Garmin | G1000 NXI: Cessna Caravan 208/208B | Garmin G1000 NXI: Cessna Caravan 208/208B G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Cessna Caravan

Garmin G1000 NXI: Cessna Caravan 208/208B G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Cessna Caravan
®
Pilot’s Guide
Cessna Caravan
System Software Version 2499.08 or later
Copyright © 2017-2019 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2499.08 or later for the G1000 NXi Cessna Caravan. Some differences in
operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
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Contact Garmin Product Support or view warranty information at www.flygarmin.com.
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and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin®, G1000® NXi, WATCH®, FliteCharts®, and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries.
Garmin ESP™, Garmin SVT™, SurfaceWatch™, Connext™, and WireAware™ are trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries.
These trademarks may not be used without the express permission of Garmin.
Skywatch® and Stormscope® are registered trademarks of L-3 Communications. Ryan®, TCAD® and Avidyne® are registered trademarks of
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trademark of Jeppesen, Inc. Wi-Fi® is a registered trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio are
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AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
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incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
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the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
respect to the AC-U-KWIK information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AC-U-KWIK Organizations do not warrant or
make any representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Licensee agrees not to sue AC-U-KWIK Organizations and, to the
maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
to any actual or alleged inaccuracies in the information arising out of Garmin’s use of the information in the datasets. Some jurisdictions
do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-01 Rev. C
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: Do not rely on the displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) as the sole source of obstacle
and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum
clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Do not operate this equipment without first obtaining qualified instruction.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and heading indications in the following geographic
areas (due to variations in the earth’s magnetic field): North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes; South
of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W.
(Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada);
North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South
latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity
of the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the reactive wind shear detection system display as the sole
basis for detecting wind shear conditions. The system cannot predict the conditions in which wind shear is
likely to develop.
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-01 Rev. C
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Do not allow repairs to be made by anyone other than an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the
aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured
compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable
database and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: Electronic aeronautical charts displayed on this system have been shown to meet the guidance in AC
120 76D as a Type B Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) for FlightCharts and ChartView. The accuracy of the charts
is subject to the chart data provider. Own-ship position on airport surface charts cannot be guaranteed to
meet the accuracy specified in AC 120-76D. Possible additional requirements may make a secondary source
of aeronautical charts, such as traditional paper charts or an additional electronic display, necessary on the
aircraft and available to the pilot. If the secondary source of aeronautical charts is a Portable Electronic
Device (PED), its use must be consistent with the guidance in AC 120-76D.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The navigation databases used in Garmin navigation systems contain Special Procedures. Prior
to flying these procedures, pilots must have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the
corresponding current, and legitimately-sourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special
Procedure in the navigation database DOES NOT imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process the
data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: The nose of the ‘own ship’ symbol represents the location of the aircraft. The center of any traffic
symbol represents the location of that traffic. The traffic and own ship symbols are an abstract representation
and do not reflect the physical extent of the aircraft/traffic, and should not replace other methods for
identifying traffic.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby
thunderstorms that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of
two or more discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points
reappear after the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: Operate G1000NXi system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days of continuous
operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
v
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-01 Rev. C
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
BY USING THE DEVICE, COMPONENT OR SYSTEM MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY GARMIN (“THE GARMIN PRODUCT”), YOU AGREE TO
BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT
CAREFULLY. Garmin Ltd. and its subsidiaries (“Garmin”) grants you a limited license to use the software embedded in the Garmin Product
(the “Software”) in binary executable form in the normal operation of the Garmin Product. Title, ownership rights, and intellectual property
rights in and to the Software remain with Garmin and/or its third-party providers. You acknowledge that the Software is the property of
Garmin and/or its third-party providers and is protected under the United States of America copyright laws and international copyright
treaties. You further acknowledge that the structure, organization, and code of the Software are valuable trade secrets of Garmin and/or its
third-party providers and that the Software in source code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin and/or its third-party providers.
You agree not to reproduce, decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse assemble, reverse engineer, or reduce to human readable form the
Software or any part thereof or create any derivative works based on the Software. You agree not to export or re-export the Software to
any country in violation of the export control laws of the United States of America.
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-01 Rev. C
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-02138-00
190-02138-01
Revision
A
A
Date
04/2017
12/2018
190-02138-01
190-02138-01
B
C
01/29/19
02/20/19
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Page Range
Description
All
Initial Release for GDU 20.05
All
Production Release at GDU 20.86
Updated System Overview Section
Added Split Screen Functionality
Added Baro QFE Altimeter Settings
Added Baro VNAV Functionality
Updated Audio Panel Information
Added Flight Stream 510
Updated Flight Managment Section
Added Transition to Approach Temperature Compensation
Added TAWS-A
Added WireAware
Updated AFCS Section
Added UnderSpeed Protection
Added Satellite Telephone and SMS Messaging Services
Added Connext Bluetooth Functionality
Added Electronic Stability and Protection
Added Hypoxia Recognition
Updated Appendices Section
All
Added VDI Messages
All
Updated AFCS Section
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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REVISION INFORMATION
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-01 Rev. C
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................... 1
Garmin Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)............................. 1
System Controls......................................................... 4
PFD/MFD Controls......................................................... 4
Secure Digital Cards....................................................... 6
System Operation...................................................... 7
System Power-up........................................................... 7
Normal Operation.......................................................... 8
Reversionary Mode........................................................ 8
System Annunciations.................................................. 10
System Status.............................................................. 12
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 13
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 15
Accessing System Functionality............................. 20
Softkey Function.......................................................... 20
Menus........................................................................ 25
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 27
Split Screen Functionality............................................. 29
System Settings........................................................... 31
System Utilities............................................................ 36
Display Backlighting................................................ 40
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................... 44
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 44
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 46
Altimeter.................................................................... 47
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 51
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 51
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 54
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 58
2.2 Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology)............ 65
SVT Operation............................................................. 66
SVT Features............................................................... 68
Field of View............................................................... 77
2.3 Supplemental Flight Data....................................... 78
Temperature Display.................................................... 78
Wind Data.................................................................. 78
Generic Timer.............................................................. 79
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 80
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2.4 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions........... 81
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 81
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 81
Baro Transition Alerts................................................... 82
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 82
Minimum Altitude Alerting........................................... 82
Radar Altimeter........................................................... 84
BARO QFE Indications.................................................. 85
2.5 Abnormal Operations.............................................. 86
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 86
Comparator Annunciations........................................... 87
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................... 88
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 89
SVT Unusual Attitudes.................................................. 90
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 Engine Display.......................................................... 92
Engine System Display................................................. 94
Fuel Calculations......................................................... 97
3.2 EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)........................... 98
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Overview................................................................... 99
PFD Controls and Frequency Display............................ 100
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 102
COM Operation...................................................... 106
COM Tuning Boxes..................................................... 106
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 107
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency................................. 107
Frequency Spacing.................................................... 110
NAV Operation....................................................... 111
NAV Tuning Boxes..................................................... 111
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 112
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 112
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD............... 113
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 115
DME Tuning.............................................................. 115
Mode S Transponder.............................................. 117
Transponder Controls................................................. 117
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 118
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 120
IDENT Function......................................................... 121
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Flight ID Reporting.................................................... 121
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions........................ 122
Power-Up.................................................................. 122
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 122
Speaker.................................................................... 122
Ambient Noise Compensation (GMA 1360D)................ 122
Intercom System (ICS) (GMA 1347)............................. 122
Intercom System (ICS) (GMA 1360D)........................... 124
Passenger Address (PA) System (GMA 1347)................ 126
Passenger Address (PA) System (GMA 1360D).............. 126
Simultaneous COM Operation..................................... 127
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 127
Telephone/Entertainment Inputs.................................. 128
3D Audio (GMA 1360D)............................................. 129
Blue-Select Mode (GMA 1360D)................................. 131
Bluetooth Setup (GMA 1360D)................................... 131
4.6 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure........................ 133
4.7 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 134
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 134
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 134
PFD Failure, Dual System............................................ 134
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation (GMA 1347)............... 134
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation (GMA 1360D)............. 134
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 134
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Introduction............................................................ 135
Navigation Status Box and Data Bar............................ 137
Using Map Displays............................................... 139
Map Orientation........................................................ 139
Map Range............................................................... 141
Map Panning............................................................. 143
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 145
Topography............................................................... 146
Map Symbols............................................................ 148
Airways.................................................................... 152
Additional Navigation Map Items................................ 154
Waypoints............................................................... 157
Airports.................................................................... 158
Non-Airport Waypoints............................................... 164
Airspaces................................................................. 172
Nearest Airspace....................................................... 173
Smart Airspace.......................................................... 176
5.5 Direct-to-Navigation ............................................ 177
5.6 Flight Planning....................................................... 181
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 184
Creating a Flight Plan................................................ 187
Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications............ 188
Flight Plan Operations................................................ 196
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 200
Managing Flight Plans............................................... 203
5.7 Vertical Navigation................................................ 212
Constraints............................................................... 213
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)................................... 217
Vertical Navigation Direct To....................................... 221
5.8 Procedures.............................................................. 222
Departures................................................................ 223
Arrivals .................................................................... 226
Approaches .............................................................. 230
5.9 Trip Planning........................................................... 241
Trip Planning............................................................. 241
5.10 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 245
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 Data Link Weather................................................. 248
Activating Data Link Weather Services......................... 249
Weather Product Age................................................. 253
Displaying Data Link Weather Products........................ 257
Connext Data Requests.............................................. 266
Weather Product Overview......................................... 270
FIS-B Weather Status................................................. 306
Abnormal Operations for Garmin Connext Weather...... 307
6.2 Stormscope Lightning Detection System............ 309
Using the Stormscope Page........................................ 309
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 311
6.3 Airborne Color Weather Radar............................. 314
System Description.................................................... 314
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 314
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 319
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 319
Practical Application Using the Basic Tilt Setup............. 320
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 321
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 333
Additional Weather Radar Displays.............................. 333
System Status............................................................ 336
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.4 Terrain Displays...................................................... 338
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 339
Terrain Page.............................................................. 344
Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain........................ 345
Wire Obstacle Information and Alerting....................... 348
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Alerting Displays.................... 348
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance............................. 351
Additional TAWS-B Alerting........................................ 351
Inhibiting Alerting...................................................... 354
System Status............................................................ 354
6.5 TAWS-A.................................................................... 357
TAWS-A Page............................................................ 360
TAWS-A Alerts........................................................... 361
Wire Obstacle Information and Alerting....................... 362
System Status............................................................ 376
TAWS-A Abnormal Operations.................................... 376
6.6 TAS Traffic................................................................ 378
TAS Theory of Operation............................................. 378
TAS Alerts................................................................. 381
System Test............................................................... 382
Operation................................................................. 383
6.7 ADS-B Traffic........................................................... 390
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 390
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting.................... 393
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 394
Operation................................................................. 395
ADS-B System Status................................................. 400
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Overview....................................................... 403
Additional AFCS Controls........................................... 405
Basic Autopilot Operation........................................... 406
7.2 Flight Director Operation...................................... 407
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 407
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 408
Flight Director Modes................................................. 409
Switching Flight Directors........................................... 409
Command Bars.......................................................... 410
7.3 AFCS Modes............................................................ 411
Vertical Modes.......................................................... 411
Lateral Modes........................................................... 417
Combination modes (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA).............. 422
190-02138-01 Rev. C
7.4 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation................ 435
Flight Control............................................................ 435
Engagement.............................................................. 436
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 436
Disengagement......................................................... 437
7.5 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts............................ 438
Overspeed Protection................................................. 439
Underspeed Protection............................................... 439
7.6 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 443
Suspected Autopilot malfunction................................. 443
Level Mode............................................................... 443
Emergency Descent Mode.......................................... 444
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SafeTaxi................................................................... 446
Charts...................................................................... 448
ChartView................................................................. 449
FliteCharts................................................................ 457
IFR/VFR Charts.......................................................... 463
Airport Directory.................................................... 466
Database Cycle Number and Revisions............... 467
Cycle Number and Revision........................................ 467
SurfaceWatch.......................................................... 469
Information Box........................................................ 469
Alerts....................................................................... 470
Surfacewatch Setup................................................... 473
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment............................. 475
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 475
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 476
Satellite Telephone and SMS Messaging............ 479
Registering with Garmin Connext ............................... 479
Disable/Enable Iridium Transceiver.............................. 479
Telephone Communication......................................... 480
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 487
Connext Setup........................................................ 499
Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)............. 502
Roll Engagement....................................................... 502
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 504
High Airspeed Protection............................................ 505
Flight Data Logging............................................... 506
Hypoxia Recognition with EDM........................... 508
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Determining Pilot Alertness........................................ 508
Emergency Descent Mode.......................................... 509
8.12 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 510
SiriusXM Data Link Receiver Troubleshooting............... 510
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts................................................ 511
CAS Message Prioritization......................................... 512
CAS Annunciations.................................................... 513
Message Advisory Alerts............................................. 515
System Messages...................................................... 516
Database Management................................................... 529
Loading Updated Databases....................................... 529
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update................... 539
Aviation Terms and Acronyms......................................... 541
Frequently Asked Questions........................................... 551
Map Symbols.................................................................... 555
INDEX
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the G1000 NXi Integrated Avionics System as installed in the Cessna
Caravan. The system presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication, and identification
information to the pilot through large-format displays.
GARMIN LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRUs)
The system consists of the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1050A (3) – 10-inch high-resolution LED-backlit display. The unit installed on the left/pilot side is
designated as Primary Flight Display 1 (PFD1), the unit installed on the right/copilot side is designated as
PFD2. The center unit is designated as the Multi-Function Display (MFD). These units communicate with
each other and the GIA Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU).
• GIA 63W / 64W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the displays. Each
GIA contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system integration
microprocessors.
• GDC 72 (2) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit provides
pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system, and it communicates with the
on-side GIA, on-side GDU, on-side GTP, and on-side GRS.
• GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GDC.
• GRS 79 (2) – Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) provides aircraft attitude and heading
information to both PFDs and both GIAs. The GRS contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and
rate sensors) and interfaces with the GMU to obtain magnetic field information, with the GDC to obtain air
data, and with both GIAs to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of operation are discussed later in this
document.
• GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the onside GRS unit for processing to determine
aircraft magnetic heading. The GMU receives power directly from the onside GRS unit and communicates
with the onside GRS unit.
• GEA 71 / 71B Enhanced (1) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This
unit communicates with both GIAs.
• GMA 1347 (1, 2nd optional) / GMA 1360D (2) – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and
marker beacon controls. This unit also enables the manual control of the display reversionary mode (red
DISPLAY BACKUP button) and communicates with both GIAs. The 1360D also provides Bluetooth audio
connectivity and VIRB action camera integration.
• GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the GFC 700 AFCS and communicates with the displays.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GTX 335R (1, 2nd optional) / GTX 345R (1 optional) – Solid-state transponder that provides Mode A, C, S
capability. The GTX 335R provides ADS-B Out and can be installed as a single unit. The system may instead
accommodate an optional dual set of GTX 335R transponders, occupying ‘XPDR1’ and ‘XPDR2’. The optional GTX
345R provides ADS-B In/Out, and, if installed, will occupy the #1 GTX position. The optional GTX 345R may also
be installed in addition to the GTX 335R, in which case, the GTX 345R is indicated as ‘XPDR1’ and the GTX 335R
is indicated as ‘XPDR2’. Only one transponder can be active at a time. Each transponder communicates with the
on-side GIA. The GTX 345R communicates with PFD2.
• GSA 80 (2), GSA 81 (2), and GSM 86 (4) – The GSA 80 servos are used for the automatic control of roll and
yaw, while the GSA 81 servos are used for the automatic control of pitch and pitch trim. These units interface
with each GIA.
The GSM 86 servo gearboxes are responsible for transferring the output torque of the GSA 80/81 servo actuator
to the mechanical flight-control surface linkage. The GSM 86 servo gearboxes are used when installed in
areas that could experience ice or other contamination. The GSM 86 servo gearbox is used for pitch trim,
which is installed in a benign environment.
• Flight Stream 510 (1) – The Flight Stream 510 Wireless Transceiver is installed in a display as part of
the system. It provides wireless connectivity between a compatible tablet/mobile device and the avionics
system. GPS, AHRS, Air Data, ADS-B In traffic and weather (optional), and SiriusXM audio and weather data
(optional) can then be shared with the mobile device, and flight plans can be transferred to or from the mobile
device. Also, database updates may be performed using the Flight Stream 510.
• GDL 69A SXM (1 optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides real-time weather information to the
MFD (and, indirectly, to the PFD map) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL communicates with
the displays through PFD2. A subscription to the SiriusXM Satellite Radio service is required to enable
GDL capability.
• GWX 70 (1 optional) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD.
• GSD 41 (1 optional) – A data concentrator used to expand the input and output capabilities of the system.
• GTS 825 (1 optional) – The GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations of Mode S and
Mode C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of the air traffic control system.
• GSR 56 (1 optional) – The GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver enables in-flight SMS messaging, satellite telephone
calls, and weather datalink services. Subscription required for capability.
Figure 1-1 shows interactions between the LRUs. Additional/optional equipment are also shown in Figure
1-1. The system is capable of interfacing with the following optional equipment:
• GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver
• GSD 41 Data Concentrator
• GWX 70 Weather Radar
• GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System
• GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
#1
GDU 1050A
(PFD1)
GSD 41
(Data Expansion)
GMC 710
(AFCS
Controller)
GWX 70
(Weather Radar)
#3
GDU 1050A
(MFD)
#1 GMA
1347 / 1360D
(Audio Panel)
Flight Stream
510 (SD Card
Wireless
Transceiver)
GDL 69A SXM
(SiriusXM Datalink receiver)
#2
GDU 1050A
(PFD2)
GTS 825 (TAS)
#2 GMA
1347 / 1360D
(Audio Panel)
(single GMA only)
#1 GIA
63W / 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#1 GRS 79
(AHRS)
#2 GRS 79
(AHRS)
#1 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
GPS/SBAS
VHF COM
VOR/LOC
G/S
FD
AFCS
#2 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#1 GDC 72 (ADC)
#2 GDC 72 (ADC)
#1 GTP 59
(OAT Probe)
#2 GTP 59
(OAT Probe)
#2 GIA
63W / 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
GPS/SBAS
VHF COM
VOR/LOC
G/S
FD
AFCS
GEA 71 / 71B
(Engine/Airframe I/F)
FA2100
(FDR / CVR)
GSA 81
(Pitch)
KR 87 (ADF)
HF Radio
Garmin Equipment
406MHz ELT
GSA 81
(Pitch Trim)
KRA 405B
(Radar Alt.)
WX-500
(Stormscope)
KN 63 (DME)
GSA 80
(Roll)
#1 GTX 335R
(Transponder)
or GTX 345R
GSR 56
(Iridium
Transceiver)
GSA 80
(Roll)
#2 GTX 335R
(Transponder)
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Non-Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 System Block Diagram
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment, consult the applicable optional interface user’s guide.
This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of this additional equipment.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SYSTEM CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel (GMA) controls are described in the CNS & Audio Panel section.
The system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels and audio panel. The controls for the PFDs and
MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
9
13
10
14
11
15
8
12
Figure 1-2 PFD/MFD Controls
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1 NAV VOL/ID Knob
Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a percentage).
Press to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF.
2 NAV Frequency Trans- Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
fer Key
3 NAV Knob
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz).
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2.
4 Joystick
Turn to change map range.
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning.
Turn knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting.
Press to set altimeter to standard atmosphere.
5 BARO Knob
6 COM Knob
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz).
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between COM1 and COM2.
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
7 COM Frequency
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies.
Transfer Key (EMERG) Press and hold two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into
the active frequency field.
8 COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM Frequency Box)
Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF.
9 Direct-to Key (
10 FPL Key
11 CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
12 FMS Knob
(Flight
Management
System Knob)
13 MENU Key
14 PROC Key
15 ENT Key
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)
Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier, chosen from the
active route).
Displays flight plan information.
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus.
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large knob moves
cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor location). When the cursor is turned ON while viewing the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, the cursor is placed on the
line below the Data Insertion Pointer. The pointer indicates data entered at the cursor will be
inserted above the selected line.
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar appears,
indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a page
group; small knob selects a specific page from the group).
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making setting
changes.
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport.
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The PFD/MFD data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right portion of the
display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used for aviation database
and system software updates. Also, flight plans may be imported or exported from an SD card in the MFD.
Inserting and Removing an SD card:
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel. To remove, gently press on the SD card to release the
spring latch and eject the card.
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-3 PFD/MFD Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
This section discusses powering up the system, normal and reversionary display operation, system status, AHRS
modes of operation, and GPS receiver operation.
SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the current pertinent flight manual for specific procedures concerning avionics power application
and emergency power supply operation.
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical busses.
The PFDs, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features that
exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
When powering up the system, test annunciations are displayed and key annunciator lights also become
momentarily illuminated on the audio panel and the display bezels. On the PFDs, the AHRS begins to initialize
and displays ‘AHRS ALIGN: Remain Stationary’. All system annunciations should disappear typically within
one minute of power-up.
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
• System version
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Airport Directory name and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
• IFR/VFR Charts database effective dates
• Copyright
• Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) (optional)
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted to
continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the ‘Navigation Map’ Page.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFDs (see Section 1.5). In
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display.
In normal operating mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed,
altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster (see the Flight Instruments Section
for more information). The MFD normally displays a full-color moving map with navigation information (see
the Flight Management Section), while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System
(see the EIS Section). Both displays offer control for COM and NAV frequency selection.
PFD1
MFD
PFD2
Figure 1-4 Normal Operation
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices for
further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically on
at least one of the remaining displays (see Figure 1-5). Transition to reversionary mode should be straightforward
for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
When a display fails, the system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode as follows:
• PFD1 failure – MFD automatically switches to reversionary mode and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
• MFD failure – PFD1 and PFD2 automatically switch to reversionary mode.
• PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Reversionary mode may be manually activated by pressing the Audio Panel’s red DISPLAY BACKUP Button.
Pressing this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
Figure 1-5 Reversionary Mode
Pressing the D I S P L AY
BACKUP button activates/
deactivates reversionary
mode for both the on-side
PFD and the MFD.
Figure 1-6 DISPLAY BACKUP Button
In installations containing one audio panel, reversionary display mode can be manually activated by pressing
the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the audio panel.
• PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the audio panel.
• MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the audio panel.
• PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the audio panel.
In installations containing two audio panels, manual activation of reversionary display mode is accomplished
by pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the appropriate audio panel.
• PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the left audio panel.
• MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the left or the right audio panel.
• PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the right audio panel.
Should the connection between PFD1 and GIA1 or the MFD and GIA2 become inoperative, the on-side GIA
may no longer communicate with the remaining display(s) (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM
functions provided to the failed display(s) by the associated GIA may be flagged (red “X”) as invalid (see Figure
1-7).
Figure 1-7 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to initialize. All windows
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, the
system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with the
failed data (refer to Table 1-1 for all possible flags and the responsible LRUs). Refer to the current pertinent
flight manual for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page. Active LRUs are indicated by
green check marks; failed by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin-authorized
dealer informed.
Viewing LRU information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
NOTE: Refer to the current pertinent flight manual for additional information regarding pilot responses to
these annunciations.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Annunciation
Comment
System Annunciation
Air Data, Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
attitude information from the
AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
valid heading input from the
AHRS or magnetometer.
Display system is not receiving
altitude input from the air data
computer.
Air Data, Attitude, and Heading
calibration incomplete or
configuration module failure.
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid for
navigation use. Note that
AHRS utilizes GPS inputs
during normal operation.
AHRS operation may be
degraded if GPS signals are
not present (see the current
pertinent flight manual).
Comment
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
Other Various Red X
Indications
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input from the air
data computer.
A red ‘X’ through any other
display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
Table 1-1 System Annunciations
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
The ‘System Status’ Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system LRUs.
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green check marks
and failed LRUs are indicated by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin dealer
informed.
Figure 1-8 Example System Status Page
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the ‘System Status’ Page select the applicable list (‘LRU Information’
or ‘Airframe’ window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
Pressing the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected) places the
cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Pressing the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Pressing the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2
DB. PFD 2 database information is now displayed in the database window.
The ANN Test Softkey, when pressed, causes an annunciation test tone to be played and the softkeys to
become backlit.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
In addition to using internal sensors, the AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air data
to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field
measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air data
information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available and depend upon the
combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated
to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic Field
Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field
and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when
an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being
displayed to the pilot.
YES
NO
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS Normal
Mode
NO
YES
Air Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Heading Invalid
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-9 AHRS Operation
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS INPUT FAILURE
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the information
provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using the other GPS
receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs fail, the
AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and magnetometer inputs
are available and valid.
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while AHRS is operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red ‘X’ flags).
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red ‘X’).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection
Softkeys
RAIM Softkey
Selected
SBAS Softkey Selected
Figure 1-10 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
The GPS Status Page provides the following information:
• Constellation
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
• Satellite Status
This box provides information regarding signal status. The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated
using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures
of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in
which actual position has 95% probability of laying. EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual
error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
• GPS Status
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active GPS
receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is in the
process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data (collected
continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be in view.
‘Acquiring’ is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired for computing
a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates ‘Inactive’. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS
indicates ‘Active’.
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX’ Page Group (see Section 1.4 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) Prediction (RAIM Softkey is selected)
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended
approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or User waypoints, if
required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system automatically fills in the
identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is selected)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of a SBAS coverage area, it may be
desirable to disable EGNOS, MSAS, WAAS, or GAGAN (although it is not recommended). When disabled,
the SBAS field in the GPS Status box indicates Disabled. There may be a small delay for the GPS Status box
to be updated upon SBAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling SBAS
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’, ‘WAAS’, or ‘GAGAN’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
• GPS Satellite Signal Strengths
The ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor
satellite coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is
displayed for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite ID below each bar. The progress of satellite
acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey
level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to press the appropriate softkey.
There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an annunciator on the softkey
label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects among several options, indicated by
the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option.
The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also,
these softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled,
the softkey label is subdued (dimmed). Softkeys may differ from the following tables depending on installed
options.
Softkey On Softkey Subdued
Softkey Names
(displayed)
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (press)
Figure 1-11 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
PFD SOFTKEYS
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions, including
GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back Softkey which can be
pressed to return to the previous level. If messages remain after acknowledgement, the Alerts Softkey is black
on white. The Alerts Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the transponder
(XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
The following table describes PFD Softkey functions. Softkeys which display another set of softkeys are
indicated in the table by showing the given set as an increased level. For example, the Map/HSI softkey
is shown in the Level 1 column. Pressing Map/HSI softkey will display another set of softkeys and these
softkeys are explained in the Level 2 column. If pressing a softkey on Level 2 provides yet another set of
softkey functions, those new available softkeys are then explained in the Level 3 column, etc.
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
CAS
CAS ↑
CAS ↓
Map/HSI
Layout
Map Off
Inset Map
HSI Map
Inset Trfc
HSI Trfc
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Level 4
Description
Displayed only when a sufficient number of items are displayed in the
Annunciation Window to warrant scrolling.
When available, scrolls up through CAS messages when pressed.
When available, scrolls down through CAS messages when pressed.
Displays the PFD Map display settings softkeys.
Displays the PFD Map selection softkeys.
Hides the PFD map.
Displays the Inset Map.
Displays the HSI Map.
Replaces the Inset Map with a dedicated traffic display (optional).
Replaces the HSI Map with a dedicated traffic display (optional).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Detail
Traffic
Topo
WX LGND
NEXRAD
METAR
Lightning
LTNG Off
Datalink
STRMSCP
WX Radar
RDR Opt
Mode
Gain Gain +
GCS
Features
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Level 4
Description
Selects desired amount of map detail:
All (No Declutter): All map features visible
Detail 3: Declutters land data.
Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Detail 1: Removes everything except for the active flight plan.
Displays traffic information on PFD Map (optional).
Selects topographical data detail (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and
elevation scale on PFD Map.
Topo: All topographical features visible.
REL: Shows topographical information relative to aircraft height.
Off: No topographic data display.
Displays/removes the name of the selected data link weather provider
and the weather product icon and age box (for enabled optional weather
products).
Displays NEXRAD weather and coverage on PFD Map (optional).
Displays METAR information on PFD Map (optional).
Adds/removes the display of SiriusXM lightning information on PFD Map
(optional).
Disables lightning function on PFD Map. The softkey annunciator is green
when the lightning function is off (optional).
Selects the data link weather source for the PFD Map (optional).
Adds or removes the display of Stormscope information on the PFD Map.
The softkey annunciator is green when the function is on. When the
function is off, the annunciator is gray (optional).
When enabled, displays the airborne weather radar overlay on HSI Map
(GWX 70 only).
Displays radar options (GWX 70 only).
Displays softkeys for radar mode selection (GWX 70 only).
Standby Put the radar in standby mode (GWX 70 only).
Weather Enable weather mapping mode (GWX 70 only).
Ground Enable ground mapping mode (GWX 70 only).
Decrease radar gain setting (GWX 70 only).
Increase radar gain setting (GWX 70 only).
Enable ground clutter suppression (GWX 70 only).
Opens the additional radar feature softkeys (GWX 70 only).
WX ALRT Display weather alerts as system messages (GWX 70 only).
Enable the Weather Attenuated Color Highlight feature (GWX 70 only).
WX
WATCH
Activate the altitude-compensated tilt feature (GWX 70 only).
ACT
TURB
Enable turbulence warnings (GWX 70 only).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
TFC Map
PFD Opt
SVT
Pathways
Terrain
HDG LBL
APT Sign
Wire
Wind
Off
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
DME
Bearing 1
Sensors
ADC
ADC 1
ADC 2
AHRS
AHRS 1
AHRS 2
Bearing 2
ALT Units
Meters
IN
HPA
STD Baro
OBS
22
Description
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display (optional).
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD options.
Displays SVT overlay softkeys (optional).
Displays Pathway Boxes on the Synthetic Vision Display (optional).
Enables synthetic terrain depiction (optional).
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line (optional).
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the
current aircraft position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport
is within approximately 9 nm (optional).
Enables WireAware (optional).
Displays the wind option softkeys.
Wind information not displayed.
Headwind/Tailwind and crosswind components.
Wind direction arrow and speed.
Wind direction arrow with direction and speed.
Displays DME Information Window.
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency,
and Off.
Displays the sensor selection softkeys.
Displays ADC selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 ADC.
Selects the #2 ADC.
Displays the AHRS selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 AHRS.
Selects the #2 AHRS.
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency, and
Off.
Displays softkeys to select altitude unit parameters.
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters.
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury.
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopascals.
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are
selected).
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with
active leg). When OBS is on, the softkey annunciator is green.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
CDI
DME
XPDR
Selects transponder Standby Mode (transponder does not reply to any
interrogations).
On
ALT
VFR
Code
0-7
Ident
BKSP
Ident
TMR/REF
Nearest
Description
Cycles through FMS, NAV1, and NAV2 navigation modes on the CDI.
Displays the DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of the
DME.
Displays the transponder softkeys.
Selects the active transponder. These softkeys only appear if equipped
with two transponders (optional).
XPDR 1
XPDR 2
Standby
Ident
Level 4
Activates transponder (transponder replies to identification interrogations).
Altitude Reporting Mode (transponder replies to identification and altitude
interrogations).
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only).
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7.
Use numbers to enter code.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Removes numbers entered, one at a time.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Displays Timer/References Window.
Displays Nearest Airports Window.
Table 1-2 PFD Softkeys
MFD SOFTKEYS
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and weather (optional). There are many softkey functions available on the MFD depending on the page group
and screen selected.
The following table provides an example of the MFD Softkey functions accessed from the Navigation Map
screen. Further information concerning softkeys providing more navigation and flight planning functions
may be found in the Flight Management Section. Terrain, traffic, and weather softkey descriptions may
be found in the Hazard Avoidance section. Further description of optional equipment and corresponding
softkey functions may be found in the Additional Features Section.
NOTE: On some MFD map pages, the Engine softkey is replaced with the Traffic softkey.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Engine
Level 2
Level 3
Engine
System
TRND/
ACK
Capture
RST Fuel
LB REM
Level 4
Description
Displays ‘EIS - Engine’ Page and second-level engine softkeys (see the
EIS Section for more information).
Enables ‘EIS - Engine’ Page
Enables ‘EIS - System’ Page.
Monitors EIS trends for 5 seconds and saves the average and maximum
values (if no ETM generated alerts exitst).
Acknowledges ETM generated alerts, if any exist.
Capture EIS data for the previous 2 minutes of ETM history and continues
capturing EIS data for 2 minutes after softkey selection.
Resets the fuel totalizer fuel remaining and the displayed fuel used to
zero.
Accesses softkeys for manually adjusting the fuel totalizer amount of
fuel remaining.
Press to decrease remaining fuel quantity in 10-lb increments.
-10 LB
Press to decrease remaining fuel quantity in 1-lb increments.
-1 LB
Press to increase remaining fuel quantity in 1-lb increments.
+1 LB
Press to increase remaining fuel quantity in 10-lb increments.
+10 LB
+100 LB Press to increase remaining fuel quantity in 100-lb increments.
+1000 LB Press to increase remaining fuel quantity in 1000-lb increments.
Full
Map Opt
Traffic
Inset
Off
FPL PROG
VSD
TER
24
Resets the displayed fuel remaining to the aircraft’s full fuel capacity.
Display map option softkeys.
Displays traffic information on Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays inset window second level softkeys.
Removes VSD inset from Navigation Map Page.
Displays Flight Plan Progress inset.
Displays VSD profile information of terrain/obstacles along the current
track, vertical track vector, and selected altitude.
Auto: Automatically displays either VSD profile information for active flight plan information or along current track with no
active flight plan.
FPL: Displays VSD profile information for active flight plan.
TRK: Displays VSD profile information along current track.
Displays terrain on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No terrain information shown on MFD Map.
Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers,
lakes) and elevation scale on MFD Map.
REL: Displays relative terrain information on the MFD Map.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
AWY
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
METAR
Legend
WX Radar
Detail
Charts
CHRT Opt
SYNC
Info
DP
STAR
APR
NOTAM
Level 3
Level 4
Description
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No airways are displayed.
On: All airways are displayed.
LO: Only low altitude airways are displayed.
HI: Only high altitude airways are displayed.
Displays Stormscope information on Navigation Map (optional).
Displays NEXRAD weather and coverage on Navigation Map Page
(optional).
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays METAR information on Navigation Map Page (subscription
optional).
Displays legends for the displayed XM Weather products (optional).
Displays GWX 70 radar information on Navigation Map Page
(optional).
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through the following
levels:
Detail All: All map features visible.
Detail 3: Declutters land data.
Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Detail 1: Removes everything except for the active flight plan.
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure
charts.
Displays chart display settings softkeys (if available).
Synchronizes the chart display to current flight phase.
Displays the airport diagram.
Displays departure procedure chart.
Displays standard terminal arrival procedure chart.
Displays approach procedure chart.
Displays NOTAM information for selected airport, when available.
Table 1-3 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
MENUS
The System’s MENU Key opens a context-sensitive list of options on the display. This options list allows the
user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently displayed
window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional submenus that
are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘No Options’ when there are no options for
the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group operations are
described in Section 1.2. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Navigating the Page Menu Window
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on PFD
Options with
FPL Window
Displayed on MFD
Figure 1-12 Page Menu Examples
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD PAGE GROUPS
Active Page Title
Page Group
MFD
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-13 Page Title and Page Groups
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The page group and active
page title are displayed in the upper center of the screen, below the Navigation Data Bar. In the bottom right
corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are
displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs. The
current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan. For some of these pages (Airport/
Procedures/Weather Information, XM, Procedure Loading), the active title of the page changes while the page
name in the list remains the same.
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
There are several pages which may be selected by selecting the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page
(or from the page menu). In this case, the active page title will change when a different page softkey is selected,
but the page will remain the same (i.e. the Radio and Info Softkeys show different active page titles (‘Aux - XM
Radio’ and ‘Aux - XM Information’ respectively) within the same page, ‘XM Radio’.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Group
MAP (Map Page Group)
WPT (Waypoint Page Group)
Pages within Page Group
• Navigation Map
• Weather Radar (optional)
• IFR/VFR Charts
• Stormscope (optional)
• Traffic Map (optional)
• Weather Data Link (optional)
• Terrain Proximity / TAWS-B (optional) / TAWS-A (optional)
• Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
- Airport Information (Info 1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information (Info 2 Softkey)
- Departure Information (DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information (STAR Softkey)
- Approach Information (APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional) (WX Softkey)
- Notices to Airmen (optional) (NOTAM Softkey)
• Intersection Information
• VRP Information
Aux (Auxiliary Page Group)
FPL (Flight Plan Page Group)
• NDB Information
• User Waypoint Information
• VOR Information
• Trip Planning
• Satellite Phone (optional)
• Utility
• System Status
• GPS Status
• ADS-B Status (optional)
• System Setup 1/2
• Connext Setup (optional)
• XM Radio Pages (optional)
- XM Information (Info Softkey)
• Databases
- XM Radio (Radio Softkey)
• Active Flight Plan
- Wide View, Narrow View (View Softkey)
• Flight Plan Catalog
- Stored Flight Plan (New Softkey)
NRST (Nearest Page Group)
• SurfaceWatch Setup (optional)
• Nearest Airports
• Nearest VRP
• Nearest Intersections
• Nearest User WPTS
• Nearest NDB
• Nearest Frequencies
• Nearest VOR
• Nearest Airspaces
Table 1-4 Page Group and Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages
• Departure Loading
• Arrival Loading
• Approach Loading
SPLIT SCREEN FUNCTIONALITY
MFD in Split Screen Mode (Narrow View)
Page Title shows
‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts is the
active display pane
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Figure 1-14 Split Screen Mode (Narrow)
Chart pages may be viewed in split screen mode with either the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ or ‘FPL - Active
Flight Plan’ Page open. To activate the split screen functionality, press the Charts Softkey. Two display panes
are displayed on the MFD. If split screen is activated from the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, the page title will
show ‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’. If split screen is activated from the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, the
page title will change to show ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’.
CONTROLLING DISPLAY PANES
In split screen mode, the active display pane is outlined by a cyan box called the pane selector. Softkeys
and menu options will automatically change depending on which display pane is active. Display panes may
be displayed vertically in Narrow View, or horizontally in Wide View. In Narrow View, move the Joystick left
or right to move the pane selector. In Wide View, move the Joystick up and down to move the pane selector.
To change between Wide View and Narrow View, push and hold the Joystick.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD in Split Screen Mode (Wide View)
Pane Selector Box
- Move Joystick in
direction of cyan
arrows to move
display pane
- Push and hold
Joystick to change
Narrow/Wide view
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts
is the active
display pane
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Figure 1-15 Split Screen Mode (Wide)
For information on viewing Charts and the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page with the flight plan map, see the
Flight Management Section.
For more information on Charts and how to enable Charts Full Screen, see the Additional Features Section.
Enabling/disabling split screen mode:
1) From the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page press the Charts Softkey, or press
the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode On’. If necessary, press the CHRT Opt Softkey and press the Full SCN
Softkey to disable full screen mode.
2) To disable the split screen mode, press the Charts Softkey again or press the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode
Off’. The display returns to the base page, either the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight
Plan’ Page.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM SETTINGS
System settings are managed from the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Pages. Fields shown in cyan text may be edited.
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
The message ‘Restore Setup X Page Defaults?’ is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Configure System
Time
Fields shown in Cyan may
be edited
Change Display
Unit Settings
Configure arrival alert settings
- Enable / disable alert
- Set arrival alert trigger distance
Restore System Defaults
Change settings for
Page Group Navigation
TAWS Callout
Settings
- FMS knob clicks to change
page group
- Page Group Window
seconds until timeout
Change audio
settings
Select System Setup Page
Figure 1-16 ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Pages
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- Setup 1
- Setup 2
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DATE/TIME
The system obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page). System time (displayed in the lower right corner of
the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is set by adding/
subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
Figure 1-17 System Time (UTC Format)
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. If local time
format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ field is highlighted.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection.
Figure 1-18 Date/Time Settings (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DISPLAY UNITS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system screens are listed on the ‘Aux - System Setup’
Page. The Navigation Angle reference and position units can be set from here.
Category
Navigation Angle
Settings
Affected Quantities
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Distance and Speed** Metric
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Nautical*
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Data Bar)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
Altitude and Vertical Feet*
All altitudes on MFD
Speed**
Meters
All elevations on MFD
Temperature**
Fuel and Fuel
Flow***
Weight**
Position
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
Pounds
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
Fuel parameters (Trip Planning Page)
Pounds*
N/A
Kilograms
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
MGRS 1m
MGRS 10m
UTM/UPS
Exceptions
N/A
Airspeed Indicator
True Airspeed (PFD)
Wind speed vector
Map range (Traffic Page, Terrain
Proximity/TAWS Page)
CDI scaling (System Setup)
Fuel range calculation (EIS)
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
*** Not configurable
Table 1-5 Display Units Settings (System Setup Page)
NOTE: Barometric correction units are manually changed by the PFD softkeys.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Changing a display unit setting:
1) While on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Display Units Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
BARO TRANSITION ALERT
See the Flight Instruments Section for a discussion on setting the Baro Transition Alert.
AIRSPACE ALERTS
See the Flight Management Section for a discussion on Airspace Alerts settings.
ARRIVAL ALERTS
See the Flight Management Section for a discussion on Arrival Alerts settings.
SURFACEWATCH ALERTS (OPTIONAL)
See the Additional Features Section for a discussion on SurfaceWatch settings.
FLIGHT DIRECTOR
The Flight Director command bar format is set to Single Cue and may not be changed. See the AFCS
Section for more information.
BARO QFE
See the Flight Instruments Section for more information on Baro QFE settings.
MFD DATA BAR FIELDS
See the Flight Management Section for a discussion on the MFD Data Bar Fields settings.
GPS CDI
See the Flight Instruments Section for a discussion on setting the GPS CDI format.
COM CONFIGURATION
See the Audio Panel & CNS Section for a discussion on the COM Configuration for channel spacing.
NEAREST AIRPORT
See the Flight Management Section for a discussion on the Nearest Airport settings.
STABILITY & PROTECTION (OPTIONAL)
See the Additional Features Section for a discussion on the Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) settings.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
TOUCHDOWN CALLOUTS (OPTIONAL)
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for a discussion on TAWS Touchdown Callouts settings.
PAGE NAVIGATION
The large FMS Knob displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates through the tabs. The small FMS Knob
navigates through the pages listed within a specific group. The number of clicks it takes to display the Page
Group Tabs and change to the next tab can be controlled from the Page Navigation box on the ‘Aux - System
Setup 2’ Page.
Off – Displays the Page Group Window with one click of either FMS Knob.
On – Displays the Page Group Window and navigates to the next page group with one click of either FMS Knob.
The pilot can select, from the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page, the amount of time the Page Group Window is
displayed (in the lower right corner of the MFD). The timeout can range from two to ten seconds.
Selecting page navigation settings:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Change On 1st Click’ field in the Page Navigation Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Timeout Seconds’ field in the Page Navigation Box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired number of seconds
7) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO
The ‘Audio’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page sets the audio alert voice (male or female). For
information on 3D Audio settings, see the Audio Panel & CNS Section.
Changing the audio alert voice:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice field in the Audio Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired voice setting and press the ENT Key.
CHARTS
See the Additional Features Section for a discussion on chart settings.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM UTILITIES
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the ‘Aux - Utility’
Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a record of the
time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum groundspeeds—are
displayed from the time of the last reset.
Figure 1-19 Utility Page
TIMERS
The system timers available on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page include:
• Stopwatch-like generic timers
• Total-time-in-flight timer
• Time since departure
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the countdown
on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before reaching zero on
a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when reset, the digits return
to zero.
Setting the generic timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
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5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled from
the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
TRIP STATISTICS
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are
reset to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
SCHEDULER
The system’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”,
“Switch fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”) in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on a
specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently
whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically
reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, messages are retained
until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
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Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
Scheduler messages appear in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD and cause the Alerts Softkey label to change
to a flashing Message label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the ‘Alerts’ Window and acknowledges
the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the Alerts label. Pressing the Alerts Softkey again removes
the ‘Alerts’ Window from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 1-20 PFD ‘Alerts’ Window
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.5 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The PFDs and MFD display backlighting, the PFDs and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
• Using the PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from the PFDs. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from any remaining displays.
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
If desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to ‘MFD Display’ or ‘PFD2 Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD1 Display’, ‘MFD Display’, or ‘PFD2 Display’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 Key’, ‘MFD Key’, or ‘PFD2 Key’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Figure 1-21 PFD Setup Menu
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional indications such as bugs and
annunciations on selected flight instruments during certain AFCS flight director modes. Refer to the AFCS
for more information about these indications.
The system increases pilot situational awareness by providing easy-to-scan Primary Flight Displays (PFDs)
featuring a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, vertical speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the
flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the
PFDs and are explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Indicated Airspeed
– True Airspeed
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Vspeed reference bugs
– Navigation source
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Altimeter, showing
– DME Information Window
– Trend vector
• DME Tuning Window
– Barometric setting
• Transponder Mode, Code, and Ident/Reply
– Selected altitude
• References Window, showing
• Radar Altimeter (optional)
– Generic timer
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
– Airspeed reference bug values and settings
– Minimum Altitude Alerting
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Wind data
• Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
• QFE Annunciation
The PFDs also display various alerts and annunciations discussed throughout this Pilot’s Guide.
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16
15
14
13
12
11
1
10
2
9
3
8
4
7
5
6
1
Airspeed Indicator
9
Barometric Altimeter Setting
2
True Airspeed
10
Turn Rate Indicator
3
Current Heading
11
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
12
Selected Altitude Bug
5
Horizontal Situation Indicator
(HSI)
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
13
Altimeter
6
Softkeys
14
Selected Altitude
7
Generic Timer
15
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Selected Heading Bug
16
Attitude Indicator
Figure 2-1 Flight Instruments on the Primary Flight Display (PFD)
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11
10
9
1
8
2
7
3
4
5
6
1
Selected Heading
7
Desired Track
2
Wind Data Box
8
Radar Altimeter
3
HSI Map
9
Required Vertical Speed Indicator
4
DME Information Window
10
Vertical Deviation Indication
5
Bearing Information Windows
11
VNV Target Altitude
6
Minimum Altitude Alert Setting
Figure 2-2 Additional Flight Instruments Information on the PFD
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the pertinent flight manual for airspeed criteria and airspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The numeric labels and
major tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots. The minor tick marks on the moving
tape are shown at intervals of 5 knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed viewable
at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until
reaching never exceed speed (VNE), then it becomes red. The true airspeed is displayed in knots below the
Airspeed Indicator.
Airspeed
Trend Vector
Airspeed
Reference
Bugs
Indicated
Airspeed
Color coded
speed ranges
Figure 2-3 Red Pointer
Showing Airspeed Above VMO
True
Airspeed
Figure 2-4 Airspeed Indicator
A color-coded (white, green, and red/white striped “barber pole”) speed range strip is located on the moving
tape. The colors denote flaps operating range, normal operating range, and maximum operating speed (VMO).
A solid red range is also present for low speed awareness.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical, magenta line, that appears to the right of the color-coded speed
range strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VMO,
the text of the indicated airspeed changes to amber. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains constant or
if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available.
Black reference bugs with white letters appear along the right side of the airspeed scale denote Glide, VR,VX,
and VY. The pilot can enable/disable the display of these bugs, as well as change their values. When the
indicated airspeed is below 20 knots, enabled Airspeed Reference Bugs and their numeric values appear in a list
at the bottom of the airspeed tape, ordered from highest to lowest.
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Figure 2-5 Airspeed References
Vspeed
Bug
Glide
G
VR
R
Vx
X
Vy
Y
Table 2-1 Airspeed Bug Labels
Enabling/disabling or modifying individual Airspeed Reference Bugs:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired reference value.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to change the Vspeed in 1-kt increments (when a speed has been changed from a
default value, an asterisk appears next to the speed).
4) Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the On/Off field
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
References Window
References Window Menu
Figure 2-6 References Window and Menu
The pilot can also enable/disable or restore default values to all Airspeed References together, or by type, such
as Takeoff References On.
Enabling/disabling Airspeed Reference Bugs as a group or restoring all default settings:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll as needed to highlight one of the following options: ‘All References On’, ‘All
References Off’, ‘Restore Defaults’, ‘Takeoff References On’, ‘Takeoff References Off’, or ‘Restore Takeoff
Defaults’.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the References Window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch (indicated by the amber symbolic aircraft on the pitch scale), roll, and slip/
skid information.
9
8
1
7
2
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-7 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 90˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up
to 25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch
marks occur every 2.5˚. When the optional Garmin Synthetic Vision Technology system (Garmin SVT™) is
activated, the pitch scale is reduced to 10˚ up and 7.5˚ down; refer to the discussion later in this section for
more information about Garmin SVT. See the Additional Features section for Electronic Stability and Protection
(ESP) indications.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate lateral acceleration. Slip/skid is indicated by the location of
the bar relative to the pointer. One bar displacement is equal to one ball displacement on a traditional Slip/
Skid Indicator.
Figure 2-8 Slip/Skid Indication
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ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge. Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box below the Selected Altitude. Refer to the AFCS Section for more information about Selected
Altitude.
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape, with the end resting at the
approximate altitude to be reached in six seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
T urn the ALT SEL Knob on the AFCS controller to set the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments. When the Metric
altitude overlay is enabled, the selected altitude is adjusted in 50-meter increments.
If a Minimum Altitude Alert value has been set, this altitude is also available for the Selected Altitude while
turning the ALT SEL Knob.
Selected
Altitude
(Meters)
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
Altitude Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude Bug
Minimum Altitude
Bug
Barometric Setting
Figure 2-9 Altimeter
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
Altitudes can also be displayed in meters as an overlay. Note that the altitude tape does not change scale when
the metric overlay is enabled.
Displaying the metric altitude overlay:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the Meters Softkey to enable the metric altitude overlay on the Altimeter.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
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The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric pressure setting creates discontinuities
in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target
Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Note: Changing the BARO setting with the autopilot engaged in ALT mode will result in the aircraft slowly
climbing or descending to return to the original indicated altitude.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD Baro Softkey.
3) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
Or:
Push the BARO Knob.
Figure 2-10 Standard Barometric Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or:
Press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between the PFDs, the settings change to amber. The settings can
be synchronized from the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD. Once the settings are synchronized, the
settings change from amber to cyan.
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘System Setup’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the BARO ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field in the ‘Synchronization’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
7) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
PFD1 Baro Setting
PFD2 Baro Setting
Barometric Settings Not Synchronized on PFDs Displayed in Amber
PFD1 Baro Setting
PFD2 Baro Setting
Synchronized on PFDs Displayed in Cyan
Figure 2-11 Barometric Setting Synchronization on the PFDs
BARO QFE ALTIMETER SETTING
WARNING: A QFE altimeter setting should only be used in the terminal environment for the corresponding
issuing airport to ensure adequate obstacle clearance.
BARO QFE is the isobaric surface pressure at the airfield reference point. With BARO QFE set, the altimeter
will read zero at the airfield reference point or the touch-down zone of the runway in use. At other altitudes
the altimeter will read an indication of the height above the reference point. Refer to PFD Annunciations and
Alerting Functions in this section for QFE annunciations.
QFE mode should be enabled and the Baro setting should be set to the QFE setting in conjunction with
each other. This can be done automatically by arming QFE while the baro setting is still set to STD BARO
ahead of time; at the appropriate time set the baro setting on the PFD to the QFE setting when QFE operation
is required. When both baro settings are set to something other than STD BARO with QFE armed, BARO
QFE mode will automatically become active.
When entering QFE VNAV altitude constraints, it is important to note that the only current QFE reference
is used. It is not possible to enter a QFE constraint for the destination while the origin is the current reference.
Therefore, while QFE is active and the QFE reference is the origin:
• QFE constraints cannot be entered for the destination airport/runway
• QFE constraints cannot be entered for any arrival/approach waypoints
• Entering an MSL/AGL constraint for any departure/enroute waypoints displays a message clarifying that the
constraint will be shown as a converted QFE value relative to the origin
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NOTE: ‘FMS ORIG’ and ‘FMS DEST’ references do not dynamically update with flight plan changes. Always
verify QFE settings when changing the QFE reference (airfield, runway, etc.) or flight plan and re-enter
settings on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
NOTE: VPTH changes and VSD and/or VNV discontinuities may occur when switching from QNH to QFE Baro
settings.
Setting BARO QFE while on the ground:
1) Set the appropriate QFE BARO setting on both PFDs.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘REF’ field in the BARO QFE Box.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ or ‘FMS ORIG’, and press the ENT Key to accept.
6) If ‘Manual’ was selected, use the FMS Knobs to enter the field elevation of the departure airport in the ‘ELEV’
field and press the ENT Key.
7) If ‘FMS ORIG’ was selected, the field elevation of the selected departure airport/runway from the flight plan will
be shown in the BARO QFE Box. Verify this information is correct.
8) The ‘On/Off’ Field will automatically highlight, turn the small FMS Knob to change the selection from ‘Off’ to
‘On’.
9) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor. QFE mode is now active.
Change the BARO setting on both PFDs to STD BARO to disable BARO QFE.
Setting BARO QFE while in flight:
1) Set the BARO setting to STD BARO on both PFDs.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘REF’ field in the BARO QFE Box.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ or ‘FMS DEST’, and press the ENT Key to accept.
6) If ‘Manual’ was selected, use the FMS Knobs to enter the field elevation of the destination airport in the ‘ELEV’
field and press the ENT Key.
7) If ‘FMS DEST’ was selected, the field elevation of the selected destination airport/runway from the flight plan
will be shown in the BARO QFE Box. Verify this information is correct.
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8) The ‘On/Off’ Field will automatically highlight, turn the small FMS Knob to change the selection from ‘Off’ to
‘On’.
9) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor. BARO QFE mode is now armed.
10) Enter the reference field QFE BARO setting. As soon as barometric settings change from STD Baro, QFE mode
activates.
Change the BARO setting on both PFDs to STD BARO to disable BARO QFE. The desired BARO setting can now be
entered.
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance when
SBAS is available.
The Vertical Speed Indicator displays the aircraft vertical speed with numeric labels and tick marks at 1000
and 2000 fpm in each direction on the non-moving tape. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 500 fpm. The
current vertical speed is displayed in the pointer, which also points to that speed on the nonmoving tape. Digits
appear in the pointer when the climb or descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate of ascent/descent
exceeds 2000 fpm, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape and the rate appears inside the
pointer.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI; see following figure)
for reaching a VNV Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features, and refer to the Supplemental Flight
Data section, for more information about VNV indications on the PFDs.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
When Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used, the Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) appears to the left of
the altimeter and is displayed with a magenta ‘V’ at the top of the scale and a magenta chevron indicating the
VNV vertical deviation. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” alert. The VDI is
removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management Section for details
on VNV features, and refer to the Supplemental Flight Data section for more information about VNV indications
on the PFDs.
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-13) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is
tuned in the active NAV field and the selected course and heading are within 107°. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
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VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Scale
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 2-12 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
Figure 2-13 Glideslope Indicator
The Glidepath Indicator is a vertical deviation scale for GPS approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (L/VNAV, LPV) or advisory vertical guidance (LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual). The Glidepath Indicator,
a magenta diamond (see following figure) appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF)
becomes the active waypoint, and GPS is the selected navigation source. Full-scale deflection (two dots) is
angular with upper and lower limits. The upper limit is ±492 feet (150 meters) and lower limit depends on
approach service level as follows:
• LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual is ±148 feet (45 meters).
• LPV is ±49 feet (15 meters).
A hollow gray diamond represents a preview of the glidepath indicator. This is shown while inbound to the
FAF waypoint, but before the FAF waypoint is the next active waypoint. The preview is also shown when the
AFCS is coupled to the Vertical Path Tracking Mode (VPTH) while inbound to the FAF waypoint, until the
AFCS captures the glidepath; refer to the AFCS section for more information about Vertical Path Tracking Mode.
The hollow gray preview diamond changes to a solid magenta diamond to indicate the glidepath indicator is
active.
If the approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
Preview
Glidepath
Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Glidepath
loss
Figure 2-14 Glidepath Indicator
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Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators appear as vertical white lines indicating the area where deviation exceeds
allowable limits for the glidepath only for a LNAV/VNAV approach and between the FAF and MAP. The
Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator provides a scaled representation of ±75 feet of the calculated glidepath. The
“window” between the lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The length of the lines will change
while progressing through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator enters an excessive deviation area,
the Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators are amber.
Deviation
limit bars
Excessive
deviation
(amber)
Glidepath
Indicator
(Baro
VNAV)
Figure 2-15 Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators Figure 2-16 Glidepath Indicator with Baro VNAV active
While executing an LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, or VISUAL approach and SBAS is unavailable or disabled, baro
VNAV (barometric vertical navigation) is used for vertical guidance. See the Flight Management section for
more details. This occurs due to any of the following conditions:
• SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
• The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
• SBAS is manually disabled on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Baro VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, or VISUAL procedure
does not support SBAS vertical guidance.
While baro VNAV is in use, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta irregular pentagon (sideways
“doghouse”). A baro VNAV glidepath preview appears under the same conditions as a preview SBAS glidepath. If the approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the glidepath
indicator.
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HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor
tick marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI. The HSI also
presents turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and selected navigation source information. The HSI is available
in two formats: a 360˚ compass rose and a 210˚ HSI Map. HSI Maps and Inset Maps cannot be simultaneously
active. For details on the HSI Traffic inset, see Hazard Avoidance.
Enabling/disabling the HSI Map on the PFD:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Map Softkey to enable the HSI Map.
Or:
Press the Map Off Softkey to disable the HSI Map.
16
15
14
13
12
1
11
2
3
10
4
5
9
6
8
7
1
Current Track Indicator
9
Lateral Deviation Scale
2
Selected Heading Bug
10
Flight Phase
3
11
Course Pointer
4
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Navigation Source
12
Selected Course
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Lubber Line
6
To/From Indicator
14
Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
8
OBS Mode Active
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
16 Selected Heading
15
Figure 2-17 Horizontal Situation Indicator
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The HSI with the HSI Map disabled presents a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) with a Course Pointer, To/
From Indicator, and a sliding deviation bar and scale. The Course Pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, NAV1) or
a double line arrow (NAV2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From Indicator rotates with
the Course Pointer and appears when the system is receiving the active NAVAID.
The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay capabilities such as topographical, weather, traffic, and land information. The HSI Map contains a Course Pointer, a
combined To/From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral deviation scale. Upon passing a
station, the To/From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on
the HSI Map can appear either as an arrowhead (GPS, VOR, OBS) or as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight
Management Section for information about using HSI Map overlays.
Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation Source
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
Course Pointer
Figure 2-18 HSI Map Enabled
The following information appears above the Current Heading when the HSI Map is enabled:
• A sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and
deviation indicators are combined)
• OBS Mode/Suspend Mode Status
• Deviation scale
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
• Navigation Source
• Back Course Annunciation (BC)
• Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode Annunciation
• Flight Phase
For the HSI Map, when a localizer is the active navigation source and the difference between the selected
course and current heading is greater than 107°, a ‘BC’ annunciation appears instead of the Flight Phase above
the selected course indication to indicate backcourse sensing is active. This annunciation does not apply to
the HSI when the HSI Map is disabled. In either case, when the system detects LOC BC guidance is active, the
localizer guidance behaves as if a front course were selected.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Push the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
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Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Push the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station.
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected Heading
Selected Course
Selected Heading Bug
Figure 2-19 Heading and Course Indications
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag
Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page. When an approach referenced to
true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates an alert to remind the pilot to change the
navigation angle setting to ‘True’ at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-20 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight NAV Angle setting in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• Magnetic - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
• True - References angles to true north (T)
TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in six seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than 4
deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
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Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
Half Standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-21 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV, GPS, and optional
ADF sources by pressing the PFD Opt Softkey then either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey. The bearing
pointers are cyan and are single-line (Bearing 1) or double-line (Bearing 2). A pointer symbol is shown in the
information window to indicate the navigation source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are
visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible
due to data unavailability.
DME Information Window
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Bearing 2
Pointer
Distance
Distance to
Bearing Source
Pointer
Icon
Station
Identifier
Bearing 1 Information Window
Bearing 1
Pointer
Bearing
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
Figure 2-22 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
When a bearing pointer is displayed, the associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows are displayed below the HSI and give the following information:
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS, ADF)
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Frequency (NAV, ADF)
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
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identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed instead of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and dashes are displayed in the information window if the
NAV radio is not receiving a VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not selected.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window
with the NAV 1 source.
3) Press the bearing softkey again to display the bearing pointer with the NAV 2 source.
4) Press the bearing softkey again to display the bearing pointer with GPS as the source.
5) Press the bearing softkey again to display the bearing pointer with the optional ADF as the source.
6) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
The DME Information Window is displayed above the Bearing 1 Information Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “– – . – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the Bearing 1 Information Window.
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
CDI
Figure 2-23 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, GPS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current navigation
source, magenta for GPS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are defined by an GPS58
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derived distance when coupled to the GPS. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots)
while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol. When
navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI.
When navigating with GPS and an ILS or localizer approach is activated, a preview of the approach course
is indicated by the dashed gray pointer and CDI on the HSI as shown on the left of the following figure. As
the aircraft approaches the final approach course, the two course pointers converge. When the system autoswitches to the localizer NAV source, the pointer and CDI will change to green.
Preview CRS
Pointer and
CDI
Figure 2-24 Navigation Sources
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
GPS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-25 Selecting a Navigation Source
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The system automatically changes from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling accordingly
when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically changes to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating a
Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. GPS steering guidance is not
provided after the change.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to the
FAF (see following figure), it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
changes from GPS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
Fix Prior to
the FAF
Glideslope
Intercept Point
Figure 2-26 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation is
amber on both displays (unless synchronized). Once the CDI Synchronization feature is enabled, the CDIs
remain synchronized until the setting is disabled.
Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux’ page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘System Setup’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the CDI On/Off field in the ‘Synchronization’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
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GPS CDI SCALING
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page and
the full-scale deflection setting may also be selected (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If
the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled
accordingly and the selected setting is displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Format Allowed selection in the GPS CDI box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
(Oceanic if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (following figure, Table 2-2).
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-27 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
“Aviation Terms and Acronyms” in the Appendices section for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not a CA or FA
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• At 30 nm from the departure airport, the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually decreases from 2.0 nm to
1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to decrease from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm over a
distance of 1.0 nm.
• During approach, the CDI scale decreases even further (following figures). This transition normally occurs
within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI changes to approach scaling automatically once the
approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-To-Final (VTF) are selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
FAF
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
2 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
angle set
by system
350 ft
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and the preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-28 Typical LNAV, LNAV+V, and Visual Approach CDI
Scaling
Figure 2-29 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LPV, LP+V, and LP Approach
CDI Scaling
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal mode under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not a CA or FA
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Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Approach
(Non-precision)
Approach
(Non-precision
with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Approach
(Non-precision
with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
Approach
(LP)
Missed Approach
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
LNAV
LNAV + V
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-28)
VISUAL
L/VNAV
LPV
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure 2-29)
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to amber.
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current Active-to waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is enabled.
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the Active-to waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation, with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight plan on the moving map retains the modified course line.
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GPS
Selected
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-30 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. ‘SUSP’ appears on the HSI to the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey becomes the
SUSP Softkey with its annunciator green to indicate the suspension is active as shown in the figure. Pressing
the SUSP Softkey deactivates the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints, and
the SUSP Softkey becomes the OBS Softkey.
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-31 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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2.2 GARMIN SVT (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
NOTE: Do not use the flight path marker as a flight director.
NOTE: Terrain alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South latitude. This is due
to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process the data representing
the affected areas.
Figure 2-32 Synthetic Vision Imagery
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is an optional visual enhancement to the system. SVT depicts a
forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of view is 29
degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. In Reversionary Mode, the field of view is 21.5 degrees to the
left and 35.5 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD), or on the
Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude,
heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arc-second database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant
features. The terrain data resolution is 4.9 arc-seconds, meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in
squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds on each side, is required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required
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data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled (although the softkeys will still
appear functional) until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, wind turbines, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle
database. Cultural features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are
not displayed even if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south
east–west grid with lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation
relative to the terrain.
Terrain-SVT, which is included with the Garmin-SVT option, or the optional Terrain Awareness and Warning
System (TAWS) provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant
to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
Garmin-SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If SVT is enabled
when switching to Reversionary Mode, it will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD
display will be shown in the interim.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the Garmin-SVT or TAWS terrain or obstacle data displays.
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
• Pathways
• Terrain Alerting
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Obstacle Alerting
• Airport Signs
• Traffic Display
• Runway Display
• Flight Path Marker
• WireAware
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch attitude scale is reduced from 20
degrees up and down to 10 degrees up to 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The softkeys
are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire. The Back Softkey returns to the previous
level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
Pathways, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire Softkeys are only available when the Terrain Softkey is activated
(green annunciation). After activating the Terrain Softkey, the Pathways, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire
Softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. On the next avionics power cycle,
the last selected state (on or off) of the Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire Softkeys is
remembered by the system.
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• Pathways Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HDG LBL Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APT Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
• Wire Softkey enables WireAware.
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the Terrain Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the Pathways Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HDG LBL Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APT Sign Softkey.
Activating and deactivating WireAware:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Wire Softkey. Display of wires will cycle on or off with the Wire Softkey.
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SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Pathways Color
Matches CDI
Indicating Nav
Source
Flight
Path
Marker
Aircraft
Symbol
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Horizon
Heading
Marks
Airport
Runway
Synthetic
Terrain
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 2-33 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
PATHWAYS
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by gray boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the navigation map indicating an inactive leg.
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Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 2-34 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV+V and VISUAL approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should
not be used independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glideslope indicator. They are removed
from the display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed
beyond the active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight
plan leg that would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
DEPARTURE AND ENROUTE
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg of
the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the first
active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT field of
view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching the center
of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight plan
legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude selected
or programmed.
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DESCENT AND APPROACH
NOTE: On a Vectors to Final approach, Pathways boxes will not follow the altitude bug if the bug is lower
than the current altitude and the first VNV constraint is FAF or FAF-1.
During an approach, Pathways be can shown for the programmed descent, level transition flight, and at the
Selected Altitude within the approach segments. When an approach providing vertical guidance is activated,
the corresponding approach glideslope or glidepath will be displayed using a color corresponding to the
selected navigation source and conditions.
White Pathways represent the next segment of the approach that is not yet active. Magenta Pathways
represent the active segment with GPS as the navigation source. Green Pathways indicate the ILS/LOC
navigation source. During the arrival/approach phases of flight, gray pathways indicate the anticipated
preview glidepath/glideslope. The gray Approach Preview Pathways will be displayed beginning at the start
of the segment leading to the FAF waypoint. With active approach vertical guidance, the selected altitude will
be displayed as a level gray Pathway if the Selected Altitude is lower than the glidepath/glideslope. The gray
Selected Altitude Preview Pathways are displayed until they converge with the green glideslope or magenta
glidepath pathways. If approach vertical guidance is not yet active, pathways at the Selected Altitude will be
displayed in magenta throughout the arrival/approach.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is the selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with the
LOC selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and
glideslope. VOR, LOC, BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are
displayed in magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or
VOR final approach courses are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 2-35 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
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MISSED APPROACH
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned in
the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 2-36 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM appears when the Synthetic Terrain feature is enabled. The FPM represents the direction of the
flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol represents the
aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown.
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by the TAWS or Terrain-SVT system. However, decisions
regarding terrain and/or obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 2-37 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
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HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HDG LBL Softkey.
WIREAWARE POWER LINE OBSTACLES
NOTE: The WireAware obstacle database does not contain all known power lines. And as such, obstacle
avoidance is the sole responsibility of the flight crew.
To enhance safety, SVT incorporates Garmin’s WireAware wire obstacle technology. WireAware database
information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power lines which are typically high
voltage transmission lines depicted on the VFR Sectional charts, and are considered of special interest to
pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers, valleys, canyons, or be in close proximity to
airports/heliports. For wire obstacles present in the obstacle database, the system shows these on the maps
as well as the Synthetic Vision display; see Hazard Avoidance section for more information about WireAware
alerting.
Potential
Impact
Area
Warnings
Figure 2-38 Wire Warning
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TRAFFIC
NOTE: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a partial
symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with the non-directional symbols shown on navigation
maps and traffic maps. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APT Sign Softkey.
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 2-39 Airport Signs
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RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Other
Runway
on Airport
Airport
Runway
Figure 2-40 Airport Runways
TERRAIN ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning alert
on the navigation maps and Terrain-SVT or TAWS Pages. For more detailed information regarding TerrainSVT and TAWS, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
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In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
Terrain
Annunciation
Potential
Impact
Area
Caution
Potential
Impact
Area
Warning
Figure 2-41 Terrain Alert
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower or wind
turbine symbols found on map displays. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative height
above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the map displays, which color obstacles relative to the
aircraft’s altitude, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warm of potential conflict
with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than
1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude
displays.
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PULL UP
Annunciation
Obstacle
Warning
Figure 2-42 SVT Obstacle Warning
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Enabling/disabling field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Settings and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Map Group options to Field of View.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and Field of View.
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
Field of View on the MFD
SVT View on the PFD
Figure 2-43 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
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2.3 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFDs also display various supplemental information, including
temperature, wind data, generic timer, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAY
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is displayed in the lower left corner of the PFDs only as degrees Celsius
(°C).
Figure 2-44 Outside Air Temperature
WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed in knots, relative to the aircraft, can be displayed relative to the aircraft in a
window to the upper left of the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid
or unavailable, the window displays ‘NO WIND DATA’. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways.
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-45 Wind Data
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Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the numbered Option softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• Option 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components.
• Option 2: Total wind direction arrow with numeric speed.
• Option 3: Total wind direction arrow with numeric direction and speed. Direction is relative to true north if
denoted with a ‘T’.
4) To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer can be accessed via softkeys on the PFDs and allows for quick access for timing functions (either counting up or down) for the pilot.
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (HH:MM:SS).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time.
4) Press the ENT Key. The Up/Dn field is now highlighted.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Up/Dn Window.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Start?’ is now highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘Stop?’. If the timer is counting down, it will start
counting up after reaching zero.
9) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
10) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
11) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFDs
according to the criteria listed in the table.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Figure 2-46 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
VNV Indication Removed
Criteria
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude*
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (Cncl VNV Softkey pressed on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
Table 2-3 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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2.4 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions pertaining to flight instruments are displayed on the PFD.
Refer to Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Altimeter. The outer marker (O)
reception is indicated in cyan, middle (M) in amber, and inner (I) in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS
Section for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-47 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ALTITUDE ALERTING
Altitude Alerting provides the pilot with a visual alert when approaching the Selected Altitude. Whenever the
Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The following occur when approaching the Selected
Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to black text on a cyan
background and flashes for five seconds. The system plays an aural tone.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude
changes to cyan text on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude) an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude changes to amber text on a black background and
flashes for five seconds.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-48 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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BARO TRANSITION ALERTS
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the barometric
pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition Alert occurs when
climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The flight level Baro Transition
Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at 200 feet above this flight level. The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the barometric pressure setting. The pilot
can enable/disable either of the Baro Transition Alerts, and choose the altitude or flight level used to trigger the
alerts.
Setting the Baro Transition Alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Altitude or Level in the Baro Transition Alert box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to turn the alerts ‘OFF’ or ‘ON’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude or level and press the ENT Key.
6) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob.
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation requires SBAS. Terrain alerts from Terrain-SVS, TAWS-B, or TAWS-A
systems will appear instead of the Low Altitude Annunciation when these systems are operating and not
inhibited.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber LOW ALT annunciation appears to the right of the roll scale, flashes for
several seconds, then remains displayed until the condition is resolved.
Figure 2-49 Low Altitude Annunciation
MINIMUM ALTITUDE ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a barometric minimum altitude alert can be set in the ‘References’ Window and is reset
if the current approach is deleted, another approach is loaded, or on the next avionics power cycle.
If desired, the system can also compensate this altitude based on a pilot-supplied temperature at the
destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases the
displayed minimum altitude alert accordingly.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
When minimum altitude alerting is active, the altitude setting is displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter. Once the altitude is within the range of the tape, a bug appears at the selected altitude on the Altimeter. The
following visual annunciations occur when approaching the minimum altitude alert setting:
• When the aircraft altitude is beyond 100 feet of the alert setting, the BARO MIN, COMP MIN, or RA MIN box
appears with the altitude in cyan text. The bug appears on the altitude tape in cyan (or magenta for COMP
MIN) once in range.
• When the aircraft is within 100 feet of the alert, the bug and text become white.
• Once the aircraft reaches the alert, the bug and text become amber and a “Minimums, Minimums,” voice alert
occurs.
Beyond 100 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Minimum
Bug
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-50 Minimum Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the alert
setting. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the alert altitude, once it reaches 50 feet above the
alert altitude, alerting is disabled.
Setting the Minimum Altitude Alert and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select BARO, TEMP COMP, or RAD ALT. Off is selected by default. Press the ENT
Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet when ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’
is selected, or up to 2,500 feet when ‘RAD ALT’ is selected).
5) If TEMP COMP was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field and then
enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 2-51 BARO and TEMP COMP Minimums
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
RADAR ALTIMETER
If an optional radar altimeter is installed, when the radar height (the aircraft altitude above ground level
detected by the radar altimeter) is between zero and 2500 feet, the current value is displayed in white above the
selected course/desired track box. Display of radar height becomes more sensitive as the height above ground
decreases (Table 2-4).
Radar Altimeter
Figure 2-52 Current Radar Height
Radar Height Range
Shown to Nearest
0 to 200 feet
5 feet
200 to 1500 feet
10 feet
1500 to 2500 feet
50 feet
Table 2-4 Radar Altimeter Sensitivity
When the radar altimeter is selected as the minimum altitude altering source, the radar altimeter numeric
display changes to amber when descending to the minimum altitude (following figure). Refer to the Minimum
Altitude Alerting discussion in this section for more information about this function.
Figure 2-53 RA as Altitude Source for Alerting
A ground line appears on the Altimeter to display the aircraft’s height relative to the ground. Diagonal lines
appear below the ground line. If the radar altimeter provides invalid data or fails, the message ‘RA FAIL’ is
displayed in amber in place of the current radar height.
Radar Altimeter
Ground
Line
Figure 2-55 Radar Altimeter Failure
Radar Altimeter
Minimums Box
Figure 2-54 Altimeter Displaying the Ground Line
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
BARO QFE INDICATIONS
BARO QFE will be set to armed mode if either PFD baro altimeter is set to STD BARO and BARO QFE on the
‘Aux - System Setup Page 1’ on the MFD is set to ‘On’. When the altimeter setting is moved from STD BARO,
BARO QFE Mode is active. During QFE operations an annunciation will be displayed to the left of the altimeter.
BARO QFE
Annunciation
BARO QFE Mode Active
BARO QFE Mode Armed
Figure 2-56 BARO QFE Altimeter Annunciations on the PFD
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.5 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in the following table can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur
(see following figure). Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
GPS LOI
Location
Right of HSI
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits (annunciation
GPS INTEG OK Right of HSI
displayed for 5 seconds)
Lower left of Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position to compute
DR
aircraft symbol navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
Table 2-5 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-57 Example HSI Annunciations
In Dead Reckoning Mode the CDI is removed from the display when GPS is the selected navigation source. The following items on the PFD are then shown in amber:
• Current Track Bug
• Distances in the Bearing Information Windows
• Wind Data
• GPS bearing pointers
• Ground Speed
• Desired track (DTK)
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode as they become increasingly
inaccurate over time.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, a miscompare annunciation is displayed in black text on an amber background. If one or
both of the sensed values are unavailable, a no compare annunciation is displayed with black text on a white
background. Refer to the Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
Miscompare Annunciations
No Compare
Annunciations
Figure 2-58 Sensor Comparator Annunciations on the PFD
Annunciation
ALT
IAS
HDG
Condition
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10 knots.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 knots.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
PIT
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
ROL
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
VDI
Difference in temperature compensated altitudes is > 50 ft.
ALT
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
IAS
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
HDG
No data from one or both heading sensors.
PIT
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
ROL
No data from one or both roll sensors..
VDI
No temperature compensated altitude data available.
Table 2-6 Sensor Comparator Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Reversionary sensor selection for the AHRS and ADC is annunciated on the above the roll scale on the PFDs. Reversionary sensor selection for the GPS is annunciated to the right of the HSI. These annunciations reflect
reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the PFD Opt Softkey accesses the Sensors
Softkey. Pressing the Sensors Softkey accesses the ADC and AHRS softkeys These softkeys allow switching of
the sensors being viewed on each PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the system may make some sensor
selections automatically. The GPS sensor cannot be switched manually.
Figure 2-59 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
Condition
BOTH ON ADC1
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC1.
BOTH ON ADC2
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS1.
BOTH ON AHRS2
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS2.
BOTH
ON GPS1
Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS1.
BOTH
ON GPS2
Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS2.
USING ADC1
PFD2 is displaying data from ADC1. Shown while PFD1 is displaying data from ADC2.
USING ADC2
PFD1 is displaying data from ADC2. Shown while PFD2 is displaying data from ADC1.
USING AHRS1
PFD2 is displaying data from AHRS1. Shown while PFD1 is displaying data from AHRS2.
USING AHRS2
PFD1 is displaying data from AHRS2. Shown while PFD2 is displaying data from AHRS1.
USING
GPS1
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
USING
GPS2
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
Table 2-7 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn of extreme
pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon
line.
Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-60 Pitch Attitude Warnings
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled when the aircraft experiences
unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• System Time
• AFCS Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• PFD Inset Map
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• ISA temperature deviation
– References Window
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• Wind data
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
• Selected Heading readout
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• Selected Course readout
– Alerts
• True Airspeed
• Transponder Status Box
– Procedures
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SVT UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
During extreme pitch attitudes, the display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or bottom
of the screen to represent earth or sky. The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great
enough to completely fill the display. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during extreme
pitch attitudes.
Blue Band
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Figure 2-61 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for limitations.
The system offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically monitoring critical
system parameters and providing system alerts during all phases of flight. The Engine Indication System (EIS)
displays electrical, fuel, engine, and ice protection (optional) information on the left side of the Multi Function
Display (MFD). Detailed EIS information can be viewed by pressing the Engine Softkey.
EIS Display
Figure 3-1 MFD with EIS display
Green bands on the instruments indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution
and warning, respectively. White or uncolored bands indicate areas outside of normal operation not yet in the
caution or warning ranges. When unsafe operating conditions occur, the corresponding displays flash to indicate
cautions and warnings. If sensory data to an instrument becomes invalid or unavailable, a red “X” is displayed
across the instrument.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 ENGINE DISPLAY
NOTE: The gauges displayed and the values shown in this section are based on the PT6A-140 engine
installation and does not reflect other engine installations available. Refer to the current version of the
pertinent flight manual for specific values and operating limitations.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
PT6A-140
Figure 3-2 Engine Display
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Displays engine torque in foot-pounds (ft-lb).
Torque Gauge
(TRQ FT-LB)
For aircraft with the PT6A-114A, the warning indication is propeller
speed sensitive and changes for speeds between 1800 and 1900 rpm.
For aircraft with the PT6A-140, the warning indication is derived from
Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and altitude information.
Interstage Turbine
Temperature Gauge
(ITT °C)
A light blue bug represents the recommended cruise torque setting. Cruise
torque bug appears for certain combinations of propeller speed, OAT,
airspeed, and altitude for PT6A-114 engines, and propeller speed, OAT,
and altitude for PT6A-140 engines.
Displays Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) in degrees Celsius (°C).
Operating ranges differ for engine off, start and running conditions.
When the engine is off or in the process of being shut down, ‘OFF’ is
annunciated above the digital temperature readout. When the engine
is being started, ‘START’ is annunciated and a white line leads to a red
pointer representing the ITT temperature which must not be exceeded
while starting; when the engine is running, there is no annunciation.
Gas Generator Speed Gauge Displays gas generator speed as a percentage.
(NG % RPM)
Displays propeller speed revolutions per minute (rpm) in increments of 10
Propeller Speed
rpm.
(PROP RPM)
Displays engine oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi).
Oil Pressure Indicator
(OIL PSI)
Oil Temperature Indicator Displays engine oil temperature in °C.
(OIL °C)
Displays left (L) and right (R) wing tank fuel quantity in pounds (lbs).
Fuel Quantity Indicator
(FUEL QTY LBS)
Displays OFF when respective fuel tank selector is turned off; there is no
Fuel Tank Selector
annunciation when the fuel selector is turned on.
Indicator
Displays fuel flow in pounds per hour (pph).
Fuel Flow
(FFLOW PPH)
Displays DC current in amperes (amps) for the battery.
Ammeter
(BAT AMPS)
Displays DC bus voltage.
Voltmeter
(BUS VOLTS)
If one of the optional ice protection systems is installed, displays the amount
Ice Protection
(A-ICE) or (PROP AMPS) of anti-icing fluid in gallons (A-ICE GAL) or the propeller de-icing heater
current (PROP AMPS) (PT6A-114A only).
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
ENGINE SYSTEM DISPLAY
The Engine System Display displays all engine, fuel, electrical, and fuel calculation information. Refer to
Table 3-1 for Engine Softkey functions.
Level 1
Engine
System
Level 2
Level 3
TRND/ACK
Capture
RST Fuel
LB REM
-10 LB
-1 LB
+1 LB
+10 LB
+100 LB
+1000 LB
Full
Back
Back
Description
Accesses the Engine EIS Display and EIS softkeys
Accesses the System EIS Display
Monitors EIS trends for 5 seconds and saves the average and maximum
values (if no ETM-generated alerts exist)
Acknowledges ETM-generated alerts, if any exist
Captures EIS data for the previous 2 minutes of ETM history and continues
capturing EIS data for 2 minutes after softkey selection
Resets the fuel totalizer fuel remaining and the displayed fuel used to zero
Accesses softkeys for manually adjusting the fuel totalizer amount of fuel
remaining
Decreases the displayed fuel remaining in 10-lb increments
Decreases the displayed fuel remaining in 1-lb increments
Increases the displayed fuel remaining in 1-lb increments
Increases the displayed fuel remaining in 10-lb increments
Increases the displayed fuel remaining in 100-lb increments
Increases the displayed fuel remaining by 1000 lb
Resets the displayed fuel remaining to the aircraft’s fuel capacity
Returns to the previous level of softkeys
Returns to the previous level of softkeys
Table 3-1 EIS Softkeys
NOTE: No EIS softkeys are available in the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page on the MFD.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
PT6A-140
Figure 3-3 Engine System Display
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1
2
Displays engine torque in foot-pounds (ft-lb)
Torque Gauge
(TRQ FT-LB)
For aircraft with the PT6A-114A, the warning indication is propeller
speed sensitive and changes for speeds between 1800 and 1900 rpm.
For aircraft with the PT6A-140, the warning indication is derived from
Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and altitude information.
Interstage Turbine
Temperature Gauge
(ITT °C)
3
Gas Generator Speed Gauge
(NG % RPM)
4 Propeller Speed
(PROP RPM)
5 Fuel Quantities
(QTY L/R LB)
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
96
Fuel Flow
(FFLOW PPH)
Set Fuel Remaining
(LB REM)
Calculated Fuel Used
(LB USED)
Ammeter
(GEN, ALT, BAT AMPS)
Voltmeter
(BUS VOLTS)
Ice Protection
(A-ICE) or (PROP AMPS)
Time Remaining
(TIME REM)
A light blue bug represents the recommended cruise torque setting.
Cruise torque bug appears for certain combinations of propeller speed,
OAT, airspeed, and altitude for PT6A-114 engines, and propeller
speed, OAT, and altitude for PT6A-140 engines.
Displays Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) in degrees Celsius (°C).
Operating ranges differ for engine off, start and running conditions.
When the engine is off or in the process of being shut down, ‘OFF’ is
annunciated above the digital temperature readout. When the engine
is being started, ‘START’ is annunciated and a white line leads to a red
pointer representing the ITT temperature which must not be exceeded
while starting; when the engine is running, there is no annunciation.
Displays gas generator speed as a percentage.
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm).
Displays left (L) and right (R) wing tank fuel quantity in pounds (lbs);
movement is in increments of 25 lbs (PT6A-114A) or 10 lbs (PT6A140).
Displays fuel flow in pounds per hour (pph).
Displays current fuel remaining in lb as set by the pilot and adjusted
based on fuel flow since last set.
Displays quantity of fuel used in lb based on fuel flow since last reset.
Displays generator (GEN), alternator (ALT), and battery (BAT) currents
in Amperes (amps).
Displays bus voltage.
If one of the optional ice protection systems is installed, displays the
amount of anti-icing fluid in gallons (A-ICE GAL) or the propeller deicing heater current (PROP AMPS) (PT6A-114A only).
Displays a countdown timer based on the amount of anti-icing fluid
remaining.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FUEL CALCULATIONS
NOTE: Fuel calculations do not use the aircraft fuel quantity indicators and are calculated from the last time
the fuel was reset.
Fuel used (LB USED) and range (in nautical miles) are calculated based on the displayed fuel remaining (LB
REM) and the fuel flow totalizer. The calculated range also takes into account the aircraft’s heading and the
wind direction and speed.
Adjusting the fuel totalizer quantity:
1) From the MFD Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Engine softkey.
3) Press the System softkey.
4) Press the LB REM softkey.
Select the softkey that best describes the current fuel load desired Once selected, press the Back softkey.
Resetting the fuel totalizer:
On the Engine System Page, press the RST Fuel Softkey; this resets displayed fuel remaining (LB REM) to the
maximum fuel capacity for the aircraft and fuel used to zero.
A map feature related to the EIS Fuel Calculations is the Fuel Range Ring, which graphically illustrates the
aircraft’s remaining range based on heading, groundspeed, and wind direction and speed. The solid green circle
represents the range until all the remaining fuel is depleted. The dashed green circle indicates the aircraft range
until only reserve fuel remains. Once on reserve fuel, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
The Fuel Range Ring shifts position in relation to the aircraft according to wind effects. For example, more
fuel is required for flying into a headwind, and the aircraft’s decreased range in that direction is indicated by the
Fuel Range Ring shifting toward the tail of the Aircraft Symbol.
The amount of reserve fuel (only for purposes of the Fuel Range Ring) is set on the Navigation Map Page
Setup Menu in terms of remaining flight time. When enabled the Fuel Range Ring appears on the Navigation
Map Page, the Weather Data Link Page, and PFD Inset Map.
Enabling/disabling the Fuel Range Ring and selecting a reserve fuel time:
1) Display the Navigation Map Page (press and hold the CLR Key for 2 seconds to quickly select this map).
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Fuel Rng (RSV)’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the reserve fuel time, how long the aircraft can fly after reaching the
reserve fuel.
8) Enter the desired reserve fuel time (00+00 to 23+59; hours+minutes) and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 EIS DISPLAY (REVERSIONARY MODE)
In the event of a PFD or MFD display failure, the display(s) operating in Reversionary Mode are configured to
present PFD symbology together with the EIS Display (refer to the System Overview for information about display
reversionary mode).
The Engine Display, in reversionary mode, is identical to the normal EIS Display on the MFD.
EIS Display
Figure 3-4 Reversionary Mode (EIS Shown)
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the Cessna Caravan is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
• Audio Panel (1 or 2)
• Multi Function Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder (1 or 2)
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The single or dual Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver
audio selection. The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and passengers,
a marker beacon receiver, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a
feature called Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces
the amount of background noise from the radios.
The single or dual Mode S transponder is controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary
Flight Display (PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box
displays the active four-digit code, mode, and reply status.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9
10
11
13
12
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and DME Tuning Window
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Push to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue box) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected and
decoded COM transceiver frequency is displayed directly below the COM Frequency Box.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Push to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue box) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Push to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
DME Tuning Window – Displays DME frequency pairing mode. Display by selecting the DME Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME pairing mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes, select DME modes, and
Auto-tune entries when ‘DME Tuning’ Window or Nearest Window is present. Push the FMS Knob to turn
the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
13
DME Softkey – Displays the ‘DME Tuning’ Window.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
1
2
3
4
3
4
5
6
25
17
7
8
13
14
9
10
15
16
11
12
7
8
13
14
26
27
15
16
28
29
10
17
18
19
11
12
20
21
19
18
30
Volume/Squelch
Annunciations
23
22
32
31
33
24
24
GMA 1347
GMA 1360D
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
NOTE: When a GMA 1347 key is selected, the annunciator above the key is illuminated. When a GMA 1360D
Key is selected, the in-key annunciation is illuminated.
Control Name
1
COM1 MIC
2
COM1
3
102
COM2 MIC
GMA
1347
GMA
1360D
Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM
receiver to be heard. COM2 receiver audio can be added by pressing the
COM2 Key. When the PTT is active the annunciation will be flashing.
X
X
When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
X
X
Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM
receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be added by pressing the COM1 Key.
When the PTT is active the annunciation will be flashing.
X
X
Description
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
GMA
1347
GMA
1360D
When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
X
X
Selects the optional #3 transmitter (HF) for transmitting. COM3 receive is
simultaneously selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from
the #3 COM receiver to be heard.
X
Reserved for optional COM radio.
X
Not used in Cessna Caravan.
X
Control Name
4
COM2
5
COM3 MIC
6
COM3
COM 1/2
7
PA
Description
Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is
deselected when the PA Key is pressed. A solid annunciation indicates PA
mode is active, while a flashing annunciation indicates PTT has been keyed.
Not used in Cessna Caravan.
8
TEL
9
PA
10
SPKR
11
MKR/MUTE
12
HI SENS
13
DME
14
Selects/Deselects the TEL audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device to
the TEL audio. Press the TEL key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key
annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired
audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source.
Selects the passenger address system. The selected Com transmitter is
deselected when the PA Key is pressed.
Selects and deselects the on-side flight deck speaker.
Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker
beacon receiver audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon
audio is received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio.
Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker
beacon receiver audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon
audio is received.
Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to
low sensitivity.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Turns DME audio on or off.
X
X
NAV1
When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
X
X
15
ADF
Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
X
X
16
NAV2
When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
X
X
17
AUX
Not used in Cessna Caravan aircraft.
X
18
MAN SQ
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Reserved for optional COM audio.
Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, push
the PILOT Knob to illuminate the squelch annunciation. Turn the PILOT/PASS
Knobs to adjust squelch.
Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, push
the VOL/SQ Knob to illuminate the squelch annunciation. Turn the VOL/SQ
Knob to adjust squelch.
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X
X
X
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Control Name
19
PLAY
20
PILOT
21
COPILOT
22
Pilot Knob
23
PASS Knob
24
Description
Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is
playing and the previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent
press plays each previously recorded block. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key
during play of a memory block stops play.
Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is
playing and the previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent
press plays each previously recorded block.
AUX MIC
26
CREW ICS
27
MUS1
28
PASS ICS
Pressing selects and deselects the copilot intercom isolation.
X
Reserved for optional COM audio.
Controls the crew intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable onside
Bluetooth recording mode.
Selects/Deselects the MUS1 audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device to
the MUS1 audio. Press the MUS1 key until the annunciator turns blue. The inkey annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired
audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source.
Controls the passenger intercom system.
Selects/Deselects the MUS2 audio source and can assign the Bluetooth device
to the MUS2 audio. Press the MUS2 key until the annunciator turns blue. The
29
MUS2
in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to BLUE. BLUE selects the Bluetooth
audio source.
Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
If equipped with GMA 1360D, the volume for each audio input into the audio
Volume/Squelch
30
panels can be controlled independently. Use the CRSR knob to select the
Indicator
desired source and then use the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust the volume for that
source.
104
X
X
Push to switch between ICS volume and squelch control as indicated by the
‘VOL’ or ‘SQ’ being illuminated. Turn to adjust pilot intercom volume or squelch.
The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow squelch adjustment.
Turn to adjust Copilot/Passenger intercom volume or squelch. The MAN SQ
Key must be selected to allow squelch adjustment.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
GMA
1360D
X
Pressing selects and deselects the pilot intercom isolation.
DISPLAY
Manually selects PFD/MFD Reversionary Mode.
BACKUP Button
25
GMA
1347
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Control Name
31
32
33
Volume/
Squelch (VOL/
SQ) Control
Knob
Cursor (CRSR)
Control Knob
Bluetooth
Connection
Annunciator
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Description
Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the selected source
(indicated by the flashing white or blue annunciator). When the volume
control cursor is not active push to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume
control cursor is active, push twice (once to cancel the cursor, twice to activate
Blue-Select mode). Push and hold for 2 seconds to enable the audio panel as
discoverable for pairing. The Bluetooth Annunciator will flash to indicate that
the unit is discoverable. The unit will remain discoverable for 60 seconds or
until a successful pair is established. Once a successful pair is established, the
Bluetooth Annunciator will quit flashing and be a solid blue.
Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or blue annunciator) to the desired
source.
A flashing blue annunciator indicates the unit is discoverable. A solid blue
annunciator indicates an active Bluetooth connection.
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GMA
1347
GMA
1360D
X
X
X
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TUNING BOXES
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
Figure 4-3 COM Tuning Box Indications
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
106
1
Active Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
left. An active COM frequency is displayed in green and indicates that the COM transceiver is selected
on the Audio Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white
indicate that no COM radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which COM transceiver is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
3
Standby Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the right. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
4
Frequency Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which COM transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field.
5
Transmit and Receive Indications – During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM
frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow. During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by
the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow.
6
Frequency Spacing – The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or
8.33-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When
8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in
the complete 3040-channel list.
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7
COM Volume – COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
When the same COM radio is selected on both Audio Panels, the pilot has transmit priority on COM1, the
copilot has transmit priority on COM2.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Push the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (PFD)
• ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’ Page
• ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
on the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD to open the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window. A list of 25 nearest airport
identifiers and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Select the Nearest Softkey to open
the Nearest Airports Window
Figure 4-4 ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (PFD)
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pushing the FMS Knob or
pressing the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency field.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the selected COM frequency field.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu .
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency field.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the selected COM frequency field.
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Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-5 Nearest Pages Menus
On the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pushing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to
display the ‘Load
Frequency’ Window.
Select Info 1 Softkey
for Airport, Runways,
and Frequencies
Windows
Turn the FMS Knob to
select the desired COM
field location. Press the
ENT Key again to load
the frequency into the
selected location.
Figure 4-6 ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page, ‘NRST – Nearest
Frequencies’ Page, and ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate
softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
FREQUENCY SPACING
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000
to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected,
all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the ‘COM Configuration’ Field is selected, the softkeys are blank.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-7 ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page
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4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV TUNING BOXES
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
Figure 4-8 NAV Tuning Box Indications
1
Standby Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the left. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which NAV transceiver is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
3
Active Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
right. An active NAV frequency is displayed in green. The active NAV radio is selected by pressing the
CDI softkey on the PFD. Both active NAV frequencies appearing in white indicate that no NAV radio is
selected.
4
NAV Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio standby frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which NAV transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field. Moving the Frequency
Tuning Box is accomplished by pushing the NAV knob on the PFD.
5
VOR/LOC Morse Code Audio Indication – When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio,
a white ID replaces the Frequency Transfer Arrow to the left of the active NAV frequency. In order to
listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the Audio Panel. Pushing the VOL/ID
Knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV Tuning Box. To turn on/off both
NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pushing the small NAV Knob and
pushing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
6
Decoded Morse Code Station Identifier – The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code
station identifier that is received from the navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station can
be accomplished by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pushing the NAV VOL/
ID Knob.
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7
NAV VOLUME – NAV radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by selecting the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Selecting the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Selecting the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Selecting the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Selecting the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for tuning,
the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active NAV frequency
color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the previously selected NAV
standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pushing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, ADF, or DME Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard over
the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Push the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
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AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• ‘WPT – Airport Information’
• ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’
• ‘WPT – VOR Information’
• ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’ (FSS, WX)
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pushing the FMS Knob or the
appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor on the NAV
frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-9 Nearest Pages Menus
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In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
Press ENT Key to
display the ‘Load
Frequency’ Window.
Press the VOR or FREQ
Softkey to Place the
Cursor in the respective
window
Turn the FMS Knob to
select the desired NAV
field location. Press the
ENT Key again to load
the frequency into the
selected location.
Figure 4-10 Loading the NAV Frequency from the ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’ Page
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’,
‘WPT – Airport Information’, ‘WPT – VOR Information’, and ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’ Pages on the MFD
in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Instruments Section for
details.
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NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency field on approach activation, on both
PFD1 and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of an ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations. The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The MKR/MUTE Key
Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker beacon signal
is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while marker beacon
audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 NXi for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME
tuning and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The system tunes the DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV
frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
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The ‘DME Tuning’ Window is located to the right of the HSI in the lower right corner of the PFD. The DME
transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the ‘DME Tuning’ Window. Pressing the DME
Softkey switches the ‘DME Tuning’ Window on and off.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-11 ‘DME Tuning’ Window
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV frequency.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the DME Softkey to display the ‘DME Tuning’ Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or pushing the FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the tuning entry
and reverts back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pushing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the
cursor in the ‘DME Tuning’ Window.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME information window.
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4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDER
The Mode S Transponder(s) provides Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. A
second Mode S Transponder is available as optional equipment. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S)
capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address. The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and Code
Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: Standby, On,
ALT, VFR, Code, Ident, Back. If equipped with optional second transponder, XPDR1 and XPDR2 selection
softkeys will also appear with the Mode Selection softkeys.
When the Code Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Ident, BKSP, Back. The
digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters the transponder
code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit.
Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Selecting the Back Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the Back
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the Ident Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 4-12 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2 (if equipped):
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the other transponder.
If the aircraft contains optional dual transponders, on power up the system activates Transponder 1 as
the default unit, regardless of which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between
Transponder 1 and Transponder 2, the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active
transponder, switching transponders does not bring back the previous code.
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Mode) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes). The
Standby, On, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the Standby Softkey. In Standby, the transponder is
powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted. When Standby is selected,
a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-13 Standby Mode
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MANUAL ON MODE
On Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the On Softkey. An On indication will appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting On mode enables transmission of transponder replies and
squitters, but transmissions will not include altitude information. The On indication and transponder code
in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and white while on the ground. When the
transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode
S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Airborne On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Figure 4-14 On Mode
ALTITUDE MODE
ALT Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ALT Softkey. When ALT mode is selected,
an ALT indication will appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting ALT mode enables
transmission of transponder replies and squitters. Transmissions will include pressure altitude information.
The ALT indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and
white while on the ground. When the transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable
replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the active
traffic systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground ALT Mode
Airborne ALT Mode
Figure 4-15 Altitude Mode
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REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to
Interrogation
Figure 4-16 Reply Indication
VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by selecting the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is selected, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-17 VFR Code
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the Code Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be pressed within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Press the BKSP
Softkey to move the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR and the Code Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
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Pressing the CLR Key or pushing the small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and
restores the previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
Selecting the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The Ident Softkey
appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is selected, a green Ident indication is
displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the Ident Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
IDNT
Indication
Select the
Ident Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
Figure 4-18 Ident Softkey and Indication
FLIGHT ID REPORTING
NOTE: If the Flight ID is required but the system is not configured for it, contact a Garmin-authorized service
center for configuration.
When the Flight ID must be entered before flight operation, the identifier is placed in the ‘References’ Window
on the PFD. The Flight ID is not to exceed seven characters. No space is needed when entering Flight ID. When a Flight ID contains a space, the system automatically removes it upon completion of Flight ID entry.
Entering a Flight ID:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey to display the ‘References’ Window.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the selection cursor, if not already activated.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll down to the Flight ID.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired Flight ID.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete Flight ID entry.
If an error is made during Flight ID entry, pressing the CLR Key returns to the original Flight ID entry. While
entering a Flight ID, turning the FMS Knob counterclockwise moves the cursor back one space for each detent
of rotation. If an incorrect Flight ID is discovered after the unit begins operation, reenter the correct Flight ID
using the same procedure.
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panels perform a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off. The exceptions are the speaker and intercom, which are always
selected during power up.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft. Turn 3D audio off when using a mono headset.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects the cabin
speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pushed. Certain aural alerts and warnings (autopilot, traffic,
altitude) are always heard on the speaker, even when the speaker is not selected.
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Contact a Garmin-authorized service center for
volume adjustment.
AMBIENT NOISE COMPENSATION (GMA 1360D)
If equipped with the GMA 1360D, an internal mic is used to gauge ambient noise level. The system will then
automatically adjust the audio volume of the cockpit speakers to an appropriate level to compensate for the
current environment.
INTERCOM SYSTEM (ICS) (GMA 1347)
If equipped with two Audio Panels, they will include a six-position intercom system (ICS) and a stereo music
input for the pilot, copilot and up to four passengers. The intercom provides Pilot and Copilot isolation from
the passengers and aircraft radios.
Pressing an ICS key on either Audio Panel selects and deselects the same key on both Audio Panels. Either
the pilot or copilot may select or deselect the intercom.
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PILOT KEY
COPLT KEY
Annunciator Annunciator
Pilot Hears
Copilot Hears
Passenger Hears
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers
Selected radios, aural alerts,
pilot, copilot, passengers
Copilot, passengers
Copilot, passengers
OFF
OFF
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers
ON
OFF
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot
OFF
ON
Selected radios, aural
Copilot
alerts, pilot; passengers
Selected radios, aural alerts,
pilot, passengers
ON
ON
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot
Passengers
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot
Table 4-1 ICS Isolation Modes
Pilot isolation is selected when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated. During Pilot isolation, the pilot can
hear the selected radios and aural alerts and warnings. The copilot and passengers can communicate with each
other. The copilot is isolated from aural alerts and warnings.
Copilot isolation is selected when the COPLT Annunciator is illuminated. The copilot is isolated from the
selected radios, aural alerts and warnings, and everyone else. The pilot and passengers can hear the selected
radios, aural alerts, and communicate with each other.
When both the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are illuminated, the pilot and copilot can hear the selected
radios, aural alerts, and communicate with each other. The passengers are isolated from the pilot and copilot
but can communicate with each other.
When both the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are extinguished, everyone hears the selected radios, aural
alerts, and is able to communicate with everyone else.
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
The PILOT/PASS Knob controls volume or manual squelch adjustment for the pilot and copilot/passenger.
The small knob controls the pilot volume and squelch. The large knob controls the copilot/passenger volume
and squelch. The VOL and SQ annunciations at the bottom of the unit indicate which function the knob is
controlling. Pushing the PILOT/PASS Knob switches between volume and squelch control as indicated by
the VOL or SQ annunciation being illuminated.
The MAN SQ Key allows either automatic or manual control of the squelch setting.
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished (Automatic Squelch is on), the PILOT/PASS Knob controls
only the volume (pushing the PILOT/PASS Knob has no effect on the VOL/SQ selection).
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated (Manual Squelch), the PILOT/PASS Knob controls
either volume or squelch (selected by pushing the PILOT/PASS Knob and indicated by the VOL or SQ
annunciation).
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Manual Squelch
Annunciator; Off
for Automatic
Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
Pilot/Copilot
ICS
Press to switch
between VOL and SQ.
Turn to adjust Squelch
when SQ Annunciation
is lit, Volume when
VOL Annunciation is lit.
Volume Annunciation
Cabin Annunciator; On for
Cabin Intercom, Flashes for
Cabin to Flight Deck Hail
Selects and Deselects
Cabin Intercom
Master Volume
Control for Pilot
Side or Copilot
Side
Squelch Annunciation
Figure 4-19 Intercom Controls (GMA 1347)
INTERCOM SYSTEM (ICS) (GMA 1360D)
The GMA 1360D includes an intercom system, two MUSIC inputs, and one telephone/entertainment input
for the pilot, copilot and passengers. The intercom provides Crew and Passenger audio isolation.
Pilot (Audio Panel #1)
Copilot (Audio Panel #2)
Figure 4-20 Intercom Controls (GMA 1360)
Press the CREW ICS Key and/or the PASS ICS Key to enable intercom audio for the selected position. If
the annunciators are lit, those positions will share intercom audio. If an annunciator is NOT lit that position
is isolated from the others. The CREW ICS Key is shared between the Audio Panels for ICS distribution. The
PASS ICS Key is not shared between the Audio Panels for ICS distribution.
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INTERCOM MODES
Audio Panel
#1
Audio Panel
#2
Copilot Hears
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Pilot Selected COM Radios
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Passenger MIC
Copilot MIC
Copilot Selected COM Radios
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Pilot Selected COM Radios
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Pilot Selected COM Radios
Copilot MIC
Copilot Selected COM Radios
Passenger MIC
Copilot MIC
Copilot Selected COM Radios
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
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Hear
Passenger MIC
Pilot Hears
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Pilot Selected COM Radios
Copilot MIC
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INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
The VOL/CRSR Knob controls selection and volume or manual squelch adjustment for audio sources that
may not be adjustable anywhere else in the system. The small knob controls the volume or squelch. Turning
the large knob activates and/or moves the cursor (flashing white annunciator or flashing blue annunciator
in Blue-Select Mode) to select the audio source to adjust. The cursor will time-out after a few seconds and
the position of the cursor will always default back to the CREW Key. Pushing the small knob cancels the
cursor. Pilot audio panel controls passenger 1-4 volume for COM1 and COM2. Copilot audio panel controls
passenger 5-8 volume for COM1 and COM2.
Manual Squelch Key
Off for Automatic Squelch,
On for Manual Squelch
Volume Annunciation
Manual Squelch Annunciator
Off for Automatic Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
Volume/Squelch Indicator
Indicates volume/squelch setting
relative to full scale
Squelch Annunciation
VOL/SQ Control Knob
Turn to adjust Squelch when
SQ Annunciation is lit, Volume
when VOL Annunciation is lit.
CRSR Control Knob
Turn to move the cursor (flashing
annunciator) to the desired
source
Figure 4-21 Volume/Squelch Control (GMA 1360)
PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM (GMA 1347)
A passenger address system is available for delivering voice messages over the cabin speaker. When the PA
Key is selected on either Audio Panel, the COM MIC Annunciator on that side is extinguished, and the active
COM frequency on the associated PFD changes to white, indicating that there is no COM selected. A Push-toTalk (PTT) must be pushed to deliver PA announcements. The PA Annunciator flashes about once per second
while the PTT is depressed.
When the PA key is selected, the cockpit speakers are muted and speaker audio is heard on the cabin speaker.
If an aural alert is generated, cabin speaker audio will be temporarily disconnected and the cockpit speakers
are active for the duration of the aural alert. The aural warnings will be heard by the crew, not the passengers.
One of the pilots is free to use either COM radio while the other pilot delivers PA messages.
PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM (GMA 1360D)
A passenger address system is provided by pressing the PA Key to deliver messages to the passengers. The
message is heard by the other pilot on the headset only if PA is enabled on both audio panels. PA messages are
one way from the flight deck to the passengers.
A Push-to-talk (PTT) must be pushed to deliver PA announcements to the passengers over their headphones.
When PA is selected on the Audio Panel, the annunciator flashes about once per second while pushing the
PTT, the COM MIC annunciators are no longer lit, and the active COM frequency for that Audio Panel changes
to white, indicating that there is no COM selected.
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PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
PA Key is Selected on
the Audio Panel
Figure 4-22 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
SIMULTANEOUS COM OPERATION
Both the pilot and copilot can transmit and receive on the same radio. The selected COM MIC Annunciator
flashes when either pilot’s microphone PTT is pushed.
If the pilot and copilot are transmitting on separate radios, whichever mic began transmitting first will have
the priority. If the pilot and copilot have selected the same COM radio for transmission, the pilot will have
priority if COM1 is selected and the copilot will have priority if COM2 is selected.
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
NOTE: Pressing the Play Key on the pilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Pilot. Pressing the Play
Key on the Copilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Copilot.
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that continually records up to 2.5 minutes of the
selected COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from
the oldest block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. The PLAY annunciator remains lit to indicate when play is in
progress. The PLAY annunciator turns off after playback is finished.
Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory block and then returns to normal operation.
Pressing the PLAY Key again during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Pressing the PLAY Key twice within one-half second while audio is playing plays the previous block of
recorded audio. Each subsequent two presses of the PLAY Key within one-half second backtracks through the
recorded memory blocks to reach and play any recorded block.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
PLAY Key Controls
the Play Function
PLAY Key Controls
the Play Function
Figure 4-23 PLAY Key
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TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS (GMA 1347)
NOTE: Music audio cannot be completely turned off. Audio level for the crew and passengers can be
adjusted by a Garmin-authorized service center.
NOTE: The stereo entertainment input is not controlled by the AUX Key on the Audio Panel. The AUX Key
is reserved for an auxiliary radio input.
The Audio Panel(s) provides a stereo entertainment input from the data link receiver (optional), or an Aux
Audio In jack for the crew and passengers. The Aux Audio In jack input is compatible with popular portable
entertainment devices such as MP3 players and other tablet devices through a 3.5-mm stereo phone jack,
installed in a convenient location. The headphone outputs of the entertainment devices are plugged into the
Aux Audio In jack.
The current ICS state of isolation affects the distribution of the entertainment input.
Crew Music
Music can be heard by the pilot and copilot when both the PILOT and the COPLT ICS Annunciators are
extinguished. Music can also be heard by the pilot when the COPLT Annunciator is illuminated and by the
copilot when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated.
Music Muting
Music muting occurs when aircraft radio or marker beacon activity is heard. Music is always soft
muted when an interruption occurs from these sources. Soft muting is the gradual return of music to its
original volume level. The time required for music volume to return to normal is between one-half and
four seconds.
Music Muting Enable/Disable
Press and hold the MKR/MUTE Key for three seconds to switch music muting on and off. When
switching, either one or two beeps are heard; one beep indicates that music muting is enabled, two beeps
indicate music muting is disabled. Music muting is reset (enabled) during power up.
Passenger Music
Music coming through the passenger phone jacks can be heard only by the passengers and is never muted.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Entertainment
SiriusXM Satellite Radio requires installation of the optional Data Link Receiver and an optional
subscription to SiriusXM Satellite Radio Service. SiriusXM Satellite Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver
may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously. Refer to the Additional Features Section for more
details on the Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to the Aux Audio In jack removes the SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio from that
input.
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TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS (GMA 1360)
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs. Passengers 1-4 volume is controlled
by the pilot’s audio panel. Passengers 5-8 volume is controlled by the copilot’s audio panel.
• The TEL Key controls the Bluetooth or Iridium telephone connection.
• The MUS1 Key controls the Auxiliary Input, SiriusXM Radio Entertainment, or a Bluetooth audio
connection. If a device is plugged into the Auxiliary Jack, that device will have priority over the Sirius XM
radio.
• The MUS2 Key controls an additional Bluetooth Audio connection. Distribution of the entertainment inputs are configured in Blue-Select Mode.
Iridium phone distribution for passengers can be controlled by either audio panel, but the volume
adjustment is controlled only by the on-side audio panel, even if TEL has been deselected.
Telephone and Entertainment Muting
Telephone and entertainment is managed via airframe configuration. Regardless of configuration,
telephone and entertainment audio is always muted during alerts.
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously
(optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional Features Section for
more details on the Data Link Receiver.
3D AUDIO (GMA 1360D)
Do not use 3D Audio with monaural headsets. 3D Audio is useful when multiple COM audio sources are
present. By using different responses in each ear, 3D audio processing creates the perception that each COM
audio source is coming from a unique location on the horizontal plane. Because this feature uses different
signals for left and right channels, it requires wiring for stereo intercom and stereo headsets.
With a single COM selected and 3D Audio enabled, the listener hears the audio source at the 12 o’clock
position. If both COMs are selected, the listener hears COM1 at 11 o’clock and COM2 at the 1 o’clock position. All other audio inputs are processed so that the listener hears the audio source at the 12 o’clock position.
In order to change your headset microphone position (ie: left side to right side) while using 3D Audio, use the
L-R Swap function so that the listener hears the audio source from the correct position.
3D Audio and L-R Swap can be selected or deselected on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2” Page.
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Selecting/Deselecting 3D Audio:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Pilot or Copilot 3D Audio Field in the Audio Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Select On or OFF
Figure 4-24 ‘Aux – System Setup 2’ Page
Selecting/Deselecting L-R Swap:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Pilot or Copilot L-R Swap in the Audio Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Select On or Off
Figure 4-25 ‘Aux – System Setup 2’ Page
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BLUE-SELECT MODE (GMA 1360D)
The music (MUS) and telephone (TEL) audio are distributed using the Blue-Select Mode. The following
example indicates that the pilot will hear the telephone, and all passengers will hear the Music 2 audio.
Pilot (Audio Panel #1)
Copilot (Audio Panel #2)
Figure 4-26 Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution) (GMA 1360D)
NOTE: Bluetooth Telephone is not available to the passengers.
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pushing the small knob when the volume control cursor (flashing white
annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, push the small knob twice. The first push will
cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select Mode.
The annunciator over the TEL Button will be flashing blue. Any combination of the annunciators over
the CREW ICS Button and the PASS ICS Button may be blue. Select the desired button to turn the blue
annunciator on or off to distribute the telephone audio to selected crew/passenger positions. Turn the large
knob to select MUS1 or MUS2, and select the crew/passenger positions to receive the music audio. The CREW
ICS Key is not shared between the Audio Panels for Blue-Select Mode. The PASS ICS Key is shared between
the Audio Panels for Blue-Select Mode.
Selecting any button other than CREW ICS, PASS ICS, TEL, MUS1, or MUS2 will cancel Blue-Select
Mode. Pushing the VOL/SQ Knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After approximately ten seconds with
no input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel. Pilot audio panel controls passenger 1-4 volume for
MUS1 and MUS2. Copilot audio panel controls passenger 5-8 volume for MUS1 and MUS2.
BLUETOOTH SETUP (GMA 1360D)
NOTE: Pairing is only necessary during the first attempt to connect a Bluetooth device. Once paired, the
Audio Panel and the device will connect automatically.
PAIRING A BLUETOOTH DEVICE WITH AN AUDIO PANEL
Push and hold the VOL/SQ Knob for two seconds. The Bluetooth Annunciator flashes to indicate the
unit is discoverable and the aural message “Bluetooth Discoverable” is heard. The Audio Panel will remain
discoverable for 60 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once paired, the Bluetooth Annunciator
will quit flashing and turn a steady blue.
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ASSIGNING AN AUDIO SOURCE TO THE BLUETOOTH DEVICE
Press the TEL Key, the MUS1 Key, or the MUS2 Key until the annunciator turns blue (the audio from
the Bluetooth source will not be heard until this step is complete). The annunciator cycles OFF-WHITEBLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source. BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. The BLUE source
assignment will persist through Bluetooth audio connection disruptions.
Bluetooth audio will maintain a separate volume level and Blue Select distribution from the wired audio
source.
ADDITIONAL BLUETOOTH CONTROL FUNCTIONS
When the Audio Panel detects a recording device as the Bluetooth connected device, the CREW ICS
Annunciator will turn BLUE. All audio heard by the Pilot will be recorded. Press and hold the CREW
ICS Button to enable/disable Bluetooth Recording mode and the aural messages “Bluetooth Recording Mode
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4.6 AUDIO PANELS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: Adjusting the PILOT volume control affects ICS audio that is heard in the headset for the flight crew
member that is performing the adjustment. Keep in mind that the intercom volumes on the Audio Panels
are independent of one another, but the radio volumes are not.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot. If
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the knobs turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the System, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well as
prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a pilot
boards the aircraft to ensure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
Setting the Audio Panel(s) during preflight (GMA 1347):
1) Verify that the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are extinguished.
2) Verify manual squelch is set to full open.
3) Turn the PILOT/PASS Knobs clockwise two full turns. This sets the intercom level to max volume (least amount
of attenuation).
4) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV) to a suitable level.
5) Adjust the PILOT/PASS Knob volume to the desired intercom level.
6) Reset squelch to automatic, or adjust to the appropriate level manually.
Setting the Audio Panels during preflight (GMA 1360D):
1) Verify that the CREW ICS, PASS ICS, and SPKR annunciators are lit.
2) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
3) Use the Blue-Select Mode to distribute TEL, MUS1, and MUS2 appropriately.
4) Use the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust the intercom volumes to the desired level.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind the notes
above.
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4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the system includes equipment failures of the system components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck
microphone.
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
PFD FAILURE, DUAL SYSTEM
(If equipped with GIA 63Ws) If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1 automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1
emergency frequency is available to both the copilot and pilot.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION (GMA 1347)
(Standard single audio panel installation) If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the
pilot’s headset and microphone directly to the COM1 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker during
Fail-safe operation.
(Optional dual audio panel installation) If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects
the pilot’s headset and microphone directly to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the
COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION (GMA 1360D)
If there is a failure of one audio panel, the failed audio panel will only have access to their respective on-side
fail-safe COM. The working audio panel will still have access to both COM radios and all COM/NAV radios,
Alerts, and other COM/NAV equipment connected to the working side.
If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on
the speaker.
REVERSIONARY MODE
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section for
more information on Reversionary Mode.
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the full color displays: each Primary Flight Display (PFD) and Multi
Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is displayed on
the PFD and the MFD.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV,
LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)).
The Inset Map and HSI Map are small versions of the Navigation Map. The Inset Map is displayed in the lower
left corner of the PFD (lower right during reversionary mode), and the HSI Map is displayed in the center of
the HSI. The Inset Map and the HSI Map may each be referred to as the PFD Map. A PFD Map is displayed by
pressing the Map/HSI Softkey, pressing the Layout Softkey, then pressing either the Inset Map or HSI Map
Softkey. Pressing the Map Off Softkey removes the PFD Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the Inset Map can be reduced by pressing the Map/
HSI Softkey on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey. The amount of displayed data for the Navigation Map
can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the MFD. The Navigation Map can be oriented three different
ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
The ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘Flight Plan’ Window, the ‘Procedures’ Window, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Current Track Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD (Inset Map)
Navigation Mode
Current Track
Indicator
HSI Map
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD HSI Map
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Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1 minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status box are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Right Holding Pattern
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The MFD Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
BRG
DEST
DIS
DTG
DTK
END
ENR
ESA
ETA
ETE
FLT
Bearing
Destination airport identifier
Distance
Distance to destination (Distance To Go)
Desired Track
Endurance
ETE to final destination
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
Flight Timer
FOB
FOD
GS
ISA
LDG
MSA
TAS
TKE
TRK
VSR
XTK
Fuel on Board
Fuel over Destination
Ground Speed
Temperature at standard pressure
ETA at final destination
Minimum Safe Altitude
True Airspeed
Track angle error
Track
Vertical Speed Required
Cross-Track error
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
The information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box on the ‘Aux
- System Setup 1’ Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the ‘MFD Data Bar Fields’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the desired data.
5) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the Defaults Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system maps
can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.)
with names
• Map range
• Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Obstacle data
• Topography scale
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing
to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other
pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
• Topography data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (‘Map’)
• All Nearest Group Pages (‘NRST’)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (‘WPT’)
• Direct To Window
• ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page (‘Aux’)
• PFD Maps
• Flight Plan Pages (‘FPL’)
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper left corner of the map.
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
The Auto North Up setting configures the map to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the
map range reaches a minimum range.
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
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NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. Any other displays that
show navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
North Up Above Field
Figure 5-8 Map Settings Menu - Map Group
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Map Settings’ Window.
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now highlighting the ‘Orientation’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
6) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘North Up Above’ Field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. When the map range
is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to accurately represent the map, a magnifying
glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick counter-clockwise
to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
Auto Zoom On
Figure 5-9 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on ‘Map Settings’ Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact areas. If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any navigation map displaying
traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic advisory. When
terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the active waypoint.
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The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of the ranges
at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times (set on the
‘Map Settings’ Window for the ‘Map’ Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum distance
to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/ minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the Map Group) determines how long
auto zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range
available (1000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ On/Off Field, and select ‘Off’ or ‘On’ using the small FMS
Knob.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Auto Zoom’ display selection
Field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max Look FWD’ Field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99 minutes).
11) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
When the panning function is selected by pushing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
Map Pointer
Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
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Information about Point
of Interest
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet above Mean Sea Level
(MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Panning the map:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer and place the
Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Information Page for the selected waypoint.
3) Press the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Information Page and return to the ‘Map Navigation Map’ Page.
Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer. Place the
Map Pointer on the boundary of an airspace. Information about the airspace is displayed on the map next to
the map pointer.
2) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and center the map on the aircraft.
Or:
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1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer. Place the Map
Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Information’
Window for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, push the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page Menu
and press the ENT Key.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures. Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable profile map at the bottom of the navigation
map.
Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following procedures. Topographic
data can also be displayed on the selectable VSD Inset at the bottom of the navigation map. In addition, the
Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the map) showing a
scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
Topographic Data
on VSD Inset
TOPO Off
TOPO On
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Absolute Terrain On
Terrain Off
Figure 5-14 PFD Inset Map - Absolute Terrain Data
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map - Topo Scale
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Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey .
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is displayed.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data using the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ ‘Page Menu’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range field. Ranges are from 1 nm to 1000 nm.
6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land, aviation, and airspace symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type
of symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering
of the symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
Symbol
User Waypoint
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
25
1000
Highways and Roads
Interstate Highway (Freeway)
50
400
International Highway (Freeway)
50
400
US Highway (National Highway)
15
150
State Highway (Local Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads
7.5
25
Large City (> 200,000)
100
1000
Medium City (> 50,000)
Small City (> 5,000)
50
25
400
100
State/Province
400
1000
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
1
1000
Local Road (Local Road)
N/A
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
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AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
Symbol
Large Airport (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airport (8100 ft > Longest Runway ≥ 5000 ft, or
Longest Runway < 5000 ft with control tower)
Small Airport (Longest Runway < 5000 ft without a control
tower)
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
100
1000
50
400
25
150
1.5
5
7.5
150
N/A
25
N/A
40
Non-directional Beacon (NDB)
25
50
VOR
50
250
N/A
N/A
Visual Reporting Point (VRP)
25
40
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
250
1000
VNAV Constraints
1000
1000
See Additional Features
Runway Extension
Missed Approach Preview On/Off (Missed APPR)
Intersection (INT)
VOR Compass Rose On/Off
N/A
N/A
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Class B Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
*
*
Class C Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
*
*
Class D Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling)
*
*
Class B/Terminal Manoeuvring Area and surrounding airways
(CL B/TMA/AWY)
50
150
Class C Airspace/Control Area
(CL C/CTA)
50
100
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Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Class D Airspace/ Class A Airspace
(CL A/D)
10
100
Restricted and Prohibited Areas
(Restricted)
50
100
Military Operations Areas
(MOA (Military))
50
250
50
250
ADIZ, Alert, Danger, and Warning
(Other)
(see below)
ADIZ
Alert
Danger/Warning
* Label placement and range is determined by the system for best display and minimal clutter
Table 5-3 Airspace Symbol Information
SYMBOL SETUP
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway extensions,
railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which items appear on the
display. For example, enabling “Runway Extension” displays a dashed line on the map extending from each
runway of an airport in the flight plan when the range is set at or below the value of the map settings option.
Setting up the ‘Land’, ‘Aviation’ or ‘Airspace’ group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
The following table lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
Detail 3
Detail 2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
VRPs
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA/AWY
Class C Airspaces/CTA
Class A/D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Detail 1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-4 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
Decluttering the MFD navigation map:
Press the Detail Softkey with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown.
With each softkey press, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key to apply the next declutter level and return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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Decluttering the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Figure 5-16 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY Softkey
selections, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also
be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
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The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Airways Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airways (V Routes and T Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways (J Routes and Q Routes)
50
100
Table 5-5 Airways Symbol Information
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (‘AWY LO’).
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (‘AWY HI’).
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed (‘AWY Off’).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or the ‘High ALT Airways’ On/Off Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION MAP ITEMS
Navigation maps can display some additional items. These items (e.g. Selected Altitude Intercept Arc, Track
Vector, Wind Vector, Fuel Range Ring, and SVT Field of View) can be displayed/removed individually.
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for information on displaying obstacles (Point Obstacle, Wire Obstacle) on
the map.
Setting up additional ‘Map’ Group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Or:
If it is a data field, use the FMS Knob to select the range or time value.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map.
TRACK VECTOR
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track
vector is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is
selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track
vector. The track vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always
a straight line for the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map -Track Vector
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SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected
altitude. The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
NOTE: Selected Altitude Intercept Arc is not displayed on any Waypoint Page Group maps, Procedure Page
maps, or the Stored Flight Plan Page map.
Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
WIND VECTOR ON MFD
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the MFD. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater
than or equal to 1 kt.
.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
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FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Total Endurance Range
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This
is only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
NOTE: Field of View will not be depicted on the NRST Page Group maps.
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Field of View
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on auto-tuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the system. As
a waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the system scrolls through the database, displaying
those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation leg to the
selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Identifier Entry Field
Facility Entry Field
City Entry Field
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Identifier Symbol
Entered Waypoint on Map
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-22 Waypoint Information Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a ‘Duplicate
Waypoints’ Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
Figure 5-23 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
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AIRPORTS
AIRPORT INFORMATION
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs
to be aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page Map.
The ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport
information, load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures
that may be involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on
loading frequencies (auto-tuning). After engine startup, the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page defaults to the
airport where the aircraft is located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport.
On a flight plan with multiple airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘Airport’, ‘Runways’, and ‘Frequencies’.
For airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on
the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page by pressing the Info Softkey until ‘Info 1’ is displayed.
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Airport/Runway
Diagram
Figure 5-24 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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Airport Information
Airport Directory
Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Figure 5-25 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the ‘WPT - Airport Directory’ Page by pressing the Info
Softkey until ‘Info 2’ is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available)
on the ‘WPT - Airport Directory’ Page:
Airport: Identifier, Type, Name,
City, State, Map
Facility Lighting and Beacon:
Hours operating, Type and Location,
CTAF, beacon colors
Control Tower: Full/Part-time
Hours, Days Open
Noise Abatement: Flying
Procedures
Attendance: Annual, weekly, daily,
hours
Pattern Altitudes: Aircraft Class/
Altitude
Runways: Headings, Length,
Width, Facility Obstructions, Surface,
Condition, Clearance Slope
FBO: Name/Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit Cards,
Phone/Fax, Hours Internet, Courtesy
Car
Weather Contacts: Service Type
and Frequencies/Phone (AWOS/
ASOS)
Approaches: Types
Aircraft Businesses/Clubs:
Name, Type (sales, training,
servicing), Frequencies/Phone/Fax,
Credit Cards, Internet, Services
Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
Special Operations at Airport:
Helicopters, etc.
Restaurants: On the Field and
Nearby
Attractions: Hotels, Museums,
Raceways, Golfing, etc.
NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
Elevation: Airfield Elev (ft)
Mag Var: Airfield Mag Var
(degrees)
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General Information and/or
Notes: Fees, Airport Notes, local
area information
Transportation: Taxi Services, Car
Rentals, Type and Availability (public,
shuttle, limo, etc.)
Charts: VFR Sectional
Airport Manager: Phone
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The ‘Frequencies’ Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
FSS
Terminal *
AWOS
Gate
TMA *
Center
Ground
Tower
Class B *
Helicopter
TRSA *
Class C *
Multicom
Unicom
Clearance
Other
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-6 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
See the Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for
display (see the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey), press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location within the ‘Airport’ Box.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination
Airport’. The Destination Airport is displayed.
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NEAREST AIRPORT
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The ‘Nearest Airports’ Window displays a list
of up to 25 of the nearest airports. If there are more than three they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there
are no airports within 200 NM available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-26 ‘Nearest Airports’ Window on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD ‘Airport Information’ Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing
the ENT Key again returns to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list.
Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest
Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-27 ‘Airport Information’ Window on PFD
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Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey to display the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the ‘Airport Information’
Window.
3) To return to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘Back’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window and the ‘Airport Information’
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
The ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential
use in the event of an in-flight emergency. The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed
white line is drawn on the navigation map from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. The currently
selected airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the page displays
nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘Nearest Airports’, ‘Information’, ‘Runways’, ‘Frequencies’,
and ‘Approaches’. If there are more than can be shown in the given box, each list can be scrolled. If there are
no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Nearest Airport
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
Approaches Available
Window Selection
Softkeys
Figure 5-28 Nearest Airport Page
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Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may
already be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list
is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight
‘Select Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘Nearest Airports’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page defines the minimum runway length and
surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
Page. A minimum runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways
or runways that are not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 3000 feet (or
meters) for runway length and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface and minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Runway Surface’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, Hard/ Soft, Water).
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Minimum Length’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
WAYPOINT INFORMATION
Non-Airport Waypoints are considered to be Intersections, VORs, NDBs, VRPs, and User Waypoints. For
each of these waypoints, their respective information pages will show a map of the currently selected waypoint,
the waypoint identifier, and location. Additionally, intersections will show the nearest VOR while both the
VOR and NDB waypoints will show their frequency and the nearest airport. User Waypoint information also
provides the waypoint type (radial/radial, radial/DME, or latitude/longitude), temporary status, comments,
and a User Waypoint list.
The ‘VOR Information’ Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly tune a VOR or ILS frequency. If a VOR station is combined
with a TACAN station it is listed as a VOR-TACAN on the ‘VOR Information’ Page and if it includes only DME,
it is displayed as VOR-DME. Also, the VOR class (Low Altitude, High Altitude, and Terminal) will be shown
in the VOR ‘Information’ Box.
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from
any map page (except PFD Inset Map, ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position
on the map using the Joystick, or from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page by referencing a bearing/
distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and longitude. Once
a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased
upon system power down.
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the ‘WPT - Intersection Information’ Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily
the VOR used to define the intersection.
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Waypoint:
Intersection
(as seen here)
NDB
VOR
VRP, or
User Waypoint
Figure 5-29 Non-Airport Waypoint Information Page (Intersection Example)
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NDB Identifier/Type
VOR Identifier/Type
NDB Information
VOR Information
NDB Frequency
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Nearest Airport Info
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
User Waypoint Info
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- VRP Name
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
VRP Information
User Waypoint Comment
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Reference Waypoint Info
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
User Waypoint List
- Identifier/ Comment
Figure 5-30 Non-Airport Waypoint Information Pages (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User Waypoint)
Viewing Non-Airport Waypoints:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT - (Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPT) Information’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User Waypoint Box.
4) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
5) Press the ENT Key, if needed.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NEAREST NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
The Nearest pages can be used to quickly find waypoints close to the aircraft. The system will display
a scrollable list of up to 25 nearest waypoints with bearing and distance from the aircraft, a map of the
surrounding area, and additional information particular to the type of waypoint chosen. A white arrow before
the waypoint identifier/name indicates the currently selected waypoint shown on the map, with its associated
information in the lower box or boxes:
- The ‘NRST - Nearest Intersection’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest INT’, ‘Information’, and a
‘Reference VOR’.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest NDB’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest NDB’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NDB ‘Information’ Box will show a Compass Locator if the NDB is associated with either a Locator
Outer Marker (LOM) or Locator Middle Marker (LMM).
- The ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest VOR’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NAV frequency from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page via the
FREQ Softkey. See the Audio & CNS Section for more information.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest VRP’ Page will show two boxes labeled ‘Nearest VRP’ and ‘Information’. Information
will contain the VRP Name, Country and latitude/longitude.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest User WPTS’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest User’, ‘Information’, and
‘Reference Waypoints’. Information will include any Comments and the latitude/longitude. The ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box will provide a reference NAVAID with a radial/DME that coincides with the User Waypoint.
The nearest waypoint list will only include waypoints within 200nm. If there are no waypoints in the list,
text indicating that there are no nearest waypoints will be displayed, and the information and frequency fields
(if applicable) will be dashed.
Nearest Intersections
- White arrow indicates
the selected waypoint
shown.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
Nearest Non-Airport
Waypoint:
Intersection NDB VOR VRP User Waypoint -
Intersection Info
- Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Figure 5-31 Nearest Intersection Page
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Nearest NDB
- NDB Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to NDB
from aircraft position
Nearest VOR
- VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
NDB Information
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
VOR Frequency
Nearest VRP
Nearest User Wpt List
- VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-32 Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User WPTS)
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Viewing Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest (Intersections, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPTS)’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the ‘Nearest (INT, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User)’ Box,
Or:
If the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page is displayed, to display the flashing cursor:
Press the VOR Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key
b) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) If needed, press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob as needed to select an identifier.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page:
1) Press the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page is displayed with the captured position. If the
pointer is within the boundary of an airspace, a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or
‘Create User Waypoint’. Highlight ‘Create User Waypoint’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
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Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to the
‘Temporary’ Field and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Once a user waypoint has been created, it may be edited, renamed, or deleted. A system generated
comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing, and distance. If a
system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the ‘WPT — User Waypoint
Information’ ‘Page Menu’ Window. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power
cycle.
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box, if required, and press the ENT Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page.
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DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’
Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Press the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘YES’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’
Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints.’
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B, TMA, and Airways surrounding TMA, Class
C, CTA, Class A, Class D, Restricted (Prohibited), MOA (Military), and other airspace provided by the navigation
database. Some examples of typical airspaces are depicted below. See Table 5-3 for the maximum ranges for
each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace area. Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) are
discussed in the Hazard Avoidance Section.
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
Class D Airspace
Airspace Altitude
Label
Class C Airspace
Alert Area
(Other)
MOA (Military)
ADIZ
(Other)
Warning Area
(Other)
Figure 5-33 Airspaces
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Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace’ Group, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace ALT LBL’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ to display labels and ‘Off’ to remove labels.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
NEAREST AIRSPACE
SETTING AIRSPACE ALERTS
The ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page) on the MFD allows the pilot to turn the controlled/
special-use airspace message alerts on or off. This does not affect the alerts listed on the ‘NRST - Nearest
Airspaces ‘ Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. It simply turns
on/off the message provided in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
Pressing the PFD Alerts/Message Softkey displays the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD. The following airspace
alerts may be displayed in the ‘Alerts’ Window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less than
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-7 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For
example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an
alert message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected
to enter it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Enabling/disabling airspace alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude Buffer’ Field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘Arrival Alert’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page allows the ‘Messages’ Window arrival alerts to be
turned ‘On/Off’ and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the ‘Messages’ Window and
the PFD Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching
a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight
plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘On’, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message
is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is
displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘Off’, only the PFD Navigation Status Box
message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is
approximately ten seconds.
Figure 5-34 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Enabling/disabling the Arrival Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Distance’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
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VIEWING NEAREST AIRSPACE INFORMATION
The ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In
addition, a selected frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’
Page. In addition to displaying a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the ‘NRST - Nearest
Airspaces’ Page displays airspace information in four boxes labelled ‘Airspace Alerts’, ‘Airspace Agency’,
‘Vertical Limits’, and ‘Frequencies’.
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’
Page. The Alerts and FREQ Softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled
only if one or more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Nearest Airspace
Information
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Inside of Airspace
Airspace within 2nm
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airspaces Page
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page.
2) Press the Alerts Softkey on the MFD; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts
Window’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SMART AIRSPACE
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The
function does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the
airspace. If the current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace
boundary is shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of
the airspace, the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
NOTE: Smart Airspace function will not de-emphasize airspaces on the HSI Map when the MFD is in reversionary mode.
Smart Airspace Off
Figure 5-36 Smart Airspace
Smart Airspace On
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The ’Map Settings’ Window is displayed
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace On or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace Off.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on either the MFD Controller or the
PFD, is quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
NOTE: When flying Direct-to the Final Approach Fix (FAF), the system will suspend (SUSP) leg sequencing if
the approach intercept angle exceeds 45 degrees.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The ‘Direct To’ Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The ‘Direct To’ Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Desired Course
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Figure 5-37 Direct-to Window - MFD
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-38 ‘Direct To’ Window - PFD
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Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the ‘Direct To’ Window. Also, any waypoint
contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘FPL Active Flight Plan’ Page, or the active ‘Flight Plan’ Window.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD “Flight Plan” or
“Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into
the flight plan.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
Figure 5-39 Waypoint Submenu
The ‘Direct To’ Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to
navigation. If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active
flight plan waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page
defaults to the displayed waypoint.
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field on the ‘Direct To’ Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan waypoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the active
flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window with a list of flight plan
waypoints.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
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5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD), and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
desired waypoint.
3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the default
selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports ‘Page on
the MFD and press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. If no
airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is
automatically created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, push the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, VRP, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the system resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from the
aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint, or at the
specified distance along the flight path if VNV offset distance has been entered. Direct-to navigation is discussed
in the Vertical Navigation portion of Flight Management. Offset distances (along track offsets) are discussed in the
Flight Planning portion of Flight Management. .
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The system allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A roll steering path is a computed transition between two disconnected legs.
‡ A roll steering path in the flight plan that is beyond the next leg appears as a future roll steering path. When a future roll
steering path becomes the next leg in the flight plan, it appears as a roll steering path.
Table 5-8 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. Upon power up, the
previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft position is at the origin airport
and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not within 5 nm of the airport origin, on the ground,
or if more than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification, the previously active flight plan
is not retained. One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight
plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
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Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
Turn Anticipation
Arc
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Vertical Deviation
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-40 Active Flight Plan Page
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Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan
Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Figure 5-41 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Figure 5-42 Flight Plan Catalog Page
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
Auto-designation will determine the most likely airport of origin and auto-populate the Active Flight Plan.
Once determined, the airfield identifier automatically appears in the ‘Origin’ Field and the line immediately below
‘Origin’ while keeping the runway (‘RW’) Field empty. The line below the Origin line serves as the first point in
the flight plan.
Auto-designation occurs between 15 and 60 seconds after display power-up under the following conditions:
• Aircraft position is known
• Aircraft is on the ground
• Nearest airport is within 200NM
• Flight plan is empty
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If the pilot manually enters the origin, or any other leg of the flight plan before auto-designation occurs, nothing
gets inserted automatically. The automatic insertion logic only runs once, so the pilot can edit the origin if the
nearest airport is not the desired origin.
If the pilot enters a different airport into the first point of the flight plan, the Origin will change to this entry,
and the pilot will be prompted to enter the departure runway.
Both the Origin airport/runway and the first point of the flight plan will be the same unless a departure is
entered and a manual leg is inserted at the beginning of the loaded departure. Loading a departure locks in the
origin information.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD“Flight Plan” or
“Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into
the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
Flight plan information can be viewed in different locations and formats. The Flight Plan Progress inset may
be displayed on ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page format can be modified in
several ways; and the MFD Split Screen feature can provide different display configurations of the flight plan,
navigation map and charts. For flight plan profile information see the Flight Management, Vertical Situation
Display section.
FLIGHT PLAN PROGRESS INSET
Active flight plan progress can be displayed on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
NOTE: ETE can be displayed as either HH+MM (ETE greater than 60 minutes) or MM:SS (ETE less than 60
minutes).
Displaying/removing the active flight plan progress on the navigation map:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the FPL PROG Softkey to display the active flight plan progress.
5) To remove the active flight plan progress from the navigation map, press the Off softkey.
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ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
The ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page can be configured to show cumulative distance over the length of the
flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan; and it can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In
the wide view, additional information is displayed: Fuel Remaining (‘Fuel REM’), Estimated Time Enroute
(‘ETE’), Estimated Time of Arrival (‘ETA’), and Bearing to the waypoint (‘BRG’).
Changing the flight plan view:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the View Softkey to display the Wide, Narrow, Leg-Leg, and CUM Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the Leg-Leg Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Press the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or press the Narrow Softkey to display the narrow view.
5) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys..
SPLIT SCREEN
Charts may be viewed alongside the active flight plan in split screen mode. Pressing the Charts Softkey from
the ‘FPL-Active Flight Plan’ Page will remove the active flight plan map to display a Charts Pane alongside the
‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane. The Active Page Title will change to ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’. The active
flight plan map can be re-displayed. However, displaying the map in split screen on the ‘Active Flight Plan’
Pane limits the flight plan content which can be displayed. For example, displaying the Flight Plan Map
while in split screen narrow view removes the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box. See the following figures depicting
the different split screen displays with the active flight plan.
See the System Overview section for more information on Split Screen Mode. For more information on
Charts, see the Additional Features Section.
Display Title shows ‘Chart + Active Flight Plan’
Split Screen Narrow View
Split Screen Wide View
Figure 5-43 Split Screen Mode Narrow and Wide View
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Split Screen Narrow View with Flight Plan Map
Split Screen Wide View with Flight Plan Map
Figure 5-44 Split Screen Mode with Flight Plan Map
Viewing charts and ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. If necessary, press the CHRT Opt Softkey and press the Full SCN Softkey to disable
full screen mode. Split screen mode is now enabled showing two display panes. The Chart Pane is highlighted
by a cyan box indicating it is the active pane.
3) To quickly view the chart corresponding to the active flight plan leg, press the SYNC Softkey.
Displaying the flight plan map on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the CHRT Opt Softkey and press the Full SCN Softkey to disable full screen mode. Split
screen mode is now enabled showing two display panes. The Chart Pane is highlighted by a cyan box indicating
it is the active pane.
3) Move the Joystick to select the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane as the active display pane.
4) Press the MENU Key. ‘Show Flight Plan Map’ is highlighted. Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the Flight Plan Map, press the MENU Key and select ‘Hide Flight Plan Map’. Press the ENT Key.
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CREATING A FLIGHT PLAN
The active flight plan is listed on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, and in the ‘Flight Plan’
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is shown on
the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
The following procedure is intended to provide an overview of basic flight plan creation. It will create a flight
plan from the origin runway to the destination runway, and includes enroute waypoint selection. The following
procedure does not include airways or terminal procedures. For instructions on how to add airways to a flight
plan, see the Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications discussion later in this Flight Planning Section.
For information on departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches see the Procedures Section.
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key. Press the small FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD).
2) If the system correctly auto-designated (populated) the Origin, proceed to Step 3.
Or:
Select the origin airport and runway as follows:
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
3) Select the destination airport and runway by highlighting the field below the Destination header and completing
steps 2b - 2e.
4) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item).
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
5) Repeat step number 4 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove to deactivate the cursor.
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Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c)
Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway.
e) Press the ENT Key to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
5) Select the destination airport and runway by highlighting the field below the Destination header and completing
steps 4b - 4e.
6) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item.)
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The stored flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
8) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINT AND AIRWAY MODIFICATIONS
Active and stored flight plans can be edited at any time. Waypoints and airways can be added, modified, or
removed from any flight plan. Edits made to an active flight plan affect navigation as soon as they are entered.
Modifications to flight planned departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches are discussed later in
the Procedures portion of Flight Management.
FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINTS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select
the desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight
plans are limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of
waypoints in the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.”
appears and the new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
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Adding Waypoints
NOTE: Manually adding waypoints to a flight plan after a MANSEQ leg creates a lateral gap in the flight
plan. Time, fuel, and distance values for legs beyond the gap do not include the distance across the gap.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window has duplicates, a ‘Duplicate Waypoint’
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
NOTE: If the flight plan is successfully edited in the ‘Flight Plan’ Window from PFD while the MFD ‘FPL - Active
Flight Plan’ Page is in the process of being edited, the ‘Flight Plan Modified By Other User’ Window will appear
on the MFD. Press the ENT key to return to the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page with the accepted changes.
Origin Header
Enroute Header
Enroute Waypoints
Destination Header
Figure 5-45 Active Flight Plan Waypoints
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
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Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan using the map pointer:
1) Press the FPL Key
2) Press the FMS Knob for the MFD to activate the cursor.
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint.
4) Push the Joystick for the MFD to activate the panning function on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page and pan
to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
5) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user waypoint
is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the active flight plan.
Adding a waypoint to an existing stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
Removing Waypoints
Individual waypoints can be removed from a flight plan. Some waypoints in the final approach segment
(such as the FAF or MAP) can not be removed individually. Attempting to remove a waypoint that is not
allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification’.
NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the end waypoint of
the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and activated.
Removing an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be removed.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Removing an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Fly-Over Waypoint Designation
Waypoints entered in the enroute segment of the flight plan may be treated as fly-by waypoints, unless
otherwise designated. A fly-by waypoint is a waypoint that marks the intersection of two straight paths,
with the transition from one path to another being made by the aircraft using a precisely calculated turn
that “flies by” but does not vertically cross the waypoint. A fly-over waypoint is a waypoint that must be
crossed vertically by the aircraft.
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-By Waypoint
Figure 5-46 TOP Fly-By Waypoint
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Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-Over
Waypoint
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Figure 5-47 TOP Fly-Over Waypoint
Designating a fly-over waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan, press the FPL Key and press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
Or:
For a stored flight plan, highlight the desired flight plan on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page’ and press the
Edit Softkey.
2) Highlight the desired waypoint.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-Over Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a
fly-over waypoint?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) To change the waypoint back to a fly-by waypoint, highlight the desired waypoint. Press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Set Fly-By Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a fly-by waypoint?’ Window
is displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN AIRWAYS
Within flight plans, airways can be added, removed and collapsed/expanded.
Adding Airways
Airways can be added to any flight plan. An airway can only be added if there is an existing entry waypoint
in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure. The
system anticipates the desired airway based on the selected waypoint and the flight plan.
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Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available
at TOP
Preview of
Selected Airway
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-48 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Airway Exit Points
Available
Figure 5-49 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
Adding an airway to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor below the airway entry waypoint for the insertion point. If there
is no valid airway entry waypoint in the flight plan, one must be entered first.
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4) Turn the small FMS Knob for the MFD one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU
Key for the and select “Load Airway”(PFD or MFD). The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu item is
available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has already been entered in the flight plan.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways
are shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
Adding an airway to a stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight “EDIT” and press
the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor below the airway entry waypoint for the insertion point. If there
is no valid airway entry waypoint in the flight plan, one must be entered first.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey (MFD only), or press the MENU
Key and select “Load Airway”. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu item is available only when
a valid airway entry waypoint has already been entered in the flight plan.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways
are shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
7) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a
directional restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction.
For example, airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the
list of airway waypoints. That is, each waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to another
waypoint.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the
flight plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
Removing Airways
Removing an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the header of the airway to be removed.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
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4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Collapsing Airways
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded. When airways have
been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value
is inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The active flight plan will always keep the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a
collapsed airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is
automatically expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight
plan review.
All Airways
Collapsed View
V4.SLN Airway
Expanded View
Figure 5-50 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
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Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
FLIGHT PLAN OPERATIONS
This section will discuss activating a flight plan leg and conducting enroute operations such as creating an
along track offset, parallel track, closest point from a reference point and user defined holding. For information
on departures, arrivals, and approaches refer to the Procedures portion later in the Flight Management Section.
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The flight plan leg which is currently being used for navigation guidance is referred to as the ‘active leg’.
The system automatically sequences from one active leg to the next as defined by the active flight plan.
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the end waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight
plan. Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the
system reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances
can be entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along
track offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results
in an along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an
along track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at
or after the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be removed and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
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Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-51 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the altitude field (‘VNV’ or ‘ALT’).
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
5) The cursor is now flashing in offset distance field.
6) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to activate.
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CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The system displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user waypoint
at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference waypoint.
PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the current
flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier. Activation of parallel track will
apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that does not meet the criteria for parallel
track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track at the beginning of that leg.
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled.
The following will inhibit activation of a parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to the selected waypoint.
• If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with
the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’.
• If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp turn of
more than 120 degrees), the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because
of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’).
• If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status indicates that
the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the active leg type
(‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’).
If there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. The following will
cancel the parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to a waypoint.
• Initiating a hold at the present position.
• If a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
• No legs are remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. Initiating a hold at
a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is required to fly to the hold
waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the parallel track will be resumed.
Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be resumed upon exiting the hold.
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NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Parallel Track
Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Original Track
Parallel Track
Figure 5-52 Parallel Track Active
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with the ‘Direction’ Field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘Distance’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Parallel Track’ is
highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-53 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To
Waypoint selection
Figure 5-54 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a ¯ Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, then select ‘Hold?’ when finished.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined at
the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the active flight plan, ‘HOLD’ is inserted into the active
flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is created.)
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Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
‘HOLD’ in the flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
MANAGING FLIGHT PLANS
The pilot can manage flight plans by importing/exporting via SD Card or mobile device, and by storing,
copying, inverting, and deleting. Also, the comment field (name) of each flight plan can be changed to
something that is useful for identification and sorting.
IMPORTING AND EXPORTING FLIGHT PLANS
Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Wireless Transceiver (FlightStream 510).
Transfer of a flight plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device. When a mobile device is
attempting to transfer a flight plan to the system, the pending flight plan may be ignored, previewed, stored,
or activated by the pilot.
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Store? or Activate?
Selection
Delete Softkey
Store Softkey
Activate Softkey
Figure 5-55 Preview Flight Plan Page
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Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
Preview Softkey
Ignore Softkey
Figure 5-56 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
Ignoring a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a ‘PENDING FLIGHT PLAN’ pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page title.
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan will
still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Or:
Press the Ignore Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan
will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Previewing a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a ‘PENDING FLIGHT PLAN’ pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page title.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
Press the Preview Softkey to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Preview Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
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Storing a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
6) Press the Store Softkey to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store?’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Activating a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
4) Press the Activate Softkey. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
5) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to activate the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan becomes
the active flight plan and is removed from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
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Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
5) Press the Delete Softkey. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
Press the CLR Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan is removed
from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All Pending’.
5) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
6)
With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Alternatively, flight plans may be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
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Under certain conditions, some messages may appear when a flight plan is imported or exported.
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No
stored flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
‘User waypoint database full. Not all
loaded.’
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight plan export failed.’
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight
plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
These waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans
stored in the system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however
others had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in
the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
One or more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can
support. The flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system
cannot find in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but
must be edited within the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored
user waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints
on the SD card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not
imported are locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the
system before it can be activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to
naming conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card
may not have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed
prematurely.
Table 5-9 Flight Plan Import/Export Messages
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
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Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or Cancel” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “Cancel” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Exporting a flight plan to an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
INVERTING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
A flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point. Inverting and
activating stored flight plans is discussed within the Stored Flight Plan Functions portion of this section.
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
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3) Highlight ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. Additionally, the system allows
the pilot to delete the active flight plan, which suspends navigation by the system.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
STORED FLIGHT PLAN FUNCTIONS
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. Details about each stored flight plan
can be viewed on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page and on the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
A stored flight plan may be viewed or edited. The system also allows copying a flight plan into a new
flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to
duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Lastly, individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Figure 5-57 Stored Flight Plan Page
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Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) Information is displayed in the ‘Flight Plan Info’ Box showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute
safe altitude information for the selected flight plan.
5) Press the Edit Softkey to open the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
Storing an active flight plan from the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Activate Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
Copying a stored flight plan to another flight plan memory slot, on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Copy Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
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Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Delete Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan #?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
CHANGING A FLIGHT PLAN COMMENT (NAME)
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF, CD, CF,
CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and terminal
phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a direct-to
waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a linear
deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
Vertical navigation is available for flight control operations when valid VNV data is entered in flight plan, and
the ENBL VNV Softkey is pressed (softkey label changes to ‘Cncl VNV’ once enabled) on the ‘FPL - Active Flight
Plan’ Page. Refer to the AFCS Section for more information on utilizing vertical navigation for aircraft control.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight plan
waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent (TOD)
point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and
time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TOD items
displayed in the Active VNV Profile box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually enabled. Vertical
guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
NOTE: Inhibiting VNV prevents automatic waypoint sequencing and FPA calculations. Subsequently enabling
VNV after it had been inhibited, may result in a steep FPA and inaccurate VSD profile depiction.
Enabling and Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL- Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., FALUR)).
3) To Disable VNV guidance, press the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and
press the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is disabled.
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Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
Cncl VNV Softkey
ENBL VNV Softkey
Figure 5-58 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
CONSTRAINTS
NOTE: Initiating the VNV direct-to function to the FAF, manually specifying an FPA to the FAF, or manually
creating an altitude constraint at the FAF will disrupt the VNV function from creating a lateral offset. Thus,
the baro-VNV path may not intersect the approach descent path.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database.
Altitude Constraint
Examples
System Calculated
Advisory Altitude (White Text)
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Modified Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text with Pencil Icon)
Designated Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text)
Cross AT 2,300 ft
White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
Temperature
Compensated
Figure 5-59 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
Advisory altitude calculated by the system estimating the
altitude of the aircraft as it passes over the navigation point.
5OOOFT
Altitude is designated for vertical guidance. A pencil icon
indicates manual designation or manually modified data entry.
Altitude retrieved from the navigation database. White line
above or below indicates the type of constraint.
These altitudes are provided as a reference, and are not
designated for vertical guidance.
The system cannot use this altitude in determining vertical
guidance because of an invalid constraint condition.
Table 5-10 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
When a procedure is loaded, the system will auto-designate (automatically enter and enable) altitude
constraints to be used for vertical guidance. An altitude constraint which has been auto-designated by the
system will be displayed as cyan text.
An altitude constraint may be manually designated by activating and moving the cursor to the desired
altitude on the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Page, turning the small FMS Knob and pressing the ENT Key. An altitude
constraint may be manually designated only if it is available for vertical guidance. Altitudes that are not
available for vertical guidance are shown in white text and can not be selected by the cursor.
For all designated altitudes, the system will automatically calculate advisory altitudes prior to the designated
altitude constraint. These advisory altitudes are not auto-designated and are displayed as white text.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated”. Pressing the CLR
Key with the altitude constraint highlighted on the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Page removes the altitude constraint
designation. The altitude will not be used for vertical guidance and the text displayed will be shown in
white. The system will recalculate advisory altitudes (white text) when any altitude constraint is designated,
modified, or un-designated.
An altitude constraint may be entered as a flight level (FL), height above mean sea level (MSL), or height
above ground level (AGL). AGL format is only available for airport waypoints.
NOTE: All designated altitudes (cyan text) will be displayed in the active flight plan without restriction bars
regardless of what is shown on the published procedure.
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A designated altitude constraint may be rendered invalid if any of the following are true:
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• The climb constraints are not sequentially ascending, or the descent constraints are not sequentially
descending.
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. If an altitude
constraint is removed and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral waypoint, the
system will display that altitude restriction in white text. The system also provides a way to revert a published
altitude constraint that has been modified.
Entering or modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport without a runway
selected, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the
ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Removing an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘Revert’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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QFE CONSTRAINTS
Baro QFE settings may be enabled so that the altimeter will read zero at the selected reference point (Origin
or Destination airfield), and terminal altitude constraints in the flight plan are displayed as the height above
the reference point. When Baro QFE is enabled, altitude constraints based on Baro QFE may be entered or
modified in the flight plan and will be displayed in parenthesis. See the Flight Instruments Section for more
information on how to enable Baro QFE.
Entering or modifying a Baro QFE altitude constraint:
1) With Baro QFE enabled, press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin entry of the altitude constraint, and use the FMS Knobs to enter the
constraint in reference to Baro QFE. If modifying an existing Baro QFE altitude constraint, turning the small FMS
Knob displays the existing constraint in MSL in the entry field. If adding a new altitude constraint, turning the
small FMS Knob displays ‘00000FT’ in the entry field.
4) Press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘QFE’ and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude
constraint. The constraint is shown in parenthesis indicating it is based on the Baro QFE setting.
System Calculated Advisory Altitude
Baro QFE Altitude
Designated Altitude Constraint
Baro QFE Altitude
Figure 5-60 Baro QFE Altitude Constraints
VERTICAL SPEED AND FLIGHT PATH ANGLE CONSTRAINTS
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (‘VS TGT’) and/or
flight path angle (‘FPA’) in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD)
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. The terrain,
obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active flight plan information
consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNV profile, TOD/BOD, and destination runway)
can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode. See the Hazard Avoidance section for information
about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on the VSD.
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track mode.
When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation map indicated
range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD altitude range automatically
changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant ratio of altitude range to horizontal
range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been met. At ranges above the maximum, the
altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on the vertical
scale is close to the top for a descent phase and in the middle for a cruise phase or if the phase is unknown.
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure any text,
one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint is displayed as
darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO waypoint, (2) waypoint
with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough for the
terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown in gray if the terrain is selected Off on the Navigation Map).
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for symbol information and display of point obstacles on the Navigation Map.
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon the
highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution, within a
predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft present position and the end of the map range
or active flight plan. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase.
The numeric constraint values are displayed below the waypoint label, using the same color and format as on
the Active Flight Plan Screen. Database derived altitude restrictions are shown in white. Any altitude constraint
that has been designated for use in vertical navigation is shown in cyan. The following table shows the numeric
representation and the graphical representation of the constraints. The tip of each constraint symbol triangle is
placed at the corresponding constraint barometric altitude.
Constraint Type
Numeric Representation
AT
(Designated Altitude Constraint)
3OOOFT
AT or ABOVE
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
AT or BELOW
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
Altitude Constraint Icon
5OOOFT
3OOOFT
Table 5-11 Altitude Constraint Icons
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NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNV descents because the lateral distance of
those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNV profile for any legs that have no vertical path guidance.
NOTE: Changes to the vertical flight plan path, when waypoint sequencing is occurring within one minute,
may result in the inaccurate depiction of VSD artifacts, such as TOD. Though the location of the artifact on
the VSD may be displayed incorrectly, VNAV guidance and autopilot coupling will not be affected.
VSD Mode (AUTO FPL)
Active FPL Waypoints
Altitude Constraints
Selected Alt. (8100ft)
Destination Runway
Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
Absolute Terrain
Current VNAV Profile
VSD Mode Buttons
Obstacle
Figure 5-61 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
VSD Mode Displayed
Button
Mode
AUTO FPL
Auto
AUTO TRK
FPL Criteria
- FPL
- TRK
- Auto
Items available on VSD
Available active FPL & aircraft
within FPL swath
(1) Active FPL available &
aircraft not within FPL swath,
or (2) Active FPL not available
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
selected altitude
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Flight Plan
FPL
Active FPL not available
Only shows message 'Flight Plan Not Available'
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
Track
TRK
NA
selected altitude
Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNV profile, TOD/BOD, and
destination runway
Active FPL available
Table 5-12 VSD Modes
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VSD MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Message
‘Loading...’
‘Flight Plan Not Available’
‘Flight Plan mode unavailable because aircraft off
course and active leg over 200 NM’
‘Aircraft Beyond Active Leg’
‘VSD Not Available’
‘VSD Data is old, disable and enable VSD’
Description
VSD is loading data due to a range change, full/half switch, or first being
selected for display.
Flight Plan mode is selected and there is not a flight plan loaded with at
least one leg.
All of the following are true:
- Flight Plan mode is selected
- The active leg is greater than 200 nm
- The aircraft is outside the swath
Flight Plan mode is selected and the aircraft’s position, as projected on
the flight plan, is past the end of the active leg.
At least one of the following is true:
- Valid terrain database not available
- GPS MSL altitude not available
- Current barometric altitude not available
- Neither current track nor current heading available
- GPS position not available
- Map range setting is less than 1 nm
The system has encountered a delay and VSD data has failed to update
for 2 seconds or more. This message may be momentarily displayed and
then removed as the delay is overcome.
Table 5-13 VSD System Messages
Flight Phase
Approach, Departure
Terminal
En Route, Oceanic
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Enabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable the Vertical Situation Display.
5) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the Map Opt Softkey
5) Press the Inset Softkey
6) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Disabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey
4) Press the Off Softkey.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION DIRECT TO
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight
plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
All VNV altitudes prior to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful
activation of a direct-to destination that is part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the directto waypoint are retained.
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
3) Press the VNV ¯ Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key. An
‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing a VNV direct-to altitude constraint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APRs) are stored within the navigation database and can be loaded
using any Procedures (PROC) Key.
NOTE: The charts database may contain Special Procedures. Prior to flying these procedures, pilots must
have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the corresponding current, and legitimatelysourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special Procedure in the charts database DOES NOT
imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
NOTE: Some airports may have published instrument approach procedures not contained within the navigation
database. These procedures may be available for preview from the charts database, but are not available for
navigation guidance. See the Additional Features Section for more information on previewing Charts.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and destination airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Furthermore, only one procedure for each type of procedure (DP, STAR,
APPR) can be loaded at a time in a flight plan.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually initiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Figure 5-62 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group):
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
Or.
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on
the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
Or.
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. To select another airport, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired procedure. The procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through the available procedures. Press the ENT Key to select the procedure.
The cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs, as required, to highlight a runway or transition. Press the ENT Key to select the runway
or transition. The cursor moves to the next box. The procedure is previewed on the map.
6) Repeat Step 5, until desired information has been viewed for the chosen procedure.
7) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
Available Procedure Actions
Departure Preview
Loaded Procedures
Figure 5-63 Departure Selection
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Selected Departure
Loaded Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-64 Departure Loading
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group), press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport information’ Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
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3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Removing a departure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the departure:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the departure.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Departure’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active flight
plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition
waypoints, and a runway.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
Figure 5-65 Arrival Selection
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Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-66 Arrival Loading
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group), press the STAR Softkey.
The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
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c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Removing an arrival from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the arrival:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the arrival.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Arrival’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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APPROACHES
INSTRUMENT APPROACH
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance for
non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach is already in
the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by selection of an
approach and the transition waypoints.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS receiver
can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for primary guidance,
the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or ILS). The final course
segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to the proper frequency and
selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels
according to the published chart (See the following discussion on Visual Approaches for the VIS service level).
The ‘+V’ designation adds advisory vertical guidance, which is displayed on the PFD in the same location as the
ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. In all cases where LNAV+V or LP+V is indicated by the system during
an approach, LNAV and LP minima are to be used respectively.
NOTE: The system requires 30 seconds of valid SBAS integrity monitoring prior to selecting an approach that
SBAS vertical guidance.
Due to the high level of precision required by some approach service levels, losing SBAS may require the
pilot to acknowledge a downgrade of approach service level, or to abort the approach. See the following table
for approach downgrade behavior:
NOTE: Loss of SBAS during a VISUAL approach will follow the LNAV+V downgrade behavior.
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Approach
SBAS Becomes
with
Unavailable
SBAS
LNAV
None
None*
N/A
Prior to the FAF
APR ADVISORY - SBAS VNAV not
available. Using Baro VNAV.
Acknowledge
message to display
Baro VNAV Glidepath
N/A
At/after the FAF
HSI displays ‘LNAV’ in magenta
VDI displays ‘No GP’
None
None
LNAV**
Prior to the FAF
HSI displays ‘L/VNAV’ in amber
VDI displays ‘NO GP’
APR ADVISORY - SBAS VNAV not
available. Using Baro VNAV.
Acknowledge
message to display
Baro VNAV Glidepath
N/A
At/after the FAF
HSI displays ‘LNAV’ in magenta
VDI displays ‘No GP’
None
None
LNAV**
None
None
N/A
Within 1 min.
prior to the FAF
HSI displays ‘LNAV’ in magenta
CDI is removed
APR DWNGRADE - Approach
downgraded. Use LNAV
minimums.
Acknowledge
message to redisplay
CDI with LNAV
LNAV**
At/after the FAF
CDI is removed
ABORT APR - Loss of GPS
navigation. Abort approach.
Abort
N/A
None
None
N/A
Within 1 min.
prior to the FAF
HSI displays ‘LNAV’ in magenta
CDI is removed
VDI displays ‘No GP’
APR DWNGRADE - Approach
downgraded. Use LNAV
minimums.
Acknowledge
message to redisplay
CDI with LNAV
LNAV**
At/after the FAF
CDI is removed
VDI displays ‘No GP’
ABORT APR - Loss of GPS
navigation. Abort approach.
Abort
N/A
None
None
N/A
More than 1 min.
HSI displays ‘LPV’ in amber
prior to the FAF
LPV
Appraoch
Downgrade
HSI displays ‘LNAV+V’ in amber
VDI displays ‘NO GP’
More than 1 min. HSI displays ‘LP+V’ in amber
prior to the FAF VDI displays ‘No GP’
LP+V
Action Required
SBAS not required.
The approach is continued.
More than 1 min.
HSI displays ‘LP’ in amber
prior to the FAF
LP
System Message Generated
Approach phase
not specified
LNAV+V
LNAV/
VNAV
Description
Within 1 min.
prior to the FAF
HSI displays ‘L/VNAV’ in
magenta
VDI displays ‘NO GP’
At/after the FAF
HSI displays ‘LNAV’ in magenta
VDI displays ‘NO GP’
APR DWNGRADE - Use LNAV/
VNAV minimums.
None
Acknowledge
message to display LNAV/VNAV
Baro VNAV Glidepath
None
LNAV**
*If total loss of GPS occurs, abort.
**If there are no LNAV minimums available for the approach, abort.
Table 5-1 Approach Downgrade Behavior
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VISUAL APPROACH
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches are not
defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the system calculates
the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach waypoints based on runway
position and course as specified in the navigation database. The approach service level shown on the HSI will
be ‘VIS’. If SBAS is unavailable, the system will provide Baro VNAV.
NOTE: The charts database may contain Charted Visual Flight Procedures (CVFPs) for certain airports. CVFPs
follow a precise prescribed path and are classified as Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs). See the Additional
Features Section for more information on Charts.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRAIGHT) and the Vectors-toFinal transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial fix (STRGHT), the
final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree glide path is calculated from
the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended straight-in path.
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore, when
a visual approach is selected, the message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches” is
displayed on the approach selection page and must be acknowledged before the visual approach is loaded
into the flight plan.
Loading and activating a visual approach using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The PROC - Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
b) Select a visual approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
4) Select a transition and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure (‘Load’ is only available if there is
no previous approach already loaded in flight plan); or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate’ and press
the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
7) The message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is displayed. Press ENT to continue.
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Figure 5-67 Loading Visual Approach
APPROACH SELECTION AND REMOVAL
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either ‘Load’ or ‘Activate’ is given. ‘Load’ adds the approach
to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows continued
navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure available for
quick activation when needed. ‘Activate’ also adds the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately
begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to load the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps below to select ‘Activate Vector-To- Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED
FOR GPS -’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
NOTE: When there is no arrival procedure in the flight plan, loading an approach after a destination airport
has already been entered will result in a duplicate destination airport waypoint being added to the end of
the enroute segment.
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Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Destination Airport
Approach Preview
Approach Choices
Figure 5-68 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-69 Approach Loading
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Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set approach minimums, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’ and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, select ‘OFF’ and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page:
1) Select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed with the ‘Transition’ Field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
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7) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’ and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘Load?’ field is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate?’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the ‘Procedures’ Window.
2) Highlight ‘Activate Vector-to-Final’ and press the ENT Key.
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Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’ and press the ENT Key.
3) From the ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page, press the MENU Key for the MFD. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is
displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
Removing an approach from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the approach:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the approach.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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MISSED APPROACH
The system is capable of providing guidance for the approach as well as the missed approach. Once the
missed approach is activated, MAPR will be displayed on the HSI next to the CDI. If the missed approach is
activated prior to the Missed Approach Point (MAP), waypoint sequencing will continue along the approach
to the missed approach. If the missed approach is not activated prior to the MAP, the system will enter SUSP
Mode once the aircraft crosses the MAP until the missed approach is activated or SUSP Mode is disabled. See
the Flight Instruments, Course Deviation Indicator section for more information on SUSP Mode.
See the Using Map Displays, Map Symbols discussion previously given in this section for information on
displaying the missed approach preview on the navigation map.
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6600ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,600 feet is reached. After reaching 6,600 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
ADANE). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (ADANE) to begin the missed approach procedure.
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-70 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if
the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Fly past the MAP, and press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD.
Or:
Press the Go-Around Button.
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a manual temperature input
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly, and the snowflake icon ( ) is displayed next to those altitudes.
Manually inputting the temperature for compensation is explained in the following procedures. However,
the system already automatically accounts for temperatures warmer and colder than ISA by adjusting the
lateral position of the FAF altitude constraint (calculated by the Transition to Approach function). Once the
flight plan waypoint prior to the FAF becomes the active VNV waypoint (or the FAF becomes the active VNV
waypoint in the case that the previous waypoint does not contain a valid altitude constraint), a lateral offset
distance is calculated for the FAF altitude constraint. Once calculated, the VNV function seamlessly applies
the offset such that a smooth vertical transition onto the approach descent path occurs.
NOTE: Manually specifying temperature compensation for an approach will disrupt the system from
automatically creating a lateral offset of the VNV function in use..
Manually setting temperature compensation for altitudes loaded into approaches:
1) From the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed with the temperature highlighted.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to change the ‘Temperature at <airport>’ Field. The compensated altitude is computed
as the temperature is selected.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window on the
MFD, or in the ‘References’ Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for the system,
therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums.
Refer to the Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation to the
MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
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Cancelling temperature compensation setting for altitudes loaded into approaches:
1) From the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-71 Manually Setting Temperature Compensation
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Compensated
Altitudes
Figure 5-72 Temperature Compensation set for approach loaded altitudes
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5.9 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on manually entered fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining
fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-73 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure time - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are from the
aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated airspeed - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of information
is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated altitude - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of information is
GPS altitude.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints. It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999. • Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the destination. - If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected,
then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current
leg being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to
and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the
last leg of the flight plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
• Destination sunrise and sunset times - These times are shown as hours:minutes and are the local time at
the destination.
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FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained by dividing the
amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg - This value is calculated by taking the amount of fuel
onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg - This value is calculated by taking the time of fuel
endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel endurance by the
ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density altitude
• True airspeed
The pilot may select Auto or Manual mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs) mode. In Auto Mode,
only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTs selection).
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-74 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-75 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
Select the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Select the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) Select the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) Select the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the DEP TIME field and enter the desired value. Press the ENT Key.
The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all
desired values have been entered.
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5.10 ABNORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the system
stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the system
uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the system through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the ‘own
aircraft’ symbol on the navigation map. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI slightly
above and to the right of the aircraft symbol on the CDI. The CDI deviation bar remains, but is removed from the
display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled in DR mode as long as the deviation info
is available (20 min.) Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD. Normal
navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in the
following figure. If the VSD Inset is selected for the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be displayed.
NOTE: GPS derived information will remain displayed in magenta (not amber) on the Flight Plan Progress
inset when operating in Dead Reckoning mode. However, this information shall still be considered as
degraded navigation source information.
While the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the accuracy of all nearest
information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to function, but
with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Course Deviation
Indicator
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Nav Data Bar
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
Figure 5-76 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard avoidance features available for the system are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• Garmin GDL 69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Optional)
• Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) (Optional)
• Garmin GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
• Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
• L-3 WX-500 Stormscope® Lightning Detection System (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVT (included with Garmin SVT option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-A (TAWS-A) (Optional)
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
• Garmin GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) Traffic (Optional)
• Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic (Optional)
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6.1 DATA LINK WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
The Data Link Weather feature enables the system to receive weather information from a variety of weather
sources, depending on the equipment installed in the aircraft. These sources may include SiriusXM Weather and
Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B). For each source, a ground-based system processes the weather
information collected from a network of sensors and weather data providers.
The SiriusXM Weather service, available with the Garmin GDL 69A SXM data link receiver and an active
service subscription, updates its weather data periodically and automatically, and transmits this information to the
aircraft’s receiver via satellite on the S-Band frequency. This service provides continuous reception capabilities at
any altitude throughout North America.
The FIS-B Weather service, available when equipped with a capable transponder which can receive 978
MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data, delivers subscription-free weather information periodically
and automatically to the aircraft. FIS-B uses a network of FAA-operated Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) to
transmit the information to the aircraft’s receiver. Reception is limited to line-of-sight, and is available below
24,000 feet MSL in the United States. FIS-B broadcasts provide weather data in a repeating cycle which may take
approximately ten minutes to transmit all available weather data. Therefore, not all weather data may be present
immediately upon initial FIS-B signal acquisition. FIS-B is a component of the Automatic Dependent Surveillance
(ADS-B) system, which offers both weather and traffic data; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later in this
section for a more detailed discussion of the ADS-B system and its capabilities.
The Garmin Connext Weather service, available when equipped with the Garmin GSR 56 Iridium Satellite
Transceiver and an active service subscription, provides data link weather information to the aircraft after the pilot
defines a geographic area and subsequently selects a manual or automatically recurring Connext Data Request.
The transceiver then contacts the Garmin Connext Weather service using the Iridium Satellite telephone system
and retrieves the weather data for the specified area. The Garmin Connext Weather service offers worldwide
weather coverage, but the availability of individual weather products, such as radar precipitation, varies by region.
NOTE: To check the availability of Garmin Connext weather products offered in a particular region, visit
http://www.flygarmin.com
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ACTIVATING DATA LINK WEATHER SERVICES
NOTE: Service activation is not applicable to the FIS-B Weather service.
ACTIVATING THE SIRIUSXM WEATHER SERVICE
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s customer service
the coded ID(s) unique to the installed data link receiver. The Data Radio ID must be provided to activate the
weather service. The Audio Radio ID enables the receiver to provide SiriusXM Radio entertainment. To view
this information, refer to the following locations:
• The ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page on the MFD
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display weather data and/
or provide audio entertainment programming through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather data) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website, www.siriusxm.com.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and the desired weather product subscription package.
After SiriusXM has been contacted, it may take approximately 15 minutes until the activation occurs.
Verifying the SiriusXM Weather service activation:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) View the list of supported Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather
product; a green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several
minutes for weather products in the selected subscription package to become available.
NOTE: Not all weather products offered by SiriusXM are supported for display on this system. This pilot’s
guide only discusses supported weather products.
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Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM Satellite
Radio)
Weather Products
(Available Products for
Service Class Indicated
in Green)
Select to Display XM
Information page
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
ACTIVATING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
The Garmin Connext weather service requires an active Iridium satellite telephone and
weather data subscription. Registration begins by first obtaining the serial number(s) for the
installed Iridium Satellite Transceiver (GSR 1), and the System ID. Then go to the website
www.flygarmin.com and follow the instructions for establishing an account for Garmin Connext data services.
Note additional information about the airframe may be required. After an account has been established,
Garmin provides an access code that must be entered on the system and successfully transmitted to the
Garmin Connext service via the Iridium satellite network.
Obtaining the LRU serial numbers and System ID:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) Press the LRU Softkey.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll the cursor until ‘GSR 1’ is visible in the ‘LRU Information’ window.
4) Note the serial number displayed for ‘GSR 1’.
5) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
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System ID Number
Iridium Transceiver
Serial Number
Figure 6-2 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
When an account is established, Garmin provides an Access Code which must be entered on the system in
order to complete the registration process.
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) Go to www.flygarmin.com. Locate the information for subscribing to Garmin Connext Satellite Services on the
website.
2) Choose a desired service which includes weather data and enter the requested information about the aircraft.
3) Note the Access Code provided during the registration process and any additional instructions received.
4) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the
Map page group.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page. If another data link weather
source such as ‘XM’ or ‘FIS-B’ is displayed in the page title, it will be necessary to change the data link weather
source to CNXT before continuing. Refer to ‘Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page’ procedure to change
the data link source to prior to registration.
6) If the system displays the Connext Registration Window, proceed to step 8. Otherwise, press the MENU Key.
The page menu window is now displayed.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
8) Press the ENT Key. The Connext Registration Window appears as shown in the following figure.
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Figure 6-3 Enter Access Code
9) Enter the access code provided by Garmin in the ‘Access Code’ field.
10) Press the ENT Key. Register is highlighted.
11) Press the ENT Key. The system contacts Garmin through the Iridium network. System registration is complete
when the Current Registration Window displays the correct information for the Airframe, Tail Number, Airframe
Serial Number, and Iridium Serial Number.
12) When finished, push the FMS Knob to remove the Connext Registration Window.
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WEATHER PRODUCT AGE
Unlike real-time weather information collected directly from weather sensors on-board an aircraft, such as an
airborne weather radar or a lightning detection system, data link weather by contrast relies on service providers
to collect, process, and transmit weather information to the aircraft. This information can come from a variety
of sources such as government agencies. Due to the time it takes to collect, process, and distribute data link
weather information, it is imperative for pilots to understand that data link weather information is not real-time
information and may not accurately depict the current conditions.
For each data link weather product which can be displayed as a map overlay, such METARs, the system can
also show a weather product age. This age represents the elapsed time, in minutes, since the weather service
provider compiled the weather product and the current time. It does not represent the age of the information
contained within the weather product itself. For example, a single mosaic of radar precipitation is comprised
data from multiple radar sites providing data at differing scan rates or intervals. The weather service provider
periodically compiles this data to create a single composite image, and assigns one time to this image which
becomes the basis of the product age. The service provider then makes this weather product available for data
link transmission at the next scheduled update time. The actual age of the weather data contained within the
mosaic is therefore older than its weather product age and should never be considered current.
SiriusXM and FIS-B weather products are broadcast automatically on a repeating cycle without pilot
intervention.
Each data link weather product age has an expiration time. The weather product age is shown in white if it
is less than half of this expiration time, otherwise it is shown in amber until reaching its expiration time. After
a weather product has expired, the system removes the expired weather product from the displays, and shows
white dashes instead of the age. If the data link receiver has not yet received a weather product ‘N/A’ appears
instead of the age to show the product is currently not available for display. This may occur, for example, after
powering on the system but before the data link receiver has received a complete weather data transmission. It
could also indicate a possible outage of a weather product.
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For PFD
maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
Enabling/disabling the weather product age for PFD Maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND to show/remove the weather product age information for PFD maps.
3) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Tables 6-1 and 6-2 and 6-3 show the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates
for SiriusXM Weather, FIS-B Weather, Connext Weather respectively. The broadcast rate represents the interval
at which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated weather
product information. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated or when the
Data Link Receiver receives new data. The service provider and its weather data suppliers define and control
the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
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SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
NEXRAD
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
7.5
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
30
5
Cell Movement
30
1.25
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
12
METARs
90
12
City Forecast
90
12
Surface Analysis
60
12
Freezing Levels
120
12
Winds Aloft
90
12
County Warnings
60
5
Cyclone Warnings
60
12
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
22
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
12
Air Report(AIREP)
90
12
Turbulence
180
12
30
Radar Coverage Not Available
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
No product symbol
30
60
5
12
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
No product symbol
60
12
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
METARs
90
5
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
10
Winds Aloft
90
10
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
5
FIS-B Weather Product
Symbol
No Radar Coverage
No product symbol
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
(TAF)
No product symbol
60
10
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
Table 6-2 FIS-B Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
The following table shows the Garmin Connext Weather product symbols, the expiration times and the
refresh rates. The refresh rate represents the interval at which Garmin Connext weather service makes available
the most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rate at which the service receives
new data from various weather sources. The pilot chooses how often to contact the Garmin Connext weather
service in order to retrieve weather data through the Connext Data Request.
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Garmin Connext Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
Radar Precipitation
30
Infrared Satellite
60
30
Datalink Lightning
30
Continuous
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
Continuous
METARs
90
Continuous
Winds Aloft
90
Continuous
Pilot Weather Report (PIREPs)
90
Continuous
Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
no product image
60
Continuous
Terminal Aerodrome Reports TAFs)
no product image
60
Continuous
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take between 3 and
10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
Table 6-3 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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DISPLAYING DATA LINK WEATHER PRODUCTS
WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
The Map - Weather Data Link (XM/FIS-B/CNXT) Page is the principal map page for viewing data link
weather information. This page provides the capability for displaying the most data link weather products
of any map on the system. The Weather Data Link Page also provides system-wide controls for selecting the
data link weather source, if more than one source has been installed. The page title indicates the selected data
link weather source (e.g., ‘XM’, ‘FIS-B’, or ‘CNXT’).
NEXRAD Weather
Product Display
Enabled Icon
NEXRAD Weather
Product Age (US)
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Viewing the Weather Data Link Page and changing the data link weather source, if applicable:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT) Page. The currently selected
data link weather source appears in the page title.
3) If the page title does not contain the desired weather source, press the MENU Key.
a) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’, or ‘Display FIS-B Weather’ (choices may vary
depending on the installed equipment).
b) Press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-5 Changing the Data Link Weather Source
The system presents the softkeys for the selected source on the Weather Data Link Page, and for map
overlays used throughout the system. The following figures show the softkeys for the Weather Data Link Page
based on the selected source.
WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE SOFTKEYS
NOTE: Softkeys not related to data link weather are not shown in the following tables.
Level 1
NEXRAD
Level 2
Echo Top
CLD Top
XM LTNG
Cell MOV
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
Cyclone
SFC
FRZ LVL
Wind
258
Level 3
Description
Enables/disables the NEXRAD weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Echo Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cloud Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Lightning weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cell Movement weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level SiriusXM Weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the Cyclone weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkey for enabling/disabling the Surface Analysis and
City Forecast weather product and selecting a forecast period.
Disables the Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather product overlay.
Displays the Surface Analysis for the current time period overlay.
Off
Current
12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, These softkeys display a Surface Analysis and City Forecast overlay for the
selected future time period.
48 HR
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the Freezing Level weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
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Level 1
Level 2
ICNG
Level 3
Description
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Displays altitude softkeys for the Icing weather product overlay.
Shows the previous level of Icing altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Icing weather product.
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting winds from
the Icing altitude from
to 1,000 to 30,000 feet
Next
Legend
TURB
PREV
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting Turbulence
altitude from 21,000
feet to 45,000 feet
Next
Legend
Back
AIREPS
PIREPS
County
Back
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Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 1,000 feet to
30,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays softkeys for enabling/disabling the Turbulence weather product
overlay.
Shows the previous level of Turbulence altitude softkeys.
Disables the Turbulence weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 21,000 feet to
45,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the AIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the County Warnings weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
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WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B) PAGE SOFTKEYS
Level 1
NEXRAD
or
US
or
RGNL
or
US/RGNL
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
Level 2
Description
Cycles through NEXRAD display modes with each press:
NEXRAD (with annunciator disabled): No NEXRAD is shown.
US: Displays NEXRAD data for the Continental US (CONUS).
RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data.
US/RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data where available, and CONUS
NEXRAD data in other coverage areas.
More WX
Wind
PIREPs
Back
260
Level 3
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level Connext Weather product softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
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WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT) PAGE SOFTKEYS
Level 1
PRECIP
Level 2
IR SAT
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
Wind
PIREPs
Back
Level 3
Description
Enables/disables the Precipitation weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Infrared Satellite weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level Connext Weather product softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
The Weather Data Link Page can display a legend for each enabled weather product.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or push the FMS
Knob.
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Additional information about the following weather products can be displayed by panning the Map Pointer
over the following products on the Weather Data Link Page:
• Echo Tops
• METARs
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional
Information
on Weather
Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
Storm Cell
Selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-6 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Certain weather products, such as METARs or TFRs have associated full text. When a weather product is
selected with the Map Pointer, press the ENT Key. The system displays the full text for the selected weather
product in a window. To remove the window, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The Weather Data Link Page also has a page menu that can be accessed by pressing the MENU Key. It has
controls for enabling/disabling the weather products as an alternative to using the softkeys.
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Customizing the Weather Data Link Page
The Weather Data Link Page includes controls for selecting the maximum map range to display each
weather product on the page. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range,
the system removes the weather product from the map. If more than one data link weather source has been
installed, the system uses the same maximum map range for the comparable weather product of another
source.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: ‘Product Group 2’ is not applicable to FIS-B Weather.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page with the changed settings.
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
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WEATHER PRODUCT MAP OVERLAYS
+
Echo Top
+
Data Link Lightning
+
Cell Movement
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+º
+
+
METARs
+
+
+
Surface Analysis & City Forecast
+
Freezing Levels
+
Winds Aloft
+*
+
+
County Warnings
+
Cyclone Warnings
+
Icing Potential
+
PIREPs
+
AIREPs
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
TAFs
Flight Plan Pages
Cloud Top
Nearest Page Group
+
Aux - Trip Planning Page
+
Other Waypoint Pages
+
WPT- Weather Information
Page
Weather Data Link Page
NEXRAD†
Navigation Map Page
Data Link Weather Product
PFD Map
Other PFD and MFD maps and pages can display a smaller set of data link weather products. The following
table shows which data link weather products can be displayed on specific maps, indicated with a ‘+’ symbol.
+
+
† Animated SiriusXM NEXRAD available on navigation maps except the HSI Map.
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
º Full TFR text not available on the Nearest VRP Page.
Table 6-4 Weather Product Display Maps
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Displaying Data Link Weather Products on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the softkey to enable/disable the desired weather product.
The Navigation Map Page also can display legends for weather products enabled on this map with the
Legend Softkey. This softkey is subdued if no weather products are enabled.
Showing/removing the weather legend on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Legend Softkey to show the Weather Legends window.
4) When finished, press the Legend Softkey again, or push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the window.
The Navigation Map Page also allows the pilot to select the maximum map range to display weather
products. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the system removes
the weather product from the map. The system uses this setting for all navigation maps, including those
displayed on the PFD.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
The system can also display data link weather information on the PFD navigation maps.
Displaying Data Link Weather products on the PFD:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of data link products on the PFD map.
On the MFD maps, the weather product icon and age appear automatically when a weather is enabled and
the range is within the maximum display limits. On PFD maps, this information is available using the PFD
softkeys.
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Enabling/disabling the weather product icon and age display (PFD maps):
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey to enable/disable the weather product age, source, and icon box display on PFD
Maps.
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the map range
settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The page
menus also provide an alternative to using the softkeys to enable/disable data link weather product overlays
on maps.
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
NOTE: Data requests are not applicable to the SiriusXM Weather or FIS-B Weather services.
The Connext Data Request Menu provides the pilot with the options to define the requested weather coverage
area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or cancel weather data
requests. A Request Status Window inside the menu shows the status of the Connext Data Request.
Before a Connext Data Request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all
currently available Garmin Connext Weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘Waypoint’ coverage field) must
be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window indicates ‘Invalid Coverage Area’ and
the system will not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a
flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
Manually Requesting Garmin Connext Weather information:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to show or hide a
green check mark to select one of more of the following coverage selections:
• Present Position – Requests data based on current location.
• Destination – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded). See
the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one currently exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select
the desired flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘Remaining FPL’ to request weather data for the
remainder of the flight plan), then press the ENT Key.
• Waypoint – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
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5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘Diameter / Route Width’ distance field and turn the small FMS Knob
to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or push the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page without requesting weather
data.
Figure 6-7 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
Figure 6-8 Connext Data Request Window
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Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-9 Garmin Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Data Displayed
During a Connext Data Request, the Request Status Window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”. Once
a connection is established, the Request Status Window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time Remaining:” with
an estimated data transfer time (either minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext Data Request Menu may
be removed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the data request will continue
to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between 1 to 4 minutes to complete
depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area, the amounts of weather activity present, and the
Iridium signal strength.
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext Weather products within the selected coverage area during
an initial Connext Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for display. On
subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs and TAFS) if it has
not expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and all graphical weather data
is transferred to the aircraft during every data request.
At the completion of a successful weather data request, the Request Status Window indicates ‘OK’ if the
Connext Data Request menu is still within view.
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Cancelling a Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Cancel Request’ field and press the ENT Key. The request status box
indicates ‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Push the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Automatic requests remain
enabled until the flight crew them, or the system power is removed. The Request Status Window indicates the
number of minutes or seconds until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
the automatic weather data requests will continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data
Request Window and its associated options will not be available in Reversionary Mode.
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Update Rate’ field. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min), then press
the ENT Key.
6) The ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘Request Status’ Window
based on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext
Data Request.
Or:
Push the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
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WEATHER PRODUCT OVERVIEW
The following is an overview of data link weather products the system can display.
NEXRAD (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Data link weather radar information cannot be displayed at the same time as relative terrain, echo
tops, icing, or turbulence data.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity image.
This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various altitudes. For radar
sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from the lowest antenna tilt angle,
known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes
and the type of precipitation, if known.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in gray shade of purple.
The system can animate a loop of NEXRAD information. The animated view is available on the Weather
Data Link (XM) Page, and on navigation maps with the exception of the HSI Map. Animation begins after
the system has received at least two recent NEXRAD images since the avionics power cycle. When NEXRAD
animation is enabled, a timeline appears in the upper-right corner of the map, except for the PFD Inset Map.
A pointer on the timeline indicates the relative position of the displayed frame of animation, from oldest to
newest. The NEXRAD weather product age corresponds to the displayed frame. The system can show up
to six frames of NEXRAD animation when the USA coverage option is selected, and up to three frames of
animation when Canada is selected.
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Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’, then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The pilot enables/disables the NEXRAD animation feature for navigation maps from the Navigation Map
Page.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on navigation maps:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’ and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The pilot can select either the United States or Canada region for the desired NEXRAD coverage area. The
selection for the Weather Data Link (XM) Page is independent from the selection made on the Navigation
Map Page, which affects navigation maps. NEXRAD information is shown for the selected region, while a
gray shade of purple is shown over the region which is not selected when the NEXRAD overlay is enabled.
This is the same coloring used depict where NEXRAD coverage is not available. This indication appears over
other map overlays on navigation maps, such as topographical information. The NEXRAD weather product
age display indicates either ‘US’ or ‘CN’ for the selected coverage region.
Selecting the NEXRAD Coverage Region on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Region field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ (Canada), then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
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Selecting the NEXRAD Coverage Region on navigation maps:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Region US or CNDA field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ and press the ENT Key.
6) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
• An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
• Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar beam
overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site, the radar beam
is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any precipitation occurring
below the beam at this distance and altitude.
• At smaller map ranges, the smallest square block on the display represents an area of approximately
four square kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of radar
reflectivity sampled within the area.
• Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
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Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Weather Product with 30 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless of
actual precipitation type.
• If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of actual
precipitation type.
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No Coverage
Above 55°N
Precipitation
Above 52°N
Always Displays
as Mixed
Figure 6-13 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
NEXRAD (FIS-B)
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as relative terrain on the same
map.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to FIS-B compiles
the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time
to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual
images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD
weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar synopsis and may not
depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for maneuvering
in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
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Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-14 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher resolution,
updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution, updated less
frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display on the same map.
When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display precedence where data is available,
and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional NEXRAD coverage area.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey. Each press cycles though a coverage option as the softkey name changes (US,
RGNL, or US/RGNL.
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Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) To enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information for the continental United States, turn the small FMS
Knob to highlight the NEXRAD On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of NEXRAD for the continental United
States or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
4) To enable/disable the display of Regional NEXRAD information, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
Regional On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of Regional NEXRAD or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
5) When finished, push the FMS Knob.
Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
No radar coverage
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-15 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
NOTE: When both NEXRAD options are enabled on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page menu, a combined
version is displayed.
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Enables/disables
regional NEXRAD
data display
Enables/disables
NEXRAD data display for
the continental United
States
Figure 6-16 Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page Menu
Figure 6-17 Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page Setup Menu
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
3) To change the type of NEXRAD displayed, press the MENU Key.
4) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data On/Off Field.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
8) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
9) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘CONUS’ (continental United States), ‘RGNL’ (regional), or ‘Combined’,
then press the ENT Key. This selection also affects display of NEXRAD on the PFD Maps.
10) When finished, push the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received from
ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white spiked boundary
encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being displayed. The
system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this boundary area.
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If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey enabled),
the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
No radar coverage
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-18 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the
information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed
on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page. For the NEXRAD legend, select the Legend Softkey when the
NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
No radar coverage
Boundary of radar
coverage area
Figure 6-19 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar data
is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple.
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NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during initial FIS-B signal
acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system may display areas of no radar
coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is received. It may take up to approximately ten
minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when adequate reception is available.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional version
of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm tall. For the
continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5 nm wide by 5 nm
wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected within that area.
• The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of latitude.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
PRECIPITATION (GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain data.
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically, the
Garmin Connext Weather service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns
a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
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Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
Precipitation
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary of
weather data
request
Precipitation
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-20 Precipitation Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for PFD maps, press the Map/HSI or Map Opt Softkey). This step is not necessary
on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
2) Press the PRECIP Softkey.
The system displays either base or composite radar imagery, depending on the region.
Region
Radar Reflectivity Type
United States
Composite Reflectivity
Canada, Europe, Australia
Base Reflectivity
The base reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a single
antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the highest radar energy
received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the
intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
All weather product legends can be viewed on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page. For the Precipitation
legend, press the Legend Softkey when Precipitation is selected for display.
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No radar coverage
Boundary of
weather data
request
Figure 6-21 Precipitation Weather Product Legend
The display of radar coverage is enabled active when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple. A white boundary line depicting the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request encloses the
precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
• Radar composite reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• An individual radar site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about
storms directly over the site.
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of radar data are viewable. Each block of radar information
represents approximately four square kilometers and depicts the highest level of reflectivity detected
within that area.
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Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-22 Precipitation Weather Product at 10 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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ECHO TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is displayed.
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar echo. The
highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the highest altitude at
which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Altitude for
selected Echo Top
Figure 6-23 Echo Tops Weather Product
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are removed.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-24 Echo Tops Legend
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CLOUD TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
NOTE: The broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30 minutes. As with all SiriusXM Weather products, the product
age becomes amber when it reaches half of the expiration time, which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops.
Therefore, this weather product age may be amber during routine operation.
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
Figure 6-25 Cloud Tops Weather Product
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the CLD Top Softkey.
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Figure 6-26 Cloud Tops Legend
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DATA LINK LIGHTNING (SIRIUSXM, CONNEXT)
NOTE: Lightning from a data link source cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as information
from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
The Data Link Lightning weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning
strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact location
of the lightning strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-27 Data Link Weather Product
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG Softkey.
To display the Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link Page, press the Legend Softkey when Data Link
Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-28 Data Link Lightning Legend
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the XM LTNG Softkey.
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Enabling/disabling Data Link Lightning information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the Datalink Softkey to enable data link lightning from SiriusXM, or press the LTNG Off Softkey to
disable data link lightning.
4) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
CELL MOVEMENT (SIRIUSXM)
The Cell Movement weather product shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the
ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement indicated with
short, orange arrows.
Additional
information for
selected Storm Cell
Storm Cells
Figure 6-29 Cell Movement Weather Product
On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated Cell MOV
softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available with this weather product. In this case, the Storm Cell
base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
Displaying Cell Movement information on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the Cell MOV Softkey.
Figure 6-30 Cell Movement Legend
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For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the NEXRAD
Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map Settings menu
of the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation maps:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When set to ‘On’, Cell Movement
is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement
is not displayed on navigation maps.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to remove the menu.
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling the
NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the NEXRAD
Softkey.
INFRARED SATELLITE (GARMIN CONNEXT)
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite imagery.
Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
Figure 6-31 Infrared Satellite Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Infrared Satellite information:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Select the IR SAT Softkey.
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Figure 6-32 Infrared Satellite Legend
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition
occurring at a localized geographical position.
NOTE: The SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET
has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
Convective
Sigmet Text
AIRMET
for MTN
obscuration
SIGMET
Figure 6-33 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
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Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows sample SIGMET text.
Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-34 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
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Additional Information
on Weather Feature
Selected with Map
Pointer
METAR flag
selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-35 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information is displayed in raw or decoded form when TAFs are available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the Weather Data Link Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
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METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
Figure 6-36 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the Legend Softkey when METARs
are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the information available.
Figure 6-37 METAR Legend
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated with a METAR flag next
to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan Page.
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map pointer
is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
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Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
3) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on the map.
4) When finished, press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST (SIRIUSXM)
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-38 Current Surface Analysis Data
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the SFC Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey
label changes to show the forecast time selected.
Or:
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
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Figure 6-39 Surface Analysis Legend
FREEZING LEVEL (SIRIUSXM)
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at
which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude
has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears when it
becomes available.
Figure 6-40 Freezing Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
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Figure 6-41 Freezing Levels Legend
WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up to 42,000 feet MSL.
If the FIS-B option is installed and FIS-B is the active data link weather source, the Winds Aloft weather
product also displays temperatures aloft next to the winds aloft arrows on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Wind Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Press the Next or Prev Softkey
to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-42 Winds Aloft Data at 12,000 Feet
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Figure 6-43 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on the
Navigation Map Page. The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not
to aircraft speed.
Winds Aloft Data Age
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
Altitude Scale
Figure 6-44 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in the following table.
Headwind Symbol
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-5 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
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Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Settings on the Navigation Map Page control the display of Winds Aloft information shown on the VSD.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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COUNTY WARNINGS (SIRIUSXM)
The County warning weather product provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings
from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes, severe thunderstorms,
and flood conditions.
Thunderstorm
Warning
Additional
Information on
Tornado Warning
Selected with Map
Pointer
Flood
Warning
Figure 6-45 County Flood Warning
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the County Softkey.
Figure 6-46 County Warnings Legend
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CYCLONE (SIRIUSXM)
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms,
and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of
DD/HH:MM.
Cyclone
Figure 6-47 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Cyclone Softkey.
Figure 6-48 Cyclone Legend
NOTE: The Cyclone weather product is not available unless at least one cyclone or tropical storm has been
received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
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ICING (CIP & SLD) (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Icing information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map with NEXRAD.
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the current icing environment.
Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft
type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the
analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to
cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selected.
Extreme Icing
Potential
Supercooled
Large Droplets
Light Icing Potential
Moderate Icing
Potential
Figure 6-49 Icing Data at 6,000 Feet
Figure 6-50 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Turbulence information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map with NEXRAD.
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs, SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selection.
Figure 6-51 Turbulence Weather Product at 21,000 Feet
Figure 6-52 Turbulence Legend
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PIREPS AND AIREPS
NOTE: AIREPs are only available with the SiriusXM Weather service.
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots. When significant
weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit PIREPs.
A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear,
and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
Urgent PIREP
PIREP selected with
Map Pointer
AIREP
PIREP Text
Figure 6-53 PIREPs and AIREPS on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS or AIREPS Softkey. (Note the AIREPS Softkey is only available with the SiriusXM Weather
service.)
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not present in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
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Decoded PIREP Text
Original PIREP
Text
Figure 6-54 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-55 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where flight is
restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement,
natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on the
system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS),
and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ on maps on which the display of TFRs is enabled.
Information for
selected TFR
Figure 6-56 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
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Figure 6-57 Full Text for Selected TFR
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the
TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the Aux - ADS-B Status
Page.
Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aux - ADS-B Status Page.
On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature, which includes
all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B Weather’, and press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-58 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on the ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page Item
FIS-B Weather Status:
FIS-B Processing
Weather Products:
AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD
METAR
METAR GRAPHICAL
NOTAM/TFR
PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD
SIGMET
TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
Status
Message
ENABLED
DISABLED
----------------
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process and display FIS-B weather products.
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled.
No FIS-B weather data received from the transponder.
AVAILABLE
FIS-B weather data is available for display for the weather product.
Description
NOT AVAILABLE
FIS-B weather data is not available for the weather product, and/or the system is not
receiving the FIS-B weather service.
AWAITING DATA
The system is receiving the FIS-B weather service, and is waiting to receive the
weather product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
Table 6-6 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
NOTE: If the system is not receiving FIS-B weather data, a System Message indicating FIS-B has failed
appears on the PFDs. This may occur, for example, when the aircraft is on the ground without adequate
reception from a GBT. See the Appendices section for a list of System Messages.
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS FOR GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the Request
Status Window.
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD maps will be available for display.
If manual Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new weather data
will be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled
prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary
Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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Weather Request
Status Message
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to
reset.
Auto update retry: ##
Seconds
Connext Comm Error [1]
Connext Comm Error [2]
Connext Comm Error [3]
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to excessive errors. Automatic
weather data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to resume automatic
updates.
The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred during the
previous request. Timer counts down until the next automatic request occurs.
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
A communications error has occurred with the GIA. The system should be serviced.
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [4] This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or the GIA is off-line.
Connext Comm Error [5] This can occur if the Iridium or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal
strength. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6]
Connext Comm Error [7]
Connext Comm Error [8]
Connext Comm Error [9]
A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the system should be serviced.
A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal strength and re-send the data request.
A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
An error occurred while reading or writing data. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Login Invalid
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration.
Connext Server Temp
Inop
Connext Server Inop
The Garmin Connext Weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to return to
service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext Weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
Invalid Coverage Area
The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least one of the following: a
waypoint, a flight plan, or a flight plan destination. Verify at least one of the coverage options is
enabled (checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data request.
The system is not be currently subscribed to Garmin Connext services or the access code is
incorrect. Verify the access code.
The size of the received weather data has exceeded system memory limits. Reduce the size of the
coverage area and issue another Connext Data Request to ensure all available weather data has
been received.
The user has cancelled a Connext Data Request.
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
No Connext
Subscription
Reduce Request Area
Request Canceled
Request Failed - Try
Again
Table 6-7 Abnormal Garmin Connext Data Request Status Messages
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD maps will be available for display.
If manual Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new weather data
will be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled
prior to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary
Mode (provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
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6.2 STORMSCOPE LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as lightning
information from data link lightning sources.
The system can display L-3 WX-500 Stormscope lightning detection system information on the Stormscope
Page, and as an overlay on navigation maps. The system uses the symbols shown in the following table to depict
lightning strikes and cells based on the age of the information.
Lightning Age
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-8 Lightning Age and Symbols
USING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
On the Stormscope Page, lightning information can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm,
and 200 nm.
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
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Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Figure 6-59 Stormscope Page with Cell Mode Selected
Selecting ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Press the Mode Softkey. The Cell and Strike softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the Cell Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or select the Strike Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper right corner of the Stormscope Page.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level softkeys for the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Stormscope Page Menu. Either ‘Cell Mode’ or ‘Strike Mode’ is highlighted
in cyan to indicate the mode to be selected.
3) Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode and remove the menu. To remove the menu without changing
modes, press the MENU Key or the CLR Key, or push the FMS Knob.
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn . This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays on the system.
Manually clearing Stormscope cell or strike information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Press the Clear Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Lightning Data’, then press the ENT Key.
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Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’, then press the ENT Key.
Displaying Stormscope information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
Displaying Stormscope information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections.
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The following options are available:
• Stormscope On/Off field – Enables/disables the display of Stormscope lightning symbols.
• Stormscope maximum display range – Selects the maximum map range to display Stormscope symbols.
Stormscope data is removed when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
• Stormscope Mode – Selects the Cell or Strike mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters or
cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
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CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity. Stormscope identifies clusters of
electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Mode field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘Cell’ and ‘Strike’ options. When the desired item is selected, press
the ENT Key.
6) Push the FMS knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Stormscope Navigation Map
Overlay Enabled Icon
Figure 6-60 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope Lightning Data
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn. This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
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Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the select the ‘Weather’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope maximum map display range distance.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope maximum map display range distance.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map
range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
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6.3 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed radar with forty watts of output
power. The radar combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The GWX 70 has an effective pulse length of 27.31 microseconds (µs), and the system optimizes the
pulse length to maximize resolution at each range setting.
This aircraft uses a phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of pitch and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers crew-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º or a full 90º scan. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell
buildup activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
• Altitude-Compensated Tilt (ACT) management, which automatically adjusts the antenna tilt angle as the
aircraft altitude changes.
• An independent weather radar scan for each PFD HSI Map while the aircraft is in the air.
• Optional Turbulence Detection presents areas of turbulence associated with precipitation using Doppler
measurements.
• Optional Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS), to remove ground clutter from the displays.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Radar is an acronym for Radio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting a
microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return echo.
The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the center of
the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and receiving.
The system processes the returned signal and displays it on the system.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for entering areas of severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Airborne weather radar detects rain or hail, not clouds or mist. The display
may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly between them.
The GWX 70, if equipped with the optional Turbulence Detection feature, can detect turbulence associated with
precipitation, but cannot detect clear air turbulence.
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Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The following figure depicts
a radar beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the
same holds true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that
it is possible to miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the
antenna tilt set to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
10°
0
0
15
Half Power at
s
Beam Sidelobe
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-61 Radar Beam from a 10 inch Antenna
The curvature of the Earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings
of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
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320 nm
Figure 6-62 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the radar system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas in question appear as shadowed or gray
on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
NOTE: The accuracy of the displayed radar returns is reduced at higher map ranges due to attenuation and
other phenomena.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
The weather radar detects precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the
Earth or solid structures. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence directly.
It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar signal
reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
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size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog or
drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
Figure 6-63 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity; Reflectivity
by Altitude
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Ground Returns
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well-defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
The optional Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) feature, discussed later, can remove unwanted ground
clutter from the displays.
Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
Figure 6-64 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
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SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the
semicircular area of at least 10 feet from the 10-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this
zone. This recommendation slightly exceeds the calculation methods defined in Advisory Circular 2068B. With a scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly
reduced.
MPEL
Boundary
10 ft. for 10”
antenna
Figure 6-65 MPEL Boundary
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
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With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt six degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down
four degrees from parallel with the ground.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes of 2,000 feet AGL or higher. If the displayed target advances on the display to within five
nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000 feet or less
below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt four degrees can help separate ground returns from weather returns
in relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground. Return the antenna
tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles. This
is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-66 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground,
a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet; at 50 nm, 20,000
feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being displayed at 10 nm
would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. When the ground target return moves to five
nm, maximum distance below the aircraft is 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the airborne weather radar. There are many
other factors to consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
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ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT (ACT)
The Altitude Compensated Tilt feature of the enables the system to automatically adjust the antenna beam
tilt angle setting based on aircraft altitude changes. For example, if the ACT feature is enabled and the aircraft
climbs, the system compensates by adjusting the tilt downward. As the aircraft descends with ACT enabled,
the system adjusts the antenna tilt upward.
Enabling/disabling Altitude Compensated Tilt on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page.
2) Press the Features Softkey.
3) Press the ACT Softkey to enable/disable the Altitude Compensated Tilt feature.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar displays, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
NOTE: The color magenta is not used unless the optional Turbulence Detection feature is installed.
Weather Mode Color
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
(Optional)
Approximate
Precipitation Rate (in/hr.)
< 23 dBZ
< .01
23 dBZ to < 33 dBZ
.01 - 0.1
33 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
0.1 - 0.5
41 dBZ and greater
greater than 0.5
TURB- (Optional) Turbulence Detection uses the color magenta
to show areas of rain or hail that may also contain turbulence
Intensity (in dBz)
Table 6-9 Precipitation Intensity Levels in Weather Mode
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation.
Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
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Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-67 Cell Irregularities
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-68 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
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The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-69 The Blind Alley
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (9 in the southern hemisphere), especially
if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern hemisphere) of
a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
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OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Mapping mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby Mode on landing.
Weather Radar Mode
Antenna Tilt Angle,
Bearing, Sector Scan
and Gain Settings
Figure 6-70 Weather Radar Page with a Horizontal Scan Selected
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Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the Mode Softkey.
3) While on the ground, press the Standby Softkey.
a)
Press the Weather Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
Figure 6-71 Confirming Activating Radar
b)
Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
If the aircraft is airborne, press the Weather Softkey. The radar begins transmitting.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed. If desired, press the Vertical Softkey to change to vertical scanning.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, press the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the Bearing field and displays
the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
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Bearing Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-72 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
3) Press the Vertical Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is now displayed.
4) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
5) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
6) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
7) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the Horizon Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
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Figure 6-73 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the Tilt field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Press the Tilt Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line. If the Tilt Line is not
displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
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Tilt Line
Figure 6-74 Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle on a Vertical Scan Display
Enabling/disabling manual gain adjustment:
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Press the Gain Softkey to activate the cursor in the Gain field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the Gain field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Press the Gain Softkey again to return to the calibrated gain setting. ‘Calibrated’ is displayed in the Gain field.
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Manual Gain set higher than Calibrated Gain Setting
Calibrated Gain Setting
Figure 6-75 Gain Calibration
Enabling/disabling Sector Scanning:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
Bearing field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Sector Scan field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired scan. Selecting ‘Full’ enables a 90º scan.
5) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
6) Press the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
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Figure 6-76 40° Sector Scan
TURBULENCE DETECTION
The optional Turbulence Detection feature identifies areas of turbulence associated with precipitation using
the color magenta during a horizontal scan. These magenta areas represent precipitation moving at a high
rate of speed either toward or away from the radar antenna, using Doppler radar measurements. This feature
cannot detect areas of Clear Air Turbulence.
The Turbulence Detection feature is only available in Weather Mode while a horizontal scan is selected.
The system can detect turbulence up to 40 nm in front of the aircraft. At radar ranges of less than 200
nm, the system displays turbulence information when the feature is enabled. While Turbulence Detection
is enabled, if the radar range is 200 nm or greater, or a vertical scan is selected, the system automatically
removes turbulence information and shows a ‘TURB Detection Inactive’ annunciation on the Weather Radar
Page and the Turbulence Detection Button is subdued on the Touchscreen Controller. If the system is
missing information needed to detect turbulence, a ‘TURB Detection Unavailable’ annunciation appears on
the Weather Radar Page.
Enabling/Disabling Turbulence Detection during a Horizontal Scan:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page.
2) Press the Features Softkey.
3) To activate or deactivate the turbulence detection feature, press the TURB Softkey. Turbulence detection is
enabled when the softkey annunciator is green; turbulence detection is disabled when the softkey annunciator
is gray. The system indicates the current turbulence detection feature status in the upper right of the Weather
Radar Page.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
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Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH®)
While in horizontal scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies
in displayed intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The
radar energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation,
and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy
of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions
with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the
extent of attenuation in a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH feature:
1) Press the Features Softkey.
2) Press the WATCH Softkey to enable/disable the WATCH feature.
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
Figure 6-77 Horizontal Scan with WATCH Enabled
Removing Ground Clutter
With the optional Ground Clutter Suppression feature, the system can distinguish between reflected
ground returns (such as terrain features and buildings) and airborne weather phenomena. Ground clutter
may be most pronounced when using a low antenna tilt angle, or when approaching mountainous terrain.
The Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) feature is available while the weather radar Sector Scan is set to
‘Full’. When Ground Clutter Suppression is enabled, the system removes echoes determined to be ground
clutter from the display. While viewing a map with GCS enabled, adjustment of the map range or antenna
tilt angle will momentarily cause the display of ground clutter to return.
NOTE: The GCS feature of the airborne weather radar may remove the display of low-intensity precipitation
in addition to ground returns when the feature is enabled.
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Enabling/disabling Ground Clutter Suppression on the Map - Weather Radar Page:
1) Press the Mode Softkey.
2) Press the GCS Softkey to enable/disable the Ground Clutter Suppression feature.
3) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘GND Clutter Suppression On’ or ‘GND Clutter Suppression Off’, then press the
ENT Key.
Weather Alert Bands and PFD Alert
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alerts are displayed as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is enabled,
the system also displays an alert on the PFD in the Alerts Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts from being displayed on the PFD, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey.
Weather Alert
Bands
Figure 6-78 Weather Alert Bands on the Weather Radar Page
Figure 6-79 Weather Alert on PFD
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GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
Gain and Tilt Softkeys help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Mapping mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Mapping Mode Color
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
Table 6-10 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operation in Ground Mapping Mode:
1) Press the Mode Softkey.
2) Press the Ground Softkey to place the radar in Ground Mapping mode.
3) Press the Back Softkey.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Tilt field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ADDITIONAL WEATHER RADAR DISPLAYS
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Airborne weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page. Airborne
weather radar is also available as an overlay on the HSI Map while the aircraft is in the air, with independent
controls from the weather radar information displayed on the MFD.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled on a navigation map, a weather radar information box
appears on the map. It indicates the selected radar mode, radar range, antenna tilt angle, and gain setting.
The navigation map overlay uses a horizontal scan. The GWX 70 allows either horizontal or vertical scan to
be selected on the Weather Radar Page, and shows a horizontal scan on the navigation maps with the weather
radar overlay.
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Range, Tilt,
Gain Settings
Figure 6-80 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the WX Radar Softkey.
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the ‘Weather Radar’ overlay
selection (‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range, bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges between 1.5
and 500 nautical miles. At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the weather radar information
from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously adjusts the range of the weather
radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated in the weather radar information box that appears when
the overlay is enabled. When the radar range is adjusted on the Navigation Map Page, system also adjusts the
range on the Weather Radar Page up to a maximum range of 320 nm.
NOTE: The accuracy of the displayed radar returns is reduced at higher map ranges due to attenuation and
other phenomena.
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The radar bearing is adjustable on the Navigation Map Page using the Joystick when the overlay is enabled.
The bearing line appears on the Navigation Map Page as a white dashed line, and is displayed during and
momentarily after adjustment.
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page using the
Joystick. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna tilt
angle.
Adjusting the bearing and antenna tilt angle on the Navigation Map Page:
1) With the weather radar overlay enabled, push the Joystick twice. The bearing and tilt legend is displayed.
2) Move the Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick up to adjust the
antenna tilt angle upward.
3) Move the Joystick left or right to adjust the bearing line in the desired direction. The bearing line is displayed
during and momentarily after adjustment.
If the aircraft is in the air, PFD softkeys can control the airborne weather radar overlay when the HSI Map is
displayed. These softkeys are subdued if the aircraft is on the ground. The pilot can select a weather radar mode
for the HSI Map, make adjustments to antenna gain, antenna tilt angle, enable/disable antenna stabilization,
Altitude Compensated Tilt, Weather Alert, as well as optional Turbulence Detection and GCS. Weather radar
settings on the HSI Map are independent from the MFD. For example, the PFD may have Weather Mode
selected while the MFD may have Standby Mode selected. The GWX 70 weather radar performs multiple scans
as necessary to accommodate displays of weather radar data for the PFD and MFD.
Controlling of weather radar information on the HSI Map:
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
2) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
3) Press the Wx Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
4) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
5) To select a weather radar mode, press the Mode SEL Softkey
a) Press a softkey for the desired mode: Off, Standby, Weather, or Ground.
b) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
6) Press the Gain- Softkey to decrease the gain setting or press the Gain+ Softkey to increase the gain setting in
increments of 0.5 with each press, or press and hold the softkey for continuous adjustment. A gain setting of
0.0 is equivalent to the calibrated gain setting.
7) Move the PFD Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick down to adjust
the antenna tilt angle upward.
8) Press the WX Alert Softkey to enable/disable the display of Weather Alerts.
9) Press the ACT Softkey to enable/disable the Altitude Compensated Tilt feature.
10) Press the GCS Softkey to enable/disable the optional Ground Clutter Suppression feature.
11) Press the TURB Softkey to enable/disable the optional Turbulence Detection feature.
12) When finished adjusting the HSI Map display of the airborne weather radar, press the Back Softkey.
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The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate the
intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert bands
is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and relative terrain present
information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the navigation maps disables
the display of the data link radar and relative terrain information for this page.
SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. Additional
information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a center banner annunciation. Refer to
the following tables for a list of annunciations and their locations for airborne weather radar.
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
Standby
STANDBY
Weather
Weather
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
Ground Mapping
Off
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
* See Table 6-13 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-11 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
The system displays the status of the weather radar features in the upper-right corner of the Weather Radar
Page.
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Radar Feature Status
STAB ON
STAB OFF
STAB INOP
ALTITUDE COMP TILT ON
ALTITUDE COMP TILT OFF
GND CLTR SUPPRESS ON
GND CLTR SUPPRESS OFF
GND CLTR SUPPRESS INACTIVE
GND CLTR SUPPRESS UNAVAILABLE
TURB DETECTION ON
TURB DETECTION OFF
TURB DETECTION INACTIVE
TURB DETECTION UNAVAILABLE
Description
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The antenna stabilization
feature is inoperative.
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected on.
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected off.
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected on.
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected off.
The ground clutter suppression feature is enabled, but the radar is in a mode
which cannot support ground clutter suppression (e.g. vertical scan or sector
scan).
The ground clutter suppression feature is missing data needed to suppress
ground clutter.
The turbulence detection feature is selected on.
The turbulence detection feature is selected off.
Turbulence detection is inactive when map range is greater than 160 nm, or
radar is in a mode which cannot support turbulence detection.
The radar is missing data needed to detect turbulence.
Table 6-12 Radar Feature Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Pane
If the weather radar unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center
of the Weather Radar Page.
Weather Radar Page Center
Description
Banner Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
RADAR FAIL
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system should be serviced.
Table 6-13 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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6.4 TERRAIN DISPLAYS
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process
the data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting requires the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B option. No terrain or obstacle
alerting occurs for the Terrain Proximity feature.
The terrain system increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and
obstacles.
One of the following terrain systems is installed on this aircraft:
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option when the Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B
(TAWS-B) is not installed; refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information about Garmin SVT.)
• TAWS-B (optional)
The installed terrain system provides color indications on map displays when terrain or obstacles are within
a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B furthermore provide advisory visual
annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence of threatening terrain or obstacles relevant to the projected
flight path. This alerting capability is not present in the Terrain Proximity feature. Compared to Terrain-SVT
alerting, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles. The
TAWS-B system includes more alerting capabilities than the Terrain-SVT system.
The terrain system requires the following for proper operation:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain and obstacle databases
The terrain system uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information
is based on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may
be shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content. However, the
displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may still contain inaccuracies.
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The terrain system uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and
altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above
geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. The system
uses GSL altitude to determine alerts for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems. GSL altitude accuracy is affected
by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure
altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widelyused MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to
calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by the terrain system are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position
and GSL altitude, terrain system displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the
position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, for the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, the system uses the
GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding
terrain and obstacles. In this manner, the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems can provide advanced alerts of predicted
dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
The terrain system uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200
feet above ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically
adjusts these colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the OnGround Legend. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain information using red,
yellow, green, and black, as shown on the In-Air Legend. As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or
from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. For
Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, if an alert occurs, the relative terrain colors transition to the In-Air Legend if
the On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the pilot with the most information possible.
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On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Figure 6-81 Relative Terrain Legend
The following figure shows the relative terrain coloring for the Terrain Proximity system.
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-82 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
The following figure shows relative terrain coloring for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-83 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Systems
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NOTE: The Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset Window shows terrain at least 2000 feet below the aircraft
altitude as gray.
The following tables show the relative obstacle coloring used by the terrain systems.
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-14 Relative Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Wire Obstacle
Wire Obstacle Location
Red wire obstacle is at or above the aircraft altitude
Yellow wire obstacle is between the aircraft altitude to within 250 feet below
the aircraft altitude
White wire obstacle is more than 250 ft below the aircraft altitude
Table 6-15 Relative Wire Obstacles and Colors
Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft
altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-16 Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
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The Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems show potential impacts areas for terrain and obstacles using yellow and
red as shown in the following table.
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
TAWS-B Warning
Warning
Terrain-SVT Warning
or
Caution
or
Table 6-17 Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
The Map - Terrain Proximity or Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Page is the principal map page for viewing terrain
information. Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following maps and pages:
• PFD Maps
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
• Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (MFD maps other than the terrain page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the Map/HSI Softkey).
2) Press the TER Softkey until REL is shown to display terrain and obstacle data.
When relative terrain is selected on maps other than the terrain page, an icon to indicate the feature is enabled
for display and a legend for the relative terrain colors are shown.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map.
Terrain information can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles recognized
by Terrain Proximity as yellow or red are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within
the setting limit.
Maps besides the Terrain Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The maximum
display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation Map. If
the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest obstacle
display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
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Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• Terrain Display – Turns the display of relative (‘REL’) terrain data, or topgraphical (‘TOPO’) on or off and sets
maximum range at which terrain is shown
• Obstacle Data – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are
shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the Joystick. If the
map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Additional
Information on
Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Lighted Obstacle
Selected with Map
Pointer
Red Lighted
Obstacles
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-84 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
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TERRAIN PAGE
The Map - Terrain Proximity, or Map - Terrain-SVT, or Map - TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain,
and obstacle in relation to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. This page is the
principal page for viewing terrain information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be
enabled for reference.
For Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems only, this page also shows potential impact areas. If terrain or obstacles
(including wire obstacles) and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically adjusts
to a map range if necessary to emphasize the display of the potential impact area.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading, in which case the
orientation is track up. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 250 feet to 1000 nm, which is indicated
on the map range arc.
Displaying the terrain page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the terrain page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Orientation
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-85 Terrain Proximity Page
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VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles in an
inset window on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. Although the VSD does not display Terrain-SVT or
TAWS-B alerts and potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors and symbols as these
systems to depict relative terrain and obstacles within the VSD.
Enabling/Disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable or disable the VSD.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the Navigation Map Page
also control the display of this information in the VSD.
VSD DISPLAY
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low
enough or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain will be shown
in gray if the TER Softkey is selected off on the Navigation Map Page).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon
the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution,
within a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present position and the end of the
map range. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as annunciated on the HSI, and is widest
during enroute or oceanic phases.
Flight Phase
Approach
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Total VSD Width
0.6 nm
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 6-18 VSD Terrain Width Varies with Phase of Flight
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the top-left corner
of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan, and if no active
flight plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In Track Mode, the contour
is based on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based on the active flight plan, when
available, otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
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Selecting a VSD Mode:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey displaying the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey cycles through a mode
selection: FPL (flight plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the VSD is adjusted
to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the Navigation Map range is
adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical mile. When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the VSD; only an outline of the terrain will be
displayed in black in the VSD Inset Window.
Track Mode
Boundary
Relative
Terrain legend
VSD Mode
Selected Altitude
Figure 6-86 VSD on the Navigation Map Page with Relative Terrain Information
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL
is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for especially tall obstacles), a vertical
line appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as
shown in the following figure.
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Figure 6-87 VSD with Tall Obstacles
TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The boundary is
shown as a white rectangle on the Navigation Map Page and is only available when the VSD is enabled in
Track Mode. White range markers on both edges of the Track Mode Boundary rectangle match the range
markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window whenever the profile range is at least four
nautical miles (or 7.5 km if configured for metric units).
The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘VSD’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• TRK Mode BNDRY – Enables/disables the display of the Track Mode Boundary and sets maximum range at
which Track Mode Boundary is shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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WIRE OBSTACLE INFORMATION AND ALERTING
For additional safety, the terrain system incorporates Garmin’s WireAware™ wire obstacle information. For
wire obstacles such as power lines present in the obstacle database, the system shows these on the maps as well
as the Synthetic Vision display; see the Flight Instruments section for more information about Synthetic Vision
displays of power lines. For the Terrain-SVT, TAWS-B and TAWS-A only, this system can also issue cautions or
warnings for potential impact with wire obstacles.
WireAware database information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power lines which
are typically high voltage transmission lines depicted on VFR Sectional charts, and are considered of special
interest to fixed-wing pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers, valleys, canyons, or be in close
proximity to airports/heliports.
It is important to note the obstacle database does not contain all power lines. In fact, WireAware database
coverage is mostly limited to HOT power lines, such as the especially tall transmission lines and their associated
support structures. It does not typically have information for the more prevalent smaller utility poles or lines,
such as those found in residential areas. Furthermore, WireAware obstacle database coverage exists mainly in
the United States; with limited coverage in portions of Canada and Mexico. In addition, the height of the wire
obstacles is commonly estimated and should not be relied upon for maneuvering decisions.
TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS-B ALERTING DISPLAYS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B software
algorithms. Terrain alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an
alert is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are simultaneously issued.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The terrain alert annunciation appears
to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and bottom left on the MFD. If the terrain page is not
displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Page)
Alert Annunciation
Pop-up
Alert
Figure 6-88 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
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Potential Impact
Area
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-89 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
The following table lists the possible Terrain-SVT alerts.
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVT Page)
Voice Alert
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
“Warning; Wire, Wire”
Reduced Required Line Clearance (RLC)
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Line Impact Caution (ILI)
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Line Clearance
Caution (RLC)
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-19 Terrain-SVT Alerts Summary
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The following table lists the TAWS-B alerts.
Alert Type
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
Voice Alert
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Line Impact
Warning (ILI)
“Wire Ahead; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Reduced Required LIne
Clearance Warning (RLC)
“Wire, Wire; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
Required Reduced Line
Clearance Impact Caution
Imminent Line Clearance
Impact Caution (ILI)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
“Caution, Wire; Caution, Wire”
“Wire Ahead; Wire Ahead”
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Voice Callout
(VCO) “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
“Don’t Sink”
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-20 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B compares the projected
flight path as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and obstacle databases.
The system issues FLTA alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of the
projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the ground
speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest runway
along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes narrower until
the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-90 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination
runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
ADDITIONAL TAWS-B ALERTING
In addition to the FLTA alerting discussed previously, TAWS-B provides the following additional types of
alerts.
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide notification when the aircraft is
determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain a rate that is calculated to be excessive relative to height
above terrain.
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6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
Descent Rate (FPM)
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-91 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-92 PDA Alerting Threshold
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual annunciations. NCR alerting is
only active when departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
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• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-93 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-94 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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FIVE-HUNDRED VOICE ALERT
The purpose of the TAWS-B “Five-hundred” voice alert is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft
descends to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of an
airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft
is more than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain
(as determined by the GPS altitude and Terrain Database).
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alert.
INHIBITING ALERTING
The pilot can manually inhibit FLTA alerts. If TAWS-B is installed, PDA alerts are also inhibited with FLTA
alerts.
Terrain-SVT System
TAWS-B System
Figure 6-95 Alerting is Inhibited when Annunciation is displayed
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B or Terrain-SVT Alerting:
1) Select the terrain page.
2) Press the Inhibit Softkey. Alerting is inhibited when softkey annunciator is green.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired inhibit or enable option and press the ENT Key.
SYSTEM STATUS
TERRAIN-SVT
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice alert
is issued at test completion.
Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain System
Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the Terrain-SVT Page. The voice alert “Terrain
System Not Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the voice alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
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PFD/MFD† Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, and
Terrain-SVT operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle databases
None
Terrain-SVT Page Center
Banner Annunciation
TERRAIN TEST
Voice Alert
None
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”*
None
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
† Annunciation is shown on Terrain-SVT Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-21 Terrain-SVT System Status Annunciations
TAWS-B
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice alert is
issued at test completion. The pilot can also manually select a TAWS-B system test. The system test option is
unavailable when the ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated
along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the system
displays the ‘TAWS N/A’ annunciation, and issues the “TAWS Not Available” voice alert. When the GPS signal
integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the system issues the voice alert, “TAWS
Available” .
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PFD/MFD* Alert TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
None
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage
area
TAWS-B System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
None
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-22 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
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6.5 TAWS-A
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain avoidance. TAWS-A is intended only to enhance
situational awareness.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
NOTE: The data contained in the TAWS databases comes from government agencies. Garmin accurately
processes and cross-validates the data but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the data.
The TAWS-A (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class A) feature increases situational awareness and aids
in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and obstacles. TAWS-A provides visual annunciations and voice
alerts when terrain and obstacles are within the given altitude threshold from the aircraft. The displayed alerts
and warnings are advisory in nature only.
TAWS-A satisfies TSO-C151b Class A and TSO-92c requirements for certification.
TAWS-A requires the following components:
• A valid terrain/obstacle/airport terrain database
• A valid 3-D GPS position solution
• Valid flap position inputs
• A valid radar altimeter
TAWS-A uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information is based
on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may be
shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content, per TSO-C151b.
However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and the data may still
contain inaccuracies.
TAWS-A uses information from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and altitude, along with
additional altitude input from the radar altimeter. GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. The
system converts GPS altitude to a height above geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean seal level
(MSL) calculated geometrically. GSL altitude accuracy is affected by factors such as satellite geometry, but it is not
subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure altitude devices. GSL altitude does
not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a highly accurate
and reliable MSL altitude source to calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by TAWS-A are referenced to mean sea level (MSL). Using the GPS
position and GSL altitude, TAWS-A displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the
position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the GPS position and GSL altitude are used to calculate and
“predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, TAWS-A
can provide advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
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TAWS-A incorporates radar altimeter input with the GSL altitude to provide a more accurate position reference
when at lower altitudes for certain alert types, and to retain a level of ground proximity warning capability in the
unlikely event of a terrain or obstacle database failure.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GPS-MSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s true altitude
differing from the baro-corrected altitude.
TAWS-A provides the following alert types:
• Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) Alerting, which consists of:
• Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) / Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC) Alerting
• Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) / Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) Alerting
• Premature Descent Alerting (PDA)
• Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) Alerting, which consists of:
• Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) Alerting
• Excessive Closure Rate (ECR) to Terrain Alerting
• Flight Into Terrain (FIT) Alerting
• Negative Climb Rate (NCR) after takeoff Alerting
• Excessive below Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation (GSD) Alerting
• Altitude Voice Call Out (VCO) Alerting
DISPLAYING TAWS-A DATA
TAWS-A uses yellow (caution) and red (warning) to depict terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) alerts relative to aircraft altitude. Colors are adjusted automatically as the
aircraft altitude changes. The colors and symbols in the following figure and tables are used to represent terrain,
obstacles, and potential impact points.
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Potential Impact Point
Terrain above or
within 100 ft
below the aircraft
altitude
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Unlighted Obstacle
1000 ft
Terrain between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Terrain more than 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
On the TAWS-A Page only, a gray shade of purple indicates no terrain data is available.
Figure 6-96 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS-A
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and
1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
Table 6-23 TAWS-A Obstacle Colors and Symbology
Potential Impact
Point Symbol
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
Warning
Caution
Table 6-24 TAWS-A Potential Impact Point Symbols with Alert Types
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TAWS-A PAGE
The TAWS-A Page shows terrain, obstacle, and potential impact point data in relation to the aircraft’s current
altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be displayed
for reference. If an obstacle or terrain and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the system reduces
the TAWS-A Page map range if necessary to clearly show the potential impact point.
Aircraft orientation on TAWS-A Page is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Two views are
available relative to the position of the aircraft: the 360° default display and the radar-like ARC (120°) display.
Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 1 to 200 nm, as indicated by the map range rings (or arcs).
Displaying the TAWS-A Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the TAWS-A Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the TAWS-A Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
Red Terrain
(Warning - Terrain
Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Current
Aircraft GPSderived GSL
Altitude
Yellow Terrain
(Caution - Terrain
Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Red Lighted
Obstacle is Above
or Within 100’
Below Aircraft
Altitude
Yellow Lighted
Obstacles are
Between 100’ and
1000’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude
Terrain Legend
Annunciation Window
Figure 6-97 TAWS-A Page
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TAWS-A ALERTS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within TAWS-A software algorithms.
TAWS-A alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an alert is
issued, the system displays visual annunciations with voice alerts.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The TAWS-A Alert Annunciation is
shown to the upper left of the Altimeter or upper right of the Airspeed indicator on the PFD and below the
Terrain Legend on the MFD. If the TAWS-A Page is not already displayed on the MFD, a pop-up alert appears
on the MFD while an alert is active. When a pop-up alert occurs, do one of the following:
• Press the CLR Key (removes the pop-up alert), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the TAWS-A Page)
TAWS-A System
Status
Annunciations
TAWS-A
Terrain Caution
Annunciation
PFD with TAWS-A Annunciations
MFD Pop-Up Alert (on non-TAWS-A pages)
MFD TAWS-A Page with Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-98 Example TAWS-A Annunciations
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WIRE OBSTACLE INFORMATION AND ALERTING
For additional safety, the terrain system incorporates Garmin’s WireAware™ wire obstacle information. For
wire obstacles such as power lines present in the obstacle database, the system shows these on the maps as well
as the Synthetic Vision display; see the Flight Instruments section for more information about Synthetic Vision
displays of power lines. For the Terrain-SVT, TAWS-B and TAWS-A only, this system can also issue cautions or
warnings for potential impact with wire obstacles.
WireAware database information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power lines which
are typically high voltage transmission lines depicted on VFR Sectional charts, and are considered of special
interest to fixed-wing pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers, valleys, canyons, or be in close
proximity to airports/heliports.
It is important to note the obstacle database does not contain all power lines. In fact, WireAware database
coverage is mostly limited to HOT power lines, such as the especially tall transmission lines and their associated
support structures. It does not typically have information for the more prevalent smaller utility poles or lines,
such as those found in residential areas. Furthermore, WireAware obstacle database coverage exists mainly in
the United States; with limited coverage in portions of Canada and Mexico. In addition, the height of the wire
obstacles is commonly estimated and should not be relied upon for maneuvering decisions.
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MFD Map Page
PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page
Pop-Up Alert
Annunciation
(Except TAWS-A Page)
Alert Type
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
Voice Alert
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Line Impact Warning (ILI)
“Wire Ahead; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Reduced Required LIne Clearance
Warning (RLC)
“Wire, Wire; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead, Pull Up”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up”
Excessive Descent Rate Warning (EDR)
“<whoop> <whoop> Pull Up”
Excessive Closure Rate Warning (ECR)
“<whoop> <whoop> Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
Required Reduced Line Clearance
Impact Caution (RLC)
“Caution, Wire; Caution, Wire”
Imminent Line Clearance Impact
Caution (ILI)
“Wire Ahead; Wire Ahead”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
Premature Descent Alert Caution (PDA)
“Too Low, Flaps”
Excessive Descent Rate Caution (EDR)
“Sink Rate”
Excessive Closure Rate Caution (ECR)
“Terrain, Terrain”
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Alert Type
MFD Map Page
PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page
Pop-Up Alert
Annunciation
(Except TAWS-A Page)
Voice Alert
Negative Climb Rate Caution (NCR)
“Don’t Sink”
Flight Into Terrain High Speed Caution
(FIT)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Flight Into Terrain Gear Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Gear”
Flight Into Terrain Flaps Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Flaps”
Flight Into Terrain Takeoff Caution (FIT)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Glide Slope Deviation Caution (GSD)
(depends on approach type)
Altitude Voice Callout (VCO)
or
or
None
None
“Glideslope”
or
“Glidepath”
“Five Hundred”, “Four Hundred Fifty”, “Four Hundred”,
“Three Hundred Fifty”, “Three Hundred”, “Two Hundred
Fifty”, “Two Hundred”*, “One Hundred”, “Fifty”,
“Forty”, “Thirty”, “Twenty”, “Ten”
Table 6-25 TAWS-A Alerts Summary
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE (FLTA)
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of TAWS-A compares the aircraft’s projected flight
path with known terrain and obstacles in their respective databases and issues four types of alerts as either a
caution or a warning:
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance (RTC) and Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)
alerts are issued when the aircraft flight path is above terrain or obstacles, yet is projected to come within
the minimum clearance values. When an RTC alert is issued, a potential impact point is displayed on the
TAWS-A Page.
Imminent Terrain Impact (ITI) and Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI) alerts are issued when the
aircraft is presently below the elevation of terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s projected path. ITI and IOI
alerts are accompanied by a potential impact point displayed on the TAWS-A Page. The alert is annunciated
when the projected vertical flight path is calculated to come within minimum clearance altitudes.
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Required Terrain Clearance
RTC Level (FT)
RTC Descending (FT)
800
Required
Terrain Clearance
(FT)
Required
Terrain
Clearance
(FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Distance From Runway (NM)
Distance From Runway (NM)
Figure 6-99 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically suppresses FLTA alerts from occurring under any of the following conditions:
• The aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination elevation and within 0.5 nm of the destination.
• The aircraft is less than fifty feet above terrain or on the ground.
• The aircraft is between runway ends.
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
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800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-100 PDA Alerting Threshold
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
Inhibiting FLTA and PDA Alerts
NOTE: The ‘Inhibit TAWS’ function only inhibits FLTA and PDA alerts. FLTA and PDA alerts are inhibited
independently from GPWS (EDR, ,ECR, NCR, FIT) and GSD alerts.
FLTA and PDA visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited. Discretion should be
used when inhibiting alerts and the system should be enabled when appropriate. When PDA and FLTA
alerts are inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘TAWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and on the TAWS-A Page
annunciation window of the MFD.
Figure 6-101 TAWS-A Page Menu and Inhibit Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling FLTA and PDA alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Select the TAWS INH Softkey to inhibit or enable TAWS-A (choice dependent on current state).
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Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Inhibit TAWS’ or ‘Enable TAWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
While TAWS alerting is inhibited, or TAWS is unavailable or has failed, the system may show a ‘LOW
ALT’ annunciation on the PFDs if all of these conditions are met:
• The aircraft is on a GPS SBAS approach.
• The Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint.
• The aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed FAF altitude.
Refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information about the ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation.
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide suitable notification when the
aircraft is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain at an excessive speed. The following figure
shows the parameters for the alert as defined by TSO-C151b.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
ion:
Caut
3500
ATE”
KR
“SIN
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL-UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-102 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
EXCESSIVE CLOSURE RATE ALERT
The Excessive Closure Rate (ECR) alert provides suitable notification when the aircraft is determined to
be closing upon terrain at an excessive speed for a given flap configuration.
The following two figures show the ECR alerting criteria for flaps in the landing configuration and for all
other flight phases respectively.
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ECR alerts are automatically inhibited when the aircraft is five nautical miles from the nearest airport,
except when FLTA is not available (causing the ‘TAWS N/A’ or ‘TAWS FAIL’ annunciation to be displayed), in
which case ECR alerting will remain active until landing.
NOTE: The alerting heights of the envelopes are augmented proportionally to the current ground speed so
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
alerts can be issued sooner.
Closure Rate (FPM)
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
Figure 6-103 Excessive Closure Rate Alert Criteria (Flaps Up or Takeoff Configuration)
Closure Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-104 Excessive Closure Rate Alert Criteria (Flaps in Landing Configuration)
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FLIGHT INTO TERRAIN ALERT
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
Flight Into Terrain (FIT) alerts occur when the aircraft is too low with respect to terrain based on flap
position and groundspeed. FIT caution alerts are issued when flight conditions meet the criteria shown in
the following figure.
*
*
Altitude Change Rate (FPM)
* Flap position will not trigger alert if Flap Override option is enabled; see discussion below.
Figure 6-105 Flight Into Terrain Caution Alert Criteria
To reduce nuisance FIT alerts on approaches where flap extension is not desired (or is intentionally delayed),
the pilot may override FIT alerting based on the flap position.
Figure 6-106 TAWS-A Page Menu and FIT Flap Override Annunciation
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Overriding Flaps-based FIT alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page
2) Select the FLAP OVR Softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Flap Override’ or ‘Disable Flap Override’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
When the Flaps Override option is enabled, the annunciation ‘FLAP OVR’ is annunciated on the PFD and
on the TAWS-A Page of the MFD. If GPWS alerts are also inhibited (which include FIT), the ‘FLAP OVR’
annunciation is not shown.
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
FIT alerts also occur during takeoff or go-around if the aircraft’s height above ground level (as determined
by the radar altimeter) is too close to rising terrain. TAWS-A will issue the voice alert “Too Low - Terrain”
and visual annunciations when conditions enter the caution alert area.
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
Radio Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-107 FIT Alerting After Takeoff
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by an annunciation and a pop-up terrain
alert on the MFD if the TAWS-A Page is not already displayed. NCR alerting for TAWS-A is only active when
departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
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• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
• Flaps are configured for takeoff
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-108 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
500
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-109 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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INHIBITING GPWS ALERTS (EDR, ECR, FIT, AND NCR)
NOTE: The ‘Inhibit GPWS’ function only affects GPWS alerts (EDR, ECR, NCR, and FIT). Alerting for FLTA,
PDA, and GSD is controlled independently from the GPWS alerts listed below.
EDR, ECR, FIT, and NCR visual annunciations and voice alerts can be manually inhibited as a group.
Discretion should be used when inhibiting alerts and the GPWS system should be enabled when appropriate.
When these alerts are inhibited, the alert annunciation ‘GPWS INH’ is shown on the PFD and on the TAWS-A
Page annunciation window of the MFD.
Figure 6-110 TAWS-A Page Menu and GPWS Inhibit Annunciation
Inhibiting/enabling GPWS alerting:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Select the GPWS INH Softkey to inhibit or enable GPWS alerts (choice dependent on current state).
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Inhibit GPWS’ or ‘Enable GPWS’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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EXCESSIVE BELOW GLIDESLOPE/GLIDEPATH DEVIATION ALERT
A Glideslope Deviation or Glidepath Deviation (GSD) caution alert is issued when the system detects
that the aircraft is significantly below the glidepath for the selected approach in relation to the aircraft’s height
above terrain.
NOTE: Nuisance alerts may occur after the combination of an MFD being restrored from reversionary to
Radio Altitude (Feet)
normal MFD while also below GS/GP
“GLIDESLOPE”
or
“GLIDEPATH”
Number of Dots Below Glideslope/Glidepath
Figure 6-111 Excessive Below Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation Alert Criteria
GSD alerting is only active after departure and the following conditions are met:
• An ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, or LNAV+V approach is active and vertical navigation indications are being
displayed.
• Aircraft is below 1000 feet AGL.
When a GSD caution alert occurs on an ILS approach, the visual annunciation ‘GLIDESLOPE’ is issued with
the ‘Glideslope’ voice alert. If a GSD caution alert occurs on an LPV, LNAV/VNAV, or LNAV+V approach, the
visual annunciation ‘GLIDEPATH’ is issued with the ‘Glidepath’ voice alert.
Inhibiting GSD Alerts
NOTE: GSD alerting may only be inhibited while a GSD alert is occurring. GSD alerts are inhibited
independently from FLTA, PDA, and GPWS alerts.
During a GSD alert, the PFD Softkeys are displayed as shown in the following figure to provide an option
to inhibit the alert. A ‘GLIDESLOPE’ alert will display a GS INH Softkey to inhibit the alert. A ‘GLIDEPATH’
alert will display a GP INH Softkey to inhibit the alert. When an inhibit Softkey is pressed, the PFD Softkeys
return to the top-level display. Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level of the PFD Softkeys without
inhibiting the GSD alert.
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Or:
Or:
Figure 6-112 GSD Glideslope Alert and PFD Softkeys
GSD alerts may also be inhibited on the TAWS-A Page while a GSD alert is occurring.
Inhibiting/Enabling GSD alerting (only available during a GSD alert):
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Select the GS INH or GP INH Softkey to inhibit or enable GSD alerts (softkey choice dependent on present GSD
alert type).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select the option to inhibit or enable the glideslope or glidepath alerting (choice dependent on present GSD
alert type) and press the ENT Key.
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Figure 6-113 TAWS-A Page Menu and Glideslope Alerting Inhibited Annunciation
ALTITUDE VOICE CALLOUT (VCO)
TAWS-A provides voice alerts as the aircraft descends, beginning at 500 feet above the terrain, using radar
altitude (if greater than five nm from the nearest airport), or 500 feet above the nearest runway Touch Down
Zone Elevation using GPS-GSL altitude (if less than five nm from the nearest airport. Upon descent to this
altitude, the system issues a ‘five hundred’ voice alert.
Additional VCO alerts occur as the aircraft descends through 500’, 450’, 400’, 350’, 300’, 250’, 200’, 150’,
100’, 50’, 40’, 30’, 20’ and 10’ feet. There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the
voice alerts. VCO alerts cannot be inhibited.
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SYSTEM STATUS
During power-up, TAWS-A conducts a system test of its alerting capabilities. The system test can also be
manually initiated. A voice alert occurs at the conclusion of the test. TAWS-A System Testing is disabled when
ground speed exceeds 30 knots. TAWS-A terrain alerts will not be issued while a test is in progress.
PFD/MFD TAWS-A
Page Annunciation
Alert Type
TAWS System Fail
TAWS Not Available
GPWS System Fail
System Test in progress
TAWS System Test pass
TAWS PDA/FLTA Alerting
Inhibited
GPWS Alerting Inhibited
None
GSD Alerting Inhibited
or
‘Too Low - Flaps’ FIT alerting
inhibited
TAWS-A Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
NO FMS POSITION
(if FMS position
lost)
None
“TAWS Not Available”
“GPWS System Failure”
TAWS TEST
None
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Table 6-26 TAWS-A System Test Status Annunciations
Manually testing the TAWS-A System:
1) Select the TAWS-A Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
TAWS-A ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
TAWS-A continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, flap position, radar
altimeter input, and GPS status.
If no GDU contains Terrain, Airport Terrain, and Obstacle databases (or the databases are invalid), the voice
alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-A requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should the
navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TAWS N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-A Page. The voice alert “TAWS Not
Available” is also generated if airborne, and some TAWS-A terrain alerts will not be issued, while GPWS alerting
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(which are not dependent on GPS position) will continue to operate. When the GPS signal is re-established and
the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the voice alert “TAWS Available” is generated.
TAWS-A also requires radar altimeter input. Should the radar altimeter input fail or become degraded, the
annunciation ‘GPWS FAIL’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the TAWS-A Page. The voice alert
“GPWS System Failure” is also generated. The ‘GPWS FAIL’ annunciation will also occur if both GPS altitude
and barometric altitude are unavailable. If only the GPWS system has failed, GPWS-based alerts will not be
available, while other TAWS-A alerting remains unaffected.
Alert Type
TAWS System Test Fail;
Terrain, Airport Terrain
or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid on all
GDUs; software mismatch
among GDUs; TAWS audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid. TAWS operating
with PFD Terrain or
Obstacle databases
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS
signal, or out of database
coverage area
Sufficient GPS signal
reception restored
Radar Altimeter invalid,
Vertical Speed Invalid, GPS
and Baro Altitude invalid,
Software mismatch among
GDUs, TAWS configuration
mismatch among GDUs,
TAWS audio fault
PFD/MFD
TAWS-A Page
Annunciation
None
TAWS-A Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS Alert
Types
Not Available
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
FLTA, PDA
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
“TAWS Not Available”
NO GPS POSITION
None
None
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Available”
(voice alert only in
flight)
None
“GPWS System Failure”
FLTA, PDA,
GSD†, VCO*
FLTA, PDA
EDR, ECR, NCR,
FIT, GSD
* VCO alerts are not issued if both TAWS and GPWS systems have failed or are not available
† GSD alert will be available if a valid ILS is being used for navigation, even in no valid GPS signal is being received.
Table 6-27 TAWS-A Abnormal Status Alerts
If the aircraft bank angle exceeds 30˚, TAWS-A will disable ECR alerts. ECR alert availability returns when
the bank angle is reduced for at least eight seconds.
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6.6 TAS TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of traffic system limitations. Traffic systems require transponders of other
aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due
to phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: Refer to the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic discussion for more
information about ADS-B traffic displays.
The optional Garmin GTS 825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). It enhances flight crew situational awareness
by displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual annunciations
and voice alerts to help the pilot visually acquire traffic.
The traffic system is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest
threat potential can be displayed simultaneously.
No TAS surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating transponders.
TAS THEORY OF OPERATION
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system directly interrogates the transponders of other
aircraft in the vicinity. The traffic system uses this information to derive the distance, relative bearing, and if
reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The traffic system then
calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the closure
rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts.
TAS SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
The GTS 825 TAS surveillance system actively scans the airspace within ±10,000 feet of its altitude. Under
ideal conditions, the GTS 825 scans transponder traffic up to 40 nm in the forward direction. The range is
somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of the aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In
areas of greater transponder traffic density or when TCAS II (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II)
systems are detected, the on-board traffic system automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power
(and therefore range) in order to limit potential interference from other signals.
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NOTE: The TAS system does not display Mode S transponder equipped traffic determined to be on the
ground. The TAS system also does not display Mode C transponder equipped aircraft determined to be on
the ground if own aircraft has a radar altimeter displaying 1700’ AGL or lower. However, if own aircraft is
receiving traffic information from an ADS-B source (including ADS-R, ADS-B, TIS-B), the system does display
ground traffic while operating in SURF Mode. Refer to the ADS-B Traffic Section for more information.
The symbols in the following table depict traffic, and include Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
(ADS-B) traffic symbols. Refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later in this section for more information.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information is beyond the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing.
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground
traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or
own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic with ADS-B directional information. Pointed end indicates direction of travel. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface
(SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-28 Traffic Symbols with TAS and ADS-B
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a solid amber circle or circle enclosing an arrow, alerts the crew to a
potentially hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria.
A TA that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the
screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or arrow, indicates the intruding aircraft is
within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
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Other, non-threat traffic, shown as an open white diamond or arrow, is displayed for traffic beyond six
nautical miles that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet. When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus sign ‘-’
indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in
either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol.
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-114 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting when the aircraft is more likely to be near an airport. The system uses Level A (less) sensitivity
when the height above terrain is at or below 2,000’ AGL. If the height above terrain is unavailable, Level A
sensitivity applies when the ground speed is less than 120 knots. In all other conditions, Level B (higher)
sensitivity applies.
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.2 NM.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.55 NM.
Table 6-29 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
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NOTE: The TAS system issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using TAS alerting criteria. The ADS-B system
issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using the Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting (CSA) criteria. See
the ADS-B Traffic section for more information about CSA.
TAS ALERTS
When the TAS detects a new TA, the following occur:
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA. For example, the
announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own aircraft,
above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-30 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
NOTE: The TAS system mutes TA voice alerts when own aircraft is below 400 feet AGL.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the right of the airspeed tape on the PFDs, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected.
• A PFD map is automatically displayed with TA traffic. If no PFD map was shown prior to the TA, a Traffic
Map appears on the PFDs. If a navigation map was already shown prior to the TA, the system enables the
Traffic overlay, if necessary, on the PFD maps in order to display the traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Maps and in the lower-left corner of navigation maps with traffic enabled instead of TA symbol. The
text will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if
known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
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Traffic Appears
when TA is
Detected
Figure 6-115 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
SYSTEM TEST
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes about ten seconds
to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on any displayed traffic
maps. The test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading.
The system announces, “TAS System Test Passed”. When the system test is complete, the traffic system
enters Standby Mode. If the optional GTX 345R is installed, the message will then say “Traffic System Test”.
NOTE: When using the traffic ‘test’ pattern, the intruder relative bearing locations are relative to aircraft
heading.
Testing the traffic system:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern to be displayed during test.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to place the TAS system into Standby Mode.
5) If the ADS-B Softkey is enabled, press the ADS-B Softkey to disable ADS-B traffic.
6) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
1) With the Traffic system in Standby mode and the ADS-B softkey disabled, press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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TAS Test Mode
Figure 6-116 System Test in Progress with Example Test Pattern
OPERATION
NOTE: The Garmin GTS 825 TAS automatically changes from Standby to Operating mode eight seconds
after takeoff. The system also automatically changes from Operating to Standby mode 24 seconds after
landing.
When the avionics system initially receives power on the ground, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The
system must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Changing traffic system modes on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Press the Operate or TAS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘OPERATING’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in
the Traffic mode field.
Or:
1) With the Traffic Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2)
Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired mode.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Map - Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. The pilot can adjust the map range with
the Joystick. A range indication appears on each range ring.
The system annunciates the traffic mode and altitude display mode in the upper right corner of the Traffic
Map Page.
TAS Operating Mode
Annunciation
Non-threat traffic
4000’ above
Flight ID
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
2.0 nm away,
600’ above,
descending
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Traffic Advisory,
500’ feet above,
climbing
Figure 6-117 Traffic Map Page
Altitude Display Mode
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic is
displayed. If traffic meets the criteria for a TA, it is also displayed even if it is outside of the selected volume
of airspace.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
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• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in the previous step 2):
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The pilot can adjust the range of traffic displayed on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. Range indications
appear on rings shown on the page. The minimum map range is 750 feet. A maximum map range of 40
nautical miles is available.
Selecting the Traffic Map Display Range:
1) Select the Map - Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick as needed to select the desired map range.
Flight ID Display
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the Traffic Map Page.
When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol on the Traffic
Map Page when this option is enabled.
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the Traffic Map Page, press the FLT ID Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice dependent on current state).
3) Press the ENT Key.
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ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic unit
is operating:
• Map - Navigation Map Page
• FPL - Active Flight Plan Page
• Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page
• FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page
• Map - Traffic Map Page
• Aux - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest (NRST) Pages
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, the system shows a traffic status icon
to indicate traffic is enabled for display as well as the altitude display mode (Above, Below, Normal, Unres).
Traffic Advisory
Proximity
Advisory
Traffic overlay
enabled icon and
Altitude Display
Mode
Figure 6-118 TAS Traffic on Navigation Map
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Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays only Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels (relative altitude, vertical trend) are
shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
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A traffic-only inset map is available on the PFD by pressing the Inset Trfc Softkey. A traffic map appears
on the PFD. This map resembles the Traffic Map Page, and presents a heading up format. Traffic information
can also be overlaid on PFD navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling traffic overlay on PFD maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information.
Or:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press either the Inset Trfc Softkey or the HSI Trfc Softkey.
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page)
Traffic System Test
Initiated
OPERATING
Operating
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
Standby
Traffic System Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-33 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-31 Traffic Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
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Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-32 TAS Failure Annunciations
NOTE: If the GTX 345R transponder is installed and has failed, the GTS 825 TAS enters failure mode, and the
system will not display traffic information.
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-33 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.7 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: For the GTX 345R, ADS-B traffic on the ground may not be displayed for targets between 0° and -90°
longitude (west of prime meridian).
NOTE: If the Optional Garmin GTS 825 is installed without the Optional Garmin GTX 345R, some TIS-B
capability will be provided. Refer to Table 6-34 for details.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic
control system. It offers improved surveillance services, both air-to-air and air-to-ground, especially in areas
where radar coverage is ineffective due to terrain, or where it is impractical or cost prohibitive. ADS-B is
comprised of three segments for the purposes of providing traffic information: ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R
(Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).
ADS-B includes the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on
fixed objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail
Number, ICAO registration number, etc.), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status.
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1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Figure 6-119 ADS-B System
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
The ADS-B system operates on two frequencies: 1090 MHz and 978 MHz. Both frequencies provide the same
traffic information. An aircraft may be ADS-B In, Out, or participating on one or both frequencies, depending
on the installed equipment. The 1090 MHz frequency portion of ADS-B is known as 1090 Extended Squitter
(1090 ES). The 978 MHz portion of ADS-B is known as Universal Access Transceiver (UAT).
The Garmin GTX 345R transponder provides ADS-B Out functions using the 1090 ES data link. It also
performs ADS-B In functions using the UAT data link. This includes the reception of Flight Information ServicesBroadcast (FIS-B) data link weather service, provided when the aircraft is receiving data from a participating
ground station; refer to the Data Link Weather section for more information about FIS-B Weather.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking traffic data from one
link and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, if two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground
station, and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other is transmitting on 978 MHz, the ground station
retransmits the data from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each other as
traffic.
If another aircraft can only receive 978 MHz UAT information, it cannot directly ‘see’ another aircraft
sending only 1090 ES information aircraft unless an ADS-R ground station in the vicinity rebroadcasts the
1090 ES data over the 978 MHz UAT frequency. This is also true for an aircraft when can only receive 1090
ES data; it would need an ADS-R ground station to ‘see’ another aircraft operating on the UAT frequency.
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TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
TIS-B provides a link between the secondary surveillance radar (SSR)-based system ATC uses and the ADSB-based system. When an ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B
ground station, the ground station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is
then included in the list of aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in SSR coverage, and the
other aircraft is also in SSR coverage, and is transmitting its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTX 345R-equipped aircraft according to
the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
Other Aircraft Equipment
1090ES Out Equipped
UAT Receive Only Capable
UAT Transmit Equipped
No Transponder, No ADS-B
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S
Transponder
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped
Aircraft
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes*
By GTS 825
Equipped Aircraft
Yes
No
Yes**
No
Yes
* Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar coverage, or own aircraft
is equipped with a TAS system and traffic is within the TAS surveillance range.
** Only if an ADS-B ground station relays the data.
Table 6-34 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
ADS-B WITH TAS
When the system is receiving ADS-B In traffic and with a Garmin GTS 825 TAS in Operating Mode, the
system attempts to match (or “correlate”) data the two traffic sources. When a correlation is made, the system
displays the traffic information for the tracked aircraft determined to be the most accurate. Any traffic that is
not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the other) is also displayed for the flight crew. This
may occur, for example, if another aircraft is beyond the surveillance range of the TAS, but own aircraft is
receiving information via ADS-B for the other aircraft. The traffic correlation feature improves the accuracy
of the traffic displayed, while reducing the occurrence of displaying the same traffic for a given aircraft twice.
NOTE: In certain situations, a single aircraft may be depicted as two aircraft on the display if the system
is unable to correlate the traffic. This may occur, for example, when operating on the edges of ATC radar
coverage, target transponder is not reporting altitude, or when using an optional active traffic system
providing intermittent data. This may also occur if TIS-B traffic data does not closely match the traffic data
from other sources, especially while the traffic tracked by ATC radar is turning.
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NOTE: The TAS system issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using TAS alerting criteria. The ADS-B system
issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using the Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting (CSA) criteria.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TAS system discussed previously.
When a TA occurs with is equipment, the displays a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation and provides a voice alert. This
annunciation and voice alert is the same as the alerts issued by the Garmin GTS 825 TAS discussed previously.
NOTE: The system mutes TA voice alerts from ADS-B sources when own aircraft is below 400 feet AGL.
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to adjust the sensitivity of the CSA
algorithm in accordance with the following table:
Sensitivity
Level
Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
4
4
4
5
5
Any
Any
Unavailable
Any
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
5
6
7
Unavailable or
>2350
8
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
GPS Phase of Flight
Any
Any
Approach
Any
Any
Terminal
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Vertical
Protected
Own Altitude Look-ahead
Threshold for Volume
(Feet)
time (sec)
Alert (feet)
(NM)
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
<=5000
25
30
850
850
0.20
0.35
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
Table 6-35 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
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AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
ADS-B traffic can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two ADS-B
applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness (SURF). The
system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five NM and 1,500 feet above the nearest airport.
When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five NM and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation.
When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map
Page range of one nm or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to
traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for
more information about SafeTaxi displays.
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially
when runways are in close proximity to each other.
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic symbols
may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic to be displayed
in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Availability for
AIRB and SURF is depicted on the Aux - ADS-B Status Page, discussed later in this section.
SURF Application On
Ground-based
vehicle
Aircraft on the
ground
Figure 6-120 Traffic Map Page with SURF Mode On
NOTE: Refer to the TAS Traffic section for a table of ADS-B and TAS traffic symbols the system can display.
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OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map
range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper right corner of the page.
TAS Operating Mode
Annunciation
Non-threat traffic
4000’ above
Flight ID
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
2.0 nm away,
600’ above,
descending
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Traffic Advisory,
500’ feet above,
climbing
Figure 6-121 Traffic Map Page
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test pattern display.
3) Ensure the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
4) If the optional TAS is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
5) Press the Test Softkey.
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Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
A test pattern of traffic symbols appears during the test, and a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears on the PFD.
At the conclusion of the test, the system issues the voice alert “Traffic System Test”. If the test pattern is
displayed and the voice alert is heard, the system has passed the test.
TAS Test Mode
Figure 6-122 System Test in Progress with Example Test Pattern
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is displayed.
TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Press one of the following softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Map Page, press the Back Softkey.
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Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options (see softkey description in the previous step
2:
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future. If the system does not have
sufficient information to calculate motion vectors, they are not shown.
Absolute
Motion Vectors
Absolute Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-123 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
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Relative Motion
Vectors
Relative Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-124 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press one of the following softkeys:
•
Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
Off: Disables the display of the motion vector.
Or:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion Vector Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press the Duration Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, press the Back Softkey to return to the Traffic Map Page.
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Displaying Additional Traffic Information
The Traffic Map Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may include
the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service vehicle,
unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV), course, track, groundspeed), and other information.
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob. A cyan border appears on the first selected traffic symbol. Additional information appears
in a window in the lower-left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob to move the cyan border until another symol is selected.
4) When finished, push the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The pilot can adjust the range of traffic displayed on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. Range indications
appear on rings shown on the page. The minimum map range is 750 feet. A maximum map range of 40
nautical miles is available.
Selecting the Traffic Map Display Range:
1) Select the Map - Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick as needed to select the desired map range.
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous TAS discussion
for information about these additional traffic displays.
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ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B: AIRB
None
ADS-B: SURF
None
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
ADS-B TRFC N/A
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
ADS-B Mode
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-38 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-36 ADS-B Modes
NOTE: If the optional TAS fails, the display of ADS-B traffic (ADS-B In) also fails, unless a GTX 345R
transponder is installed. In this case, if the TAS fails, the display of ADS-B traffic continues even if the TAS
has failed.
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-37 Traffic Failure Annunciations
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-38 Traffic Status Annunciations
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the Aux - ADS-B Status Page.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
Figure 6-125 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page
Item
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface (SURF),
Airborne Alerts (CSA)
Status Message
Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does
not meet performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the
application has failed.
Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this
annunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
The system is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The system is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink from a ground station
occurred. If no uplink has been received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear
instead of the number of minutes.
Available to Run
Not Available
Fault
Not Configured
TIS-B/ADS-R Coverage
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Ground Uplink Status:
Last Uplink
---------------Available
Not Available
--------------External #1
External #2
--------Number of minutes, or
‘------’
Table 6-39 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS OVERVIEW
NOTE: The current, pertinent flight manual always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The Garmin AFCS is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the system
avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description.
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
• Flight Director (FD) — The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and referred to as
pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both PFDs.
The flight director provides:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Autopilot communication
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos. It also provides
servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering commands, Attitude and
Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
AFCS CONTROL UNIT
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
HDG Key
APR Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
4
NAV Key
FD Key
5
XFR Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command
Bars. If the autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which flight
director the autopilot is tracking
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer
directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
Toggles Airspeed Reference between IAS and Mach for Flight Level Change Mode
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes
(see Table 7-2 for change increments in each mode)
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is
available under approach conditions)
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
Engages/disengages the autopilot
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD
1
2
3
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
ALT Key
7 VS Key
8 FLC Key
17 CRS Knobs
6
9
SPD Key
11 NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
12 VNV Key
13 ALT SEL Knob
10
14
15
16
18
19
YD Key
AP Key
BANK Key
BC Key
HDG Knob
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
Annunciator
Light
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
AP DISC Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
CWS Button
(Control Wheel
Steering)
Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and interrupts pitch trim operation
An AP DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Mode)
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
GA Button
(Go Around)
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Disengages the autopilot and selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around
(in air) Mode
If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates the missed approach when
the selected navigation source is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC and
a valid frequency has been tuned.
The GA Button is located on the throttle.
Used to command manual electric pitch trim
MEPT Switch
(Manual Electric An MEPT Switch is located on each control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
This composite switch is split into left and right sides. The left switch is the ARM
contact and the right switch controls the DN (forward) and UP (rearward) contacts.
Pushing the MEPT ARM Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged, but
does not affect yaw damper operation. The MEPT ARM Switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
Manual trim commands are generated only when both sides of the switch are operated
simultaneously. If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three
seconds, MEPT function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ is displayed as the AFCS Status
Annunciation on the PFDs. The function remains disabled until both sides of the
switch are inactivated.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed description
follows in Section 7.4.
• Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit.
Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to hold the
current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case, ‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will
be annunciated.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will smoothly
pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director modes remain
unchanged.
• Autopilot Disengagement — One way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the AP DISC
Switch, which is located on the control stick. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and annunciated on
the PFD. Other ways to disconnect the autopilot include:
– Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
– Pressing the GA Switch (located on the left throttle)
– Operating the MEPT Switch (located on each control wheel)
– Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker
In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP DISC Switch will disconnect the
autopilot and remove all power to the servos.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (−15°, +20°) and roll (22°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side flight
director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from the
displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
FLC Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
GA Button
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
VOR
LOC
HDG
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Takeoff (on ground)
TO
Go Around (in air)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Flight Level Change
FLC
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Lateral Modes
Armed
Active
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status Status
Flight Director
Indicator Arrow
Vertical Modes
Active
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes. Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights (Figure 7-1) which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed
or active.
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the FD Key is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic
transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation moving to the green
active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of GPS Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
SWITCHING FLIGHT DIRECTORS
The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. The autopilot follows the selected flight
director only, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or copilot side, in the center of the AFCS
Status Box. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR Key. The annunciator light arrow for the
selected flight director is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are switched, the
vertical and lateral modes revert to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director Selected
Copilot-side Flight Director Selected
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
COMMAND BARS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a single cue.
The Aircraft Symbol (in yellow) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format; the Command Bars do
not override the Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars move together vertically to indicate pitch
commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Single-cue Command Bars
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.3 AFCS MODES
The AFCS is capable of operating in a variety of independent Lateral Modes, Vertical Modes and Combination
of both the Lateral and Vertical Modes.
VERTICAL MODES
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode
reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes. The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while operating
under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode.
Vertical Mode
Pitch Hold
Selected Altitude Capture
Altitude Hold
Vertical Speed
Flight Level Change, IAS Hold
Level
Description
Holds the current aircraft pitch
attitude; may be used to climb/
descend to the Selected Altitude
Captures the Selected Altitude
Holds the current Altitude Reference
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
speed; may be used to climb/descend
to the Selected Altitude
Maintains the current aircraft
airspeed in IAS while the aircraft is
climbing/descending to the Selected
Altitude
Maintains the current vertical speed
reference
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
-15° to
+20°
0.5°
nnnn fpm
-3000 to
+2000 fpm
100 fpm
nnn kt
80 to
175 kt
1 kt
Control Annunciation
(default)
PIT
*
ALTS
ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
VS Key
VS
FLC Key FLC
**
LVL
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, TO, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured
instead of VNV Target Altitude
**ESP automatically engages LVL Mode. Reference Section 7.6 , Abnormal Operation, for a detailed description of LVL mode
function.
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch
Hold Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’
annunciation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter), since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to
the nose-up/down limit.
Changing the Pitch Reference
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-6 Pitch Hold Mode
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SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at
least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude
is to be captured instead of the VNV Target
Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see previous figure for
example). The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected
Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed (next figure). This automatic transition is indicated by the
green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-7 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the Selected Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the
new Selected Altitude.
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ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current
aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference,
shown in the AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter.
Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode.
Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when the altitude error is
less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude Reference.
Changing the Altitude Reference
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude Reference. When the
CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is established as the Altitude Reference.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-8 Altitude Hold Mode
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VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current
aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical
Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is
selected.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS
Status Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the
Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is
shown on the indicator.
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-9 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
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FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference in IAS while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter).
When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected Altitude,
airspeed, and altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the
Airspeed Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
Changing the Airspeed Reference
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Airspeed Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Airspeed Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Selected
Airspeed Altitude Capture
Reference Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Descent
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-10 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
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LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer
to the combination modes section for information regarding Go Around and Takeoff modes.
Lateral Mode
Roll Hold
Low Bank
Heading Select
Description
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum commanded BANK
roll angle
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
Navigation, GPS Arm/Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the selected
Navigation, VOR Enroute Arm/Capture/Track
navigation source (GPS, VOR,
Navigation, LOC Arm/Capture/Track
LOC)
(No Glideslope)
Level
Control Annunciation
ROL
22°
*
15°
HDG
22°
GPS
VOR
22°
22°
LOC
22°
NAV
Key
Maintains wings level
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
**
LVL
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll
Scale of the Attitude Indicator.
** ESP automatically engages LVL Mode. Reference Section 7.6 , Abnormal Operation, for a detailed description of LVL mode
function.
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
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ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls the wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank
angle condition.
Figure 7-11 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 22°
> 22°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 25°
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
Changing the Roll Reference
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low bank
arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select
or Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). Low Bank Mode is automatically activated when the current roll
attitude is less than 6 degrees and baro altitude is at or above 25,000 feet. Low Bank Mode will automatically
deactivate if any the required modes are not coupled or armed, or if roll attitude is less than 6 degrees and
baro altitude is at or below 25,000 feet. The annunciator light next to the BANK Key illuminates while Low
Bank Mode is selected.
Low Bank Arc
Figure 7-12 Low Bank Mode Limits
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HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains
the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in the box to the
upper left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob on either PFD. Pressing the CWS Button and
hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the
Selected Heading upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading
changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-13 Heading Select Mode
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NAVIGATION MODES (GPS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
NOTE: If NAV is pressed to arm the GPS capture before activating a Direct-To, the GPS mode may not capture
the Direct-To course.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering
commands from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision
GPS and LOC approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the
selected mode is armed. If the CDI shows less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when
the NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active lateral mode.
Figure 7-14 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed
prior to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic navigation
source switch from GPS to LOC
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Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when
the CWS Button is released.
GPS Navigation
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation Source
Command Bars Indicate Right
Turn to Track GPS Course
Figure 7-15 Navigation Mode
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COMBINATION MODES (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA)
The following table lists the modes that operating by using both Vertical and Lateral Modes with their
corresponding controls and annunciations.
Mode
Description
Vertical Path Tracking
VNV Target Altitude Capture
Glidepath
Glideslope
Control
Captures and tracks descent
legs of an active vertical VNV Key
profile
Captures
the
Vertical
Navigation (VNV) Target
*
Altitude
Captures and tracks the SBAS
or Baro VNAV glidepath on
approach
APR Key
Captures and tracks the ILS
glideslope on approach
Captures
and
tracks
a localizer signal for BC Key
backcourse approaches
Annunciation
Maximum
Roll
Command
Limit
VPTH
ALTV
GP
GS
BC
22° Capture
10 Track
Approach, GPS Arm/Capture/Track
GPS
22°
Approach, VOR Arm/Capture/Track Captures and tracks the
selected navigation source APR Key
Approach, ILS Arm/Capture/Track (GPS, VOR, LOC)
(Glideslope Mode automatically
armed)
VAPP
Backcourse Arm/Capture/Track
Reference
Range
22° Capture
10 Track°
LOC
Takeoff
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level on the
ground.
GA
Button
TO
7°
Go Around
**Commands a constant
pitch angle and wings level
in the air
GA
Button
GA
7°
* ALTV is armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude.
** With the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) installed, the autopilot will not disengage. When the GA button
is pressed, the autopilot will remain engaged to fly the missed approach
Table 7-5 Flight Director Combination Modes
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations any
time that VNV flight planning is available. Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on
VNV flight plans. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
• The selected navigation source is GPS.
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD).
• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude.
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight
control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon
reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and
cancels any armed VNV modes.
Vertical Path Tracking Mode (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope
Mode is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable,
the appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the
Selected Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-16 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
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Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude
by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within one minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and
the descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation
Status Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation,
and vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required
VNV Target
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-17 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile (next figure). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as
appropriate.
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Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-18 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path
(without commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV
vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV
Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
For approaches providing vertical guidance, the computed enroute/terminal baro-VNAV solution remains
active until the FAF waypoint becomes the active leg. Once the FAF becomes the active leg, VNAV continues
to remain active if the aircraft is in a VPTH-coupled descent. If VNAV is not in a VPTH-coupled descent,
the enroute/terminal baro-VNAV solution is removed to make way for the approach descent path to be
displayed on the VDI.
When the active leg is prior to the FAF waypoint, the computed enroute/terminal baro-VNAV solution
remains active (i.e., does not apply the VPTH-coupled restriction) even if the TOD is located on the FAF1 to FAF leg. The system operates in this way to avoid situations in which the aircraft was previously
intercepting the descent path after the FAF-1 waypoint (i.e., on the FAF leg), but is now intercepting it
before the FAF-1 waypoint due to changes in the aircraft altitude. In that situation, baro-VNAV would have
previously not been active since the TOD would have been on the FAF leg, but then became active once the
system detected the aircraft altitude intercepted the descent path prior to the FAF-1 waypoint.
Rather than allowing a situation in which VNAV was previously inactive but became active without pilot
modification, the system removes the VNAV solution once the FAF becomes the active leg (assuming the
system is not VPTH coupled). It is at that point that the approach descent path would become active on
the VDI.
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Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director
to revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in
the vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by
flight plan changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode
to allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-19 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected
Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target
Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded
from a database (see the Flight Management Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1
minute” is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the
Vertical Speed Indicator.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
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The VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains
displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RSVI) is removed
once VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active,
the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to
indicate the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing
upcoming descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-20 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the VNV Target Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes
the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude
capture mode are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude,
depending on which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the Flight Management
Section for details).
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting Glidepath Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V should be flown to an MDA, until visual with the
landing surface, even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
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WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Figure 7-21 Glidepath Mode Armed
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• A GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight plan.
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
GPS Approach
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
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Glidepath
Mode Active
LPV Approach
Active
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 7-22 Glidepath Mode
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GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When Glideslope
Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral flight director
mode.
Selecting Glideslope Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-23 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the
glideslope, the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
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Approach
Mode Active
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Mode Active
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 7-24 Glideslope Mode
APPROACH MODES (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the
selected navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected
navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the
CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the active
lateral mode). If the CDI is less the 1 dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
• During a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC.
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Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Selecting GPS Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-25 GPS Approach Mode Armed
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC
Approach Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the
difference between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
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Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when
the CWS Button is released.
BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the mode
is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the BC Key is
pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation when in
Backcourse Mode.
Backcourse
Mode Active
LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Figure 7-26 Backcourse Mode
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data while in Backcourse
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course when the CWS Button is released.
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INTERCEPTING AND FLYING A DME ARC
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that GPS
Navigation Mode is engaged, GPS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is
the active flight plan leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS.
Thus, even if the APR key is pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides vectors
to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically
intercept or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms GPS Navigation
Mode. The AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of the
arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects GPS Navigation
Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
Go Around and Takeoff modes are pitch and roll modes and are annunciated as both the vertical and lateral
modes when active. In these modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude and wings
level. The Go Around Button is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends
on whether the aircraft is on the ground.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the Go Around Button. The flight director Command Bars assume a wingslevel, pitch-up attitude.
Pressing the GA Switch while in the air activates the flight director in a wings-level, pitch-up attitude,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Go Around Mode arms Selected Altitude
Capture Mode automatically. Subsequent autopilot engagement is allowed. Attempts to modify the aircraft
attitude (i.e., with the NOSE UP/NOSE DN Wheel or CWS Switch) result in reversion to Pitch and Roll Hold
modes.
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Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Takeoff Mode Active
Figure 7-27 Takeoff and Go Around Modes
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7.4 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the current, pertinent flight manual for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight control. The
autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the flight director. Pitch
autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch
servo. The yaw damper is automatically engaged with autopilot engagement.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response. It also
uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns.
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ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot. When the
AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are activated and the
annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight director
engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated. Refer to the Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA)
modes section for information regarding automatic transition to the FLC Mode from the Takeoff (TO) mode.
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-28 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Engaged
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-29 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
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DISENGAGEMENT
To manually disengage only the autopilot and not the Yaw Damper push the AP Key on the AFCS Control
Unit or the MEPT ARM Switch. Manual autopilot disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow
‘AP’ annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert.
Figure 7-30 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
Pushing the AP DISC Switch or YD disengages both the yaw damper and the autopilot. When the yaw
damper and autopilot are manually disengaged, both the ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciation turn yellow and flash for
three seconds and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert is generated.
Figure 7-31 Yaw Damper Disengagement
After manual disengagement, the autopilot disconnect aural alert may be cancelled by pushing the MEPT ARM
or AP DISC Switch (AP DISC Switch also cancels the flashing ‘AP’ annunciation).
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or MEPT ARM
Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Stall warning (YD also disengages)
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes
(FD also disengages automatically)
• Yaw damper failure while both are engaged
When the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) is installed, pressing the TO/GA, while in the air,
will not disengage the autopilot. When this feature is installed the Autopilot will remain engaged and fly the
aircraft through the missed approach procedure.
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
Figure 7-32 Automatic Autopilot and Yaw Damper Disengagement
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7.5 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS MESSAGES
System Status Field
Figure 7-33 AFCS System Status Field
The following alert annunciations appear in the AFCS System Status field on the PFD.
Condition
Annunciation Description
Pitch Failure
PTCH
Pitch axis control failure; AP inoperative
Roll Failure
ROLL
Roll axis control failure; AP inoperative
(or stuck MEPT
Switch)
PTRM
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT switches separately to unstick
Yaw Damper Failure
YAW
YD control failure; AP also inoperative
System Failure
AFCS
AP and MEPT are unavailable; FD may still be available
EDM
The Emergency Descent Mode (EDM) is activated by the Hypoxia Recognition System
which is described in detail in the Additional Features Section.
Pitch Trim Failure
Emergency Descent
Mode
Elevator Mistrim
Down
¤ELE
Elevator Mistrim Up
£ELE
Aileron Mistrim
Right
AILñ
Aileron Mistrim Left
œAIL
Rudder Mistrim
Right
RUDñ
Rudder Mistrim Left
œRUD
Preflight Test
Pitch servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction. May indicate a
failure of the pitch trim servo or trim system.
Roll servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Yaw servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction. Aircraft rudder retrim
after substantial pitch and power changes required.
PFT
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and preflight system tests
as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos fail their
power-up tests). Power must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
PFT
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
Table 7-6 AFCS Status Alerts
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OVERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in ALT, GS or GP modes.
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Overspeed protection is provided to limit the flight director’s
pitch command in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain the mode reference for the
selected vertical mode without exceeding Vne.
When Overspeed Protection is active, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed Indicator,
flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference adjusted
to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
Figure 7-34 Overspeed Annunciation
UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system is
installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to protect the airplane from stalls. When the aircraft reaches a
predetermined airspeed, a yellow MINSPD annunciation will appear above the airspeed indicator.
For airplanes that have ESP installed, the AFCS can detect and protect against underspeed situations while the
autopilot is engaged. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum commandable airspeeds as
defined in the table below.
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Flap Settings
UP
TO/APR
LAND
UP
TO/APR
LAND
Icing Conditions
No Icing
Active
LAAS and MCA
88 KIAS
80 KIAS
95 KIAS
Table 7-7 208B EX USP (with and without cargo pod), (with cargo pod and TKS)
Flap Settings
UP
TO/APR
LAND
UP
TO/APR
LAND
Icing Conditions
No Icing
Active
LAAS and MCA
88 KIAS
80 KIAS
105 KIAS
Table 7-8 208B EX USP (with TKS Fairing)
Flap Settings
UP
10°
20°
FULL
UP
10°
20°
FULL
Icing Conditions
No Icing
LAAS and MCA
88 KIAS
85 KIAS
80 KIAS
95 KIAS
Active
85 KIAS
Table 7-9 208 USP
When the aircraft reaches a predetermined airspeed (reference table above), a yellow MINSPD annunciation
will appear above the airspeed indicator.
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Figure 7-35 MINSPD Annunciation
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical flight
director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can be divided
into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical
modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical modes). In both modes,
the altitude preselect is set above the current altitude and power/thrust is inadequate to cause the aircraft to
climb to the desired altitude.
ALTITUDE-CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
As the aircraft slows, prior to (based on airspeed trend vector) reaching stall warning, an aural “AIRSPEED”
alert will sound. If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will
change from active to armed, and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the
wings to level. An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red “USP ACTIVE” annunciation
will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The pitch down force will continue until the aircraft
reaches a pitch attitude at which airspeed equals the airspeed at which stall warning turns off, plus two knots.
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Figure 7-36 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciation
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power) to above the airspeed at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference.
The vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active. The pitch attitude may be very
high as the aircraft climbs back to the desired altitude. This high pitch angle and rate of climb is intended to
minimize time spent below the desired altitude
NON-ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (VS, VNAV, IAS, PIT)
When the airspeed trend vector reaches a predetermined airspeed, a single aural “AIRSPEED” will sound,
alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition. If the aircraft decelerates to an airspeed below the
minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red “USP ACTIVE” annunciation will appear to the right of the
vertical speed indicator. The vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed, and the autopilot
will cause the aircraft to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which airspeed equals the minimum
commandable autopilot airspeed.
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power) to airspeed above the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference. The
vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active.
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7.6 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SUSPECTED AUTOPILOT MALFUNCTION
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as specifics that may
supplement or amplify this procedure.
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the following steps:
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
2) Press and hold the AP DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed from the trim motor.
Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged solenoids. Note the visual and aural alerting
indicating autopilot disconnect.
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid components.
5) Release the AP DISC Switch.
LEVEL MODE
Level (LVL) mode also becomes active as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the optional ESP feature.
When the normal flight envelope thresholds have been exceeded for more than 50% of the last 20 seconds,
Level mode is activated. The autopilot will engage and provide input to bring the aircraft back into straight and
level flight based on zero degrees roll angle and zero feet per minute vertical speed. An aural engaging autopilot
alert sounds and the lateral and vertical flight director annunciations will display “LVL”. The AFCS will remain
in Level mode until the pilot selects another mode.
Roll
Pitch
Command Bars Indicate
Level with the Horizon
Figure 7-37 Level Mode Annunciation
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EMERGENCY DESCENT MODE
The Emergency Descent Mode (EDM) is activated by the Hypoxia Recognition System which is described in
detail in the Additional Features Section. The Emergency Descent Mode of the AFCS consists of four phases
- Primary Descent to 14,000 ft
- Level off at 14,000 ft
- Secondary Descent to 12,500 ft
- Final level off at 12,500 ft
Each descent phase will use the FLC mode of the autopilot and be performed at the maximum allowable
airspeed as defined by the system software and configuration. The unacknowledged ‘EMER DESCENT’
warning CAS message will continue to be annunciated and warning aural played throughout the entire
process. Once EDM is initiated, a red EDM annunciation will be displayed on the PFD. During any EDM
descent, EDM can only be aborted by disconnecting the autopilot.
OVERPOWERING AUTOPILOT SERVOS
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied to the pitch controls
when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or force on the pitch controls can cause the
autopilot automatic trim to run to an out-of-trim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force
to the controls should be avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to run, resulting in an
out-of-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is prolonged. In this case, larger than
anticipated control forces are required after the autopilot is disengaged.
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
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SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• SurfaceWatch™
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• Satellite Telephone and SMS Messaging Services
• AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
• Bluetooth connections (Connext®)
• SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
• Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™)
• Flight Data Logging
• Hypoxia Recognition System
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information.
The AOPA and AC-U-KWIK Airport Directories offer detailed information for a selected airport, such as available
services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver handles
more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment choices
and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
Satellite Telephone Services and SMS messaging is an optional subscription service offered through Garmin
®
Connext and Iridium Satellite LLC. Voice and SMS messaging communications are through the Iridium Satellite
Network. Data communications are through Iridium Data Services, or a wireless network (WiFi) when the
aircraft is on the ground.
Connext allows for setting up the installed optional Bluetooth Transceiver device for a Bluetooth connection
between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
The optional SurfaceWatch™ feature provides voice and visual annunciations to aid in maintaining situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport
environment.
The Garmin Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside
the normal flight envelope
The optional Hypoxia Recognition System provides protection to aircraft occupants from succumbing to the
debilitating affects of hypoxia.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SAFETAXI
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• PFD Maps
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
• NDB Information Page
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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Airport
Features
Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
Figure 8-1 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
The Detail Softkey (declutter) label advances to Detail All, Detail 3, Detail 2 and Detail 1 each time the softkey
is selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the Detail All Softkey removes the taxiway
markings and airport feature labels. Selecting the Detail 3 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol,
and intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the Detail 2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the Detail 1 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, push the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map Settings’ Menu Option and push the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and push the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Aviation’ Group options to SafeTaxi.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Push the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.2 CHARTS
If multiple chart sources are available, the preferred charts source can be selected within the system. The active
chart source for a particular procedure is shown on the information pane under Source. For split screen view and
operation, refer to System Overview.
Selecting Preferred Charts Source:
1) While viewing a chart, push the MENU Softkey to display the ‘Page Menu’ options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ menu option and push the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Preferred Charts Source’ option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the available options (FliteCharts, ChartView).
Preferred Charts Source Option
Chart Setup Option
Figure 8-2 Preferred Charts Source
Chart Source
Figure 8-3 Chart Source
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHARTVIEW
ChartView is optional equipment. ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures
charts. The charts are displayed in full color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft
position on the moving map in the planview of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots
are outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes are not considered within the chart boundaries. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol is removed
from the display.
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading
is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale
areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of
this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview,
not to the off-scale area.
Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-4 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
• Approaches
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, NRST-Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL-Flight Plan’ Page, select the
Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) From the ‘Map-Chart + Navigation Map’ page, push the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to ‘Show Departure Chart’, ‘Show Arrival Chart’or
‘Show Approach Chart’.
3) Push the ENT Key to display the chart.
Figure 8-5 ‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’ Page Menu
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner ‘No Available Charts’ appears on the screen. The ‘No Available Charts’ banner does not refer to the ChartView subscription, but rather the availability of a
particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-6 No Available Charts Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner ‘Unable to Display Chart’ is then displayed.
Figure 8-7 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by selecting the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
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If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL-Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST-Nearest Airports’ Page, select
the Charts Softkey.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Field or the ‘Charts’ Field.
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Push the ENT Key to complete the airport selection. The flashing cursor is moved to the ‘Charts’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
7) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
8) Push the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Chart Scale
Figure 8-8 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While the list of charts is displayed, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart is selected, the chart
scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pushing the Joystick centers
the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the
boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If
the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not
Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Pushing the Chart Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the Chart Softkey switches between the Atlanta, Peachtree Dekalb, GA
(PDK) Airport Diagram and the navigation map on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page.
Pushing the Info Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart. If the
displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info Softkey has no effect. The aircraft position is shown in
magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is within the chart boundaries. Another source for additional airport information is from the Info Box above the chart for certain airports. This information source is not related to the Info Softkey. When the Info Box is selected using the FMS Knob,
the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering information; the Airport
Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and Airline Parking Gate
Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.)
Aircraft
Current
Position
Figure 8-9 Airport Information Page, INFO View, Full Screen Width
In the example shown in following figure, the Class B Chart is selected. Pushing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart.
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Figure 8-10 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from INFO View
- Pushing the SYNC Softkey displays the database linked chart associated with the current phase of flight.
- Pushing the Info Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart. If the
displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info Softkey has no effect.
- Pushing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
- Pushing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
- Pushing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
- Pushing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available
only when a SiriusXM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
- Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Pushing
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When
NOTAMS are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM
Softkey may appear on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections. Pushing the
NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
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CHART OPTIONS
- Pushing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
- Pushing the All Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
Complete
Chart
Shown
Figure 8-11 Approach Information Page, All View
- Pushing the ROT CCW Softkey rotates the displayed chart counter clockwise in 90 degree increments.
- Pushing the ROT CW Softkey rotates the displayed chart clockwise in 90 degree increments.
- Pushing the Header Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
- Pushing the Plan Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
- Pushing the Profile Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
- Pushing the Minimums Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
- Pushing the Fit WDTH Softkey changes the chart size to fit the available screen width if the chart scale has
been adjusted to view a small area of the chart,
- Pushing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between full screen and split screen modes. (For more information
about split screen mode, see the System Overview section).
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, Push the Full SCN Softkey to display the information windows (Airport,
Info).
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2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Airport, Info, Runways, or Frequencies Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and push the ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Push the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Pushing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys. The full screen
view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart push the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Full Scree (On/Off)’.
3) Push the ENT Key to enable or disable Full Screen Mode.
Figure 8-12 Page Menus, Full Screen On/Off Selection
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DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart push the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and push the ENT Key.
Figure 8-13 Page Menu Chart Setup
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day, Auto, and Night’ Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Push the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu.
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Figure 8-14 Chartview Approach Chart, Day View
Figure 8-15 Chartview Approach Chart, Night View
FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. These charts will display an
Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
Figure 8-16 Aircraft Not Shown Icon
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An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas are
indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of
this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview,
not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Airport Diagrams
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Figure 8-17 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
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FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the Charts Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT Opt, SYNC, Info, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and Back. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the Back Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: All, Fit WDTH, Full SCN, and Back.
While viewing the CHRT Opt Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, NRST-Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL-Flight Plan’ Page, select the
Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) From the ‘Map-Chart + Navigation Map’ page, push the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to ‘Show Departure Chart’, ‘Show Arrival Chart’or
‘Show Approach Chart’.
3) Push the ENT Key to display the chart.
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu, select the desired chart and push the ENT Key
to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner ‘No Available Charts’ appears on the screen. The ‘No Available Charts’ banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability of
a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-18 No Available Charts Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner ‘Unable to Display Chart’ is then displayed.
Figure 8-19 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by selecting the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
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If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL-Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST-Nearest Airports’ Page, select
the Charts Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the ‘WPT-Airport Information’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Field or the ‘Charts’ Field.
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Push the ENT Key to complete the airport selection. The flashing cursor is moved to the ‘Charts’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
7) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
8) Push the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
While the Approach Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pushing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE,
and the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen.
- Pushing the Chart Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group.
- Pushing the Info Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart. If the
displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info Softkey has no effect.
Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart or to the right of the
chart for certain airports. This information source is not related to the Info Softkey. When the INFO Box is
selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank.
- Pushing the SYNC Softkey displays the database linked chart associated with the current phase of flight.
- Pushing the Info Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart. If the
displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info Softkey has no effect.
- Pushing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
- Pushing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
- Pushing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
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- Pushing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data if a data link weather receiver is installed.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the WX Softkey to display the information windows.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Info’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Info’ Box choices. When the ‘Info’ Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and push the ENT Key to
complete the selection.
5) Push the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Pushing the Back Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
CHART OPTIONS
- Pushing the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
- Pushing the ROT CCW Softkey rotates the displayed chart counter clockwise in 90 degree increments.
- Pushing the ROT CW Softkey rotates the displayed chart clockwise in 90 degree increments.
- Pushing the Fit WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area.
- Pushng the Full SCN Softkey alternates between full screen and split screen modes. (For more information
about split screen mode, see the System Overview section).
- Pushing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and push the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the ‘Full Screen’ and ‘Color Scheme’ Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the ‘On’ and ‘Off’ Full Screen Options.
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DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu ‘Options.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and push the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day, Auto, and Night’ Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Push the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu.
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IFR/VFR CHARTS
The system can display GPS navigation information on a VFR chart, a low altitude IFR chart, or a high altitude
IFR chart, if installed. The information overlaid on the IFR/VFR Charts is selected and setup on the Navigation
Map, but the IFR/VFR charts will not display some of the selected items. Only the following items will be
overlaid on the chart:
• Map Pointer (distance and bearing to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other pertinent information)
• Map Range (17 range choices from 1 nm to 150 nm)
• Map Orientation (always North Up for IFR/VFR Charts)
• Aircraft Icon (representing present position)
• Wind Direction and Speed
• Icons for enabled map features (Traffic only)
• Flight Plan Legs
• Track Vector
• Runway Extension
• Missed Approach Preview
• Intersections (only as part of active flight plan)
• Visual Reporting Points
• VNAV Constraints
• Selected Altitude Intercept Arc
Map panning on the IFR/VFR Charts works the same as on the Navigation Map. Map range selected on either
the Navigation Map or the IFR/VFR Charts applies to both. However, if the range selected on the Navigation
Map it is not a valid chart range, the chart is shown with a range of 7.5 nm.
When different VFR charts exist for the same area the chart type will automatically display according to the
range chosen. For example, in an area where both a Sectional and a Terminal Area Chart (TAC) are available, a
range of 5 nm or more will show the Sectional chart. Once the range is decreased below 6 nm, the system will
automatically change the displayed chart from the Sectional to the TAC.
Due to the potential error involved with the electronic depiction of maps, charts will display a ‘gray circle of
uncertainty’ centered upon the aircraft icon. The aircraft’s actual position can be anywhere within the range of
the gray circle. The range of the circle will change based on the chart displayed and current zoom range.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. IFR/VFR charts may be viewed
by selecting the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
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Map Orientation
VFR Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Gray Circle of
Uncertainty
Figure 8-20 GPS Navigation Information on the VFR Chart
Selecting IFR Low, IFR High, VFR Charts:
1) Select the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
2) Push the VFR, IFR Low, or IFR High Softkey to display the desired chart.
Or:
1) Push the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Select ‘Display VFR’, ‘Display IFR Low’ or ‘Display IFR High’ to display the desired chart.
3) Push the ENT Key.
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Map Orientation
IFR Low Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Gray Circle of
Uncertainty
Figure 8-21 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR Low Altitude Chart
Map Orientation
IFR High Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Gray Circle of
Uncertainty
Figure 8-22 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR High Altitude Chart
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8.3 AIRPORT DIRECTORY
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association™ (AOPA) and optional AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory databases
offer detailed information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more. This information is
viewed on the Airport Information Page by pushing the Info Softkey until Info 2 is displayed.
Both Airport Directories are available for downloading at flygarmin.com. However, copy only one of the
databases to the Supplemental Data Card. The system cannot recognize both databases simultaneously.
Selecting the Airport Directory Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Airport Information Page. Initially, information for the airport closest to
the aircraft’s present position is displayed.
3) If necessary, push the Info softkey until Info 2 is displayed.
Figure 8-23 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
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8.4 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISIONS
CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation, ChartView,
SafeTaxi, Airport Directory. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable during a period
that extends from the cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up
Page displays the current status of the databases. As an example, see the table below for the various FliteCharts
Power-up Page displays and the definition of each. The expiration date and disables date varies for each
database.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Table 8-1 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current. Yellow text,
such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no longer viewable and
have expired.
Database time critical information can also be found on the ‘Aux - System Status’ page. The database Region,
Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue or yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not within the current
subscription period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
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From the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page, push the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the Database window. Scroll through the listed information by turning the FMS Knob or pushing the ENT Key until the applicable
database information is shown.
Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
YYTI
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
YYII
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Database Cycle Number Format
YYII
Revision Cycle
28 days
YYMI
Not Applicable
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
28 days
Table 8-2 Database Startup, Format and Cycle
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8.5 SURFACEWATCH
NOTE: The SafeTaxi database must be available to provide information regarding taxiways, aprons and
other objects in the airport environment.
NOTE: When the flight plan is modified, data manually entered on the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch’ Page will be
cleared.
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides visual annunciations to help the flight crew maintain situational awareness
and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport environment. The SurfaceWatch feature is comprised of the following key components:
• Alert Annunciations
Taxiway Takeoff
Runway Too Short (during takeoff or landing)
Check Runway (during takeoff or landing)
Taxiway Landing
• Runway distance remaining
• Provides information on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) that contains runway and taxiway information that
changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment.
The SurfaceWatch feature is not available in Reversionary Mode.
Inhibit/uninhibit SurfaceWatch:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor..
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘SurfaceWatch’ Field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to toggle the SurfaceWatch alerts on or off.
INFORMATION BOX
The SurfaceWatch™ Information Box is displayed on the PFD. It contains runway and taxiway information
that dynamically changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment. The information that is
displayed in the Information Box is the aircraft’s relative position to nearby aprons, taxiways, and runways.
There are three components to the SurfaceWatch™ Information Box. These components are Currently
Occupied, Approaching, and Crossing Runways.
Crossing Runways
Currently Occupied
Approaching
Figure 8-24 Information Types Displayed in the Information Box
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CURRENTLY OCCUPIED
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘ON’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. The aircraft is
currently ‘ON’ runway 04 right (RWY 04R). The remaining runway distance is also shown when the aircraft
is situated on and aligned with a runway.
If the aircraft is airborne and approaching an airport, ‘AIRBORNE TO’ and the destination airport identifier
will be displayed.
Information regarding non-manuevering areas not labeled on the SafeTaxi diagram will not be displayed.
APPROACHING COMPONENT
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘APPROACHING’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. In the
previous figure, the aircraft is currently ‘APPROACHING’ taxiway H (TWY H). The distance to the taxiway
is also shown.
When the aircraft is taxiing and approaching an intersection of multiple taxiways, the taxiway identifiers
will be listed in order of proximity and the distance to the nearest is displayed.
When the aircraft is taxiing and crossing an intersection of multiple taxiways, ‘CROSSING’ will be displayed
and no distance will be shown.
CROSSING RUNWAYS
This component lists the runways, from closest to furthest, that are ‘CROSSING’ the runway the aircraft
currently occupies. The distance to each runway is also shown in order of closest distance. Runways behind
the aircraft are not depicted.
The Crossing Runways component is shown in conjunction with the Currently Occupied component of
the Information Box.
ALERTS
NOTE: Taxiway Landing Alerts may be issues when flying low relative to airports in the vicinity of the
aircraft. This includes both TAWS Wire Alerts and Taxiway Landing Alerts.
The SurfaceWatch alert annunciations are displayed in the central portion of the PFD. The alert annunciations
are accompanied by a corresponding voice alert.
SurfaceWatch Alert
Annunciation
Associated Voice
Alert
“Taxiway”
“Runway too short”
“Check runway”
“Taxiway”
Description
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway)
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from, or landing on, a runway with a length
less than needed as entered.
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from, or landing on, a runway different than
that entered in the Takeoff Data or Landing Data screen.
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Table 8-3 SurfaceWatch Alert Annunciations
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TAKEOFF ALERTS
The Takeoff phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Takeoff Alerts.
Taxiway Takeoff
The Taxiway Takeoff alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway) or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alerts, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied taxiway (or other maneuvering area) and potentially the next area (apron or maneuvering area) to
be occupied (based on aircraft heading and the airport geometry) and the distance to that area.
Figure 8-25 Typical Taxiway Information Displayed in the Information Box
Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short (during takeoff) alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway
and the remaining runway length is less than the required length. The insufficient runway length condition
is determined based on aircraft current position during the takeoff roll and the required takeoff distance
information entered on the Takeoff Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway from which the aircraft is
taking off, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in the Takeoff
Data.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will contain a textual description of the
currently occupied runway and the remaining runway length.
Figure 8-26 Typical Runway Information Displayed in the Information Box
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway that does not
match the departure runway entered in the Takeoff Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied runway.
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LANDING ALERTS
The On-Final phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Landing Alerts. Landing alerts are removed when a climb is initiated during a go-around.
Taxiway Landing
The Taxiway Landing alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway)
or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING TWY” to indicate a non-runway landing is being attempted.
Figure 8-27 Typical Information Displayed During a Taxiway Landing Alert
Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway where the remaining
runway length is less than the required landing runway length entered in the Landing Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway with which aircraft is aligned,
the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in entered in the Landing
Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING REMAINING” to indicate a the remaining runway length.
Figure 8-28 Typical Information Displayed During a Runway Too Short Alert
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway that does not match the
arrival runway specified in the Landing Data.
Additionally, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier, the runway with which
the aircraft is aligned, and the distance to the runway.
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Figure 8-29 Typical Information Displayed During a Check Runway Alert
SURFACEWATCH SETUP
Origin/destination airport, runway and distance data entered integrates with SurfaceWatch technology to alert
the flight crew to a runway too short for takeoff/landing, or to advise of a potential taxiway takeoff/landing. The
runway selected in SurfaceWatch Setup appears on the airport diagram in cyan, and appears outlined in cyan on
the synthetic vision representation of the runway on the PFD.
Entering origin/destination airport:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Origin or Destination Airport field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to input the desired Origin or Destination Airport.
Selecting origin/destination runway:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Runway or Landing Runway field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired available Runway or Landing Runway. As the small FMS Knob
is turned, the preview of the selected runway or landing runway is also displayed.
Selecting required takeoff/landing distance:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the REQD Takeoff DIS or REQD Landing DIS field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the required takeoff or landing distance. Upon pushing the FMS Knob and
committing the required takeoff or landing distance, the Runway Length field will turn amber if an insufficient
runway length exists.
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Figure 8-30 SurfaceWatch Setup Page (MFD)
Information
Box is Updated
as the Aircraft
Taxies
SurfaceWatch
Alert
Figure 8-31 SurfaceWatch Info and Cyan Runway Outline (PFD)
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8.6 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver is available
for the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The SiriusXM Data Link Receiver can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio
entertainment services at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions. SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the SiriusXM
Datalink Receiver. Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the
coded IDs to send an activation signal that, when received by the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver, allows it to play
entertainment programming.
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ page.
4) Select the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux-XM Information’ Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
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Audio
Radio ID
Data
Radio ID
Weather
Products
Window
Figure 8-32 XM Information Page
If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are blank on the XM
Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather Data
Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for
subscription.
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Select the Radio Softkey to show the ‘XM Radio’ Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category. Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
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Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the ‘AUX-XM Radio’ Page, select the Channel Softkey.
2) Select the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the ‘Channels’ Box, or move down the list with the
CH – Softkey.
Or:
1) Push the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Push the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
1) While on the ‘AUX-XM Radio’ Page, select the Channel Softkey.
2) Select the Direct CH Softkey. The channel number in the ‘Active Channel’ Box is highlighted.
3) Select the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel number.
4) Push the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
CATEGORY
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is Presets to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Select the Category Softkey on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page.
2) Select the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and push the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
selecting the Presets and More Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to the
channel list for the Presets category.
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the ‘XM Radio’ Page, while listening to an ‘Active Channel’ that is wanted for a preset, select the Presets
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (Preset 1 - Preset 5).
2) Select the More Softkey to access the next five channels (Preset 6 – Preset 10), and again to access the
last five channels (Preset 11 – Preset 15). Selecting the More Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset
channels.
3) Select any one of the (Preset 1 - Preset 15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
4) Select the Set Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
Selecting the Back Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top level softkeys.
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VOLUME
Radio volume is shown as a percentage. Volume level is controlled by selecting the Volume Softkey, which
brings up the Mute Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Adjusting the volume (GMA 1347):
1) With the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ Page displayed, select the Volume Softkey.
2) Select the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or select the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. Once the VOL
Softkey is selected, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.
Adjusting the volume (GMA 1360D):
Volume can be adjusted with the GMA VOL knob if the GMA 1360D audio panel is installed
SiriusXM Radio volume may also be adjusted on all passenger headsets.
Mute SiriusXM audio:
1) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ Page or ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
2) Select the Mute Softkey to mute the audio. Select the Mute Softkey again to unmute the audio.
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8.7 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
NOTE: An account must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice/SMS.
The Iridium Transceiver provides an airborne low speed data link, Iridium Satellite Telephone service, and
Short Message Service (SMS).
The telephone is available to the flight crew through the audio panel and headsets.
REGISTERING WITH GARMIN CONNEXT
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the
‘Aux- System Status’ Page. Contact Garmin at www.flyGarmin.com.
DISABLE/ENABLE IRIDIUM TRANSCEIVER
NOTE: The GSR 56 may require a 30 minute warm up period during cold weather operations.
Iridium telephone and data communications may be turned on or off by performing these simple steps.
Disabling/enabling telephone and low speed data services:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
Figure 8-33 Report Status Page
3) Push the MENU Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’ in the menu list.
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Figure 8-34 Select Disable Iridium Transmission
5) Push the ENT Key. The Iridium Transceiver is now disabled.
6) To enable the Iridium Transceiver, repeat steps 1 through 3, then select ‘Enable Iridium Transceiver’.
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network. Control and monitoring of
telephone functions are accomplished through the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
Viewing the Telephone Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Telephone’ or ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
3) If necessary, push the Phone Softkey to display the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
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Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
Phone dialed is busy
Phone is dialing another phone
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
Table 8-4 Telephone Symbols
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CONTACTS
The names, telephone number, and email addresses can be saved in a list of contacts for easy use when
making telephone calls.
Entering a new contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, push the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘New Entry’.
3) Push the ENT Key. The cursor moves the ‘Name’ field of the ‘Contact Details’ window.
4) Enter the desired name of the new contact. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the
MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
5) Push the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Phone Number’ field.
6) Enter the desired telephone number. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
7) Push the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Email’ field.
8) Enter the desired email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
9) Push the ENT Key. ‘Save’ is now highlighted.
10) Push the ENT Key. The new contact entry is added to the list of saved contacts.
Deleting a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, push the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Push the Delete Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, push the ENT Key to delete the selected contact.
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Figure 8-35 Editing a Contact
Editing a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone Page’ displayed, push the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Push the Edit Softkey. The cursor is placed in the ‘Name’ field. Enter the desired changes. Entry can be
accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the
MFD.
4) Push the ENT Key when each field is complete. ‘Save’ is now highlighted.
5) Push the ENT Key to save the changes.
INCOMING CALLS
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed and an
aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. If the incoming call is an Iridium network call, Iridium will be
displayed. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the pop-up
alert, a ringing phone symbol will be displayed to the right of the MFD page title. Also, the voice alert
“Incoming Call” will be heard on the selected cockpit audio.
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) Push the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Push the Answer Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page
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NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
pushing the Answer Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
1) Push the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
4) Push the ENT Key.
Pushing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the call unanswered. Pushing
the Phone Softkey will display the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page allowing additional call information to be viewed
before answering.
Muting incoming call alerts:
1) With the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page displayed, push the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Push the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
OUTGOING CALLS
Making an external call from the cockpit using the Iridium satellite network:
1) Push the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Push the Dial Softkey on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Iridium’.
4) Push the ENT Key. The cursor has now moved to the phone number entry field.
The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit to an external phone:
Country Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number. The following country codes may be used
when calling other satellite telephone systems.
Satellite System
Inmarsat
ICO
Ellipso
Iridium
Globalstar
484
Country Code
870
8810 or 8811
8812 or 8813
8816 or 8817
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Figure 8-36 Enter Phone Number
5) Enter the desired telephone number (country code first) by pushing the number softkeys on the MFD.
6) Push the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted.
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Figure 8-37 Make the Call
7) Push the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number.
Figure 8-38 System is Making the Connection
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When the phone is answered, the connection is established. To exit the call, push the Hangup Softkey.
Figure 8-39 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
Making an external call from the cockpit by using the Contact List:
1) Push the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired contact name in the list of contacts.
4) Push the Call Softkey. The external call is initiated and the number associated with the contact name is dialed.
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address. Senders should address text messages to aircraft by entering [aircraft Iridium
phone number]@msg.iridium.com.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux-Telephone’ or ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
3) If necessary, push the SMS Softkey to display the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
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Figure 8-41 Text Messaging Page
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
System is sending text message
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Predefined text message
Table 8-5 Text Message Symbols
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VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed
when a new text message is received.
New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-42 New Text Message Received
Push the View Softkey to view the message. Pushing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up
window and leave the text message unopened. Pushing the Ignore All Softkey will extinguish the popwindow and ignore all future incoming text messages. Pushing the SMS Softkey will display the ‘Aux - Text
Messaging’ Page.
Figure 8-43 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
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Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
1) With the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page displayed, push the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message Popups’.
3) Push the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
Figure 8-44 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
While viewing the text message, push the Reply Softkey.
Or:
1) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Push the ENT Key.
SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
Text messages may be sent from the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
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Sending a new text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the New Softkey.
Or:
a) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
c) Push the ENT Key.
Figure 8-45 Composing a New Text Message
2) The SMS Text Message Draft Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pushing the Numbers Softkey. Push
the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be accessed by
pushing the Symbols Softkey.
3) Push the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
5) Push the ENT Key.
6) Push the Send Softkey to send the message immediately, or push the Save Softkey to save the message in
Outbox for sending at a later time. Push the Cancel Softkey to delete the message.
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PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
Creating a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Figure 8-46 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’.
3) Push the ENT Key. The Predefined Messages view is now displayed.
4) Push the New Softkey.
Or:
a) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
c) Push the ENT Key. The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed.
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Figure 8-47 Composing a Predefined Message
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘Title’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys
on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by
pushing the Numbers Softkey. Push the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters.
Special characters can be accessed by pushing the Symbols Softkey.
6) Push the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Push the ENT Key.
9) Push the Save Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Pushing the Cancel
Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Cancel Drafting Message’.
12) Push the ENT Key.
Sending a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, select the New Softkey.
2) The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or combination of the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used
to enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pushing the Numbers Softkey. Push
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the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be accessed by
pushing the Symbols Softkey.
3) Push the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
Figure 8-48 Predefined Message Softkey Shown When Composing a Message
4) Push the Predefined Softkey. The Predefined Message Menu Window is displayed.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Push the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Push the ENT Key.
8) Push the Send Softkey to transmit the message.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Showing Inbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the Arrange Softkey, then push the Inbox Softkey.
Or:
1) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
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3) Push the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Figure 8-49 Text Message Inbox
Showing Outbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the Arrange Softkey, then push the Outbox Softkey.
Or:
1) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
3) Push the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Showing Draft messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the Arrange Softkey, then push the Drafts Softkey.
Or:
1) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
3) Push the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the type of
message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
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Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the Arrange Softkey, then push the Time Softkey.
Or:
1) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
3) Push the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the Arrange Softkey, then push the Type Softkey.
Or:
1) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
3) Push the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the Arrange Softkey, then push the Address Softkey.
Or:
1) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Push the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, select the desired message box.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Push the VIEW Softkey.
Or:
Push the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
c) Push the ENT Key.
Message content is displayed.
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Figure 8-50 Viewing Message Content
5) To close the text message, push the Close Softkey.
Or:
a) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Close Message’.
c) Push the ENT Key.
Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Push the MRK Read Softkey.
Or:
a) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
c) Push the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
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Marking all messages as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
3) Push the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, push the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate all the message have
been opened.
Deleting a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Push the Delete Softkey.
Or:
a) Push the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
c) Push the ENT Key.
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8.8 CONNEXT SETUP
The Connext Setup Page allows for setting up the installed optional wireless transceiver for a Bluetooth
connection between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the system in order to use the various functions. Pairing is accomplished
by first placing the system in pairing mode by displaying the Connext Setup Page. The system is ‘discoverable’
whenever this page is displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the mobile device and the Garmin Pilot
application. See the device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the connection instructions in the Garmin Pilot
application.
Viewing the Connext Setup Page
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Connext Setup page.
Figure 8-51 Select the Connext Setup Page
Changing the Bluetooth Name
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Bluetooth Name’ field.
3) Enter the desired name by using the large FMS Knob to select the character field, and the small FMS Knob
select the desired alphanumeric character for that field.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is removed and the new name is displayed.
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Figure 8-52 Changing the Bluetooth Name
Enabling/Disabling Flight Plan Importing from Garmin Pilot
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Flight Plan Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 8-53 Flight Plan Import Enabled
Enabling/Disabling WiFi Database Importing from Garmin Pilot
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘WiFi Database Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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Figure 8-54 WiFi Database Disabled
Enabling/Disabling Automatic Reconnection of a Specific Paired Device
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’. Selecting ‘Enabled’ allows the system to automatically
connect to a previously paired device when detected.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 8-55 Disabled Auto Connect
Removing a Specific Paired Device from the List of Paired Devices:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Press the Remove Softkey. A confirmation screen is displayed.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Yes’.
5) Press the ENT Key to remove the device from the list of paired devices.
Figure 8-56 Removing Paired Device
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8.9 ELECTRONIC STABILITY & PROTECTION (ESP™)
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature that is intended to discourage the exceedance of
attitude and established airspeed parameters. This feature will only function when the aircraft is above 200 feet AGL
and the autopilot is not engaged.
ESP engages when the aircraft exceeds one or more conditions (pitch, roll, and/or Vmo) beyond the normal flight
parameters. Enhanced stability for each condition is provided by applying a force to the appropriate control surface
to return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope. This is perceived by the pilot as resistance to control movement
in the undesired direction when the aircraft approaches a steep attitude or high airspeed.
As the aircraft deviates further from the normal attitude and/or airspeed, the force increases (up to an established
maximum) to encourage control movement in the direction necessary to return to the normal attitude and/
or airspeed range. For all conditions except for high airspeed, once maximum force is reached, force remains
constant up to the maximum engagement limit. Above the maximum engagement limit, forces are no longer
applied. There is no maximum engagement associated with high airspeed.
When ESP has been engaged for more than ten seconds (cumulative; not necessarily consecutive seconds) of a
20-second interval, the autopilot is automatically engaged with the flight director in Level Mode, bringing the aircraft
into level flight. An aural “Engaging Autopilot” alert is played and the flight director mode annunciation will indicate
‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
The pilot can interrupt ESP by pushing and holding either the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) or Autopilot
Disconnect (AP DISC) switch. Upon releasing the CWS or AP DISC switch, ESP force will again be applied,
provided aircraft attitude and/or airspeed are within their respective engagement limits. ESP can also be overridden
by overpowering the servo’s mechanical torque limit.
ESP can be enabled or disabled on the ‘Aux-System Setup” Page on the MFD.
Enabling/Disabling ESP:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, push the SETUP 2 Softkey to display the ‘Aux-System Setup 2’ Page. If the ‘Aux-System Setup 2’ is
already displayed, proceed to step 4.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Stability & Protection field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ESP is automatically enabled on system power up.
ROLL ENGAGEMENT
Roll Limit Indicators are displayed on the roll scale at 45° right and left, indicating where ESP will engage (see
following figure). As roll attitude exceeds 45°, ESP will engage and the on-side Roll Limit Indicator will move
to 30°, as shown in the following figure. The Roll Limit Indicator is now showing where ESP will disengage as
roll attitude decreases.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Figure 8-57 ESP Roll Engagement Indication (ESP NOT Engaged)
ESP Engage (45°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 44°
Before ESP Engage
ESP Disengage (30°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 46°
After ESP Engage
Figure 8-58 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
Once engaged, ESP force will be applied between 30° and 75°, as illustrated in the following figure. The
force increases as roll attitude increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is intended
to encourage pilot input that returns the airplane to a more normal roll attitude. As roll attitude decreases, ESP
will disengage at 30°.
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º
30
20º
10º
0º
10º
20º
5º
º
90º
90º
75º
75º
º
60
60
º
º
45
4
30
Figure 8-59 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Roll Increases & Decreases as Roll Decreases)
ESP is automatically disengaged if the aircraft reaches the autopilot roll engagement attitude limit of 75°
(following figure).
ESP Upper Disengage Limit (75°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 74°
Figure 8-60 Roll Attitude Autopilot Engagement Limit (ESP Engaged)
PITCH ENGAGEMENT
ESP engages at 19° nose-up and 20° nose-down. Once ESP is engaged, it will apply opposing force between
17° and 50° nose-up and between 18° and 50° nose-down, as indicated in the following figure. Maximum
opposing force is applied between 24° and 50° nose-up and between 25° and 50° nose-down.
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the direction of pitch travel. This
force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis in the direction of the normal pitch attitude range
for the aircraft.
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There are no indications marking the pitch ESP engage and disengage limits in these nose-up/nose-down
conditions.
50˚
45˚
45˚
40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
50˚
25˚
20˚
20˚
15˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
15˚
15˚
20˚
20˚
25˚
25˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
25˚
35˚
40˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
Figure 8-61 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Pitch Increases & Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
HIGH AIRSPEED PROTECTION
Exceeding Vmo will result in ESP applying force to raise the nose of the aircraft. When the high airspeed
condition is remedied, ESP force is no longer applied.
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8.10 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport identifier. The
file is created automatically each time the system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the Aux-Utility Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the system is capable of logging.
• Date
• Time
• GPS altitude (MSL)
• GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
• AFCS roll/pitch commands
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• HSI source
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• Vertical speed (fpm)
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• GPS vertical speed (fpm)
• OAT (degrees C)
• True airspeed (knots)
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Lateral and Vertical G Force (g)
• Ground Track (degrees
magnetic)
• Autopilot On/Off
• Selected course
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• Ground Speed (kts)
• Latitude (degrees; geodetic;
+North)
• AFCS roll/pitch modes
• GPS fix
• GPS horizontal alert limit
• GPS vertical alert limit
• SBAS GPS horizontal protection
level
• CDI deflection
• SBAS GPS vertical protection
level
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Fuel Qty (right & left)(gals)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Turbine RPM
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Bearing to next waypoint
(degrees)
• Torque
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in the following figure. This file can be
imported into most computer spreadsheet applications.
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Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_180210_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-62 Log File Format
Data logging status can be monitored on the Aux-Utility Page.
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8.11 HYPOXIA RECOGNITION WITH EDM
The optional Hypoxia Recognition detects pilot incapacitation due to the affects of hypoxia or other physical
conditions. This is accomplished by monitoring pilot interaction with the Garmin Integrated Flight Deck. If the
system determines the pilot is not responding, Emergency Descent Mode (EDM) is activated placing the aircraft
in a descent to a lower altitude to provide the pilot and passengers an opportunity to recover from the effects of
hypoxia.
The system is operative when the aircraft altitude is above 14,900 feet (pressure altitude) and the Garmin AFCS
autopilot is engaged. Pilot interaction with the system is monitored by detecting key presses and turns of the
knobs (Audio Panel and push-to-talk switch excluded). If a period of inactivity (see following figure) is detected,
Hypoxia Recognition initiates an automatic descent.
Upon activation, there are three sequential phases employed by the system; determining pilot alertness, descent
to 14,000 feet MSL, and descent to 12,500 feet MSL.
DETERMINING PILOT ALERTNESS
When the system detects a sufficient period of inactivity (see following figure) the Advisory Annunciation
‘ARE YOU ALERT?’ is displayed. Selecting the ALERT Softkey will acknowledge the message and reset the
system. Pressing any other softkey, or turning a knob will also reset the system.
When no pilot interaction is detected for an additional 60 seconds, the Caution Annunciation ‘HYPOXIA
ALERT’ is displayed. Again, selecting the CAUTION Softkey will acknowledge the message and reset the
system. Pressing any other softkey, or turning a knob will also reset the system.
When no pilot interaction is detected for an additional 60 seconds, the Warning Annunciation ‘EMER
DESCENT’ is displayed in the Annunciation Window. Once again, selecting the WARNING Softkey will
acknowledge the message and reset the system. Pressing any other softkey, or turning a knob will also reset the
system.
When no interaction is detected for another 60 seconds, the system will automatically proceed with the
descent.
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Period
Inactivity (Minutes)
Time
eofofDetected
Useful Conciousness
(min)
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
15000
18000
21000
24000
27000
30000
Aircraft
Altitude
(Feet)
Aircraft
Altitude
(ft)
Figure 8-63 Hypoxia Recognition Activation Times
EMERGENCY DESCENT MODE
NOTE: Emergency Descent Mode does not account for terrain elevation.
As the system prepares for descent, the Selected Altitude is set to 14,000 and the AFCS enters Flight Level
Change (FLC) mode with the airspeed reference set to the maximum allowable airspeed setting for the specific
aircraft model. Refer to the Flight Director Vertical Modes in the AFCS section. AFCS lateral mode settings are
not affected.
As the descent begins, an ‘EMER DESCENT’ warning is displayed in the Annunciation Window. ‘EDM’
is shown as a warning annunciation indicating the system has entered Emergency Descent Mode. ‘EDM’
(Emergency Descent Mode) is the AFCS mode activated when Hypoxia Recognition initiates an automatic
descent. A continuous repeating chime will be heard as long as Emergency Descent Mode is active. After the
descent begins, Emergency Descent Mode can only be canceled by disconnecting the autopilot.
As the aircraft reaches 14,000 feet the system sets the AFCS to Altitude Hold mode. The AFCS will also remain
in Emergency Descent Mode as indicated by the ‘EDM’ annunciation. The system again begins monitoring for
pilot interaction.
If no pilot interaction is detected for four minutes, the system initiates the second descent. As the system
prepares for this descent, the Selected Altitude is set to 12,500 and the AFCS again enters FLC mode with the
airspeed reference set to the maximum allowable airspeed for the specific aircraft model.
As the descent begins, an ‘EMER DESCENT’ warning is displayed in the Annunciation Window. The ‘EDM’
annunciation is shown. The continuous repeating chime is also heard.
As the aircraft reaches 12,500 feet the system sets the AFCS to Altitude Hold mode. The AFCS will also
remain in Emergency Descent Mode as indicated by ‘EDM’ annunciation as well as the continuing presence of
the repeating chime. At this point, the AFCS must be disconnected to cancel Emergency Descent Mode.
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8.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SIRIUSXM DATA LINK RECEIVER TROUBLESHOOTING
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page for
SiriusXM Data Link Receiver status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been
detected, the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status Page.’
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
• Ensure the installed Data Link Receiver has an active subscription or account.
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver.
Ensure that nothing is plugged into the MUSIC 1 or MUSIC 2 jacks because that would prevent SiriusXM
radio from being heard.
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
Message Location
CHECK ANTENNA
XM Information Page (MFD)
UPDATING
XM Information Page (MFD)
XM Information Page Weather Datalink Page Loss of signal; signal strength too low for
(MFD)
receiver
NO SIGNAL
LOADING
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Acquiring channel audio or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page (MFD)
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILED
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
XM Information Page (MFD)
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
within last 5 minutes
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
WAITING FOR DATA...
510
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service
required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
SiriusXM subscription is activating.
SiriusXM subscription confirmed downloading
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
weather data.
Table 8-6 SiriusXM Data Link Receiver Messages
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APPENDIX A
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
The Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
• CAS Annunciation Window: The CAS Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text
color is based on alert levels described later in the Alert Levels Definitions section. When Crew Alerting System
(CAS) messages are generated, the CAS Window opens on the PFD. Up to 12 messages can be displayed; when
more than 12 messages accumulate, the CAS Up Softkey and the CAS Dn Softkey become available. Press the
CAS scrolling softkeys to scroll up and down through the messages in the CAS Window. A white horizontal
line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from annunciations that are not yet acknowledged. Higher
priority annunciations are displayed towards the top of the window. Lower priority annunciations are displayed
towards the bottom of the window.
• Alerts Window: The Alerts Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized alert messages. Pressing
the Alerts Softkey displays the Alerts Window. Pressing the Alerts Softkey a second time removes the Alerts
Window from the display. When the Alerts Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can be used to scroll through
the alert message list.
• Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the Alerts Softkey may appear as a flashing annunciation to
accompany an alert. The Alerts Softkey assumes a new label (Message). By selecting the softkey when flashing
an annunciation, the alert is acknowledged. The softkey label then returns to Alerts. If alerts are still present,
the Alerts label is displayed in white with black text. Selecting the Alerts Softkey a second time views the alert
text messages.
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red or amber ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is
supplied by a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the System Annunciations Section for more information.
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
CAS
Window
Alert Window
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-1 Alerting System
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APPENDIX A
CAS MESSAGE PRIORITIZATION
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Any CAS messages that are generated when the system is first powered on are considered already
acknowledged. They do not flash or trigger the Master Warning or Master Caution.
The Alerting System uses three alert levels. Messages are grouped by criticality (warning, caution, advisory)
and sorted by order of appearance (most recent messages on top). The color of the message is based on its
urgency and on required action:
The Crew Alerting System (CAS) Window is located on the right side of the PFD. Warning messages cannot
be scrolled through and remain at the top of the CAS display. The scroll bar appears if more caution and
advisory messages exist than can be displayed at once or if messages have been scrolled off the display. The
CAS softkeys also become available.
NOTE: Aural alerts associated with abnormal conditions and advisories are managed through the audio
panels. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information.
Warning: This level of alert requires immediate attention. When a new warning CAS message appears in the
CAS Window, it flashes (inversely red on white) in conjunction with the Warning Softkey (see Figure A-3) and
is accompanied by a repeating triple chime. Pressing the Warning Softkey acknowledges all flashing warning
messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once acknowledged, warning messages are shown in red text and are
displayed until the issue is corrected. Warning voice alerts repeat continuously until acknowledged by pressing
the Warning Softkey.
Caution: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may require
intervention. When a new caution message appears in the CAS Window, it is shown in black on amber inverse
video in conjunction with the Caution Softkey (see Figure A-3) and is accompanied by a double chime.
Pressing the Caution Softkey Indicator acknowledges all amber messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once
acknowledged, caution messages are displayed until the issue is corrected.
Advisory: This level of alert provides general information. When a new white advisory appears on the CAS
display, it is shown in black on white inverse video in conjunction with the Advisory Softkey (see Figure A-3)
and may be accompanied by a single chime.
Some CAS messages can be display in more than one alert level group. For example, a message might
display as both a warning and a caution, but cannot appear more than once at any given time (unless the CAS
is being tested). If the received signals justify multiple priorities for a certain message, the message is displayed
for the higher priority condition. When graduating to a higher priority, the message flashes and requires
new acknowledgment. When degrading to a lower priority condition, the message moves to the top of the
appropriate grouping, but does not require new acknowledgment.
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APPENDIX A
CAS
Window
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-2 CAS Message Prioritization
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (Message Softkey Labels)
CAS ANNUNCIATIONS
Red annunciation window text signifies warnings, amber signifies cautions, and white signifies advisories.
See the current version of the pertinent flight manual for a list of CAS annunciations and for recommended
pilot action.
WARNING ANNUNCIATIONS
Annunciation Window Text
A-ICE PRESS LOW*
BATTERY OVHT*
BETA*
EMER DESCENT*
EMERG PWR LVR
ENGINE FIRE
FUEL SELECT OFF
GENERATOR OVHT*
OIL PRESS LOW
RSVR FUEL LOW
USP ACTIVE*
VOLTAGE HIGH
VOLTAGE LOW
Audio Alert
Repeating Chime
* Applicable installations only
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APPENDIX A
CAUTION ANNUNCIATIONS
Annunciation Window Text
A-ICE FLUID LO*
A-ICE PRESS HI*
ALTNR AMPS
ALTNR OVHT*
BATTERY HOT*
CHIP DETECT
DOOR UNLATCHED
EMERG PWR LVR**
ETM EXCEED
FUEL BOOST ON
L FUEL LOW
R FUEL LOW
L-R FUEL LOW
FUEL PRESS LOW
FUEL TEMP LOW**
GENERATOR AMPS
GENERATOR OFF
HYPOXIA ALERT*
PROP DE-ICE*
L P/S HEAT
R P/S HEAT
L-R P/S HEAT
STALL HEAT
STARTER ON
STBY PWR INOP
XPDR1 ADSB FAIL
XPDR2 ADSB FAIL
Audio Alert
Single Chime
* Applicable installations only
** PT6A-140 only
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APPENDIX A
ADVISORY ANNUNCIATIONS
Annunciation Window Text
A-ICE NORM*
A-ICE HIGH*
ARE YOU ALERT?*
CVR FAIL*
ETM CAPTURE*
ETM EXCEED
FDR FAIL*
IGNITION ON
PREV EXCEED
SPD NOT AVAIL
STBY PWR ON
TORQUE GAGE**
Audio Alert
None
* Applicable installations only
** PT6A-140 only
DISPLAY INHIBITS
Inhibits prevent certain CAS messages from being displayed during the following conditions:
If two alert levels of the same message are active simultaneously (e.g., L FUEL QTY warning and L FUEL
QTY caution) only the higher alert level is displayed.
If a GEA or GIA fails, all CAS messages depending on sensors associated with that LRU are automatically
inhibited. Inhibits cannot be activated by invalid sensor data.
MESSAGE ADVISORY ALERTS
Alerts Window Message
PFD1 FAN FAIL –PFD1 display fan is inoperative.
PFD2 FAN FAIL – PFD2 display fan is inoperative.
MFD FAN FAIL – MFD display fan is inoperative.
ETM FAULT – Engine Trend Monitor needs service.
Audio Alert
None
VOICE ALERTS
Voice Alert
Description
“Airspeed”
The aircraft is in an underspeed condition.
“Engaging autopilot”
The autopilot has been engaged.
“Minimums, minimums” The aircraft has descended below the preset barometric minimum descent altitude.
“Vertical track”
The aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent. Issued only when vertical navigation is enabled.
“Traffic”
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued (TIS and ADS-B).
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Voice Alert
“Traffic Not Available”
“Traffic, Traffic”
“Traffic System Test”
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same
Altitude” (if within 200
feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through
“Ten Miles”, or “More
than ten miles”
Description
The aircraft is outside the Traffic Information Service (TIS or ADS-B) coverage area.
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued (TAS system).
Played during a pilot-initiated self test (GTX 345 only).
Played to indicate bearing of traffic from own aircraft.
Played to indicate altitude of traffic relative to own aircraft.
Played to indicate distance of traffic from own aircraft.
SYSTEM MESSAGES
This section describes various system message advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU or an
LRU function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation as
shown previously in the System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This section provides information regarding message advisories that may be displayed by the
system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities must
be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The current version of the
pertinent flight manual takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
Message
ABORT APR – Loss of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
AHRS1 CAL – AHRS1 calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS1 CONFIG – AHRS1 config error.
Config service req’d.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving any
GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS1 SERVICE – AHRS1 Magneticfield model needs update.
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
516
Comments
Abort approach due to loss of GPS navigation.
The #1 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check the current
version of the pertinent flight manual limitations. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS relies on
GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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APPENDIX A
Message
AHRS2 CAL – AHRS1 calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS2 CONFIG – AHRS1 config error.
Config service req’d.
Comments
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving any
GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS2 SERVICE – AHRS1 Magneticfield model needs update.
AHRS2 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
APR ADVISORY – GPS VNAV not
available. Using BARO VNAV.
APR DWNGRADE – Approach
downgraded.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less
than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
than 2 nm.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
APR INACTV – Approach is not active.
The #2 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check the current
version of the pertinent flight manual limitations. The system should be serviced.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
COM1 CONFIG – COM1 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM1 MANIFEST– COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
COM1 RMT XFR – COM1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
190-02138-01 Rev. C
The #2 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS relies on
GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be serviced.
SBAS not available. The system is calculating the VNAV profile using BARO VNAV.
Use LNAV minima when approach is downgraded.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the airspace within 10
minutes.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
The system notifies the pilot that the loaded approach is not active. Activate approach
when required.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10 degrees.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
The COM1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced
COM1 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
The COM1 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM1 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Message
COM1 SERVICE – COM1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
COM1 TEMP – COM1 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM2 CONFIG – COM2 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM2 MANIFEST– COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM2 PTT – COM2 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
Comments
The system has detected a failure in COM1. COM1 may still be usable. The system should
be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced
COM2 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
The COM2 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
COM2 RMT XFR – COM2 remote
The COM2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer key is stuck.
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
COM2 SERVICE – COM2 needs service. The system has detected a failure in COM2. COM2 may still be usable. The system should
Return unit for repair.
be serviced when possible.
COM2 TEMP – COM2 over temp.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM2. The transmitter
Reducing transmitter power.
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
CONFIRM BARO QFE – Confirm BARO Confirm BARO QFE Reference Elevation.
QFE Reference Elevation
COPILOT RADIOS MUTED – Copilot
The copilot radios are set on mute.
radios are muted.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains procedures that have been manually edited.
Verify user modified procedures.
This alert is issued only after an navigation database update. Verify that the user-modified
procedures in stored flight plans are correct and up to date.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent with
Verify stored airways.
the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database update.
Verify use of airways in stored flight plans and reload airways as needed.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation database The PFD and MFD have different navigation database versions or types installed. Crossfill
mismatch. Xtalk is off.
is off. Check the Aux-Databases Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the
Aux-Databases Status Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database
The PFD and MFD have different obstacle database versions or types installed. Check
mismatch.
the Aux-Databases Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the Aux-Databases
Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After synchronization is
complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Standby Navigation The PFD and MFD have different standby navigation database versions or types installed.
database mismatch.
Check the AUX-Aux-Databases Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the
Aux-Databases Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
The PFD and MFD have different terrain database versions or types installed. Check the
mismatch.
Aux-Databases Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the Aux-Databases
Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After synchronization is
complete, power must be turned off, then on.
FAILED PATH – A data path has failed. A data path connected to the GDU or the GIA 63W/64W has failed.
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APPENDIX A
Message
FIS-B FAILED – FIS-B information is
unavailable.
FPL TRUNC – Flight plan has been
truncated.
FPL WPT LOCK – Flight plan waypoint
is locked.
FPL WPT MOVE – Flight plan waypoint
moved.
FS510 CARD ERROR – FS510 not
detected in MFD Bottom Slot.
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is inoperative.
G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is inoperative.
G/S2 SERVICE – G/S2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GDC1 MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GDC2 MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GDL69 CONFIG – GDL 69 config error.
Config service req’d.
GDL69 FAIL – GDL 69 has failed.
GDL69 MANIFEST – GDL software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEA1 INOP- CAL - Check GEA rigging.
GEA1 INOP - CNFG - Check GEA
software and configuration.
GEA1 CM INOP - COMM - Check GEA
config module connection.
GEA1 CM INOP - INTRL - GEA internal
fault.
GEA1 CM INOP - SENS - Check GEA
configuration.
GEA1 CM INOP - TEMP - Check GEA
config module cooling.
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Comments
Flight Information Service weather datalink failure or aircraft outside of FAA GBT area
coverage.
This occurs when a newly installed navigation database eliminates an obsolete approach
or arrival used by a stored flight plan. The obsolete procedure is removed from the flight
plan. Update flight plan with current arrival or approach.
Upon power-up, the system detects that a stored flight plan waypoint is locked. This
occurs when an navigation database update eliminates an obsolete waypoint. The flight
plan cannot find the specified waypoint and flags this message. This can also occur with
user waypoints in a flight plan that is deleted.
Remove the waypoint from the flight plan if it no longer exists in any database,
OR
update the waypoint name/identifier to reflect the new information.
The system has detected that a waypoint coordinate has changed due to a new navigation
database update. Verify that stored flight plans contain correct waypoint locations.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the MFD. The SD card needs to be
reinserted.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced when possible.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 2. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 2. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced when possible.
The AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GDL 69A SXM configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 69A or GDL 69A SXM. The receiver is unavailable.
The system should be serviced.
The GDL 69A SXM has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
There is a problem with the GEA 1 rigging. Check the rigging.
There is a problem with the GEA 1 software configuration. Check the configuration. If the
problem persists, the system should be serviced.
There is a problem with the GEA 1 config module connection. Check the connection.
GEA 1 has an internal fault. The system should be serviced.
There is an error in the GEA 1 configuration. Check the configuration. If the problem
persists, the system should be serviced.
The GEA 1 configuration module has insufficient cooling. If the problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Message
GEA1 CM INOP - VOLT - Check GEA
voltages.
GEA1 CONFIG – GEA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GEA1 MANIFEST – GEA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS1 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
GFC MANIFEST – GFC software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 temperature
too low.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 over
temperature.
GIA1 MANIFEST – GIA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA1 SERVICE – GIA1 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 over
temperature.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 temperature
too low.
GIA2 MANIFEST – GIA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA2 SERVICE – GIA2 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GMA1 CONFIG – GMA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GMA1 FAIL – GMA1 is inoperative.
GMA1 MANIFEST – GMA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMA1 SERVICE – GMA1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GMA2 CONFIG – GMA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
520
Comments
The GEA 1 voltage is low. Check GEA voltages.
The GEA1 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The #1 GEA 71/71B has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
Incorrect servo software is installed, or gain settings are incorrect.
The GIA1 have an error in the audio configuration. The system should be serviced.
The GIA1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to warm
up to operating temperature.
The GIA1 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The GIA1 1 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GIA1 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 have an error in the audio configuration. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
The GIA2 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to warm up to
operating temperature.
The GIA 2 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may still
be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be serviced when
possible.
The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Message
GMA2 FAIL – GMA2 is inoperative.
GMA2 MANIFEST – GMA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMA2 SERVICE – GMA2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GMU1 MANIFEST – GMU1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMU2 MANIFEST – GMU1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Insufficient satellites.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Position error.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. GPS fail.
GPS1 SERVICE – GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GPS2 SERVICE – GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GRS1 MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GRS2 MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GSD1 CONFIG – GSD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GSD1 COOLING – GSD1 temperature
too low.
GSD1 COOLING – GSD1 over
temperature.
GSD1 MANIFEST – GSD1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
GSD1 SERVICE – GSD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GSR1 FAIL – GSR1 has failed.
GSR2 FAIL – GSR1 has failed.
GTS CONFIG – GTS config error.
Config service req’d.
GTS MANIFEST – GTS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GTX1 MANIFEST – GTX1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Comments
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may still
be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be serviced when
possible.
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient satellites.
Loss of GPS navigation due to position error.
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
A failure has been detected in the GPS1 and/or GPS2 receiver. The receiver may still be
available. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GSD1 and the CDU have different copies of the GSD1 configuration.
GSD1 is reporting a low temperature condition.
GSD1 is reporting an over-temperature condition.
GSD1 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GSD1 is reporting an internal error condition. The GSD may still be usable.
A failure has been detected in GSR1. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in GSR2. The system should be serviced.
GTS 825 configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The system
should be serviced.
The GTS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Message
GTX2 MANIFEST – GTX2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GTX2 MANIFEST – GTX2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX CONFIG – GWX config error.
Config service req’d.
GWX FAIL – GWX is inoperative.
GWX MANIFEST – GWX software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX SERVICE – Needs service. Return
unit for repair.
HDG FAULT – AHRS1 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HDG FAULT – AHRS2 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1 communication halted.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2 communication halted.
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
LOCKED FPL – Cannot navigate locked
flight plan.
LOI – GPS integrity lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
MANIFEST – MFD1 software mismatch,
communication halted.
MANIFEST – PFD1 software mismatch,
communication halted.
MANIFEST – PFD2 software mismatch,
communication halted.
MFD SOFTWARE – MFD mismatch,
communication halted.
MFD TERRAIN DSP – MFD Terrain
awareness display unavailable.
MFD1 BACKLIGHT CALIBRATION –
MFD1 calibration. Return for repair.
MFD1 CARD 1 ERR – Card 1 is invalid.
MFD1 CARD 1 REM – Card 1 was
removed. Reinsert card.
MFD1 CONFIG – MFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
522
Comments
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GTS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced..
GWX 70 configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The G1000
system should be serviced.
The GDU is not recieving status packet from the GWX 70 or the GWX 70 is reporting a
fault. The GWX 70 radar system should be serviced.
The GWX 70 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GWX 70. The GWX 70 may still be usable.
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
A fault has occurred in the #2 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where only one is SBAS capable.
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
This occurs when the pilot attempts to activate a stored flight plan that contains locked
waypoint. Remove locked waypoint from flight plan. Update flight plan with current
waypoint.
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight.
The PFD and/or MFD has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU has different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
One of the terrain or obstacle databases required for TAWS in the specified GDU is
missing or invalid.
The specified GDU’s backlight calibration cannot be found or is invalid. The system should
be serviced.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
The MFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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APPENDIX A
Message
MFD1 COOLING – MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Airport
Directory database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 basemap
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Chartview
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Flightcharts
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 navigation
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database missing.
MFD1 SERVICE – MFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
MFD1 KEYSTK – MFD1 [key name] is
stuck.
MFD1 VOLTAGE – MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
NAV1 MANIFEST – NAV1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
NAV1 RMT XFR – NAV1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
NAV1 SERVICE – NAV1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV2 MANIFEST – NAV2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Comments
The MFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display. If
problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure that the data card is
properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The MFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure that the
data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure that the
data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the navigation
database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure that the data card is properly
inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the data card is
properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is
properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the MFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The MFD voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
NAV1 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
The remote NAV1 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press the
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
A failure has been detected in the NAV1 receiver. The receiver may still be available. The
system should be serviced.
NAV2 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Message
NAV2 RMT XFR – NAV2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
NAV2 SERVICE – NAV2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NON-MAGNETIC UNITS– Nonmagnetic NAV ANGLE display units are
active.
NON WGS84 WPT – Do not use GPS
for navigation to [xxxx]
PFD1 BACKLIGHT CALIBRATION –
PFD1 calibration lost. Return for repair.
PFD1 CARD 1 REM – Card 1 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD1 CARD 2 REM – Card 2 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD1 CARD 1 ERR – Card 1 is invalid.
PFD1 CARD 2 ERR – Card 2 is invalid.
PFD1 CONFIG – PFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
PFD1 COOLING – PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1
navigation database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain database
error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain database
missing.
PFD1 KEYSTK – PFD1 [key name] is
stuck.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
524
Comments
The remote NAV2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press the
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
A failure has been detected in the NAV2 receiver. The receiver may still be available. The
system should be serviced.
Navigation angle is not set to MAGNETIC at power-up.
The position of the selected waypoint [xxxx] is not calculated based on the WGS84 map
reference datum and may be positioned in error as displayed. Do not use GPS to navigate
to the selected non-WGS84 waypoint..
The PFD1 backlight calibration cannot be found or is invalid. The system should be
serviced.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD
card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
The PFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display. If
problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The PFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the navigation
database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the data card is properly
inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is properly
inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several times.
The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The PFD1 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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APPENDIX A
Message
PFD1 KEYSTK – PFD2 [key name] is
stuck.
PFD1 SERVICE – PFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
PFD1 TERRAIN DSP – PFD1 Terrain
awareness display unavailable.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD2 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
PFD2 BACKLIGHT CALIBRATION –
PFD2 calibration lost. Return for repair.
PFD2 CARD 1 REM – Card 1 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD2 CARD 2 REM – Card 2 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD2 CARD 1 ERR – Card 1 is invalid.
PFD2 CARD 2 ERR – Card 2 is invalid.
PFD2 CONFIG – PFD2 config error.
Config service req’d.
PFD2 COOLING – PFD2 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 basemap
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 multiple
database errors exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2
navigation database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain database
error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain database
missing.
PFD2 KEYSTK – PFD2 [key name] is
stuck.
PILOT RADIOS MUTED – Pilot radios
are muted.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Comments
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several times.
The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The PFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
One of the terrain or obstacle databases required for TAWS in PFD1 is missing or invalid.
The PFD2 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
The PFD2 backlight calibration cannot be found or is invalid. The system should be
serviced.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD
card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
The PFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display. If
problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The PFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the navigation
database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the data card is properly
inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is properly
inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several times.
The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The pilot radios are set on mute.
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
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APPENDIX A
Message
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
past IAF.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
bad geometry.
REGISTER CONNEXT – Data services
are inoperative, register w/Connext.
SCHEDULER [#] – <message>.
SLCT FREQ – Select appropriate
frequency for approach.
SLCT MAG– Select MAGNETIC NAV
ANGLE display units.
SLCT NAV – Select NAV on CDI for
approach.
SLCT NON-MAG– Select alternate
NAV ANGLE display units.
STEEP TURN – Steep turn ahead.
STRMSCP FAIL – Stormscope has
failed.
SURFACEWATCH DISABLED - Too far
north/south.
SURFACEWATCH FAIL - Invalid audio
configuration.
SURFACEWATCH FAIL - Invalid
configurable alerts.
SURFACEWATCH FAIL - One or more
inputs invalid.
SURFACEWATCH - INHIIBITED.
SVT DISABLED – Out of available
terrain region.
SVT DISABLED – Terrain DB resolution
too low.
SW MISMATCH – GDU software
version mismatch. Xtalk is off.
TERRAIN AUD CFG – Trn Awareness
audio config error. Service req’d.
TERRAIN DISABLED – Terrain
Awareness DB resolution too low.
TIMER EXPIRD – Timer has expired.
TRAFFIC FAIL – Traffic device has failed.
TRN AUD FAIL – Trn Awareness audio
source unavailable
526
Comments
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been passed.
Bad parallel track geometry.
The system is not registered with Connext, or its current registration data has failed
authentication.
Message criteria entered by the user.
The system notifies the pilot to load the approach frequency for the appropriate NAV
receiver. Select the correct frequency for the approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avionics Settings Screen to
Magnetic.
The system notifies the pilot to set the CDI to the correct NAV receiver. Set the CDI to the
correct NAV receiver.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avionics Settings Screen to
True.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare to turn.
Stormscope has failed. The system should be serviced.
The SurfaceWatch system has been disabled. It disables when greater than 87 degrees..
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to an invalid audio configuration.
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to invalid configurable alerts.
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to one or more invalid inputs.
The SurfaceWatch system has been inhibited.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because the aircraft is not within the boundaries of the
installed terrain database.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (4.9 arcsecond or better) is not currently installed.
The MFD and PFD have different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
TAWS is disabled because the audio configuration is invalid. The system should be
serviced.
TAWS is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (4.9 arc-second or
better) is not currently installed.
The system notifies the pilot that the timer has expired.
The system is no longer receiving data from the traffic system. The traffic device should be
serviced.
Terrain Awareness audio is unavailable. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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APPENDIX A
Message
UNABLE V WPT – Can’t reach current
vertical waypoint.
VNV – Unavailable.
crosstrack error.
VNV – Unavailable.
angle error.
VNV – Unavailable.
selected.
VNV – Unavailable.
type in flight plan.
Excessive
The current crosstrack exceeds the limit, causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
Excessive track
Parallel course
Unsupported leg
WPT ARRIVAL – Arriving at waypoint
-[xxxx]
WX ALERT – Possible severe weather
ahead.
XPDR1 ADS-B 1090 – Datalinik:
ADS-B 1090 receiver has failed.
XPDR1 ADS-B TRFC – Transponder:
ADS-B traffic has failed
XPDR1 ADS-B UAT – Datalink: ADS-B
in UAT receiver has failed.
XPDR1 CONFIG – XPDR1 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR1 CSA FAIL - Traffic: ADS-B In
traffic alerting has failed.
XPDR1 FAIL – XPDR1 is inoperative.
XPDR1 FAULT – Datalink: ADS-B in
has failed.
XPDR1 FIS-B WX – Datalink: FIS-B
Weather has failed.
XPDR1 OVER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder over temp.
XPDR1 PRES ALT –Transponder: ADS-B
no pressure altitude.
XPDR1 SRVC – XPDR1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR1 UNDER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder under temp.
XPDR2 ADS-B 1090 – Datalinik:
ADS-B 1090 receiver has failed.
XPDR2 ADS-B TRFC – Transponder:
ADS-B traffic has failed
190-02138-01 Rev. C
Comments
The current vertical waypoint can not be reached within the maximum flight path angle
and vertical speed constraints. The system automatically transitions to the next vertical
waypoint.
The current track angle error exceeds the limit, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
A parallel course has been selected, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
The lateral flight plan contains a procedure turn, vector, or other unsupported leg type
prior to the active vertical waypoint. This prevents vertical guidance to the active vertical
waypoint.
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is the waypoint name.
The GWX 68/GWX 70 indicates severe weather within ±10 degrees of the aircraft
heading at a range of 80 to 320 nm.
A failure has been detected in the 1090 receiver.
The Transponder is incapable of processing traffic information.
A failure has been detected in the UAT receiver.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
ADS-B Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is unavailable.
There is no communication with the #1 or #2 transponder.
The transponder is unable to receive ADS-B information.
The transponder is unable to receive FIS-B weather information.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in XPDR1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
Unable to provide pressure altitude information.
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an under temperature condition in XPDR1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the 1090 receiver.
The Transponder is incapable of processing traffic information.
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APPENDIX A
Message
XPDR2 ADS-B UAT – Datalink: ADS-B
in UAT receiver has failed.
XPDR2 CONFIG – XPDR2 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR2 CSA FAIL - Traffic: ADS-B In
traffic alerting has failed.
XPDR2 FAIL – XPDR2 is inoperative.
XPDR2 FAULT – Datalink: ADS-B in
has failed.
XPDR2 FIS-B WX – Datalink: FIS-B
Weather has failed.
XPDR2 OVER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder over temp.
XPDR2 PRES ALT –Transponder: ADS-B
no pressure altitude.
XPDR2 SRVC – XPDR1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR2 UNDER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder under temp.
XTALK ERROR – A flight display
crosstalk error has occurred.
528
Comments
A failure has been detected in the UAT receiver.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
ADS-B Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is unavailable.
There is no communication with the #1 or #2 transponder.
The transponder is unable to receive ADS-B information.
The transponder is unable to receive FIS-B weather information.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in XPDR1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
Unable to provide pressure altitude information.
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an under temperature condition in XPDR1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD and PFD are not communicating with each other. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-01 Rev.C
APPENDIX B
DATABASE MANAGEMENT
Database information is obtained from third party sources. Inaccuracies in the data may be discovered from
time to time. Garmin communicates this information by issuing a Database Alert. These notifications are available
on flygarmin.com.
Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information. These
discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground.
Go to flygarmin.com and select Aviation Data Error Report.
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interruption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load various types of data. For basic flight operations, SD cards
are required for database storage as well as database updates. Not all SD cards are compatible with the system.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ message will be displayed until database
synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can be
monitored on the ‘Aux – Databases’ Page.
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration date on the
power-up screen and the effective date on the ‘Aux – Databases’ Page being displayed in amber.
LOADING UPDATED DATABASES
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interruption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ message will be displayed until database
synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can be
monitored on the ‘Aux-Database’ Page.
Databases may be loaded through Garmin Pilot and Wireless Transceiver. When loading databases through
Garmin Pilot and the Wireless Transceiver, the Wireless Transceiver must be enabled on the system and the
multimedia card inserted in the bottom SD slot of the MFD.
The cycles and dates for both standby and active databases are displayed on the “Aux – Databases” page on
the MFD. Any active databases with expiration dates in the past will be highlighted with amber text. When
an expired active database has a standby database that is ready to become effective, a cyan double-sided arrow
will be displayed between the database cycles. When this arrow is visible, it indicates that the standby and
active databases in that row will be switched on the next power cycle, activating the current standby database.
Databases can also be manually selected (or deselected) by highlighting a list item and pressing the ENT Key,
provided a valid, verified standby database is present.
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APPENDIX B
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the database
product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin authorized service
facility in order to use some database features.
The navigation database contains the aeronautical data used by the system for the flight management and
flight planning functions. Included is detailed data for waypoints, procedures (arrivals, departures, approaches),
and airways. The navigation database is updated every 28 days.
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and towns.
It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. These databases are updated periodically and have
no expiration date.
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to aircraft.
Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle database. This database is
updated on a 56-day cycle.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government agencies. Garmin
accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of
the data.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory provides data on airports and heliports throughout the U.S. or
worldwide, respectively. The AOPA Directory offers detailed information for over 5,300 U. S. airports, along
with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. These databases are updated every 56 days. The
AC-U-KWIK Directory offers detailed information for more than 8,000 airports with runways longer than 3,000
feet worldwide.
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in following
ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in relation to taxiways,
ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts. This database is updated on a 28-day cycle. If not
updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no longer function.
The ChartView database is updated on a 14-day cycle. If the ChartView database is not updated within 70
days of the expiration date, ChartView will no longer function. The ChartView database must be purchased
directly from Jeppesen, but can be updated at jeppesen.com or flygarmin.com.
The IFR/VFR charts database contains VFR and IFR raster charts. The VFR Charts are digital representations
of the Sectional Aeronautical Charts and Terminal Area Charts. The IFR Charts include both IFR High (designed
for navigation at or above 18,000 ft) and IFR Low (designed for navigation below 18,000 ft). IFR/VFR Charts
are updated every 28 days except for Canadian IFR/VFR Charts which are updated every 56 days.
UPDATING DATABASES USING A SUPPLEMENTAL DATA CARD
All databases are updated through a single SD card in the bottom slot of the MFD. When the card is
inserted, the databases on the card will be copied to standby and synchronized across all powered, configured
units. After update, the card is removed and the databases are stored on the system. When in standby,
databases are not immediately available for use, but stored to be activated at a later time.
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APPENDIX B
Database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation Databases’ section
of the Garmin website (flygarmin.com). Once the updated files have been downloaded from the website, a
PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and program the new databases onto an
existing Supplemental Data Card. Equipment required to perform the update is as follows:
• Windows-compatible PC computer
• SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
• Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
• Supplemental SD Cards
Updating Databases:
1) With the system OFF, remove an SD Card from the top SD card slot of the MFD.
2) Download and install the databases on an SD card.
3) Put the SD Card in the top SD card slot of the MFD.
4) Turn the system ON.
5) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
8) Monitor the Sync Status on the ‘Aux-Databases’ Page. Wait for all databases to complete syncing, indicated by
‘Sync Complete’ being displayed. A cyan double-arrow will appear between the Standby and Active columns to
show which Standby databases will be transferred to Active at the next power cycle.
Figure B-1 ‘Aux - Databases’ Page before Activation of Standby Databases
9) Verify the correct database cycle information is shown in the Standby column.
10) Remove the SD card from the bottom slot of the MFD if desired.
11) Remove and reapply power to the system.
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APPENDIX B
12) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
13) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
14) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Databases.
15) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
Figure B-2 ‘Aux - Databases’ Page - Updated Databases
16) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Push the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will
become active.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Swap Stby/Actv’ using the small FMS Knob. Press the ENT Key. A cyan
double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will become active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
f) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
g) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
h) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
17) For additional information on each database, press and then turn the FMS Knob to select the database, and
then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Details’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
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APPENDIX B
18) To view database information for an individual display:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob and select System Status.
c) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB) to show database information for each
display. Use the small FMS Knob to scroll through the database information. Press the ENT Key or the
FMS Knob to exit.
UPDATING DATABASES USING WIRELESS TRANSCEIVER
In order to load databases through Garmin Pilot and the Wireless Transceiver (also known as Flight Stream
510 or FS510), the Wireless Transceiver must be enabled on the system and inserted in the bottom SD slot
of the MFD. A mobile device with Garmin Pilot must be paired with the Wireless Transceiver over Bluetooth
(refer to the Additional Features section). When there is at least one paired device available to connect, the
Wireless Transceiver will automatically connect to the system’s preferred mobile device. The preferred device
can be selected on the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page from a menu list of paired devices.
Once a connection to the paired mobile device is made, Garmin Pilot makes available databases that
can be transferred to the Wireless Transceiver. If any of these databases is more recent than the respective
standby database on the system, (or if there is no standby database on the system) those databases will be
automatically selected to load. The database updates may be initiated from the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page, or
from other pages on the MFD.
NOTE: The system will only provide a WiFi connection if new databases have been detected for download
on Garmin Pilot via a valid Bluetooth connection. If there are no database updates required the system will
not provide a WiFi signal.
NOTE: If the mobile device has previously connected to the Wireless Transceiver, and is not connected to
another WiFi source, the mobile device should connect automatically to the Wireless Transceiver. If the
mobile device is connected to another WiFi source (i.e. hangar wifi), then the Wireless Transceiver will not
connect automatically.
Updating Databases from any MFD page (except the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page):
1) Insert the Wireless Transceiver SD Card in the bottom slot of the MFD if not already inserted.
2) Turn the system ON.
3) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
4) On the mobile device, start Garmin Pilot and touch Home > Connext > Database Concierge.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Connext Setup.
7) Ensure that Wifi Database Import is enabled in the ‘Device’ Window (refer to Additional Features section for
instructions to enable Wifi Database Import).
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APPENDIX B
WiFi Enabled
Bluetooth
Status
WiFi Status
WiFi Password
Figure B-3 ‘Connext Setup’ Page
8) Verify that the mobile device is enabled via Bluetooth in the Bluetooth settings on the mobile device.
9) In the ‘Paired Devices’ Window on the ‘Connext Setup’ Page, ensure the system is paired with the mobile device
in use. (refer to Additional Features for instructions on connection to a preferred device).
NOTE: The database updates may now be continued from any MFD page, however, the update windows
shown in these instructions will not be shown on the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page. Use the proceeding instructions
in this section to update databases from the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page.
10) Press the Update Softkey when the following window appears. (Pressing the View Softkey will allow database
updates to be viewed from the ‘Aux Databases’ Page, however, the windows shown below will not appear on
the ‘Aux Databases’ Page. Pressing the Ignore Softkey will postpone the updates until further action is taken.)
Figure B-4 Database Update Available
11) If using a device that has not been previously paired with the system, a password prompt will appear on the
mobile device. Enter the password shown in the ‘Password’ Field of the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page.
12) The following window will appear. Database update progress may be monitored on the mobile device.
Figure B-5 Starting Database Transfer
13) When the transfer is complete, the following screen will appear.
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APPENDIX B
Figure B-6 Database Transfer Complete
14) Press the Close Softkey.
15) Remove and reapply power to the system.
16) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
17) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
18) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
19) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
Figure B-7 ‘Aux Databases’ Page with Updated Databases
20) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Push the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will
become active.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Swap Stby/Actv’ using the small FMS Knob. Press the ENT Key. A cyan
double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will become active.
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APPENDIX B
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
f) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
g) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
h) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
21) For additional information on each database, press and then turn the FMS Knob to select the database, and
then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Details’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
22) To view database information for an individual display:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob and select System Status.
c) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB) to show database information for each
display. Use the small FMS Knob to scroll through the database information. Press the ENT Key or the
FMS Knob to exit.
Updating Databases from the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page:
NOTE: The system will only provide a WiFi connection if new databases have been detected for download
on Garmin Pilot via a valid Bluetooth connection. If there are no database updates required the system will
not provide a WiFi signal.
NOTE: If the mobile device has previously connected to the Wireless Transceiver, and is not connected to
another WiFi source, the mobile device should connect automatically to the Wireless Transceiver. If the
mobile device is connected to another WiFi source (i.e. hangar wifi), then the Wireless Transceiver will not
connect automatically.
1) Insert the Wireless Transceiver SD Card in the bottom slot of the MFD if not already inserted.
2) Turn the system ON.
3) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
4) On the mobile device, start Garmin Pilot and tap Home > Connext > Database Concierge.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Connext Setup.
7) Ensure that Wifi Database Import is enabled in the ‘Device’ Window (refer to Additional Features section for
instructions to enable Wifi Database Import).
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APPENDIX B
WiFi Enabled
Bluetooth
Status
WiFi Status
WiFi Password
Figure B-8 ‘Connext Setup’ Page
8) Verify that the mobile device is enabled via Bluetooth in the Bluetooth settings on the mobile device.
9) In the ‘Paired Devices’ Window on the ‘Connext Setup’ Page, ensure the system is paired with the mobile device
in use. (refer to Additional Features for instructions on connection to a preferred device).
10) Press the Device Softkey to view databases that are ready to be loaded from the mobile device (pressing the
Stby/Actv Softkey will again display the current Standby and Active databases).
11) The ‘Aux - Databases’ Page will show the databases connected to the mobile device in place of the active
databases on the system. Databases selected to load to the system will be indicated by a single cyan arrow.
12) Press the Update Softkey.
13) If using a device that has not been previously paired with the system, a password prompt will appear on the
mobile device. Enter the password shown in the ‘Password’ Field of the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page.
14) Database Update status will appear in the ‘Status’ Window at the top of the page. Monitor update progress in
the ‘Status’ Window, or on the mobile device.
Figure B-9 Device Database Transfer
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APPENDIX B
15) When all databases have been successfully transferred from the mobile device and appear in the Standby
column, remove and reapply power to the system.
16) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
17) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
18) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
19) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
Figure B-10 ‘Aux - Databases’ Page with Updated Databases
20) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Push the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Verify the correct database cycle information is shown for each database for each display.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Swap Stby/Actv’ using the small FMS Knob. Press the ENT Key. A cyan doublesided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will become active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
f) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
g) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
h) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
21) For additional information on each database, press and then turn the FMS Knob to select the database, and
then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Details’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
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APPENDIX B
22) To view database information for an individual display:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob and select System Status.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will
become active.
d) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB) to show database information for each
display. Use the small FMS Knob to scroll through the database information. Press the ENT Key or the
FMS Knob to exit.
MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION DATABASE UPDATE
A copy of the current magnetic field variation database (MV DB) is included with the navigation database.
At startup, the system compares this version of the MV DB with that presently being used by each AHRS
(GRS1). If the system determines the MV DB needs to be updated, a prompt is displayed on the MFD, as
shown in Figure B-11.
Figure B-11 GRS1 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
Loading the magnetic field variation database update:
1) With ‘OK’ highlighted, as seen in Figure B-11, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed
as shown in Figure B-12.
Figure B-12 Uploading Database to GRS1
2) When the upload is complete, the prompt for the next GRS upload is displayed, as seen in Figure B-13.
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APPENDIX B
Figure B-13 GRS2 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed as shown in Figure B-14.
When the upload is complete, the system is ready for use.
Figure B-14 Uploading Database to GRS2
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APPENDIX C
AVIATION TERMS AND ACRONYMS
A
AC
ACARS
ACC
ACK
ACT, ACTV
ADAHRS
ADC
ADF
ADI
ADIZ
ADS-B
ADS-R
AEA
AF
AFCS
AFM
AFN
AFMS
AFRM
AGL
AHRS
AIM
AIRB
AIRMET
AIRREP
ALRT
ALT
ALT, ALTN
ALTS
ALTV
AM
AMPS
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Amps
Advisory Circular, Alternating Current
Airborne Communications Addressing
and Reporting System
Accuracy
Acknowledge
Active, Activate, Altitude Compensated
Tilt
Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference
System
Air Data Computer
Automatic Direction Finder
Attitude Direction Indicator
Air Defense Identification Zone
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceRebroadcast
Aircraft Electronic Association
Arc to Fix Leg
Automatic Flight Control System
Airplane Flight Manual
ATS Facilities Notification
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
Airframe
Above Ground Level
Attitude and Heading Reference System
Aeronautical Information Manual
Airborne
Airman’s Meteorological Information
Air Reports
Alert
Altitude
Alternator, Alternate
Selected Altitude Capture Mode
VNAV Altitude Capture Mode
Amplitude Modulation
Amperes
ANNUNC/ANN
ANT
AOA
AOC
AOG
AOPA
AP
AP DISC
APPR, APR
APT
APTSIGNS
ARINC
ARSPC
ARTCC
ARV
AS
ASB
ASOS
AT
ATC
ATCRBS
ATIS
ATK
ATN
ATS
AUTOSEQ
AUX
AVG
AVLC
AWOS
Annunciation/Annunciator
Antenna
Angle of Attack, ACARS Over AVLC
Aeronautical Operational Control
Aircraft On Ground
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
Autopilot
Autopilot Disconnect
Approach
Airport, Aerodrome
Airport Signs
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
Airspace
Air Route Traffic Control Center
Arrival
Airspeed
Aviation Support Branch
Automated Surface Observing System
Auto Throttle
Air Traffic Control
ATC Radar Beacon System
Automatic Terminal Information Service
Along Track
Aeronautical Telecommunications
Network
Air Traffic Services
Automatic Sequence
Auxiliary
Average
Aviation VHF Link Control
Automated Weather Observing System
B
B ALT
BARO
BATT
BC
Both Runways
Barometric Altitude
Barometer, Barometric
Battery
Backcourse
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APPENDIX C
Bearing
BFO
BKSP
Bluetooth
BOC
BOD
BRG
°C
C
CA
CAL
CALC
Calibrated
Airspeed
CAS
CCG
CD
CDA
CDI
CDU
CF
CG
CH, CHNL
CHT
CHKLIST
CI
CLD
CLR
CM
CMC
CN
CNS
CO
COM
CONFIG
COOL
542
The compass direction from the present
position to a destination waypoint.
Beat Frequency Oscillator
Backspace
Wireless standard for data exchange over
short distances
Bottom of Climb
Bottom of Descent
see also Bearing
Degrees Celsius
Center Runway
Course to Altitude Leg
Calibrated
Calculator
Indicated airspeed corrected for
installation and instrument errors.
Crew Alerting System
Current Climb Gradient
Course to DME Distance Leg
Current Data Authroity
Course Deviation Indicator
Control Display Unit
Course to Fix Leg
Center of Gravity
Channel
Cylinder Head Temperature
Checklist
Course to Intercept Leg
Cloud
Clear
Centimeter
Central Maintenance Computer
Canada
Communication, Navigation, &
Surveillance
Carbon Monoxide
Communication Radio
Configuration
Coolant
COPLT
Course
Course to
Steer
CPDLC
CPL
CR
CRG
CRNT
Crosstrack
Error
CRS
CRSR
CSA
CSC
CTA
CTR
CTRL
Cumulative,
CUM
CVDR
CVR
CVRG
CWS
CYC CTR
CYL
D ALT
D-ATIS
DB, DBASE
dBZ
DC