and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground station,
and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other on 978 MHz, the ground station retransmits the data
from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each other.
Because the GTX 345R transponder sends and receives ADS-B traffic reports on the 1090 ES frequency,
but only receives traffic reports on the 978 MHz UAT frequency, the presents of an ADS-R ground station is
necessary for an aircraft with only UAT-capabilities to ‘see’ the aircraft with the GTX 345R transponder.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
TIS-B provides the bridge between the radar-based ATC system and the ADS-B-based system. When an
ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B ground station, the ground
station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is then included in the list of
aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in Secondary Surveillance
Radar coverage, and the other aircraft is also in Secondary Surveillance Radar coverage, and is transmitting
its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTX 345R-equipped aircraft according to
the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
Other Aircraft Equipment
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped Aircraft
1090ES Out Equipped
Yes
UAT Receive Only Capable
No
UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S Transponder
Yes*
* Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar coverage, or own
aircraft is equipped with a TAS/TCAS I system and traffic is within the TAS/TCAS I surveillance range.
Table 6-50 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
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ADS-B WITH TAS/TCAS I
When an optional active traffic system, such as a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) or Traffic Alert and Collision
Avoidance System (TCAS I) is also installed and operating with the GTX 345R transponder, the transponder
receives traffic from the active traffic system and attempts to match (or “correlate”) this traffic with ADS-B traffic
the transponder is tracking. When a correlation is made, the only the traffic with the most accurate information
is displayed to the flight crew. Any traffic that is not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the
other) is also displayed for the flight crew. This correlation of traffic by the transponder improves the accuracy
of the traffic displayed, while reducing the occurrence of the same aircraft being displayed twice.
NOTE: When operating on the edges of ATC radar coverage or when using an optional active traffic system
providing intermittent traffic data, a single aircraft may be briefly or periodically depicted as two aircraft on
the display.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TAS/TCAS I systems discussed previously.
The transponder issues a voice alert when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is displayed, for example “Traffic! Two
O’clock, Low, Two Miles.”
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Radar Altitude (if available), Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to
adjust the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm in accordance with the following table:
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Sensitivity
Level
Radar
Altitude
(Feet)
Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
GPS Phase
of Flight
Own Altitude
(Feet)
4
Up to 1000
(RA or HAT)
Any
Any
4
4
Unavailable
Unavailable
Any
Unavailable
5
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
5
Vertical
Threshold
for Alert
(feet)
850
Protected
Volume
(NM)
Any
Lookahead
time
(sec)
20
Any
Approach
Any
Any
20
20
850
850
0.20
0.20
Any
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Terminal
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Any
<=5000
25
30
850
850
0.20
0.35
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
5
6
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
7
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
8
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
Unavailable or
>2350
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
Not approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailable)
0.20
Table 6-51 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
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When the system detects a new Traffic Advisory (TA), the following occur:
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-52). For example,
the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own
aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears to the right of the Airspeed Indicator on the PFD, flashes for five seconds,
and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-215).
• If the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the displayed map. Otherwise
the Traffic Map is shown on the PFD.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate ‘TA’
followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer a factor.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-215 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Zero miles”, “Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-52 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
NOTE: ADS-B traffic voice alerts are suppressed when below 500 feet.
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AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
The GTX 345R can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are
two ADS-B applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness
(SURF). The system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five NM and 1,500 feed above the nearest airport.
When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five NM and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation.
When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map
Page range of one nm or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to
traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for
more information about SafeTaxi displays.
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially
when runways are in close proximity to each other.
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic symbols
may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic to be displayed
in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Availability for
AIRB and SURF is depicted on the AUX-ADS-B Status Page, discussed later in this section.
SURF Application On
Aircraft in the air
descending
Aircraft on the
ground
Ground-based
vehicle
Figure 6-216 Traffic Map Page with SURF Mode On
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TRAFFIC DESCRIPTION
The symbols used to display ADS-B traffic are shown in Table 6-53. Above or below the traffic symbol is the
traffic identifier, and altitude. A small up or down arrow next to the traffic symbol indicates that the traffic is
climbing or descending at a rate of at least 500 feet per minute.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-53 ADS-B Traffic Symbology
OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map
range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
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AIRB Application On
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 below,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ above,
descending
Proximity
Advisory, 1200’
feet below,
descending
Off-scale Traffic
Advisory
Figure 6-217 Traffic Map Page with ADS-B Traffic Displayed
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic.
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Select the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test pattern display.
2) Ensure the the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
3) If the optional TAS/TCAS I is installed, ensure the TAS STBY or TCAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
4) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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A test pattern of traffic symbols appears during the test, and a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears on the PFDs.
At the conclusion of the test, the system issues the voice alert “Traffic System Test”. If the test pattern is
displayed and the voice alert is heard, the system has passed the test.
ADS-B Test Mode
Figure 6-218 Traffic Map Page with Test Mode Enabled
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is displayed.
TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Map Page, select the Back Softkey.
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options (see softkey description in step 2 above):
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future.
Absolute
Motion Vectors
Absolute Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-219 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
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Relative Motion
Vectors
Relative Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-220 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Select the Motion Softkey.
3) Select one of the following softkeys:
•
Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
Off:
Disables the display of the motion vector.
Or:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion Vector Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Select the Motion Softkey.
3) Select the Duration Softkey.
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4) Select a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, select the Back Softkey to return to the Traffic Map Page.
Displaying Additional Traffic Information
The Traffic Map Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may include
the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service vehicle,
unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV)), course, track, groundspeed), and other information.
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The first selected traffic symbol is highlighted in cyan. Additional information appears in
a window in the upper-right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob to move the cyan bracket until the selected aircraft
traffic symbol is highlighted.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
500 feet
•
500 feet and 1000 feet
•
1000 feet and 2000 feet
•
2000 feet and 1 nm
•
1 and 2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous TAS/TCAS I
discussions for information about these additional traffic displays.
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ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B: AIRB
None
ADS-B: SURF
None
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
ADS-B TRFC N/A
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
ADS-B Mode
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-55 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-54 ADS-B Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the
DATA FAILED
unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-55 Traffic Failure Annunciations
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude
trend arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-56 Traffic Status Annunciations
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the AUX - ADS-B Status Page.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the AUX - ADS-B Status Page.
Figure 6-221 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page
Item
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface (SURF),
Airborne Alerts (CSA)
Status Message
Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does
not meet performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the
application has failed.
Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this
annunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
The GDL 88 is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GDL 88 is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink from a ground station
occurred. If no uplink has been received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear
instead of a number of minutes.
Available to Run
Not Available
Fault
Not Configured
TIS-B/ADS-R Coverage
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Ground Uplink Status:
Last Uplink
---------------Available
Not Available
--------------External #1
External #2
--------Number of minutes, or
‘------’
Table 6-57 AUX-ADS-B Status Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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6.13 TCAS II TRAFFIC
WARNING: Traffic information shown on system displays is provided as an aid in visually acquiring
traffic. Traffic avoidance maneuvers are based upon TCAS II Resolution Advisories, ATC guidance, or
positive visual acquisition of conflicting traffic.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the displays.
NOTE: If the installed TCAS II traffic system is not a Garmin GTS 8000, refer to the applicable documentation
for system-specific information.
A Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II), such as the Garmin GTS 8000, improves flight
safety by monitoring the airspace for other aircraft with operating transponders in the vicinity. The TCAS II
system provides traffic information to the displays, and if separation from other aircraft is within certain limits,
the system issues Traffic Advisories (TAs) to assist the flight crew in the visual acquisition of traffic, or Resolution
Advisories (RAs) to provide recommended vertical guidance maneuvers to resolve a traffic conflict.
THEORY OF OPERATION
When the TCAS II system is operating in TA/RA or TA Only Mode, the system interrogates the transponders
of other aircraft in the vicinity, and monitors for replies from these transponders. Based on successive replies,
the system tracks the range, bearing, and if reported, the altitudes of other aircraft. For each detected aircraft
transponder, the system calculates the time to, and separation at, the closest point of approach (CPA) around
potential collision area surrounding own aircraft. Based on this time, the own aircraft altitude, and the selected
TCAS II system mode, the system determines if a TA or RA should be issued for the detected intruder traffic.
Altitude in Feet*
TA Time to CPA
in Seconds
RA Time to CPA in Seconds
Up to 1000
20
RA not issued below 1000’ AGL
1000-2350
2350-5000
5000-10000
10000-20000
20000 and above
25
30
40
45
48
15
20
25
30
35
* System uses pressure altitude except when Radar Altimeter altitude is displayed on the
PFDs, in which case Radar Altitude takes precedence.
Table 6-58 Altitude-based TCAS II TA and RA Alert Thresholds
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The TCAS II system categorizes detected traffic into four groups of increasing threat potential:
• Other Non-Threat Traffic, displayed as a hollow white diamond, is not currently a threat.
• Proximity Advisory (PA) Traffic, displayed as a filled white diamond, is not currently a threat, but is within
six nm and ±1200 feet of own-aircraft altitude.
• Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a filled amber circle, indicates traffic is within 20-48 seconds of a
potential collision area. If a Traffic Map is shown, and the TA traffic is beyond the selected map range, the
system displays a half-TA symbol at the edge of the map at the approximate relative bearing of the TA traffic.
If TA traffic subsequently meets the criteria for an RA, the system will issue an RA.
• Resolution Advisory (RA), displayed as a filled red square, indicates traffic is within 15-35 seconds of a
potential collision area. If a Traffic Map is shown, and the RA traffic is beyond the selected map range,
the system displays a half-RA symbol at the edge of the map at the approximate relative bearing of the RA
traffic.
Traffic Symbol
Description
Other Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Resolution Advisory (RA)
Resolution Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-59 TCAS II Traffic Symbol Description
TCAS II ALERTS
When the TCAS II unit issues a TA or RA, the following occur:
• The TCAS II system issues a voice alert.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears above the Roll Scale on the PFDs, flashes for five seconds, and remains
displayed until no TAs or RAs are detected in the area. RA TRAFFIC annunciations are white text with red
backgrounds; TA ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciations are black text with amber backgrounds. If a TA and RA occur
simultaneously, only the red and white RA ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation is shown.
• If the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the displayed map. Otherwise
the Traffic Map is shown on the PFDs.
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• During an RA only, voice alert(s) provide vertical guidance to resolve the traffic conflict. The Vertical Speed
Indicator displays a range of vertical speeds to fly to or avoid as applicable (Figure 6-222). Additional voice
alerts may occur to denote changes in the RA status, as necessary.
RA Annunciation
Fly-To Vertical
Speed Range
No-Fly Vertical
Speed Range
TA Annunciation
Inset Traffic Map
Displays When TA
or RA is Detected
Softkey Displays/
Removes Inset
Traffic Map
Figure 6-222 Traffic Annunciation with Resolution Advisory (PFD)
RESOLUTION ADVISORIES
Resolution Advisories (RAs) include recommended vertical guidance maneuvers to be flown in order to
resolve a traffic conflict. If other aircraft involved in the RA encounter are also equipped with a TCAS II
system, the traffic systems coordinate the recommended maneuvers using the Mode S data link in order to
produce complimentary responses to resolve the RA. While an RA is occurring, the system monitors the
status, and if necessary, strengthens, weakens, reverses the RA, or declares the aircraft is clear of the traffic
conflict.
RAs are categorized into the preventive and corrective types.
Preventive RAs
The system issues a preventive RA to indicate the present vertical speed will resolve the traffic conflict.
The system indicates a range of vertical speeds to be avoided, indicated by one or more red bands inside the
VSI. The current vertical speed is outside of the avoidance area during a preventive RA.
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Preventive RA Type
Do Not Climb
Required Vertical Speed (fpm)
<0
Do Not Climb > 500 fpm
< 500
Do Not Climb > 1000 fpm
< 1000
Do Not Climb > 2000 fpm
< 2000
Do Not Descend
>0
Do Not Descend > 500 fpm
> -500
Do Not Descend > 1000 fpm
> -1000
Do Not Descend > 2000 fpm
> -2000
Table 6-60 Preventive RA Types with Required Vertical Speeds
CORRECTIVE RA
A corrective RA indicates the current vertical speed must be changed to resolve a traffic conflict. The VSI
indicates a range of vertical speeds to be avoided on the VSI, and the current vertical speed appears in white
with a red background. The VSI also indicates a green “fly to” vertical speed range to be flown in order to
resolve the RA conflict. In some cases, the TCAS II system logic determines it will be necessary to for own
aircraft to cross through the intruder aircraft’s altitude to resolve the traffic conflict.
Corrective RA Type
Climb
Crossing Climb
Crossing Maintain Climb
Maintain Climb
Reduce Descent
Descend
Crossing Descend
Crossing Maintain Descent
Maintain Descent
Reduce Climb
Required Vertical Speed (fpm)
1500 to 2000
1500 to 4400
0
-1500 to -2000
-1500 to -4400
0
Table 6-61 Corrective RA Types with Required Vertical Speeds
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TCAS II VOICE ALERTS FOR TRAFFIC
Table 6-62 lists the voice alerts the TCAS II system issues in the course of a TA or RA.
Alert Type
TA
Voice Alert
“Traffic, Traffic”
Climb RA
“Climb, Climb”
Descend RA
“Descend, Descend”
Altitude Crossing Climb RA
“Climb, Crossing Climb; Climb, Crossing Climb”
Altitude Crossing Descend RA
“Descend, Crossing; Descend; Descend, Crossing; Descend”
Reduce Climb RA
“Level Off, Level Off”
Reduce Descent RA
“Level Off, Level Off”
RA Reversal to Climb RA
“Climb, Climb NOW; Climb, Climb NOW”
RA Reversal to Descend RA
“Descend, Descent NOW; Descend, Descend NOW”
Increase Climb RA
“Increase Climb, Increase Climb”
Increase Descent RA
“Increase Descent, Increase Descent”
Maintain Rate RA
“Maintain Vertical Speed, Maintain”
Altitude Crossing, Maintain
Rate RA (Climb and Descend)
Weakening of RA
“Maintain Vertical Speed, Crossing Maintain”
Preventive RA
“Monitor Vertical Speed”
RA Removed
“Clear of Conflict”
“Level Off, Level Off”
Table 6-62 TCAS II RA Voice Alerts
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Corrective Climb
Corrective Descend
Preventive Don’t Climb
Preventive Don’t Descend
Preventive Don’t Climb and Don’t Descent
Greater than 500 FPM
Level Off, Level Off
Figure 6-223 Example Resolution Advisory Displays
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SYSTEM TEST
The TCAS II system can be tested using softkeys on the PFD or MFD.
Testing the TCAS II system on the PFD:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the TCAS Softkey.
3) Press the Test Softkey.
Testing the TCAS II system on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full traffic test pattern display.
4) Select the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key
b) Turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
During a TCAS II system test, the system displays a traffic test pattern appears on the Traffic Map Page of
the MFD, and on the PFD Inset Traffic Map (which appears if not already displayed.) The PFD displays a
Resolution Advisory (RA) alert annunciation, and vertical speed indicator indicating not to descend, and not
to climb greater than 2000 feet per minute (Figure 6-224). The system test takes approximately eight seconds
to complete.
Condition
Voice Alert
System Test Passed
“TCAS Two System Test Passed”
System Test Failed
“TCAS Two System Test Failed”
Table 6-63 Garmin GTS 8000 System Test Voice Alerts
Visual annunciations will also indicate a system test has failed (Tables 6-64, 6-65, 6-66).
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PFD
MFD Traffic Map Page
Figure 6-224 TCAS II System Test Displays
OPERATION
To display TCAS II Traffic, the system must be in TA ONLY or TA/RA Mode. These modes can be accessed
on the PFD or on the Traffic Map Page of the MFD.
Switching from standby mode to TA only or TA/RA mode on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the TA ONLY or TA/RA Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS knob to select ‘TA Only Mode’ or ‘TA/RA Mode’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The unit switches from Standby Mode to TA Only or TA/RA Mode as necessary.
Switching from standby mode to TA only or TA/RA mode on the PFD:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the MODE Softkey.
3) Press the TA Only or TA/RA Softkey
Switching from TA ONLY or TA/RA mode to standby mode:
On the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
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3) Select the TFC STBY Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Traffic Standby Mode’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The GTS 8000 TCAS II system automatically selects TA ONLY Mode when the aircraft is below 1000’
AGL. After landing, the GTS 8000 automatically selects STANDBY Mode. If the installed TCAS II traffic
system is not a Garmin GTS 8000, refer to the applicable documentation for system-specific automatic
traffic mode selections.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Map - Traffic Map Page shows surrounding TCAS II traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing TCAS II traffic.
Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic operating mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic
Map Page.
Operating Mode
Altitude Mode
Resolution Advisory, 300’
below, climbing
Proximity Advisory,
300’ Below, Level
“No-Bearing” (Bearing
Unknown) Traffic Advisory,
Distance 4 nm, 1500’
below, climbing
Traffic Advisory, 100’
below, descending
Traffic Map range
indications
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1800’ above,
descending
Figure 6-225 Traffic Map Page for TCAS II
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Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Select the TA Only or TA/RA Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘TA ONLY’ or ‘TA/RA’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
4) Select the Relative or Absolute Softkey to display the relative or absolute altitude of other aircraft. When
absolute altitude is displayed, the system may revert to displaying relative altitude after 30 seconds if the TCAS
II system is providing altitude which is not corrected for the local barometric pressure setting.
5) Select the TFC STBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
6) Turn the Joystick clockwise to display a larger area or counter-clockwise to display a smaller area.
Altitude Display
The flight crew can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic is
displayed. Traffic Advisories (TAs) and Resolution Advisories (RAs) outside of these limits will always be
shown.
Changing the traffic altitude display range on the PFD:
1) Press the XPDR/TFC Softkey.
2) Press the TCAS Softkey.
3) Press the ALT RNG Softkey.
4) Press one of the following altitude range softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All detected traffic in the air is displayed
5) Press the Back Softkey.
Changing the traffic altitude display range on the MFD:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT RNG Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys (see softkey description in step 4 above):
•
Below
•
Normal
•
Above
•
UNREST
3) To return to the Traffic Page, select the Back Softkey.
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Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in step 4 above):
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Softkey.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable with the
Joystick from 2 to 40 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
•
2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps on the MFD when the unit is operating:
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Flight Plan Pages
• Trip Planning Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, a traffic icon is shown to indicate traffic
is enabled for display (Figure 6-226).
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Other NonThreat Traffic
Resolution
Advisory
Proximity
Advisory
Traffic
Advisory
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
Traffic Altitude
Mode
No-Bearing
Traffic Advisory
Traffic overlay
enabled icon
Figure 6-226 TCAS II Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With Map Settings highlighted, press the ENT Key (Figure 6-227).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key (Figure 6-228).
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections (Figure 6-229).
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/RA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories, Resolution Advisories, and Proximity Advisories
- TA/RA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories and Resolution Advisories only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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Figure 6-227 Navigation Map Page Menu
Figure 6-228 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu
Figure 6-229 Navigation Map Page Setup Menu, Traffic Group
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD Inset Map by pressing the TRFC/MAP Softkey. A
traffic map will appear in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation,
topographic and optional datalink weather information.
Enabling/disabling the traffic overlay on the PFD inset navigation map:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
3) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map pane.
PFD Annunciation
Traffic Map Mode
Annunciation
TCAS II Self-test Initiated (TEST)
None
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ also
shown in white on top
center of page)
Traffic Advisory and Resolution Advisory (TA/
RA)
None
TA/RA
Operating Mode
Traffic Display
Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TA ONLY
Traffic Advisory Only (TA ONLY)
On the ground:
TCAS II Standby
(Shown if Altitude Reporting, On, or Standby
Mode Selected), or after landing or on-ground
power up.
In the air:
STANDBY
(also shown in white
in center of page on
ground, amber in the air)
NO DATA
or
DATA FAILED
or
UNIT FAILED
TCAS II Failed*
* See Table 6-65 for additional failure annunciations.
Table 6-64 TCAS II Modes
If the traffic system fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic
Map.
Traffic Map Center
Banner Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
TCAS FAIL
Description
Data is not being received from the TCAS II unit
Data is being received from the TCAS II unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the TCAS II unit
Table 6-65 TCAS II Failure Annunciations on the Traffic Map
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When the display of traffic information is enabled on navigation maps, the following annunciations may
appear in the lower left corner of these maps.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
RA OFF SCALE
TA OFF SCALE
RA X.X ± XX <UP>
or <DN>
TA X.X ± XX <UP>
or <DN>
TCAS FAIL
NO TCAS DATA
Description
A Resolution Advisory is outside the selected display range*. Annunciation is removed when traffic
comes within the selected display range
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Resolution Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
<UP> for climbing <DN> for descending traffic, if altitude trend is available.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
<UP> for climbing or <DN> for descending traffic, if altitude trend is available.
TCAS II unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TCAS II unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-66 TCAS II Traffic Status Annunciations
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS OVERVIEW
NOTE: The approved Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM)
always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The Garmin AFCS is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the G1000
System avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system
description.
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
• Flight Director (FD) — The Beechcraft 200/B200 has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and
referred to as pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both
PFDs.
The flight director provides:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Autopilot communication
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos. It also provides
servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering commands, Attitude and
Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
AFCS CONTROL UNIT
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
HDG Key
APR Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
4
NAV Key
FD Key
5
XFR Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command
Bars. If the autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which flight
director the autopilot is tracking
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer
directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
Toggles Airspeed Reference between IAS and Mach for Flight Level Change Mode
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes
(see Table 7-2 for change increments in each mode)
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is
available under approach conditions)
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
Engages/disengages the autopilot
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD
1
2
3
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
ALT Key
7 VS Key
8 FLC Key
17 CRS Knobs
6
9
SPD Key
11 NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
12 VNV Key
13 ALT SEL Knob
10
14
15
16
18
19
YD Key
AP Key
BANK Key
BC Key
HDG Knob
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
Annunciator
Light
10
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
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ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
AP/YD DISC TRIM Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director and interrupts pitch trim
operation
INTRPT Switch
(Autopilot
An AP/YD DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
Disconnect/Trim
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
Interrupt)
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
CWS Button
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
(Control Wheel
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Steering)
Mode)
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
GA Button
(Go Around)
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around (in air) Mode
If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates the missed approach when
the selected navigation source is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC
and a valid frequency has been tuned. Unless a compatible lift computer is installed,
pressing the GA Button disengages the autopilot.
The GA Button is located on the left throttle.
Used to command manual electric pitch trim
MEPT Switch
(Manual Electric An MEPT Switch is located on each control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
The pilot side MEPT Switch has priority over the copilot side MEPT Switch.
This composite switch is split into left and right sides. The left switch is the ARM
contact and the right switch controls the DN (forward) and UP (rearward) contacts.
Pushing the MEPT ARM Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged, but
does not affect yaw damper operation. The MEPT ARM Switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
Manual trim commands are generated only when both sides of the switch are operated
simultaneously. If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three
seconds, MEPT function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ is displayed as the AFCS Status
Annunciation on the PFDs. The function remains disabled until both sides of the
switch are inactivated.
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BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed description
follows in Section 7.5.
• Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit.
Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to hold the
current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case, ‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will be
annunciated.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will smoothly
pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director modes remain unchanged.
• Autopilot Disengagement — The most common way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the
AP/YD DISC Switch, which is located on the control stick. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and
annunciated on the PFD. Other ways to disconnect the autopilot include:
– Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
– Pressing the GA Switch (located on the left throttle)
– Operating the MEPT Switch (located on each control wheel)
– Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker
In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP/YD DISC Switch will disconnect
the autopilot and remove all power to the servos.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (−15°, +20°) and roll (25°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side flight
director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from the
displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
FLC Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
GA Button
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
VOR
LOC
HDG
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Takeoff (on ground)
TO
Go Around (in air)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Flight Level Change
FLC
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Lateral Modes
Armed
Active
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status Status
Flight Director
Indicator Arrow
Vertical Modes
Active
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes. Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights (Figure 7-1) which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed
or active.
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the FD Key is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic
transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation moving to the green
active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of GPS Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
SWITCHING FLIGHT DIRECTORS
The Beechcraft 200/B200 has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. The autopilot follows
the selected flight director only, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or copilot side, in the
center of the AFCS Status Box. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR Key. The annunciator
light arrow for the selected flight director is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are
switched, the vertical and lateral modes revert to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director Selected
Copilot-side Flight Director Selected
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
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COMMAND BARS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a single
cue or cross pointers. The Aircraft Symbol (in yellow) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format;
the Command Bars do not override the Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars (Figure 7-5) move
together vertically to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands. Command
Bars displayed as a cross pointer (Figure 7-6) move independently to indicate pitch (horizontal bar) and roll
(vertical bar) commands. Both PFDs show the same Command Bar format. If a compatible lift computer is
installed, the cross-pointer option will be unavailable.
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Single-cue Command Bars
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-6 Cross-pointer Command Bars
Changing Command Bar format:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Setup Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Active’ in the ‘Flight Director’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
’SNGL CUE’ to display Command Bars as a single cue (Aircraft Symbol in Figure 7-5).
Or:
’X-POINTER’ to display Command Bars as a cross-pointer (Aircraft Symbol in Figure 7-6).
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.3 AFCS MODES
The AFCS is capable of operating in a variety of independent Lateral Modes, Vertical Modes and Combination
of both the Lateral and Vertical Modes.
VERTICAL MODES
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode
reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes. The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while operating
under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode.
Vertical Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Reference
Range
Holds the current aircraft pitch
-15° to
attitude; may be used to climb/ (default)
PIT
+20°
descend to the Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude Capture
Captures the Selected Altitude
*
ALTS
Altitude Hold
Holds the current Altitude Reference ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
-4000 to
Vertical Speed
speed; may be used to climb/descend VS Key VS nnnn fpm
+4000 fpm
to the Selected Altitude
100 to
Flight Level Change, IAS Hold Maintains the current aircraft
FLC nnn kt
259 kt
airspeed (in IAS or Mach) while the
FLC Key
aircraft is climbing/descending to the
M 0.15 to
Flight Level Change, Mach Hold Selected Altitude
FLC M .nnn
0.52
Pitch Hold
Reference
Change
Increment
0.5°
100 fpm
1 kt
M 0.01
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, TO, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured
instead of VNV Target Altitude
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch
Hold Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’
annunciation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter), since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to
the nose-up/down limit.
Changing the Pitch Reference
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-7 Pitch Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at
least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude
is to be captured instead of the VNV Target
Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see previous figure for
example). The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected
Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed (next figure). This automatic transition is indicated by the
green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-8 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the Selected Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the
new Selected Altitude.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current
aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference,
shown in the AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter.
Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode
(see Figure 7-10). Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when
the altitude error is less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude
Reference.
Changing the Altitude Reference
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude Reference. When the
CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is established as the Altitude Reference.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-9 Altitude Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current
aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical
Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is
selected.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS
Status Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the
Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is
shown on the indicator.
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-10 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference (in IAS or Mach) while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter). When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected
Altitude, airspeed, Mach, and altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the
Airspeed Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
Changing the Airspeed Reference
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Airspeed Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Airspeed Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
During climb, the pilot must select the Airspeed Reference (IAS or Mach), automatic switching does not
occur. For descent, if Mach airspeed reference is selected (above 16,000 ft), the aircraft descends in Mach
until the Mach airspeed reference reaches 250 KIAS, at which point the airspeed reference automatically
switches to IAS at that airspeed value. The system determines aircraft climb or descent by the relationship
between the current and Selected altitudes.
Airspeed Reference units can be manually toggled between IAS and Mach units using the SPD Key. When
the FLC Airspeed Reference is displayed in Mach, the Airspeed Reference Bug is displayed on the Airspeed
Indicator at the IAS corresponding to the selected Mach target speed and the current Mach number is
shown only in the AFCS Status Box.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Selected
Airspeed Altitude Capture
Reference Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-11 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Selected
Airspeed
Reference Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
(Mach)
Airspeed
Reference
(Mach)
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-12 Flight Level Change Mode (Mach)
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer
to the combination modes section for information regarding Go Around and Takeoff modes.
Lateral Mode
Roll Hold
Low Bank
Heading Select
Description
Control Annunciation
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum commanded BANK
roll angle
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
Navigation, GPS Arm/Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the selected
Navigation, VOR Enroute Arm/Capture/Track
navigation source (GPS, VOR,
Navigation, LOC Arm/Capture/Track
LOC)
(No Glideslope)
NAV
Key
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
ROL
25°
*
15°
HDG
25°
GPS
VOR
25°
25°
LOC
25°
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll
Scale of the Attitude Indicator.
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls the wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank
angle condition.
Figure 7-13 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 25°
> 25°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 25°
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
Changing the Roll Reference
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low bank
arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select or
Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). Low Bank Mode is activated automatically above 20,500 feet. The flight
director deactivates Low Bank Mode when descending through 20,500 feet. The annunciator light next to
the BANK Key illuminates while Low Bank Mode is selected.
Low Bank Arc
Figure 7-14 Low Bank Mode Limits
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains
the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in the box to the
upper left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob on either PFD. Pressing the CWS Button and
hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the
Selected Heading upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading
changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-15 Heading Select Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
NAVIGATION MODES (GPS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering
commands from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision
GPS and LOC approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the
selected mode is armed. If the CDI shows less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when
the NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active lateral mode.
Figure 7-16 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed
prior to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic navigation
source switch from GPS to LOC
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when
the CWS Button is released.
GPS Navigation
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation Source
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track GPS Course
Figure 7-17 Navigation Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
COMBINATION MODES (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA)
The following table lists the modes that operating by using both Vertical and Lateral Modes with their
corresponding controls and annunciations.
Mode
Description
Vertical Path Tracking
VNV Target Altitude Capture
Glidepath
Glideslope
Backcourse Arm/Capture/Track
Control
Captures and tracks descent
legs of an active vertical VNV Key
profile
Captures
the
Vertical
Navigation (VNV) Target
*
Altitude
Captures and tracks the
SBAS glidepath on approach
APR Key
Captures and tracks the ILS
glideslope on approach
Captures
and
tracks
a localizer signal for BC Key
backcourse approaches
Annunciation
Maximum
Roll
Command
Limit
Reference
Range
VPTH
ALTV
GP
GS
BC
25°
Approach, GPS Arm/Capture/Track
GPS
25°
Approach, VOR Arm/Capture/Track Captures and tracks the
selected navigation source APR Key
Approach, ILS Arm/Capture/Track (GPS, VOR, LOC)
(Glideslope Mode automatically
armed)
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level on the
GA
Takeoff
ground in preparation for Button
takeoff
VAPP
25°
LOC
25°
TO
8.6°
Go Around**
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level in the
air
GA
Button
GA
8°
Level
Autopilot engages and
commands
pitch angle
necessary to establish zero
vertical fpm
***
LVL
N/A
* ALTV is armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude.
**Go Around mode disengages the autopilot unless a compatible lift computer is installed.
*** Level mode can only become activated as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the Additional
Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
Table 7-5 Flight Director Combination Modes
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations any
time that VNV flight planning is available. Refer to the GPS Navigation Section for more information on VNV
flight plans. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
• The selected navigation source is GPS.
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD).
• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude.
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight
control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon
reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and
cancels any armed VNV modes.
Vertical Path Tracking Mode (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope
Mode is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable,
the appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the
Selected Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-18 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude
by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within one minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and
the descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation
Status Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation,
and vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required
VNV Target
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-19 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile (next figure). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as
appropriate.
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Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-20 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path
(without commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV
vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV
Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director
to revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in
the vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by
flight plan changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode
to allow profile re-capture.
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Figure 7-21 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected
Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target
Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded
from a database (see the GPS Navigation Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute”
is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains
displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RSVI) is removed
once VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active,
the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to
indicate the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing
upcoming descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-22 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
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Changing the VNV Target Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes
the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude
capture mode are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude,
depending on which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the GPS Navigation Section
for details).
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting Glidepath Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V should be flown to an MDA, until visual with the
landing surface, even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle) with the autopilot coupled, the
aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Figure 7-23 Glidepath Mode Armed
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• A GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight plan.
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
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NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
GPS Approach
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Glidepath
Mode Active
LPV Approach
Active
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 7-24 Glidepath Mode
GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When Glideslope
Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral flight director
mode.
Selecting Glideslope Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-25 Glideslope Mode Armed
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Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the
glideslope, the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Approach
Mode Active
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Mode Active
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 7-26 Glideslope Mode
APPROACH MODES (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the
selected navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected
navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the
CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the active
lateral mode). If the CDI is less the 1 dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
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When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Selecting GPS Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-27 GPS Approach Mode Armed
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC
Approach Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the
difference between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
• During a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when
the CWS Button is released.
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BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the mode
is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the BC Key is
pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation when in
Backcourse Mode.
Backcourse
Mode Active
LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Figure 7-28 Backcourse Mode
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data while in Backcourse
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course when the CWS Button is released.
INTERCEPTING AND FLYING A DME ARC
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that GPS
Navigation Mode is engaged, GPS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is
the active flight plan leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS.
Thus, even if the APR key is pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
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If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides vectors
to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically
intercept or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms GPS Navigation
Mode. The AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of the
arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects GPS Navigation
Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
Go Around and Takeoff modes are coupled pitch and roll modes and are annunciated as both the vertical
and lateral modes when active. In these modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude and
wings level. The GA Button is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends
on whether the aircraft is on the ground.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the GA Button. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude.
Pressing the GA Button while in the air activates the flight director in wings level, pitch-up attitudes,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around.
Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Takeoff Mode Active
Figure 7-29 Takeoff and Go Around Modes
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LEVEL MODE (LVL)
Level (LVL) mode becomes active only as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to
the Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 20 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight
and level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural “ENGAGING
AUTOPILOT” alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The
AFCS will remain in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
Figure 7-30 Level Mode
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7.4 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the POH/AFM for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight control. The
autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the flight director. Pitch
autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch
servo. Autopilot operation is independent of the yaw damper.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
The pilot side MEPT Switch has priority over the copilot side MEPT Switch.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response. It also
uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns.
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ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are activated
and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight
director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-31 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Engaged
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot and the yaw
damper annunciator light is illuminated.
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-32 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
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DISENGAGEMENT
The autopilot is manually disengaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit or the MEPT ARM
Switch. Manual autopilot disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘AP’ annunciation and a
three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert.
Figure 7-33 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
Pushing the AP/YD DISC Switch disengages both the yaw damper and the autopilot. When the yaw damper
and autopilot are manually disengaged, both the ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciation turn yellow and flash for 5 seconds
and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert is generated.
Figure 7-34 Yaw Damper Disengagement
After manual disengagement, the autopilot disconnect aural alert may be cancelled by pushing the MEPT ARM
or AP/YD DISC Switch (AP/YD DISC Switch also cancels the flashing ‘AP’ annunciation).
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP/YD DISC or MEPT ARM
Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically)
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
Figure 7-35 Automatic Autopilot and Yaw Damper Disengagement
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UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system is
installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum established
airspeeds.
When the aircraft reaches a predetermined airspeed (specific to each flap setting), a yellow MINSPD
annunciation will appear above the airspeed indicator. When aircraft angle of attack is within four degrees of
stall warning, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be displayed approximately four degrees above the aircraft symbol
on the pitch attitude indicator. If deceleration continues, the Pitch Limit Indicator will move downward on the
pitch attitude indicator until coincident with the aircraft symbol at stall warning angle of attack.
Pitch Limit
Indicator
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-36 MINSPD Annunciation and Pitch Limit Indicator
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical flight
director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can be divided
into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical
modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical modes).
ALTITUDE-CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change from
active to armed, and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the wings to level.
Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
Figure 7-37 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red “UNDERSPEED PROTECT ACTIVE”
annunciation (next figure) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The pitch down force will
continue until the aircraft reaches a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots.
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Figure 7-38 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciation
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference.
The vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active, and when aircraft angle of
attack reaches approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch Limit Indicator will
be removed.
NON-ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (VS, VNAV, IAS,)
When the airspeed trend vector (specific to each flap setting) reaches a predetermined airspeed, a single
aural “AIRSPEED” will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition. If the aircraft
decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red “UNDERSPEED PROTECT
ACTIVE” annunciation (previous figure) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The vertical
flight director mode will change from active to armed (next figure), and the autopilot will cause the aircraft
to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the minimum commandable autopilot
airspeed.
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
Figure 7-39 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to an IAS above the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference.
The vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active, and when aircraft angle of attack reaches
approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be removed.
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7.5 EXAMPLE FLIGHT PLAN
NOTE: The following example flight plan and diagrams (not to be used for navigation) in this section are
for instructional purposes only and should be considered not current. Numbered portions of accompanying
diagrams correspond to numbered procedure steps.
This scenario-based set of procedures (based on the example flight plan found in the Flight Management
Section) shows various Garmin AFCS modes used during a flight. In this scenario, the aircraft departs Charles B.
Wheeler Downtown Airport (KMKC), enroute to Colorado Springs Airport (KCOS). After departure, the aircraft
climbs to 12,000 ft and airway V4 is intercepted, following ATC vectors.
Airway V4 is flown to Salina VOR (SLN) using VOR navigation, then airway V244 is flown using GPS Navigation.
The ILS approach for runway 35L and LPV (WAAS) approach for runway 35R are shown and a missed approach
is executed.
0
33
30
3
27
30
27
30
24
24
21
27
24
27
15
12
21
18
15
18
9
24
21
12
6
Lamar
VOR
(LAA)
Topeka
VOR
(TOP)
12
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
9
V 244
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
9
3
V4
18
V 244
9
6
0
33
15
6
KCOS
KMKC
30
3
3
6
0
33
0
33
12
21
15
18
Figure 7-40 Flight Plan Overview
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DEPARTURE
Climbing to the Selected Altitude and flying an assigned heading:
1) Before takeoff:
a) Use the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude to 12,000 feet.
b) Push the GA Button to activate Takeoff Mode. The flight director Command Bars establish a pitch up
attitude to follow.
c) Press the AP Key to engage the autopilot in a climb, holding the pitch angle commanded in Takeoff Mode
and wings level.
2) In this example, Vertical Speed Mode is used to capture the Selected Altitude (Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or
Flight Level Change Mode may be used).
Press the VS Key to activate Vertical Speed Mode.
The Vertical Speed Reference may be adjusted after Vertical Speed Mode is selected using the NOSE UP/DN
Wheel or pushing the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new Vertical Speed Reference.
3) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading, complying with ATC vectors to intercept Airway V4.
Press the HDG Key to activate Heading Select Mode while the autopilot is engaged in the climb. The autopilot
follows the Selected Heading Bug on the HSI and turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
4) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds; the autopilot
transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
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HD
GM
od
e
TO M
ode
3
Selected Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
4
KMKC
2
1
VS
e
Mod
ode
M
TO
Figure 7-41 Departure
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INTERCEPTING A VOR RADIAL
During climb-out, the autopilot continues to fly the aircraft in Heading Select Mode. Airway V4 to Salina
VOR (SLN) should now be intercepted. Since the enroute flight plan waypoints correspond to VORs, flight
director Navigation Mode using either VOR or GPS as the navigation source may be used. In this scenario, VOR
Navigation Mode is used for navigation to the first VOR waypoint in the flight plan.
Intercepting a VOR radial:
1) Arm VOR Navigation Mode:
a) Tune the VOR frequency.
b) Press the CDI Softkey to set the navigation source to VOR.
c) Use the CRS1 or CRS2 Knob to set the Selected Course to the desired value, 255°. Note that at this point,
the flight director is still in Heading Select Mode and the autopilot continues to fly the Selected Heading,
290°.
d) Press the NAV Key. This arms VOR Navigation Mode and the white ‘VOR’ annunciation appears to the left
of the active lateral mode.
2) As the aircraft nears the Selected Course, the flight director transitions from Heading Select to VOR Navigation
Mode and the ‘VOR’ annunciation flashes green. The autopilot begins turning to intercept the Selected
Course.
3) The autopilot continues the turn until the aircraft is established on the Selected Course.
0
33
3
30
Hd
29 g
0o
V4
6
27
3
255
9
o
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
24
VO
R
NA
V
Mo
de
2
HD
G
12
M
od
e,
VO
R
Ar
m
ed
15
1
21
18
Figure 7-42 Intercepting a VOR Radial
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FLYING A FLIGHT PLAN/GPS COURSE
NOTE: Changing the navigation source cancels Navigation Mode and causes the flight director to revert
back to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level).
As the aircraft closes on Salina VOR, GPS is used to navigate the next leg, airway V244. The aircraft is
currently tracking inbound on Airway V4.
Flying a GPS flight plan:
1) Transition from VOR to GPS Navigation Mode:
a) Press the CDI Softkey until GPS is the selected navigation source.
b) Press the NAV Key to activate GPS Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft along the active
flight plan leg.
2) Following the flight plan, the autopilot continues to steer the aircraft under GPS guidance. Note that in GPS
Navigation Mode, course changes defined by the flight plan are automatically made without pilot action
required.
0
33
33
3
30
0
V4
6
3
o
075
30
e
V Mod
PS NA
6
27
G
2
12
21
18
12
15
24
9
Hays
VOR
(HYS)
Salina
VOR
(SLN)
V 244
1
24
27
076
Mode
9
o
260
o
AV
VOR N
15
21
18
Figure 7-43 Transition to GPS Flight Plan
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DESCENT
While flying the arrival procedure, the aircraft is cleared for descent in preparation for the approach to KCOS.
Three methods are presented for descent:
• Flight Level Change descent – Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the Selected Altitude at a
constant airspeed. This descent method does not account for flight plan waypoint altitude constraints.
• Vertical Path Tracking descent – Vertical Path Tracking Mode is used to follow the vertical descent path
defined in the GPS flight plan. Altitude constraints correspond to waypoints in the flight plan. Before VNV
flight control can provide vertical profile guidance, a VNV flight plan must be entered and enabled.
• Non-path descent in a VNV scenario – A VNV flight plan is entered and enabled, however Pitch Hold, Vertical
Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode can be used to descend to the VNV Target Altitude prior to reaching the
planned TOD. Flight Level Change Mode is used in the example.
Flight Level Change descent:
1) Select Flight Level Change Mode:
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude to 10,000 feet.
b) Press the FLC Key to activate Flight Level Change Mode. The annunciation ‘FLC’ appears next to the
Airspeed Reference, which defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is
armed automatically.
c) If desired press the SPD Key to display the Airspeed Reference in Mach.
2) Use the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or push the CWS Button while hand-flying the aircraft to adjust the commanded
airspeed while maintaining the same power, or reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode
while the autopilot maintains the current airspeed.
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
1
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
ALT Mode
2
FLC
Mod
e
3
Selected Altitude of 10,000 MSL
ALT Mode
Figure 7-44 FLC Descent
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Vertical Path Tracking descent to VNV Target Altitude:
1) Select VNV flight control:
a) Press the VNV Key to arm Vertical Path Tracking Mode. The white annunciation ‘VPTH’ appears.
b) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude below the flight plan’s VNV Target Altitude of 10,000
feet.
If the Selected Altitude is not at least 75 ft below the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director captures the
Selected Altitude rather than the VNV Target Altitude once Vertical Path Tracking Mode becomes active
(ALTS is armed rather than ALTV).
c) If Vertical Path Tracking Mode is armed more than 5 minutes prior to descent path capture, acknowledgment
is required for the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode. To proceed
with descent path capture if the white ‘VPTH’ annunciation begins flashing, do one of the following
• Press the VNV Key
• Turn the ALT SEL Knob to adjust the Selected Altitude
If the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
2) When the top of descent (TOD) is reached, the flight director transitions to Vertical Path Tracking Mode and
begins the descent to the VNV Target Altitude. Intention to capture the VNV Target Altitude is indicated by the
white ‘ALTV’ annunciation.
3) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
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1
ALT Mode
TOD
Cruise Altitude of 12,000 MSL
2
VPT
HM
ode
3
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
BOD
ALT Mode
Selected Altitude (set below VNAV Target Altitude)
Along-track Offset, 3 nm before OPSHN
3 nm
Figure 7-45 VPTH Descent
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Non-path descent using Flight Level Change Mode:
1) Using Flight Level Change Mode, command a non-path descent to an intermediate altitude above the next VNV
flight plan altitude.
a) Using the ALT SEL Knob, set the Selected Altitude below the current aircraft altitude to an altitude (in this
case, 9,400 feet) at which to level off between VNV flight plan altitudes.
b) Press the FLC Key before the planned TOD during an altitude hold while VPTH is armed. The Airspeed
Reference defaults to the current aircraft airspeed. Vertical Path Tracking and Selected Altitude Capture
Mode are armed automatically.
2) Reduce power to allow descent in Flight Level Change Mode. The autopilot maintains the Airspeed Reference.
3) As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft. After leveling off reset Selected Altitude at
or below 9,000 ft.
4) When the next TOD is reached, Vertical Path Tracking becomes active (may require acknowledgment to allow
descent path capture).
5) As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director transitions to VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude;
the autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft at the vertical waypoint.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VP
TH
M
od
e
Planned
TOD
2
BOD
ALT Mode
1
FL
C
Pla
nn
M
od
e
Selected Altitude of 9,400 MSL
VNAV Target Altitude of 10,000 MSL
3
ed
De
sce
nt
ALT Mode
Pa
th
TOD
4
VP
TH
Mo
de
VNAV Target Altitude of 9,000 MSL
5
BOD
ALT Mode
Selected Altitude
3 nm
OPSHN
HABUK
Figure 7-46 Non-path Descent
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
APPROACH
NOTE: If an approach contains a DME arc, the arc must be flown in Navigation Mode with the Garmin AFCS.
When receiving vectors from ATC, Navigation Mode must be selected prior to intercepting the ARC.
Flying an ILS approach:
1) Transition from GPS Navigation Mode to Heading Select Mode.
a) Select the Runway 35L ILS approach for KCOS and select ‘VECTORS’ for the transition. Load and activate
the approach into the flight plan.
b) Use the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading after getting vectors from ATC.
c) Press the HDG Key. The autopilot turns the aircraft to the desired heading.
d) Use Heading Select Mode to comply with ATC vectors as requested.
2) Arm LOC Approach and Glideslope modes.
a) Ensure the appropriate localizer frequency is tuned.
b) Press the APR Key when cleared for approach to arm Approach and Glideslope modes. ‘LOC’ and ‘GS’
appear in white as armed mode annunciations.
c) T he navigation source automatically switches to LOC. After this switch occurs, the localizer signal can be
captured and the flight director determines when to begin the turn to intercept the final approach course.
The flight director now provides guidance to the missed approach point.
3) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the ILS approach:
602
•
Push the AP/YD DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft.
•
Use the GA Button to execute a missed approach.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
KCOS
LOC APR/
GS Mode
3
PETEY
2
HD
G
e
od
M
PYNON
1
GPS NAV Mode
Figure 7-47 ILS Approach to KCOS
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Flying a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical guidance) with the autopilot coupled, the aircraft
will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude preselect.
1) Arm flight director modes for a RNAV GPS approach with vertical guidance:
a) Make sure the navigation source is set to GPS (use CDI Softkey to change navigation source).
b) Select the Runway 35R LPV approach for KCOS. Load and activate the approach into the flight plan.
2) Press the APR Key once clearance for approach has been received. GPS Approach Mode is activated and
Glidepath Mode is armed.
3) Once the glidepath is captured, Glidepath Mode becomes active. The flight director now provides guidance to
the missed approach point.
4) There are two options available at this point, as the autopilot flies the approach:
604
•
Push the AP/YD DISC Switch at the decision height and land the aircraft.
•
Use the GA Button to execute a missed approach.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
KCOS
4
3
GPS APR/
GP Mode
CEGIX
2
FALUR
HABUK
PYNON
1
GPS NAV Mode
Figure 7-48 LPV Approach to KCOS
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
GO AROUND/MISSED APPROACH
NOTE: As a result of calculations performed by the system while flying the holding pattern, the display may
re-size automatically and the aircraft may not precisely track the holding pattern as depicted on the PFD and
MFD.
Flying a missed approach:
1) Push the GA Button at the Decision height and apply go-around power to execute a missed approach. If a
compatible lift computer is installed, the autopilot will remain engaged and the flight director will indicate
nose-up and wings level attitudes. If flying an ILS or LOC approach the CDI will switch to GPS as the navigation
source.
2) Start the climb to the prescribed altitude in the published Missed Approach Procedure (in this case, 10,000 ft).
Upon reaching the appropriate altitude, press the NAV Key climb to have the autopilot fly to the hold.
3) Use the ALT SEL Knob to set a Selected Altitude to hold.
To hold the current airspeed during the climb, press the FLC Key.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode,
indicated by the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds.
The green ‘ALT’ annunciation flashes for up to 10 seconds upon reaching 50 feet from the Selected Altitude; the
autopilot transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and levels the aircraft.
4) The autopilot flies the holding pattern after the missed approach is activated. Annunciations are displayed in
the Navigation Status Box, above the AFCS Status Box.
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4
MOGAL
GPS NAV Mode
3
2
GA Mode
KCOS
1
Figure 7-49 Go Around/Missed Approach
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.6 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS CAS MESSAGES
See Appendix A for Crew Alerting System (CAS) messages related to the AFCS.
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in ALT, GS or GP modes.
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Overspeed protection is provided to limit the flight director’s
pitch command in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain the mode reference for the
selected vertical mode without exceeding Vne.
When Overspeed Protection is active, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed Indicator,
flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference adjusted
to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
Figure 7-50 Overspeed Annunciation
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SUSPECTED AUTOPILOT MALFUNCTION
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as specifics that may
supplement or amplify this procedure.
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the following steps:
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
2) Press and hold the AP/YD DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed from the trim
motor. Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged solenoids. Note the visual and aural
alerting indicating autopilot disconnect.
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid components.
5) Release the AP/YD DISC Switch.
OVERPOWERING AUTOPILOT SERVOS
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied to the pitch controls
when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or force on the pitch controls can cause the autopilot
automatic trim to run to an out-of-trim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to the
controls should be avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to run, resulting in an outof-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is prolonged. In this case, larger than anticipated
control forces are required after the autopilot is disengaged.
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)
• SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• Scheduler
• FliteCharts® electronic charts
• Flight Data Logging
• AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
• Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) System
• Satellite telephone and SMS messaging services
• Wi-Fi connections
• SurfaceWatch™
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) provides a three-dimensional forward view of terrain features
on the PFD. SVT imagery shows the pilot’s view of relevant features in relation to the aircraft attitude, as well as
the flight path pertaining to the active flight plan.
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Either ChartView or FliteCharts may be
configured in the system, but not both.
The AOPA and AC-U-KWIK Airport Directories offer detailed information for a selected airport, such as available
services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
Iridium Telephone Services and SMS messaging is an optional subscription service offered through Garmin
®
Connext and Iridium Satellite LLC. Voice and SMS messaging communications are through the Iridium Satellite
Network. Data communications are through Iridium Data Services, or a wireless network (Wi-Fi) when the
aircraft is on the ground.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver handles
more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment choices
and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages such as
Switch fuel tanks, Change oil, or Altimeter-Transponder Check in the Messages Window on the PFD.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
The Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside the normal flight
envelope.
The optional SurfaceWatch™ feature provides voice and visual annunciations to aid in maintaining situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport
environment.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY (SVT)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) is a visual enhancement to the G1000NXi Integrated Flight
Deck. SVT depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The
field of view is 30 degrees to the left and 35 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight
Display (PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted imagery is derived
from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a nine arc-second database of terrain,
obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution of nine arc-seconds, meaning that the terrain
elevation contours are stored in squares measuring nine arc-seconds on each side, is required for the operation of
SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled
until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
The Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) is integrated within SVT to provide visual and auditory
alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts
are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the TAWS terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
612
• Pathways
• Airport Signs
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-1 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch attitude scale is reduced from 20
degrees up and down to 10 degrees up to 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The softkeys
are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign. The Back Softkey returns to the previous level of
softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
Pathways, HDG LBL, and APT Sign Softkeys are only available when the Terrain Softkey is activated (gray
with black characters). After activating the Terrain Softkey, the Pathways, HDG LBL, and APT Sign softkeys
may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When system power is cycled, the last selected
state (on or off) of the Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign softkeys is remembered by the system.
• Pathways Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HDG LBL Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APT Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-2 SVT Softkeys
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the Terrain Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the Pathways Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HDG LBL Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APT Sign Softkey.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Airport
Runway
Pathways
Color
Matches CDI
Indicating
NAV Source
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Synthetic
Terrain
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 8-3 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
PATHWAYS
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNAV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the Inset map or MFD map indicating an inactive leg.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 8-4 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be used
independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from the
display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
Departure and Enroute
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight
plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude
selected or programmed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Descent and Approach
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent. When the flight plan includes
programmed descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the selected
altitude is lower than the programmed altitude.
When an approach providing vertical guidance is activated, Pathways are shown level at the selected
altitude up to the point along the final approach course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical
descent path, glidepath, or glideslope. From the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept
point, the pathways are shown inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral
and vertical descent path, or at the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC
selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glide
slope.
VOR, LOC BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in
magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final
approach courses are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 8-5 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Missed Approach
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 8-6 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown.
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or
obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 8-7 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HDG LBL Softkey.
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a
partial symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed in the Inset map or
MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For
more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APTSIGNS Softkey.
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Figure 8-8 Airport Signs
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Runway
Selected for
Approach
Other
Runway
on Airport
Figure 8-9 Airport Runways
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TAWS ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts. In addition to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning alert,
TAWS-B alerting will also indicate potential impact points. These potential impact points correspond to red
and/or yellow X symbols on the PFD Inset Map, MFD map displays, and TAWS-B Page on the MFD. Terrain
shading will only occur on the synthetic terrain display on the PFD and TAWS-A Page on the MFD when
using the optional TAWS-A system. No terrain shading nor potential impact points will be displayed on the
PFD inset map or the MFD map display. For more detailed information regarding TAWS, refer to the Hazard
Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
TERRAIN
Annunciation
Potential
Impact
Point
Figure 8-10 Terrain Alert
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower symbols found
on the Inset map and MFD maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative
height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. When employing a TAWS-B system, unlike the Inset
map and MFD moving map display, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn
of potential conflict with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert.
Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the
airspeed and altitude displays.
As with terrain alerting on a TAWS-A system, obstacle alerting is limited to the synthetic terrain display on
the PFD and the TAWS-A Page on the MFD.
PULL UP
Annunciation
Obstacle
Warning
Figure 8-11 Obstacle
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FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Configuring field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Settings and press the ENT Key.
Field of
View
Navigation Map Page OPTIONS Menu
Map Setup Menu, Map Group, Field of View Option
Figure 8-12 Option Menus
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Map Group options to Field of View.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and Field of View
turned on.
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 8-13 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 SAFETAXI
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
• NDB Information Page
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
Airport
Features
Detail Softkey
Removes
Taxiway
Markings
Figure 8-14 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
The Detail Softkey (declutter) label advances to Detail All, Detail 3, Detail 2 and Detail 1 each time the softkey
is selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the Detail All Softkey removes the taxiway
markings and airport feature labels. Selecting the Detail 3 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol,
and intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the Detail 2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the Detail 1 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Settings Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-15 Navigation Map PAGE MENU, Map Setup Option
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SafeTaxi.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
SAFETAXI
Option
SafeTaxi
Range
Options
Figure 8-16 MAP SETUP Menu, Aviation Group, SAFETAXI Range Options
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SAFETAXI CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
SafeTaxi database is revised every 56 days. SafeTaxi is always available for use after the expiration date.
When turning on the system, the Power-up Page indicates whether the databases are current, out of date, or
not available.
SafeTaxi Database
Figure 8-17 Power-up, SafeTaxi Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Normal operation. SafeTaxi database is valid and within current cycle.
SafeTaxi database has expired.
Database card contains no SafeTaxi data.
Table 8-1 SafeTaxi Annunciation Definitions
The SafeTaxi Region, Version, Cycle, Effective date and Expires date of the database cycle can also be found
on the Aux - System Status page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Press the FMS Knob Softkey to place the cursor in the Database window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob, Press the Details Softkey to show additional SafeTaxi database information.
The SafeTaxi database cycle number 16S3, is deciphered as follows:
16 – Indicates the year 2016
S – Indicates the data is for SafeTaxi
3 – Indicates the third issue of the SafeTaxi database for the year
The SafeTaxi Effective date 26–MAY–16 is the beginning date for the current database cycle. SafeTaxi Expires
date 21–JUL–16 is the revision date for the next database cycle.
SafeTaxi Data
Figure 8-18 AUX - System Status Page, SafeTaxi Current Information
SafeTaxi information appears in blue and yellow text. The Effective date appears in blue when data is current
and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The Expires date appears in blue when data
is current and in yellow when expired. Not Available appears in blue in the Region field if SafeTaxi data is
not available on the database card. An expired SafeTaxi database is not disabled and will continue to function
indefinitely.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey a second time. The softkey label will change to PFD1 DB. The Database
window will now be displaying database information for PFD1. As before, scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
Select the PFD1 DB Softkey. The softkey label will change to PFD2 DB. The Database window will now
display database information for PFD2. Again, scroll through the listed information by turning the FMS Knob
or pressing the ENT Key until the SafeTaxi database information is shown.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for instructions on revising the SafeTaxi database.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The Effective date is the beginning date for this database cycle. If the present date is before the effective date,
the Effective date appears in yellow and the Expires date appears in blue. The Expires date is the revision date
for the next database cycle. Not Available indicates that SafeTaxi is not available on the database card or no
database card is inserted.
Current Date is before Effective Date
SafeTaxi Database has Expired
SafeTaxi Database Not Installed
Figure 8-19 AUX – System Status Page, SafeTaxi Database Status
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.3 FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed
with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. These charts will display an
Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas are
indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of this
information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft
symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to
the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Figure 8-20 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the Charts Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT Opt, Chart, Info, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and Go
Back. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the Go Back Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: All, Fit WDTH, Full SCN, and Back.
While viewing the CHRT Opt Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
Figure 8-21 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, select the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Options Menu to Charts.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu
Figure 8-22 Option Menus
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner NO AVAILABLE CHARTS appears on the screen.
The NO AVAILABLE CHARTS banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-23 NO AVAILABLE CHARTS Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-24 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When a chart is not available by selecting the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting the
Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport runway
diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that
page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, select the Charts Softkey.
The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Select the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
While the Approach Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G1000NXi softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, and
the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen.
Selecting the Chart Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the Chart Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-25 Airport Information Page
Selecting the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart. If
the displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey has no effect.
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart or to the right of the
chart for certain airports. This information source is not related to the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey. When the INFO
Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the G1000NXi softkeys are blank.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the ENT Key displays the IFR Alternate Minimums Chart.
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data such as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver. Weather information is available
only when a SiriusXM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the WX Softkey to display the information windows (AIRPORT,
INFO).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the INFO Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the INFO Box choices. When the INFO Box is selected the G1000NXi softkeys
are blank. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the
ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Selecting the Go Back Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
Selecting the All Softkey shows the complete chart on the screen.
Selecting the Fit WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
Selecting the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the Full Screen and Color Scheme Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
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DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark
environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu OPTIONS.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the Color Scheme Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
FLITECHARTS CYCLE NUMBER AND EXPIRATION DATE
FliteCharts data is revised every 28 days. Charts are still viewable during a period that extends from the cycle
expiration date to the disables date. FliteCharts is disabled 180 days after the expiration date and are no longer
available for viewing upon reaching the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page displays
the current status of the FliteCharts database. See the table below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page
displays and the definition of each.
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FliteCharts Database
Figure 8-26 Power-up Page, FliteCharts Database
Power-up Page Display
Definition
Blank Line. System is not configured for FliteCharts. Contact a Garminauthorized service center for configuration.
System is configured for FliteCharts but no chart database is installed.
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix B for the FliteCharts
database
Normal operation. FliteCharts database is valid and within current
cycle.
FliteCharts database is beyond the expiration date, but still within the
180 day viewing period.
FliteCharts database has timed out. Database is beyond 180 days
after expiration date. FliteCharts database is no longer available for
viewing.
Table 8-2 FliteCharts Power-up Page Annunciations and Definitions
‘FliteCharts Expires’ plus a date in white, indicates the chart database is current. ‘Chart data is out of date!’
in yellow, indicates charts are still viewable, but approaching the disable date.
When the 180 day grace period has expired, ‘Chart data is disabled.’ in yellow indicates that the FliteCharts
database has expired and is no longer viewable. ‘Chart Data: N/A’ appears in white if no FliteCharts data is
available on the database card or no database card is inserted.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FliteCharts time critical information can also be found on the Aux - System Status page. The FliteCharts
database Region, Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue
or yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not within the
current subscription period.
FliteCharts becomes inoperative 180 days after the FliteCharts Expires date is reached, and is no longer
available for viewing. This date is shown as the Disables