Garmin | G1000 NXI: Cessna Caravan 208/208B | Garmin G1000 NXI: Cessna Caravan 208/208B G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Cessna Caravan

Garmin G1000 NXI: Cessna Caravan 208/208B G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Cessna Caravan
®
Pilot’s Guide
Cessna Caravan
Copyright © 2017 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2499.00 or later for the G1000 NXi Cessna Caravan. Some differences in
operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
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Website Address: www.garmin.com
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and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin®, G1000® NXi, WATCH®, FliteCharts®, and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries.
Garmin ESP™, Garmin SVT™, SurfaceWatch™, and Connext™ are trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. These
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Skywatch® and Stormscope® are registered trademarks of L-3 Communications. Ryan®, TCAD® and Avidyne® are registered trademarks of
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trademark of Jeppesen, Inc. Wi-Fi® is a registered trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. SiriusXM Weather and SiriusXM Satellite Radio are
provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio, Inc.
AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
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representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any
incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
AOPA or an AOPA authorized representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and, to
the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
respect to the AC-U-KWIK information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
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make any representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Licensee agrees not to sue AC-U-KWIK Organizations and, to the
maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
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do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may
appear as a partial symbol.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity
of the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the reactive wind shear detection system display as the sole
basis for detecting wind shear conditions. The system cannot predict the conditions in which wind shear is
likely to develop.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and should not be relied
upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical
charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Always obtain qualified instruction prior to operational use of this equipment.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and
heading indications in the following geographic areas: North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes; South
of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W.
(Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada);
North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South
latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
WARNING: When using the autopilot to fly an approach with vertical guidance, the autopilot will not level
the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the altitude preselect.
WARNING: Steep approaches are not supported by Landing Data calculations.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Repairs should only be made by an authorized Garmin service center. Unauthorized repairs or
modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured
compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable
database and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: The system supports approval of AC 120-76C Hardware Class 3, Software Type B Electronic Flight Bag
(EFB) electronic aeronautical chart applications. Possible additional requirements may make a secondary
source (traditional paper or additional electronic display) necessary onboard the aircraft. If the secondary
source is a Portable Electronic Device (PED), its use must be consistent with guidance in AC 120-76C.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process the
data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to nearby
thunderstorms that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode. However, clusters of
two or more discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate thunderstorm activity if these points
reappear after the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: Operate G1000NXi system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days of continuous
operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
vii
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-02138-00
viii
Revision
A
Date
04/2017
Page Range
Description
All
Initial Release for GDU 20.05
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................... 1
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).......................................... 1
System Controls......................................................... 4
PFD/MFD Controls......................................................... 4
Secure Digital Cards....................................................... 6
System Operation...................................................... 7
System Power-up........................................................... 7
Normal Operation.......................................................... 8
Reversionary Mode........................................................ 8
System Annunciations.................................................. 10
System Status.............................................................. 12
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 13
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 15
Accessing System Functionality............................. 20
Softkey Function.......................................................... 20
Menus........................................................................ 26
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 27
System Settings........................................................... 30
System Utilities............................................................ 36
Display Backlighting................................................ 40
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................... 44
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 44
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 46
Altimeter.................................................................... 47
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 50
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 50
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 52
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 56
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data....................................... 63
Temperature Display.................................................... 63
Wind Data.................................................................. 63
Generic Timer.............................................................. 64
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 65
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions........... 66
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 66
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 66
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 67
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting....... 67
Radar Altimeter........................................................... 68
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2.4 Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology)............ 70
SVT Operation............................................................. 71
SVT Features............................................................... 73
Field of View............................................................... 81
2.5 Abnormal Operations.............................................. 82
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 82
Comparator Annunciations........................................... 83
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................... 84
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 85
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 Engine Display.......................................................... 88
Engine Page................................................................ 90
Fuel Calculations......................................................... 93
3.2 EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)........................... 94
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Overview................................................................... 95
PFD Controls and Frequency Display.............................. 96
Audio Panel Controls................................................... 98
COM Operation...................................................... 100
COM Tuning Boxes..................................................... 100
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 101
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency................................. 101
Frequency Spacing.................................................... 104
NAV Operation....................................................... 105
NAV Tuning Boxes..................................................... 105
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 106
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 106
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD............... 107
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 109
DME Tuning.............................................................. 110
Mode S Transponder.............................................. 111
Transponder Controls................................................. 111
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 112
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 114
IDENT Function......................................................... 115
Flight ID Reporting.................................................... 115
Additional Audio Panel Functions........................ 116
Power-Up.................................................................. 116
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 116
Speaker.................................................................... 116
Intercom................................................................... 117
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Passenger Address (PA) System................................... 118
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 118
Entertainment Inputs................................................. 119
4.6 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure........................ 120
4.7 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 121
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 121
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 121
PFD Failure, Dual System............................................ 121
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation.................................. 121
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 121
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
x
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Introduction............................................................ 123
Navigation Status Box and Data Bar............................ 125
Using Map Displays............................................... 127
Map Orientation........................................................ 127
Map Range............................................................... 129
Map Panning............................................................. 131
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 134
Topography............................................................... 135
Map Symbols............................................................ 137
Airways.................................................................... 142
Additional Navigation Map Items................................ 144
IFR/VFR Charts.......................................................... 147
Waypoints............................................................... 150
Airports.................................................................... 151
Intersections............................................................. 158
NDBs........................................................................ 160
VORs........................................................................ 162
VRPs........................................................................ 164
User Waypoints......................................................... 166
Airspaces................................................................. 172
Direct-to-Navigation ............................................ 176
Flight Planning....................................................... 181
Flight Plan Creation................................................... 182
Flight Plan Import/Export........................................... 187
Adding Waypoints to an Existing Flight Plan................. 189
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan.................................. 191
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan................... 193
Flight Plan Storage.................................................... 200
Flight Plan Editing..................................................... 202
Along Track Offsets.................................................... 206
Parallel Track............................................................. 207
Activating a Flight Plan Leg........................................ 209
Inverting a Flight Plan................................................ 209
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 210
Closest Point of FPL................................................... 210
Collapsing Airways.................................................... 211
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 212
5.7 Vertical Navigation................................................ 216
Altitude Constraints................................................... 218
Vertical Situation Display............................................ 221
5.8 Procedures.............................................................. 224
Departures................................................................ 226
Arrivals .................................................................... 228
Approaches .............................................................. 230
5.9 Trip Planning........................................................... 240
Trip Planning............................................................. 240
5.10 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 244
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 Data Link Weather................................................. 248
Activating Data Link Weather Services......................... 248
Weather Product Age................................................. 250
Displaying Data Link Weather Products........................ 252
Weather Product Overview......................................... 261
FIS-B Weather Status................................................. 294
6.2 Airborne Color Weather Radar............................. 296
System Description.................................................... 296
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 296
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 300
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 301
Practical Application Using the Basic Tilt Setup............. 301
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 302
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 314
Additional Weather Radar Displays.............................. 315
System Status............................................................ 317
6.3 Stormscope Lightning Detection System............ 319
Using the Stormscope Page........................................ 319
Stormscope Map Overlays.......................................... 321
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.4 Terrain Displays...................................................... 323
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 324
Terrain Page.............................................................. 328
Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain........................ 329
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Alerting Displays.................... 332
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance............................. 335
Additional TAWS-B Alerting........................................ 335
Inhibiting Alerting...................................................... 338
System Status............................................................ 338
6.5 TAS Traffic................................................................ 341
TAS Theory of Operation............................................. 341
TAS Alerts................................................................. 344
System Test............................................................... 345
Operation................................................................. 346
6.6 ADS-B Traffic........................................................... 352
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 352
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting.................... 354
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 355
Operation................................................................. 356
ADS-B System Status................................................. 362
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Overview....................................................... 365
Additional AFCS Controls........................................... 367
Basic Autopilot Operation........................................... 368
7.2 Flight Director Operation...................................... 369
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 369
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 370
Flight Director Modes................................................. 371
Switching Flight Directors........................................... 371
Command Bars.......................................................... 372
7.3 AFCS Modes............................................................ 373
Vertical Modes.......................................................... 373
Lateral Modes........................................................... 379
Combination modes (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA).............. 384
7.4 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation................ 396
Flight Control............................................................ 396
Engagement.............................................................. 397
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 397
Disengagement......................................................... 398
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7.5 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts............................ 399
Overspeed Protection................................................. 400
7.6 Abnormal Operation.............................................. 401
Suspected Autopilot malfunction................................. 401
Overpowering Autopilot Servos................................... 401
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SafeTaxi................................................................... 404
Charts...................................................................... 406
ChartView................................................................. 407
FliteCharts................................................................ 415
Database Cycle number and revisions................ 421
Cycle Number and Revision........................................ 421
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment............................. 423
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 423
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 424
Flight Data Logging............................................... 427
SurfaceWatch.......................................................... 429
Information Box........................................................ 429
Alerts....................................................................... 430
Surfacewatch Setup................................................... 433
Abnormal Operation.............................................. 434
SiriusXM Data Link Receiver Troubleshooting............... 434
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts................................................ 435
CAS Message Prioritization......................................... 436
CAS Annunciations.................................................... 437
Message Advisory Alerts............................................. 439
System Messages...................................................... 440
Database Management................................................... 453
Loading Updated Databases....................................... 453
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update................... 457
Garmin Aviation Glossary............................................... 459
Frequently Asked Questions........................................... 469
Map Symbols.................................................................... 473
INDEX
Index ................................................................................... I-1
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190-02138-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the G1000 NXi Integrated Avionics System as installed in the Cessna
Caravan. The system presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication, and identification
information to the pilot through large-format displays.
LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
The system consists of the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1050A (3) – The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one installed on
the right/copilot side is designated as PFD2. The unit installed in the center of the panel is designated as the
MFD. These units communicate with each other and with the GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit through a
High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
• GIA 63W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the displays via HSDB
connections. Each GIA 63W contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director
(FD) and system integration microprocessors. The GIA 63Ws are not paired together and do not communicate
with each other directly.
• GDC 72 (2) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit provides
pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system, and it communicates with
the on-side GIA 63W, on-side GDU 1050, on-side GTP59, and on-side GRS 79, using an ARINC 429 digital
interface.
• GRS 79 (2) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to both displays and both
GIA 63Ws. The GRS 79 contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces
with the GMU 44 to obtain magnetic field information, with the GDC 72 to obtain air data, and with both
GIA 63Ws to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of operation are discussed later in this document.
• GEA 71 (1) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit communicates
with both GIA 63Ws using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the onside GRS unit for processing to determine
aircraft magnetic heading. The GMU 44 receives power directly from the onside GRS unit and communicates
with the onside GRS unit using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GMA 1347 (1) (2nd Optional) – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and marker beacon
controls. This unit also enables the manual control of the display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP
button) and communicates with both GIA 63Ws, using an RS-232 digital interface. See Reversionary Mode
discussion later in this section for details of reversionary mode behavior with optional GMA 2.
• GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the GFC 700 AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface allowing
communication with the displays.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GTX 335R (1) (2nd Optional)/ GTX 345R (1) (Optional) – Solid-state transponder that provides Mode A, C,
S capability. The GTX 335R provides ADS-B Out and can be installed as a single unit. The system may instead
accommodate an optional dual set of GTX 335R transponders, occupying ‘XPDR1’ and ‘XPDR2’. The optional GTX
345R provides ADS-B In/Out, and, if installed, will occupy the #1 GTX position. The optional GTX 345R may also
be installed in addition to the GTX 335R, in which case, the GTX345R is indicated as ‘XPDR1’ and the GTX 335R
is indicated as ‘XPDR2’ . Only one transponder can be active at a time. Each transponder communicates with the
on-side GIA 63W through an RS-232 digital interface. If the GDL 69A SXM option is installed, the optional GTX
345R is connected to it via HSDB. (If the GDL 69A SXM is not installed, the GTX 345R communicates with PFD
#2 via HSDB connection).
• GSA 80 (2), GSA 81 (2), or GSM 86 (4) – The GSA 80 servos are used for the automatic control of roll and
yaw, while the GSA 81 servos are used for the automatic control of pitch and pitch trim. These units interface
with each GIA 63W via an RS-485 interface.
The GSM 86 servo gearboxes are responsible for transferring the output torque of the GSA 80/81 servo actuator
to the mechanical flight-control surface linkage. The GSM 86 servo gearboxes are used when installed in
areas that could experience ice or other contamination. The GSM 86 servo gearbox is used for pitch trim,
which is installed in a benign environment.
• GDL 69A SXM (1) (Optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides real-time weather information to the
MFD (and, indirectly, to the PFD map) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A SXM communicates
with the displays via HSDB connection through PFD2. (If installed, the GTX 345R communicates with the
GDL 69A SXM via HSDB). A subscription to the SiriusXM Satellite Radio service is required to enable the
GDL 69A SXM capability.
• GWX 70 (1) (Optional) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD via HSDB
connection.
• GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GDC 72.
• GSD 41 (1) (Optional) – This unit is a data concentrator used to expand the input and output capabilities of
the system. Communication is through the High Speed Data Bus.
• GTS 825 (Optional) –The GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations of Mode S and
Mode C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of the air traffic control system.
Figure 1-1 shows interactions between the LRUs. Additional/optional equipment are also shown in Figure
1-1. The system is capable of interfacing with the following optional equipment:
• GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver
• GWX 70 Weather Radar
• GSD 41 Data Concentrator
• GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GMC 710
(OPTIONAL)
GWX 70
(OPTIONAL)
GDU 1050A
(PFD #1)
GDU 1050A
(MFD)
GTS 825
GSD 41
(OPTIONAL)
(OPTIONAL)
GDU 1050A
( PFD # 2 )
GMA 1347
#2
GMA 1347
#1
(OPTIONAL)
single GMA only
GMU 44 #1
GDL 69 A SXM
GMU 44 #2
GRS 79 # 1
GRS 79 #2
GIA 63W #1
GIA 63W #2
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS/WAAS
G/S
GDC 72 #1
AFCS Mode Logic
Flight Director
Servo Management
GTP 59 #1
GDC 72 #2
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS/WAAS
G/S
GTP 59 #2
AFCS Mode Logic
Flight Director
Servo Management
GSA 81
(Pitch Trim)
GSA 81
(Pitch)
GTX 335R #1
GTX 345R #1
(OPTIONAL)
GSA 80
(Roll)
GSA 80
GTX 335R#2
(OPTIONAL)
( Ya w )
GEA 71
Figure 1-1 System (LRU Configuration)
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment, consult the applicable optional interface user’s guide.
This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of this additional equipment.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SYSTEM CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel (GMA 1347) is described in the CNS & Audio Panel section.
The system controls are located on the PFDs and MFD bezels and audio panel. The controls for the PFDs and
MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
9
13
10
14
11
15
8
12
Figure 1-2 PFD/MFD Controls
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1 NAV VOL/ID Knob
Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a percentage)
Press to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF
2 NAV Frequency Trans- Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies
fer Key
3 NAV Knob
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2
4 Joystick
5
6
7
8
Turn to change map range
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting
CRS/BARO Knob
Turn the small knob to set the pilot-selected course on the HSI when the VOR1, VOR2, or
OBS/SUSP mode is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected
VOR. The pilot-selected course provides course reference to the pilot-side flight director
when operating in Navigation and Approach modes.
Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO bearing of active waypoint/
station
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
COM Knob
Press to toggle cyan tuning box between COM1 and COM2
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies
COM Frequency
Transfer Key (EMERG) Press and hold two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into
the active frequency field
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM Frequency Box)
Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF
9 Direct-to Key (
10 FPL Key
11 CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
12 FMS Knob
(Flight
Management
System Knob)
13 MENU Key
14 PROC Key
15 ENT Key
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)
Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier, chosen from the
active route)
Displays flight plan information
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large knob moves
cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor location)
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar appears,
indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a page
group; small knob selects a specific page from the group)
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making setting
changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The GDU 1050 data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right portion of the
display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used for aviation database
and system software updates. Also, flight plans may be imported or exported from an SD card in the MFD.
Inserting and Removing an SD card:
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel. To remove, gently press on the SD card to release the
spring latch and eject the card.
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-3 PFD/MFD Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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1.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
This section discusses powering up the system, normal and reversionary display operation, system status, AHRS
modes of operation, and GPS receiver operation.
SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for specific procedures concerning avionics power
application and emergency power supply operation.
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical busses.
The PFDs, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features that
exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
When powering up the system, test annunciations are displayed and key annunciator lights also become
momentarily illuminated on the audio panel and the display bezels. On the PFDs, the AHRS begins to initialize
and displays ‘AHRS ALIGN: Remain Stationary’. All system annunciations should disappear typically within
one minute of power-up.
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
• System version
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Airport Directory name and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
• IFR/VFR Charts database effective dates
• Copyright
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted to
continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the Navigation Map (MAP) Page.
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NORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFDs (see Section 1.5). In
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display.
In normal operating mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed,
altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster (see the Flight Instruments Section
for more information). The MFD normally displays a full-color moving map with navigation information (see
the Flight Management Section), while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System
(see the EIS Section). Both displays offer control for COM and NAV frequency selection.
PFD1
MFD
PFD2
Figure 1-4 Normal Operation
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices for
further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically on
at least one of the remaining displays (see Figure 1-5). Transition to reversionary mode should be straightforward
for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
When a display fails, the system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode as follows:
• PFD1 failure – MFD automatically switches to reversionary mode and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
• MFD failure – PFD1 and PFD2 automatically switch to reversionary mode.
• PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Reversionary mode may be manually activated by pressing the Audio Panel’s red DISPLAY BACKUP Button.
Pressing this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
Figure 1-5 Reversionary Mode
Pressing the D I S P L AY
BACKUP button activates/
deactivates reversionary
mode for both the on-side
PFD and the MFD.
Figure 1-6 DISPLAY BACKUP Button
In installations containing one audio panel, reversionary display mode can be manually activated by pressing
the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the audio panel.
• PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the audio panel.
• MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the audio panel.
• PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the audio panel.
In installations containing two audio panels, manual activation of reversionary display mode is accomplished
by pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the appropriate audio panel.
• PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the left audio panel.
• MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the left or the right audio panel.
• PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP Button on the right audio panel.
Should the connection between PFD1 and GIA #1 or the MFD and GIA #2 become inoperative, the on-side
GIA 63W can no longer communicate with the remaining display(s) (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV
and COM functions provided to the failed display(s) by the associated GIA 63W are flagged (red “X”) as invalid
(see Figure 1-7).
Figure 1-7 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to initialize. All windows
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, the
system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with the
failed data (refer to Table 1-1 for all possible flags and the responsible LRUs). Refer to the Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the Aux - System Status Page. Active LRUs are indicated by
green check marks; failed by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin-authorized
dealer informed.
Viewing LRU information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Status Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
NOTE: Refer to the POH for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
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System Annunciation
Comment
System Annunciation
Air Data, Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
attitude information from the
AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
valid heading input from the
AHRS or magnetometer.
Display system is not receiving
altitude input from the air data
computer.
Air Data, Attitude, and Heading
calibration incomplete or
configuration module failure.
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information from the
air data computer.
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid for
navigation use. Note that
AHRS utilizes GPS inputs
during normal operation. AHRS
operation may be degraded
if GPS signals are not present
(see POH).
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input from the air
data computer.
Comment
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
Other Various Red X
Indications
A red ‘X’ through any other
display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
Table 1-1 System Annunciations
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system LRUs.
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green check marks
and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin dealer
informed.
Figure 1-8 Example System Status Page
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (LRU Information
or Airframe window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
Pressing the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected) places the
cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Pressing the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Pressing the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2
DB. PFD 2 database information is now displayed in the database window.
The ANN Test Softkey, when pressed, causes an annunciation test tone to be played and the softkeys to
become backlit.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
In addition to using internal sensors, the AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air data
to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field
measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air data
information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available and depend upon the
combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated
to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic Field
Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field and its
annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for information
on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when an update is
available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being displayed to the
pilot.
YES
NO
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
NO
YES
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS Normal
Mode
NO
YES
Air Data Available and Reliable?
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading Invalid
Heading Invalid
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Figure 1-9 AHRS Operation
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS INPUT FAILURE
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the information
provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using the other GPS
receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs fail, the
AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and magnetometer inputs
are available and valid.
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while AHRS is operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the Aux - GPS Status Page.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection
Softkeys
RAIM Softkey
Selected
SBAS Softkey Selected
Figure 1-10 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The GPS Status Page provides the following information:
• Constellation
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
• Satellite Status
This box provides information regarding signal status. The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated
using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures
of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in
which actual position has 95% probability of laying. EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual
error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
• GPS Status
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active GPS
receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the receiver is in the
process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data (collected
continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be in view.
‘Acquiring’ is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired for computing
a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates ‘Inactive’. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS
indicates ‘Active’.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.4 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select the Aux - GPS Status Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - GPS Status Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
• RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) Prediction (RAIM Softkey is selected)
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended
approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the Aux - GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key.
Or:
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or User waypoints, if
required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system automatically fills in the
identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position:
1) Select the Aux - GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
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SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is selected)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable EGNOS, WAAS or MSAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the
SBAS field in the GPS Status box indicates Disabled. There may be a small delay for the GPS Status box to be
updated upon WAAS and MSAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling SBAS
1) Select the Aux - GPS Status Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
• GPS Satellite Signal Strengths
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS) below
each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey
level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to press the appropriate softkey.
There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an annunciator on the softkey
label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects among several options, indicated by
the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option.
The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also,
these softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled,
the softkey label is subdued (dimmed).
Softkey On Softkey Subdued
Softkey Names
(displayed)
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (press)
Figure 1-11 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
PFD SOFTKEYS
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions, including
GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back Softkey which can be
pressed to return to the previous level. If messages remain after acknowledgement, the Alerts Softkey is black
on white. The Alerts Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the transponder
(XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
The following table describes PFD Softkey functions. Softkeys which display another set of softkeys are
indicated in the table by showing the given set as an increased level. For example, the Map/HSI softkey
is shown in the Level 1 column. Pressing Map/HSI softkey will display another set of softkeys and these
softkeys are explained in the Level 2 column. If pressing a softkey on Level 2 provides yet another set of
softkey functions, those new available softkeys are then explained in the Level 3 column, etc.
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
CAS
CAS ↑
CAS ↓
Map/HSI
Layout
Map Off
Inset Map
HSI Map
20
Level 4
Description
Displayed only when a sufficient number of items are displayed in the
Annunciation Window to warrant scrolling.
When available, scrolls up through CAS messages when pressed.
When available, scrolls down through CAS messages when pressed.
Displays the PFD Map display settings softkeys.
Displays the PFD Map selection softkeys.
Removes the PFD map from display (Inset or Traffic).
Displays the Inset Map.
Displays the HSI Map.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
TFC Map
Wx LGND
Detail
Traffic
Topo
Rel Ter
NEXRAD
METAR
Lightning
Level 4
Description
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display (optional).
Displays/removes the name of the selected data link weather provider
(SiriusXM) and the weather product icon and age box (for enabled
weather products).
Selects desired amount of map detail:
All (No Declutter): All map features visible
Detail 3: Declutters land data
Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA data
Detail 1: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
Displays traffic information on PFD Map (optional).
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and
elevation scale on PFD Map.
Displays relative terrain information on the PFD Map.
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on PFD Map (optional).
Displays METAR information on PFD Map (optional).
Adds/removes the display of SiriusXM lightning information on PFD Map
(optional).
Disables lightning function on PFD Map. The softkey annunciator is green
LTNG Off
when the lightning function is off.
Selects the data link weather source for the PFD Map (optional).
Datalink
Adds or removes the display of Stormscope information on the PFD Map.
STRMSCP
The softkey annunciator is green when the function is on. When the
function is off, the annunciator is gray (optional).
When enabled, displays the airborne weather radar overlay on HSI Map
Wx Radar
(WX 70 only).
Displays softkeys for airborne weather radar options (GWX 70 only).
RDR Opt
Displays softkeys for weather radar mode selection (GWX 70 only).
Mode SEL
Disables weather radar mode (GWX 70 only).
Off
Standby Selects Standby weather radar mode (GWX 70 only).
Weather Activates Weather radar mode (GWX 70 only).
Ground Activates Ground Map weather radar mode (GWX 70 only).
Decreases weather radar gain setting (GWX 70 only).
Gain Increases weather radar gain setting (GWX 70 only).
Gain +
When enables, displays weather alerts as system messages. (GWX 70
WX ALRT
only)
STAB
Activates antenna stabilization feature (GWX 70 only).
ACT
Activates Altitude Compensated Tilt feature (GWX 70 only).
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display (optional).
TFC Map
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD options.
PFD Opt
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
SVT
Pathways
Terrain
HDG LBL
APT Sign
Wind
Off
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
DME
Bearing 1
Sensors
ADC
ADC 1
ADC 2
AHRS
AHRS 1
AHRS 2
Bearing 2
ALT Units
Meters
IN
HPA
STD Baro
OBS
CDI
22
Description
Displays additional SVT overlay softkeys (optional).
Displays Pathway Boxes on the Synthetic Vision Display (optional).
Enables synthetic terrain depiction (optional).
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line. (optional)
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the
current aircraft position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport
is within approximately 9 nm (optional).
Displays the wind option softkeys.
Wind information not displayed.
Headwind/Tailwind and crosswind components.
Wind direction arrow and speed.
Wind direction arrow with direction and speed.
Displays DME Information Window.
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency,
and Off.
Displays the sensor selection softkeys.
Displays ADC selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 ADC.
Selects the #2 ADC.
Displays the AHRS selection softkeys.
Selects the #1 AHRS.
Selects the #2 AHRS.
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency, and
Off.
Displays softkeys to select altitude unit parameters.
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters.
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury.
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopascals.
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are
selected).
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with
active leg). When OBS is on, the softkey annunciator is green.
Cycles through FMS, NAV1, and NAV2 navigation modes on the CDI.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
DME
XPDR
Description
Displays the DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of the
DME.
Displays the transponder selection softkeys.
Selects the active transponder. These softkeys only appear if equipped with
two transponders (optional).
XPDR 1
XPDR 2
Standby
Selects transponder Standby Mode (transponder does not reply to any
interrogations).
On
ALT
Activates transponder (transponder replies to identification interrogations).
Altitude Reporting Mode (transponder replies to identification and altitude
interrogations).
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only).
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7.
Use numbers to enter code.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Removes numbers entered, one at a time.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Displays Timer/References Window.
Displays Nearest Airports Window.
VFR
Code
0-7
Ident
BKSP
Ident
Ident
Tmr/Ref
Nearest
Table 1-2 PFD Softkeys
MFD SOFTKEYS
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and weather (optional). There are many softkey functions available on the MFD depending on the page group
and screen selected.
The following table provides an example of the MFD Softkey functions accessed from the Navigation Map
screen. Further information concerning softkeys providing more navigation and flight planning functions
may be found in the Flight Management Section. Terrain, traffic, and weather softkey descriptions may
be found in the Hazard Avoidance section. Further description of optional equipment and corresponding
softkey functions may be found in the Additional Features Section.
NOTE: On some MFD map pages, the Engine softkey is replaced with the Traffic softkey.
Level 1
Engine
Level 2
System
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Level 3
Level 4
Description
Displays EIS - Engine Page and second-level engine softkeys; select
again to exit page (see the EIS Section for more information).
Enables/disables EIS - System Page.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Description
Monitors EIS trends for 5 seconds and saves the average and maximum
TRND/ACK
values (if no ETM generated alerts exitst).
Acknowledges ETM generated alerts, if any exist.
Capture EIS data for the previous 2 minutes of ETM history and continues
Capture
capturing EIS data for 2 minutes after softkey selection.
RST Fuel
Resets the fuel totalizer fuel remaining and the displayed fuel used to
zero.
LB REM
Accesses softkeys for manually adjusting the fuel totalizer amount of
fuel remaining.
Press to decrease remaining fuel quantity in 10-lb increments.
-10 LB
Press to decrease remaining fuel quantity in 1-lb increments.
-1 LB
Press to increase remaining fuel quantity in 1-lb increments.
+1 LB
+10 LB Press to increase remaining fuel quantity in 10-lb increments.
+100 LB Press to increase remaining fuel quantity in 100-lb increments.
+1000 LB Press to increase remaining fuel quantity in 1000-lb increments.
Full
Map Opt
Traffic
Inset
Off
FPL PROG
VSD
TER
24
Resets the displayed fuel remaining to the aircraft’s fuel capacity.
Displays system oil pressure and temperature, fuel calculations, and
electrical system information.
Displays traffic information on Navigation Map Page.
Displays inset window second level softkeys.
Removes VSD inset from Navigation Map Page.
Displays Flight Plan Progress inset.
Displays VSD profile information of terrain/obstacles along the current
track, vertical track vector, and selected altitude.
Auto: Automatically displays either VSD profile information for active flight plan information or along current track with no
active flight plan.
FPL: Displays VSD profile information for active flight plan.
TRK: Displays VSD profile information along current track.
Displays terrain on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No terrain information shown on MFD Map.
Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers,
lakes) and elevation scale on MFD Map.
REL: Displays relative terrain information on the MFD Map.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
AWY
STRMSCP
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
METAR
Legend
Wx Radar
Detail
Charts
CHRT Opt
Show Map
Info
DP
STAR
APR
WX
NOTAM
Level 3
Level 4
Description
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No airways are displayed.
On: All airways are displayed.
LO: Only low altitude airways are displayed.
HI: Only high altitude airways are displayed.
Displays Stormscope information on Navigation Map (optional).
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on Navigation Map Page
(optional).
Displays XM lightning information on Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays METAR information on Navigation Map Page (subscription
optional).
Displays legends for the displayed XM Weather products (optional).
Displays GWX 70 radar information on Navigation Map Page
(optional).
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through the following
levels:
Detail All: All map features visible.
Detail-3: Declutters land data.
Detail-2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Detail-1: Removes everything except for the active flight plan.
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure
charts.
Displays chart display settings softkeys (if available).
Displays the WPT–Airport Information page.
Pressing the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram
when the view is on a different chart.
Displays departure procedure chart.
Displays standard terminal arrival procedure chart.
Displays approach procedure chart.
Displays weather information.
Displays NOTAM information for selected airport, when available.
Table 1-3 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MENUS
The system has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently
displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional
submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘No Options’ when there are
no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group
operations are described in Section 1.2. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
Navigating the Page Menu Window
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on PFD
Options with
FPL Window
Displayed on MFD
Figure 1-12 Page Menu Examples
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The page group and active
page title are displayed in the upper center of the screen, below the Navigation Data Bar. In the bottom right
corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are
displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs. The
current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan. For some of these pages (Airport/
Procedures/Weather Information, XM, Procedure Loading), the active title of the page changes while the page
name in the list remains the same.
Active Page Title
Page Group
MFD
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-13 Page Title and Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
There are also several pages (Airport Information/Procedures/Weather Information and XM pages) selected
first from within a main page group with the FMS Knob, then with the appropriate softkey at the bottom of
the page (or from the page menu). In this case, the page remains set to the selected page until a different page
softkey is pressed, even if a different page group is selected.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Group
MAP (Map Page Group)
Pages within Page Group
• Navigation Map
• IFR/VFR Charts
• Traffic Map (optional)
• Weather Radar (optional)
• Stormscope (optional)
• Weather Data Link (optional)
WPT (Waypoint Page Group)
• Terrain Proximity / TAWS-B (optional)
• Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
- Airport Information (Info 1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information (Info 2 Softkey)
- Departure Information (DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information (STAR Softkey)
- Approach Information (APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional) (WX Softkey)
• Intersection Information
• NDB Information
• VOR Information
• VRP Information
Aux (Auxiliary Page Group)
• User Waypoint Information
• Trip Planning
• Utility
• GPS Status
• System Setup 1/2
• XM Radio Pages (optional)
- XM Information (Info Softkey)
- XM Radio (Radio Softkey)
• System Status
• ADS-B Status (optional)
• Databases
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Group
FPL (Flight Plan Page Group)
Pages within Page Group
• Active Flight Plan
- Wide View, Narrow View (View Softkey)
• Flight Plan Catalog
- Stored Flight Plan (via New Softkey)
NRST (Nearest Page Group)
• SurfaceWatch Setup (optional)
• Nearest Airports
• Nearest Intersections
• Nearest NDB
• Nearest VOR
• Nearest VRP
• Nearest User WPTS
• Nearest Frequencies
• Nearest Airspaces
Table 1-4 Page Group and Pages
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages
• Departure Loading
• Arrival Loading
• Approach Loading
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM SETTINGS
System settings are managed from the System Setup Pages. Fields shown in cyan text may be edited for
following system parameters:
• Time display format (local or UTC )
• Displayed measurement units
• MFD Data Bar (Navigation Data Bar) fields
(see the Flight Management Section)
• Barometric Transition Alert (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• GPS Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) range
(see the Flight Instruments Section)
• Airspace alerts (see the Flight Management Section)
• COM transceiver channel spacing (see the Audio Panel and CNS Section)
• Arrival alert
• Displayed nearest airports (see the Flight Management Section)
• SurfaceWatch Alerts (optional)
(see the Additional Features Section)
• Flight Director Format (see the Flight Instruments Section)
• Page Navigation
• Audio Voice Format
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the Aux - System Setup 1 or 2 Page.
2) Press the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
The message ‘Restore Setup X Page Defaults?’ is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Fields shown in Cyan may
be edited
Configure System
Time
Configure arrival alert settings
Change Display
Unit Settings
- Enable / disable alert
- Set arrival alert trigger distance
Restore System Defaults
Change settings for
Page Group Navigation
Change audio
alert voice setting
- FMS knob clicks to change
page group
- Page Group Window
seconds until timeout
Select System Setup Page
Figure 1-14 System Setup 1/2 Pages
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- Setup 1
- Setup 2
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DATE/TIME
The system obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the Aux - GPS Status Page). System time (displayed in the lower right corner of
the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is set by adding/
subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
Figure 1-15 System Time (UTC Format)
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. If local time
format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ field is highlighted.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection.
Figure 1-16 Date/Time Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DISPLAY UNITS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system screens are listed on the System Setup Page.
The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set from here.
Category
Navigation Angle
Distance and Speed
Altitude and Vertical
Speed
Temperature
Fuel and Fuel
Flow***
Weight**
Position
Settings
Affected Quantities
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Metric
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Nautical*
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Data Bar)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
Feet*
All altitudes on MFD
Meters
All elevations on MFD
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
Pounds
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
Fuel parameters (Trip Planning Page)
Pounds*
N/A
Kilograms
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
MGRS 1m
MGRS 10m
UTM/UPS
Exceptions
Airspeed Indicator
True Airspeed (PFD)
Wind speed vector
Map range (Traffic Page, Terrain
Proximity/TAWS Page)
CDI scaling (System Setup)
Fuel range calculation (EIS)
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
*** Not configurable
Table 1-5 Display Units Settings (System Setup Page)
Changing a display unit setting:
1) While on the Aux - System Setup 1 Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Display Units Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ARRIVAL ALERTS
The Arrival Alert Box on the System Setup 1 Page allows the Alerts Window arrival alerts to be turned ‘On/
Off’ and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the Alerts Window and the PFD Navigation
Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching a user-specified
distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight plan). When
Arrival Alerts is set to ‘On’, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message is displayed in
the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is displayed in the
Alerts Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘Off’, only the PFD Navigation Status Box message “Arriving at
waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is approximately ten seconds.
Figure 1-17 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Enabling/disabling the Alerts Window arrival alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the Arrival Alert Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PAGE NAVIGATION
The large FMS Knob displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates through the tabs. The small FMS Knob
navigates through the pages listed within a specific group. The number of clicks it takes to display the Page
Group Tabs and change to the next tab can be controlled from the Page Navigation box on the Aux - System
Setup 2 Page.
Off – Displays the Page Group Window with one click of either FMS Knob.
On – Displays the Page Group Window and navigates to the next page group with one click of either FMS Knob.
The pilot can select, from the Aux - System Setup 2 Page, the amount of time the Page Group Window is
displayed (in the lower right corner of the MFD). The timeout can range from two to ten seconds.
Selecting page navigation settings:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 2 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Change On 1st Click’ field in the Page Navigation Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Timeout Seconds’ field in the Page Navigation Box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired number of seconds
7) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO ALERTS
The Audio Box on the System Setup 2 Page allows the audio alert voice setting (male or female).
Changing the audio alert voice:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 2 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice field in the Audio Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired voice setting and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM UTILITIES
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the Aux - Utility
Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a record of the
time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum groundspeeds—are
displayed from the time of the last reset.
Figure 1-18 Utility Page
TIMERS
The system timers available on the Aux - Utility Page include:
• Stopwatch-like generic timers
• Total-time-in-flight timer
• Time since departure
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the countdown
on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before reaching zero on
a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when reset, the digits return
to zero.
Setting the generic timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
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5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled from
the System Setup Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - Utility Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are
reset to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
SCHEDULER
The system’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”,
“Switch fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”) in the Alerts Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on a
specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently
whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically
reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, messages are retained
until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the Aux - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the Alerts Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
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9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the Aux - Utility Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
Scheduler messages appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD and cause the Alerts Softkey label to change
to a flashing ‘Message’ label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the Alerts Window and acknowledges the
scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the ‘Alerts’ label. Pressing the Alerts Softkey again removes the
Alerts Window from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Figure 1-19 PFD Alerts Window
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1.5 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The PFDs and MFD display backlighting, the PFDs and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
• Using the PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from the PFDs. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from any remaining displays.
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
If desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to ‘MFD Display’ or ‘PFD2 Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press either PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD1 Display’, ‘MFD Display’, or ‘PFD2 Display’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 Key’, ‘MFD Key’, or ‘PFD2 Key’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Figure 1-20 PFD Setup Menu
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on selected flight
instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts, as they appear on the display
during certain AFCS flight director modes.
The system includes easy-to-scan Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) that feature large horizons, airspeed, attitude,
altitude, vertical speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation,
communication, terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the PFDs and are explained in
other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Indicated Airspeed
– True Airspeed
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Vspeed reference bugs
– Navigation source
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Altimeter, showing
– DME Information Window
– Trend vector
• DME Tuning Window
– Barometric setting
• Transponder Mode, Code, and Ident/Reply
– Selected altitude
• References Window, showing
• Radar Altimeter (optional)
– Generic timer
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
– Vspeed reference bug values and settings
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
– Minimum descent altitude (MDA) or decision
height (DH)
• Wind data
The PFDs also display various alerts and annunciations discussed throughout this Pilot’s Guide.
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16
15
14
13
12
11
1
10
2
9
3
8
4
7
5
6
1
Airspeed Indicator
9
Barometric Altimeter Setting
2
True Airspeed
10
Turn Rate Indicator
3
Current Heading
11
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
12
Selected Altitude Bug
13
Altimeter
6
Horizontal Situation Indicator
(HSI)
Outside Air Temperature
(OAT)
Softkeys
14
Selected Altitude
7
Generic Timer
15
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Selected Heading Bug
16
Attitude Indicator
5
Figure 2-1 Flight Instruments on the Primary Flight Display (PFD)
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14
13
12
11
10
1
2
9
3
8
4
5
6
7
1
Comparator Annunciation
8
Desired Track
2
Selected Heading
9
Radar Altimeter
3
Wind Data Box
10
4
HSI Map
5
DME Information Window
6
Bearing Information Windows
7
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height
Required Vertical Speed
Indicator
11 Vertical Deviation Indication
12
VNV Target Altitude
13
Marker Beacon Annunciation
14
Reversionary Sensor
Annunciation
Figure 2-2 Additional Flight Instruments Information on the PFD
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2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The numeric labels and
major tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 10 knots. The minor tick marks on the moving
tape are shown at intervals of 5 knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed viewable
at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until
reaching never exceed speed (VMO), then it becomes red. The true airspeed is displayed in knots below the
Airspeed Indicator.
Airspeed
Trend Vector
Vspeed
Reference
Bugs
Indicated
Airspeed
Color coded
speed ranges
Figure 2-4 Red Pointer
Showing Airspeed Above VMO
True
Airspeed
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
A color-coded (white, green, and red/white striped “barber pole”) speed range strip is located on the moving
tape. The colors denote flaps operating range, normal operating range, and maximum operating speed (VMO).
A solid red range is also present for low speed awareness.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical, magenta line, that appears to the right of the color-coded speed
range strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to
the tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate
of acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the
line shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses
VMO, the text of the actual airspeed readout changes to amber. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains
constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available.
Black reference bugs with white letters appear along the right side of the airspeed scale denote GLIDE,
VR,VX, and VY. The pilot can enable/disable the display of these bugs, as well as change their values. When the
indicated airspeed is below 20 knots, enabled Vspeeds Reference Bugs and their numeric values appear in a list
at the bottom of the airspeed tape, ordered from highest to lowest.
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Figure 2-5 VSpeed References
Vspeed
Bug
GLIDE
G
VR
R
Vx
X
Vy
Y
Table 2-1 Vspeed Bug Labels
Enabling/disabling or modifying individual Vspeed Reference Bugs:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired Vspeed value.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to change the Vspeed in 1-kt increments (when a speed has been changed from a
default value, an asterisk appears next to the speed).
4) Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the On/Off field
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
References Window
References Window Menu
Figure 2-6 References Window and Menu
The pilot can also enable/disable or restore default values to all Vspeed Reference Bugs together, or by type,
such as Restore Takeoff Defaults.
Enabling/disabling Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group or restoring all default settings:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll as needed to highlight one of the following options: ‘All References On’, ‘All
References Off’, ‘Restore Defaults’, ‘Takeoff References On’, ‘Takeoff References Off’, or ‘Restore Takeoff
Defaults’.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the References Window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch (indicated by the amber symbolic aircraft on the pitch scale), roll, and slip/
skid information.
9
8
1
7
2
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-7 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 90˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up
to 25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch
marks occur every 2.5˚. When the optional Garmin Synthetic Vision Technology system (Garmin SVT™) is
activated, the pitch scale is reduced to 10˚ up and 7.5˚ down; refer to the discussion later in this section for more
information about Garmin SVT.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate lateral acceleration. Slip/skid is indicated by the location of
the bar relative to the pointer. One bar displacement is equal to one ball displacement on a traditional Slip/Skid
Indicator.
Figure 2-8 Slip/Skid Indication
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ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge.
Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box below the Selected Altitude. Refer to the AFCS Section for more information about Selected
Altitude.
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape, with the end resting at the
approximate altitude to be reached in six seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
T urn the ALT SEL Knob on the AFCS control unit to set the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments. When the
Metric altitude overlay is enabled, the selected altitude is adjusted in 50 meter increments.
If a Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value has been set, this altitude is also available for
the Selected Altitude while turning the ALT SEL Knob.
Selected
Altitude
(Meters)
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
Altitude Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude Bug
MDA/DH Altitude
Bug
Barometric Setting
Figure 2-9 Altimeter
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
Altitudes can also be displayed in meters as an overlay. Note that the altitude tape does not change scale when
the metric overlay is enabled.
Displaying the metric altitude overlay:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the Meters Softkey to enable the metric altitude overlay on the Altimeter.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
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The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric pressure setting creates discontinuities
in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent patch. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target
Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for the height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD Baro Softkey.
3) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
Figure 2-10 Standard Barometric Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or:
Press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between the PFDs, the readouts change to amber. The settings can
be synchronized from the Aux - System Setup 1 Page on the MFD. Once the settings are synchronized, the
readouts change from amber to cyan.
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PFD1 Baro Setting
PFD2 Baro Setting
Barometric Settings Not Synchronized on PFDs Displayed in Amber
PFD1 Baro Setting
PFD2 Baro Setting
Synchronized on PFDs Displayed in Cyan
Figure 2-11 Barometric Setting Synchronization on the PFDs
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup 1 Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the BARO ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field in the ‘Synchronization’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
7) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the barometric
pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition Alert occurs when
climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The flight level Baro Transition
Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at 200 feet above this flight level.
The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the barometric pressure setting. The pilot
can enable/disable either of the Baro Transition Alerts, and choose the altitude or flight level used to trigger the
alerts.
Setting the Baro Transition Alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) To enable/disable the Baro Transition Alert based on altitude, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or
‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition Alert Altitude in the BARO Transition Alert Box.
4) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Altitude ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Altitude field.
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6) Use the FMS Knobs to change the altitude and press the ENT Key to accept or press the CLR Key to return to
the previous altitude selection.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition Alert Level.
8) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Flight Level ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Flight Level field.
10) Use the FMS Knobs to change the Flight Level for the alert and press the ENT Key to accept or press the CLR
Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
11) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance when
SBAS is available.
The Vertical Speed Indicator displays the aircraft vertical speed with numeric labels and tick marks at 1000
and 2000 fpm in each direction on the non-moving tape. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 500 fpm. The
current vertical speed is displayed in the pointer, which also points to that speed on the nonmoving tape. Digits
appear in the pointer when the climb or descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate of ascent/descent
exceeds 2000 fpm, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape and the rate appears inside the
pointer.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI; Figure 2-12) for reaching
a VNV Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the
Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental
Flight Data, for more information about VNV indications on the PFDs.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
When Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used, the Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) appears to the left of
the altimeter and is displayed with a magenta ‘V’ at the top of the scale and a magenta chevron indicating the
baro-VNAV vertical deviation. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” alert. The
VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management Section for
details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.3, Supplemental Flight Data, for more information about VNV
indications on the PFDs.
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-13) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is
tuned in the active NAV field and the selected course and heading are within 107°. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
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VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Scale
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 2-12 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
Figure 2-13 Glideslope Indicator
The Glidepath Indicator is a vertical deviation scale for GPS approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LPV, LP+V) or advisory vertical guidance (LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual). The Glidepath
Indicator, a magenta diamond (Figure 2-14) appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF)
becomes the active waypoint, and GPS is the selected navigation source. Full-scale deflection (two dots) is
angular with upper and lower limits. The upper limit is +/-492 feet (150 meters) and lower limit depends on
approach service level as follows:
•
LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
•
LPV is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
A hollow gray diamond represents a preview of the glidepath indicator. This is shown while inbound to the
FAF waypoint, but before the FAF waypoint is the next active waypoint. The preview is also shown when the
AFCS is coupled to the Vertical Path Tracking Mode (VPTH) while inbound to the FAF waypoint, until the
AFCS captures the glidepath; refer to the AFCS section for more information about Vertical Path Tracking Mode.
The hollow gray preview diamond changes to a solid magenta diamond to indicate the glidepath indicator is
active.
If the approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
Preview
Glidepath
Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 2-14 Glidepath Indicator
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HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor
tick marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI. The HSI also
presents turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and selected navigation source information. The HSI is available
in two formats: a 360˚ compass rose and a 210˚ HSI Map. The HSI Map is mutually exclusive with the Inset
Maps.
Enabling/disabling the HSI Map on the PFD:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Map Softkey to enable the HSI Map.
Or:
Press the Map Off Softkey to disable the HSI Map.
The HSI with the HSI Map disabled presents a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) with a Course Pointer, To/
From Indicator, and a sliding deviation bar and scale. The Course Pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1,
and LOC) or a double line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/
From Indicator rotates with the Course Pointer and appears when the system is receiving the active NAVAID.
16
15
14
13
12
1
11
2
3
10
4
5
9
6
8
7
52
1
Current Track Indicator
9
Lateral Deviation Scale
2
Selected Heading Bug
10
Flight Phase
3
11
Course Pointer
4
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Navigation Source
12
Selected Course
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Lubber Line
6
To/From Indicator
14
Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
8
OBS Mode Active
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
16 Selected Heading
15
Figure 2-15 Horizontal Situation Indicator
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The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay capabilities
such as topographical, weather, traffic, and land information. The HSI Map contains a Course Pointer, a
combined To/From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral deviation scale. Upon passing a
station, the To/From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI
on the HSI Map can appear either as an arrowhead (GPS, VOR, OBS) as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight
Management Section for information about using HSI Map overlays.
Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation Source
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
Course Pointer
Figure 2-16 HSI Map Enabled
The following information appears above the Current Heading when the HSI Map is enabled:
• A sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and
deviation indicators are combined)
• OBS Mode/Suspend Mode Status
• Deviation scale
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
• Navigation Source
• Back Course Annunciation (BC)
• Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode Annunciation
• Flight Phase
For the HSI Map, when a localizer is the active navigation source and the difference between the selected
course and current heading is greater than 107°, a ‘BC’ annunciation appears instead of the Flight Phase above
the selected course readout to indicate backcourse sensing is active. This annunciation does not apply to the
HSI when the HSI Map is disabled. In either case, when the system detects LOC BC guidance is active, the
localizer guidance behaves as if a front course were selected.
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
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Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station.
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected Heading
Selected Course
Selected Heading Bug
Figure 2-17 Heading and Course Indications
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag
Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the Aux - System Setup 1 Page. When an approach referenced to
true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates an alert to remind the pilot to change the
navigation angle setting to ‘True’ at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-18 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight NAV Angle setting in the Display Units box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• Magnetic - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
• True - References angles to true north (T)
TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in six seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than 4
deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
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Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
Half Standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-19 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV, GPS, and optional
ADF sources by pressing the PFD Opt Softkey then either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey. The bearing
pointers are cyan and are single-line (BRG1) or double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the
information window to indicate the navigation source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are
visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible
due to data unavailability.
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Bearing 2
Pointer
Distance
DME Information Window
Distance to
Bearing Source
Bearing
Source
Pointer
Icon
Station
Pointer
Identifier
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
Bearing 1
Pointer
Bearing
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
Figure 2-20 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
When a bearing pointer is displayed, the associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows are displayed below the HSI and give the following information:
• Bearing source (NAV, GPS, ADF)
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, GPS)
• Frequency (NAV, ADF)
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
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identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed instead of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and dashes are displayed in the information window if the
NAV radio is not receiving a VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not selected.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window
with the NAV 1 source.
3) Press the bearing softkey again to display the bearing pointer with the NAV 2 source.
4) Press the bearing softkey again to display the bearing pointer with GPS as the source.
5) Press the bearing softkey again to display the bearing pointer with the optional ADF as the source.
6) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
The DME Information Window is displayed above the Bearing 1 Information Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “–.– – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the Bearing 1 Information Window.
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
CDI
Figure 2-21 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, GPS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current navigation
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derived distance when coupled to the GPS. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots)
while navigating with GPS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol. When
navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI.
When navigating with GPS and an ILS or localizer approach is activated, a preview of the approach course is
indicated by the dashed gray pointer and CDI on the HSI as shown on the left of Figure 2-22. As the aircraft
approaches the final approach course, the two course pointers converge. When the system auto-switches to the
localizer NAV source, the pointer and CDI will change to green.
Preview CRS
Pointer and
CDI
Figure 2-22 Navigation Sources
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from GPS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to GPS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
GPS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-23 Selecting a Navigation Source
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The system automatically changes from GPS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling accordingly
when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The GPS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
GPS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically changes to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating a
Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. GPS steering guidance is not
provided after the change.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to
the FAF (see Figure 2-24), it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
changes from GPS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
Fix Prior to
the FAF
Glideslope
Intercept Point
Figure 2-24 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation is
amber on both displays (unless synchronized). Once the CDI Synchronization feature is enabled, the CDIs
remain synchronized until the setting is disabled.
Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup 1 Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the System Setup 1 Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the CDI On/Off field in the Synchronization box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
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GPS CDI SCALING
When GPS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the Aux - System Setup 1 Page and
the full-scale deflection setting may also be selected (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If
the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled
accordingly and the selected setting is displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Format Allowed selection in the GPS CDI box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
(Oceanic if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
Terminal
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-25, Table 2-2).
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-25 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not a CA or FA
• At 30 nm from the departure airport, the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
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- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (2.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually decreases from 2.0 nm to
1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to decrease from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm over a
distance of 1.0 nm.
• During approach, the CDI scale decreases even further (Figures 2-26 and 2-27). This transition normally
occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI changes to approach scaling automatically
once the approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-To-Final (VTF) are selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
FAF
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
2 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
angle set
by system
350 ft
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and the preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-26 Typical LNAV, LNAV+V, and Visual Approach CDI
Scaling
Figure 2-27 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LPV, LP+V, and LP Approach
CDI Scaling
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal mode under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not a CA or FA
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Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(LP)
Missed Approach
LNAV + V
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-26)
VISUAL
L/VNAV
LPV
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure 2-27)
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to amber.
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current Active-to waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is enabled.
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the Active-to waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the GPS flight
plan returns to normal operation, with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight plan on the moving map retains the modified course line.
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GPS
Selected
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-28 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. ‘SUSP’ appears on the HSI to the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey becomes the
SUSP Softkey with its annunciator green to indicate the suspension is active as shown in the figure. Pressing
the SUSP Softkey deactivates the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints, and
the SUSP Softkey becomes the OBS Softkey.
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-29 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFDs also display various supplemental information, including
temperature, wind data, generic timer, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAY
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is displayed in the lower left corner of the PFDs. It may be shown in
degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F), depending on the selected temperature units on the Aux - System Setup
1 Page.
Figure 2-30 Outside Air Temperature
WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed in knots, relative to the aircraft, can be displayed relative to the aircraft in a
window to the upper left of the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid
or unavailable, the window displays ‘NO WIND DATA’. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways.
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-31 Wind Data
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Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the numbered Option softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• Option 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
• Option 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
• Option 3: Wind direction arrow with numeric direction and speed
4) To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer can be accessed via softkeys on the PFD and allows for quick access for timing functions
(either counting up or down) for the pilot.
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (HH:MM:SS).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time.
4) Press the ENT Key. The Up/Dn field is now highlighted.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Up/Dn Window.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Start?’ is now highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘Stop?’. If the timer is counting down, it will start
counting up after reaching zero.
9) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
10) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
11) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFDs
according to the criteria listed in the table.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Phase of
Flight
Figure 2-32 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
VNV Indication Removed
Criteria
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude*
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (Cncl VNV Softkey pressed on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
Table 2-3 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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2.3 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions pertaining to flight instruments are displayed on the PFD.
Refer to Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Altimeter. The outer marker (O)
reception is indicated in cyan, middle (M) in amber, and inner (I) in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS
Section for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-33 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ALTITUDE ALERTING
Altitude Alerting provides the pilot with a visual alert when approaching the Selected Altitude. Whenever the
Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The following occur when approaching the Selected
Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to black text on a cyan
background and flashes for five seconds.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude
changes to cyan text on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude) an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude changes to amber text on a black background and
flashes for five seconds.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-34 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation requires SBAS. Terrain alerts from Terrain-SVS or TAWS-B systems will
appear instead of the Low Altitude Annunciation when these systems are operating and not inhibited.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber LOW ALT annunciation appears to the right of the roll scale, flashes for
several seconds, then remains displayed until the condition is resolved.
Figure 2-35 Low Altitude Annunciation
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a barometric Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) can be set
in the References Window and is reset if the current approach is deleted, another approach is loaded, or on the
next avionics power cycle.
If desired, the system can also compensate this altitude based on a pilot-supplied temperature at the destination.
For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases the displayed MDA/
DH accordingly.
When MDA/HD alerting is active, the altitude setting is displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter. Once
the altitude is within the range of the tape, a bug appears at the selected altitude on the Altimeter. The following
visual annunciations occur when approaching the MDA/DH:
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, the BARO MIN or COMP
MIN or RA MIN box appears with the altitude in cyan text. The bug appears on the altitude tape in cyan (or
magenta for COMP MIN) once in range.
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text become white.
• Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text become amber and a “Minimums. Minimums,” voice
alert occurs.
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
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Figure 2-36 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
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Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the MDA.
If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA, once it reaches 50 feet above the MDA, alerting
is disabled.
Setting the barometric Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select BARO, TEMP COMP, or RAD ALT. Off is selected by default. Press the ENT
Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet when ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’
is selected, or up to 2,500 feet when ‘RAD ALT’ is selected).
5) If TEMP COMP was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field and then
enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Figure 2-37 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
RADAR ALTIMETER
If an optional radar altimeter is installed, when the radar height (the aircraft altitude above ground level
detected by the radar altimeter) is between zero and 2500 feet, the current value is displayed in white above the
selected course/desired track box. Display of radar height becomes more sensitive as the height above ground
decreases (Table 2-4).
Radar Altimeter
Figure 2-38 Current Radar Height
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Radar Height Range
Shown to Nearest
0 to 200 feet
5 feet
200 to 1500 feet
10 feet
1500 to 2500 feet
50 feet
Table 2-4 Radar Altimeter Sensitivity
When the radar altimeter is selected as the MDA/DH altitude altering source, the radar altimeter numeric
display changes to amber when descending to the MDA/DH altitude (Figure 2-39). Refer to the Minimum
Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting discussion in this section for more information about this function.
Figure 2-39 RA as Altitude Source for MDA/DH
A ground line appears on the Altimeter to display the aircraft’s height relative to the ground. Diagonal lines
appear below the ground line. If the radar altimeter provides invalid data or fails, the message ‘RA FAIL’ is
displayed in amber in place of the current radar height.
Radar Altimeter
Ground
Line
Figure 2-41 Radar Altimeter Failure
Radar Altimeter
Minimums Box
Figure 2-40 Altimeter Displaying the Ground Line
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2.4 GARMIN SVT (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
NOTE: Do not use the flight path marker as a flight director.
NOTE: Terrain alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South latitude. This is due
to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process the data representing
the affected areas.
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is an optional visual enhancement to the system. SVT depicts a
forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of view is 29
degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. In Reversionary Mode, the field of view is 21.5 degrees to the
left and 35.5 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD), or on the
Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude,
heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arc-second database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant
features. The terrain data resolution is 4.9 arc-seconds, meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in
squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds on each side, is required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required
data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled (although the softkeys will still
appear functional) until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, wind turbines, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle
database. Cultural features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are
not displayed even if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south
east–west grid with lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation
relative to the terrain.
Terrain-SVT, which is included with the Garmin-SVT option, or the optional Terrain Awareness and Warning
System (TAWS) provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant
to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
Garmin-SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If SVT is enabled
when switching to Reversionary Mode, it will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD
display will be shown in the interim.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the Garmin-SVT or TAWS-B terrain or obstacle data displays.
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The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
• Flight Path Marker
• Terrain Alerting
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Obstacle Alerting
• Airport Signs
• Pathways
• Runway Display
• Traffic Display
Figure 2-42 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch attitude scale is reduced from 20
degrees up and down to 10 degrees up to 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The softkeys
are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign. The Back Softkey returns to the previous level of
softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
Pathways, HDG LBL, and APT Sign Softkeys are only available when the Terrain Softkey is activated (gray
with black characters). After activating the Terrain Softkey, the Pathways, HDG Lbl, and APT Sign softkeys
may be activated in any combination to display desired features. On the next avionics power cycle, the last
selected state (on or off) of the Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign Softkeys is remembered by the
system.
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• Pathways Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HDG LBL Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APT Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the Terrain Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the Pathways Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HDG LBL Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APT Sign Softkey.
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SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Pathways Color
Matches CDI
Indicating Nav
Source
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Horizon
Heading
Marks
Airport
Runway
Synthetic
Terrain
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 2-43 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
PATHWAYS
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by gray boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the navigation map indicating an inactive leg.
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Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 2-44 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV and visual approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not
be used independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glideslope indicator. They are removed from
the display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
DEPARTURE AND ENROUTE
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg of
the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the first
active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT field of
view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching the center
of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight plan
legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude selected
or programmed.
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DESCENT AND APPROACH
Pathways are shown descending only for a programmed descent. When the flight plan includes programmed
descent segments, pathways are displayed along the descent path provided that the selected altitude is lower
than the programmed altitude.
When an approach providing vertical guidance is activated, pathways are shown level at the selected altitude
up to the point along the final approach course where the altitude intercepts the extended vertical descent
path, glidepath, or glideslope. From the vertical path descent, glidepath, or glideslope intercept point, the
pathways are shown inbound to the Missed Approach Point (MAP) along the published lateral and vertical
descent path, or at the selected altitude, whichever is lower.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes if
GPS is selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with LOC selected
as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and glideslope.
VOR, LOC BC approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in magenta boxes.
Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final approach courses are
not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 2-45 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
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MISSED APPROACH
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned in
the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 2-46 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
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FLIGHT PATH MARKER
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM appears when the Synthetic Terrain feature is enabled. The FPM represents the direction of the
flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol represents the
aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown.
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by either the TAWS-B or Terrain-SVT system. However,
decisions regarding terrain and/or obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 2-47 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
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HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HDG LBL Softkey.
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a
partial symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with the non-directional symbols shown on navigation
maps and traffic maps. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display.
For more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APT Sign Softkey.
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 2-48 Airport Signs
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RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Other
Runway
on Airport
Airport
Runway
Figure 2-49 Airport Runways
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TERRAIN ALERTING
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning
alert on the navigation maps and Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Pages. For more detailed information regarding
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
Terrain
Annunciation
Potential
Impact
Area
Caution
Potential
Impact
Area
Warning
Figure 2-50 Terrain Alert
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower or wind
turbine symbols found on map displays. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative height
above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the map displays, which color obstacles relative to the
aircraft’s altitude, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warm of potential conflict
with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than
1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude
displays.
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PULL UP
Annunciation
Obstacle
Warning
Figure 2-51 SVT Obstacle Warning
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Enabling/disabling field of view:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Map Settings and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Map Group options to Field of View.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select On or Off.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and Field of View.
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
Field of View on the MFD
SVT View on the PFD
Figure 2-52 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
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2.5 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in the following table can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur
(Figure 2-53). Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
GPS LOI
Location
Right of HSI
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits (annunciation
GPS INTEG OK Right of HSI
displayed for 5 seconds)
Lower left of Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position to compute
DR
aircraft symbol navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
Table 2-5 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-53 Example HSI Annunciations
In Dead Reckoning Mode the CDI is removed from the display when GPS is the selected navigation source.
The following items on the PFD are then shown in amber:
• Current Track Bug
• Wind Data
• Ground Speed
• Distances in the Bearing Information Windows
• GPS bearing pointers
• Desired track (DTK)
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode as they become increasingly
inaccurate over time.
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COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, a miscompare annunciation is displayed in black text on an amber background. If one or
both of the sensed values are unavailable, a no compare annunciation is displayed with black text on a white
background. Refer to the Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
Miscompare Annunciations
No Compare
Annunciations
Figure 2-54 Sensor Comparator Annunciations on the PFD
Annunciation
ALT
IAS
HDG
Condition
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10 knots.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 knots.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
PIT
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
ROL
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
ALT
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
IAS
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
HDG
No data from one or both heading sensors.
PIT
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
ROL
No data from one or both roll sensors..
Table 2-6 Sensor Comparator Annunciations
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REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Reversionary sensor selection for the AHRS and ADC is annunciated on the above the roll scale on the PFDs.
Reversionary sensor selection for the GPS is annunciated to the right of the HSI. These annunciations reflect
reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the PFD Opt Softkey accesses the Sensors
Softkey. Pressing the Sensors Softkey accesses the ADC and AHRS softkeys These softkeys allow switching of
the sensors being viewed on each PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the system may make some sensor
selections automatically. The GPS sensor cannot be switched manually.
Figure 2-55 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
Condition
BOTH ON ADC1
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC1.
BOTH ON ADC2
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS1.
BOTH ON AHRS2
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS2.
BOTH
ON GPS1
Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS1.
BOTH
ON GPS2
Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS2.
USING ADC1
PFD2 is displaying data from ADC1. Shown while PFD1 is displaying data from ADC2.
USING ADC2
PFD1 is displaying data from ADC2. Shown while PFD2 is displaying data from ADC1.
USING AHRS1
PFD2 is displaying data from AHRS1. Shown while PFD1 is displaying data from AHRS2.
USING AHRS2
PFD1 is displaying data from AHRS2. Shown while PFD2 is displaying data from AHRS1.
USING
GPS1
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
USING
GPS2
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
Table 2-7 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
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UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn of extreme
pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon
line.
Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-56 Pitch Attitude Warnings
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled when the aircraft experiences
unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• System Time
• AFCS Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• PFD Inset Map
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• ISA temperature deviation
– References Window
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• Wind data
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
• Selected Heading readout
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• Selected Course readout
– Alerts
• True Airspeed
• Transponder Status Box
– Procedures
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for limitations.
The system offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically monitoring critical
system parameters and providing system alerts during all phases of flight. The Engine Indication System (EIS)
displays electrical, fuel, engine, and ice protection (optional) information on the left side of the Multi Function
Display (MFD). Detailed EIS information can be viewed by pressing the Engine Softkey.
EIS Display
Figure 3-1 MFD with EIS display
Green bands on the instruments indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution
and warning, respectively. White or uncolored bands indicate areas outside of normal operation not yet in the
caution or warning ranges. When unsafe operating conditions occur, the corresponding displays flash to indicate
cautions and warnings. If sensory data to an instrument becomes invalid or unavailable, a red “X” is displayed
across the instrument.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 ENGINE DISPLAY
NOTE: The gauges displayed and the values shown in this section are based on the PT6A-140 engine
installation and does not reflect other engine installations available. Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook
(POH) for specific values and operating limitations.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
PT6A-140
Figure 3-2 Engine Display
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1
Displays engine torque in foot-pounds (ft-lb).
Torque Gauge
(TRQ FT-LB)
For aircraft with the PT6A-114A, the warning indication is propeller
speed sensitive and changes for speeds between 1800 and 1900 rpm.
For aircraft with the PT6A-140, the warning indication is derived from
Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and altitude information.
The X 100 portion of the gauge will not change color during an engine
exceedance.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Interstage Turbine
Temperature Gauge
(ITT °C)
A light blue bug represents the recommended cruise torque setting. Cruise
torque bug appears for certain combinations of propeller speed, (OAT),
airspeed (PT6A-114 only), and altitude (PT6A-114 only).
Displays Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) in degrees Celsius (°C).
Operating ranges differ for engine off, start and running conditions. When
the engine is off or in the process of being shut down, ‘OFF’ is annunciated
above the digital temperature readout. When the engine is being started,
‘STRT’ is annunciated and a white line leads to a red pointer representing
the ITT temperature which must not be exceeded while starting; when
the engine is running, there is no annunciation.
Gas Generator Speed Gauge Displays gas generator speed as a percentage.
(NG % RPM)
Displays propeller speed revolutions per minute (rpm) in increments of 10
Propeller Speed
rpm.
(PROP RPM)
Displays engine oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi).
Oil Pressure Indicator
(OIL PSI)
Oil Temperature Indicator Displays engine oil temperature in °C.
(OIL °C)
Displays left (L) and right (R) wing tank fuel quantity in pounds (lbs).
Fuel Quantity Indicator
(FUEL QTY LBS)
Displays OFF when respective fuel tank selector is turned off; there is no
Fuel Tank Selector
annunciation when the fuel selector is turned on.
Indicator
Displays fuel flow in pounds per hour (pph).
Fuel Flow
(FFLOW PPH)
Displays DC current in amperes (amps) for the battery.
Ammeter
(BAT AMPS)
Displays DC bus voltage.
Voltmeter
(BUS VOLTS)
If one of the optional ice protection systems is installed, displays the amount
Ice Protection
(A-ICE) or (PROP AMPS) of anti-icing fluid in gallons (A-ICE GAL) or the propeller de-icing heater
current (PROP AMPS) (PT6A-114A only).
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
ENGINE PAGE
The EIS - Engine Page displays all engine, fuel, electrical, and fuel calculation information. To access this
page, press the Engine Softkey. Refer to Table 3-1 for Engine Page softkey functions.
Level 1
ENGINE
SYSTEM
Level 2
Level 3
TRND/ACK
CAPTURE
RST FUEL
LB REM
-10 LB
-1 LB
+1 LB
+10 LB
+100 LB
+1000 LB
Full
BACK
BACK
Description
Accesses the Engine EIS Display and EIS softkeys
Accesses the System EIS Display
Monitors EIS trends for 5 seconds and saves the average and maximum
values (if no ETM-generated alerts exist)
Acknowledges ETM-generated alerts, if any exist
Captures EIS data for the previous 2 minutes of ETM history and continues
capturing EIS data for 2 minutes after softkey selection
Resets the fuel totalizer fuel remaining and the displayed fuel used to zero
Accesses softkeys for manually adjusting the fuel totalizer amount of fuel
remaining
Decreases the displayed fuel remaining in 10-lb increments
Decreases the displayed fuel remaining in 1-lb increments
Increases the displayed fuel remaining in 1-lb increments
Increases the displayed fuel remaining in 10-lb increments
Increases the displayed fuel remaining in 100-lb increments
Increases the displayed fuel remaining by 1000 lb
Resets the displayed fuel remaining to the aircraft’s fuel capacity
Returns to the previous level of softkeys
Returns to the previous level of softkeys
Table 3-1 Engine Page Softkeys
NOTE: No EIS softkeys are available in the FPL Page - Surface Watch on the MFD.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
PT6A-140
Figure 3-3 Engine System Display
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1
Displays engine torque in foot-pounds (ft-lb)
Torque Gauge
(TRQ FT-LB)
For aircraft with the PT6A-114A, the warning indication is propeller
speed sensitive and changes for speeds between 1800 and 1900 rpm.
For aircraft with the PT6A-140, the warning indication is derived from
Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and altitude information.
The X 100 portion of the gauge will not change color during an engine
exceedance.
2
Interstage Turbine
Temperature Gauge
(ITT °C)
3
Gas Generator Speed Gauge
(NG % RPM)
4 Propeller Speed
(PROP RPM)
5 Fuel Quantities
(QTY L/R LB)
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
92
Fuel Flow
(FFLOW PPH)
Set Fuel Remaining
(LB REM)
Calculated Fuel Used
(LB USED)
Ammeter
(GEN, ALT, BAT AMPS)
Voltmeter
(BUS VOLTS)
Ice Protection
(A-ICE) or (PROP AMPS)
Time Remaining
(TIME REM)
A light blue bug represents the recommended cruise torque setting.
Cruise torque bug appears for certain combinations of propeller speed,
(OAT), airspeed (PT6A-114 only), and altitude (PT6A-114 only).
Displays Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT) in degrees Celsius (°C).
Operating ranges differ for engine off, start and running conditions.
When the engine is off or in the process of being shut down, ‘OFF’ is
annunciated above the digital temperature readout. When the engine
is being started, ‘STRT’ is annunciated and a white line leads to a red
pointer representing the ITT temperature which must not be exceeded
while starting; when the engine is running, there is no annunciation.
Displays gas generator speed as a percentage.
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm).
Displays left (L) and right (R) wing tank fuel quantity in pounds (lbs);
movement is in increments of 25 lbs (PT6A-114A) or 10 lbs (PT6A140).
Displays fuel flow in pounds per hour (pph).
Displays current fuel remaining in lb as set by the pilot and adjusted
based on fuel flow since last set.
Displays quantity of fuel used in lb based on fuel flow since last reset.
Displays generator (GEN), alternator (ALT), and battery (BAT) currents
in Amperes (amps).
Displays bus voltage.
If one of the optional ice protection systems is installed, displays the
amount of anti-icing fluid in gallons (A-ICE GAL) or the propeller deicing heater current (PROP AMPS) (PT6A-114A only).
Displays a countdown timer based on the amount of anti-icing fluid
remaining.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FUEL CALCULATIONS
NOTE: Fuel calculations do not use the aircraft fuel quantity indicators and are calculated from the last time
the fuel was reset.
Fuel used (LB USED) and range (in nautical miles) are calculated based on the displayed fuel remaining (LB
REM) and the fuel flow totalizer. The calculated range also takes into account the aircraft’s heading and the
wind direction and speed.
Adjusting the fuel totalizer quantity:
1) From the MFD Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Engine softkey.
3) Press the System softkey.
4) Press the LB REM softkey.
Select the softkey that best describes the current fuel load desired Once selected, press the BACK softkey.
Resetting the fuel totalizer:
On the Engine System Page, press the RST Fuel Softkey; this resets displayed fuel remaining (LB REM) to the
maximum fuel capacity for the aircraft and fuel used to zero.
A map feature related to the EIS Fuel Calculations is the Fuel Range Ring, which graphically illustrates the
aircraft’s remaining range based on heading, groundspeed, and wind direction and speed. The solid green circle
represents the range until all the remaining fuel is depleted. The dashed green circle indicates the aircraft range
until only reserve fuel remains. Once on reserve fuel, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
The Fuel Range Ring shifts position in relation to the aircraft according to wind effects. For example, more
fuel is required for flying into a headwind, and the aircraft’s decreased range in that direction is indicated by the
Fuel Range Ring shifting toward the tail of the Aircraft Symbol.
The amount of reserve fuel (only for purposes of the Fuel Range Ring) is set on the Navigation Map Page
Setup Menu in terms of remaining flight time. When enabled the Fuel Range Ring appears on the Navigation
Map Page, the Weather Data Link Page, and PFD Inset Map.
Enabling/disabling the Fuel Range Ring and selecting a reserve fuel time:
1) Display the Navigation Map Page (press and hold the CLR Key for 2 seconds to quickly select this map).
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘FUEL RNG (RSV)’ field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the reserve fuel time, how long the aircraft can fly after reaching the
reserve fuel.
8) Enter the desired reserve fuel time (00+00 to 23+59; hours+minutes) and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 EIS DISPLAY (REVERSIONARY MODE)
In the event of a PFD or MFD display failure, the display(s) operating in Reversionary Mode are configured to
present PFD symbology together with the EIS Display (refer to the System Overview for information about display
reversionary mode).
The Engine Display, in reversionary mode, is identical to the normal EIS Display on the MFD.
EIS Display
Figure 3-4 Reversionary Mode (EIS Shown)
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the Cessna Caravan is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
• Audio Panel (1 or 2)
• Multi Function Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder (1 or 2)
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The single or dual (optional) Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and
receiver audio selection. The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and
passengers, a marker beacon receiver, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios
is reduced by a feature called Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing
further reduces the amount of background noise from the radios.
The single or dual (optional) Mode S transponder is controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the
Primary Flight Display (PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data
box displays the active four-digit code, mode, and reply status.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9
10
11
13
12
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and DME Tuning Window
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue numbers) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected and
decoded COM transceiver frequency is displayed directly below the COM Frequency Box.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue numbers) and the Frequency Transfer
Arrow between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
DME Tuning Window – Displays DME frequency pairing mode. Display by selecting the DME Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME pairing mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes, select DME modes, and
Auto-tune entries when DME Tuning Window or NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn
the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
13
DME Softkey – Displays the DME Tuning Window.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Volume
Annunciation
Squelch
Annunciation
24
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
98
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be
added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be
added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
5
COM3 MIC – Selects the optional #3 transmitter (HF) for transmitting. COM3 receive is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #3 COM receiver to be heard.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
6
COM3 – When selected, audio from the optional #3 COM receiver (HF) can be heard.
7
COM 1/2 – Not used in Cessna Caravan.
8
TEL – Not used in Cessna Caravan.
9
PA – Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the PA Key
is pressed.
10
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker. COM and NAV receiver audio can be heard on the
speaker.
11
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is received. Also, stops play of recorded
COM audio.
12
HI SENS – Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low sensitivity.
13
DME – Turns DME audio on or off.
14
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
15
ADF – Turns ADF receiver audio on or off (optional).
16
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
17
AUX – Not used in Cessna Caravan aircraft.
18
MAN SQ – Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the PILOT Knob
to illuminate the squelch annunciation. Turn the PILOT/PASS Knobs to adjust squelch.
19
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is playing and the
previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent press plays each previously recorded block.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play.
20
PILOT – Selects and deselects the pilot intercom isolation.
21
COPLT – Selects and deselects the copilot intercom isolation.
22
PILOT Knob – Press to switch between volume and squelch control as indicated by illumination of VOL
or SQ. Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. The MAN SQ Key must be selected to allow squelch
adjustment.
23
PASS Knob – Turn to adjust Copilot/Passenger intercom volume or squelch. The MAN SQ Key must be
selected to allow squelch adjustment.
24
DISPLAY BACKUP Button – Manually selects Reversionary Mode.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TUNING BOXES
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
8
Figure 4-3 COM Tuning Box Indications
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
100
1
Active Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
left. An active COM frequency is displayed in green and indicates that the COM transceiver is selected
on the Audio Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white
indicate that no COM radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which COM transceiver is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
3
Standby Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the right. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
4
Frequency Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which COM transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field.
5
Automatic Squelch Indication – Indicates that Automatic Squelch is disabled. Automatic Squelch quiets
unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good sensitivity to weak COM
signals. When Automatic Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise
is heard over the headsets and speaker, if selected.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
6
Transmit and Receive Indications – During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM
frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow. During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by
the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow.
7
Frequency Spacing – The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or
8.33-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When
8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in
the complete 3040-channel list.
8
Com Volume – COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• WPT – Airport Information Page
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
• NRST – Nearest Airports Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports Window
on the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Select the Nearest Softkey on the PFD to open the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window. A list of 25 nearest airport
identifiers and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Select the Nearest Softkey to Open
the Nearest Airports Window
Figure 4-4 Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
selecting the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on either PFD to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
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5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected COM radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-5 Nearest Pages Menus
On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to
load frequency
into PFD1 COM
Standby Field.
Cursor then
advances to the
next frequency.
Select INFO 1
Softkey for AIRPORT,
RUNWAYS, and
FREQUENCIES
Windows
Figure 4-6 WPT – Airport Information Page
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airspaces, NRST – Nearest Frequencies,
and NRST – Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU
Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FREQUENCY SPACING
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000
to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected,
all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup 1 Page of the AUX Page Group.
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the COM CONFIG Window is selected, the softkeys are blank.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-7 ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page
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4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV TUNING BOXES
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
Figure 4-8 NAV Tuning Box Indications
1
Standby Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the left. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which NAV transceiver is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
3
Active Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
right. An active NAV frequency is displayed in green. The active NAV radio is selected by pressing the
CDI softkey on the PFD. Both active NAV frequencies appearing in white indicate that no NAV radio is
selected.
4
NAV Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio standby frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which NAV transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field. Moving the Frequency
Tuning Box is accomplished by pressing the NAV knob on the PFD.
5
VOR/LOC Morse Code Audio Indication – When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio,
a white ID replaces the Frequency Transfer Arrow to the left of the active NAV frequency. In order to
listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID
Knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV Tuning Box. To turn on/off both
NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing the small NAV Knob and
pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
6
Decoded Morse Code Station Identifier – The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code
station identifier that is received from the navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station
identifier is still required, and can be accomplished by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio
panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
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7
NAV VOLUME – NAV radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by selecting the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Selecting the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Selecting the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Selecting the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Selecting the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for tuning,
the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active NAV frequency
color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the previously selected NAV
standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, ADF, or DME Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard over
the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
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AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• WPT – Airport Information
• NRST – Nearest VOR
• WPT – VOR Information
• NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
• NRST – Nearest Airports
• NRST – Nearest Airspaces
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or the
appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor on the NAV
frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
Turn the FMS
Knob to Scroll
Through a List
of Frequencies
Press the ENT
Key to Load
a Highlighted
Frequency into
the NAV Standby
Frequency Box
Figure 4-9 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD control unit to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
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Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-10 Nearest Pages Menus
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
Figure 4-11 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST – Nearest VOR Page
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
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AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for
details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency field on approach activation, on both
PFD1 and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of an ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
Figure 4-12 Marker Beacon Keys
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations. The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The MKR/MUTE Key
Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker beacon signal
is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while marker beacon
audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
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Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 NXi for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME
tuning and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The system tunes the DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV
frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The DME Tuning Window is located to the right of the HSI in the lower right corner of the PFD. The DME
transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the DME Tuning Window. Pressing the DME
Softkey switches the DME Tuning Window on and off.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-13 DME Tuning Window
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV frequency.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the tuning entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor in
the DME Tuning Window.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME information window.
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4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDER
The Mode S Transponder(s) provides Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. A
second Mode S Transponder is available as optional equipment. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S)
capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and Code
Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: Standby, On,
ALT, VFR, Code, Ident, Back. If equipped with optional second transponder, XPDR1 and XPDR2 selection
softkeys will also appear with the Mode Selection softkeys.
When the Code Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Ident, BKSP, Back. The
digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters the transponder
code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit.
Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Selecting the Back Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the Back
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the Ident Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 4-14 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2 (if equipped):
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the other transponder.
If the aircraft contains optional dual transponders, on power up the system activates Transponder 1 as
the default unit, regardless of which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between
Transponder 1 and Transponder 2, the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active
transponder, switching transponders does not bring back the previous code.
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Mode) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes). The
Standby, On, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the Standby Softkey. In Standby, the transponder is
powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted. When Standby is selected,
a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-15 Standby Mode
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MANUAL ON MODE
On Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the On Softkey. An On indication will appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting On mode enables transmission of transponder replies and
squitters, but transmissions will not include altitude information. The On indication and transponder code
in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and white while on the ground. When the
transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode
S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Airborne On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Figure 4-17 On Mode
ALTITUDE MODE
ALT Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ALT Softkey. When ALT mode is selected,
an ALT indication will appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting ALT mode enables
transmission of transponder replies and squitters. Transmissions will include pressure altitude information.
The ALT indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and
white while on the ground. When the transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable
replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic
systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground ALT Mode
Airborne ALT Mode
Figure 4-18 Altitude Mode
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REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to
Interrogation
Figure 4-19 Reply Indication
VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by selecting the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is selected, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-20 VFR Code
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the Code Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be pressed within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Press the BKSP
Softkey to move the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR and the Code Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
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IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
Selecting the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The Ident Softkey
appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is selected, a green Ident indication is
displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the Ident Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
IDNT
Indication
Select the
Ident Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
Figure 4-21 Ident Softkey and Indication
FLIGHT ID REPORTING
NOTE: If the Flight ID is required but the system is not configured for it, contact a Garmin-authorized service
center for configuration.
When the Flight ID must be entered before flight operation, the identifier is placed in the Timer/References
Window on the PFD. The Flight ID is not to exceed seven characters. No space is needed when entering Flight
ID. When a Flight ID contains a space, the system automatically removes it upon completion of Flight ID entry.
Entering a Flight ID:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey to display the Timer/References Window.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the selection cursor, if not already activated.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll down to the Flight ID.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired Flight ID.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete Flight ID entry.
If an error is made during Flight ID entry, pressing the CLR Key returns to the original Flight ID entry. While
entering a Flight ID, turning the FMS Knob counterclockwise moves the cursor back one space for each detent
of rotation. If an incorrect Flight ID is discovered after the unit begins operation, reenter the correct Flight ID
using the same procedure.
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panels perform a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off. The exceptions are the speaker and intercom, which are always
selected during power up.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects the cabin
speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed. Certain aural alerts and warnings (autopilot, traffic,
altitude) are always heard on the speaker, even when the speaker is not selected.
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Contact a Garmin-authorized service center for
volume adjustment.
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INTERCOM
The two (optional) Audio Panels include a six-position intercom system (ICS) and a stereo music input for the
pilot, copilot and up to four passengers. The intercom provides Pilot and Copilot isolation from the passengers
and aircraft radios.
Pressing an ICS key on either Audio Panel selects and deselects the same key on both Audio Panels. Either
the pilot or copilot may select or deselect the intercom.
PILOT KEY
COPLT KEY
Annunciator Annunciator
Pilot Hears
Copilot Hears
Passenger Hears
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers, MUSIC
INPUT #1
Selected radios, aural alerts,
pilot, copilot, passengers,
MUSIC INPUT #2
Copilot, passengers,
MUSIC INPUT #1
Copilot, passengers,
MUSIC INPUT #2
OFF
OFF
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot,
passengers, MUSIC
INPUT #1
ON
OFF
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot
OFF
ON
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot; passengers, Copilot
MUSIC INPUT #1
Selected radios, aural alerts,
pilot, passengers,
MUSIC INPUT #2
ON
ON
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot
Passengers;
MUSIC INPUT #2
Selected radios, aural
alerts, pilot, copilot
Table 4-1 ICS Isolation Modes
Pilot isolation is selected when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated. During Pilot isolation, the pilot can
hear the selected radios and aural alerts and warnings. The copilot and passengers can communicate with each
other. The copilot is isolated from aural alerts and warnings.
Copilot isolation is selected when the COPLT Annunciator is illuminated. The copilot is isolated from the
selected radios, aural alerts and warnings, and everyone else. The pilot and passengers can hear the selected
radios, aural alerts, and communicate with each other.
When both the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are illuminated, the pilot and copilot can hear the selected
radios, aural alerts, and communicate with each other. The passengers are isolated from the pilot and copilot
but can communicate with each other.
When both the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are extinguished, everyone hears the selected radios, aural
alerts, and is able to communicate with everyone else.
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INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
The PILOT/PASS Knob controls volume or manual squelch adjustment for the pilot and copilot/passenger.
The small knob controls the pilot volume and squelch. The large knob controls the copilot/passenger volume
and squelch. The VOL and SQ annunciations at the bottom of the unit indicate which function the knob is
controlling. Pressing the PILOT/PASS Knob switches between volume and squelch control as indicated by
the VOL or SQ annunciation being illuminated.
The MAN SQ Key allows either automatic or manual control of the squelch setting.
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished (Automatic Squelch is on), the PILOT/PASS Knob
controls only the volume (pressing the PILOT/PASS Knob has no effect on the VOL/SQ selection).
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated (Manual Squelch), the PILOT/PASS Knob controls
either volume or squelch (selected by pressing the PILOT/PASS Knob and indicated by the VOL or SQ
annunciation).
PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA) SYSTEM
A passenger address system is available for delivering voice messages over the cabin speaker. When the PA
Key is selected on either Audio Panel, the COM MIC Annunciator on that side is extinguished, and the active
COM frequency on the associated PFD changes to white, indicating that there is no COM selected. A Push-toTalk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA announcements. The PA Annunciator flashes about once per second
while the PTT is depressed.
When the PA key is selected, the cockpit speakers are muted and speaker audio is heard on the cabin speaker.
If an aural alert is generated, cabin speaker audio will be temporarily disconnected and the cockpit speakers
are active for the duration of the aural alert. The aural warnings will be heard by the crew, not the passengers.
One of the pilots is free to use either COM radio while the other pilot delivers PA messages.
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
NOTE: Pressing the play key on the pilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Pilot. Pressing the play
key on the Copilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Copilot.
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that continually records up to 2.5 minutes of the
selected COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from
the oldest block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. The PLAY annunciator remains lit to indicate when play is in
progress. The PLAY annunciator turns off after playback is finished.
Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory block and then returns to normal operation.
Pressing the PLAY Key again during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Pressing the PLAY Key twice within one-half second while audio is playing plays the previous block of
recorded audio. Each subsequent two presses of the PLAY Key within one-half second backtracks through the
recorded memory blocks to reach and play any recorded block.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
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ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
NOTE: Music audio cannot be completely turned off. Audio level for the crew and passengers can be
adjusted by a Garmin-authorized service center.
NOTE: The stereo entertainment input is not controlled by the AUX Key on the Audio Panel. The AUX Key
is reserved for an auxiliary radio input.
The Audio Panel(s) provides a stereo entertainment input from the data link receiver (optional), or an Aux
Audio In jack for the crew and passengers. The Aux Audio In jack input is compatible with popular portable
entertainment devices such as MP3 players and other tablet devices through a 3.5-mm stereo phone jack,
installed in a convenient location. The headphone outputs of the entertainment devices are plugged into the
Aux Audio In jack.
The current ICS state of isolation affects the distribution of the entertainment input (see Table 4‑1).
CREW MUSIC
Music can be heard by the pilot and copilot when both the PILOT and the COPLT ICS Annunciators are
extinguished. Music can also be heard by the pilot when the COPLT Annunciator is illuminated and by the
copilot when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated.
Music Muting
Music muting occurs when aircraft radio or marker beacon activity is heard. Music is always soft muted
when an interruption occurs from these sources. Soft muting is the gradual return of music to its original
volume level. The time required for music volume to return to normal is between one-half and four
seconds.
Music Muting Enable/Disable
Press and hold the MKR/MUTE Key for three seconds to switch music muting on and off. When switching,
either one or two beeps are heard; one beep indicates that music muting is enabled, two beeps indicate
music muting is disabled. Music muting is reset (enabled) during power up.
PASSENGER MUSIC
Music coming through the passenger phone jacks can be heard only by the passengers and is never muted.
SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
SiriusXM Satellite Radio requires installation of the optional Data Link Receiver and an optional subscription
to SiriusXM Satellite Radio Service. SiriusXM Satellite Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard
by the pilot and passengers simultaneously. Refer to the Additional Features Section for more details on the
Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to the Aux Audio In jack removes the SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio from that
input.
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4.6 AUDIO PANELS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: Adjusting the PILOT volume control affects ICS audio that is heard in the headset for the flight crew
member that is performing the adjustment. Keep in mind that the intercom volumes on the Audio Panels
are independent of one another, but the radio volumes are not.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot. If
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the knobs turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the System, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well as
prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a pilot
boards the aircraft to ensure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
Setting the Audio Panel(s) during preflight:
1) Verify that the PILOT and COPLT Annunciators are extinguished.
2) Verify manual squelch is set to full open.
3) Turn the PILOT/PASS Knobs clockwise two full turns. This sets the intercom level to max volume (least amount
of attenuation).
4) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV) to a suitable level.
5) Adjust the PILOT/PASS Knob volume to the desired intercom level.
6) Reset squelch to automatic, or adjust to the appropriate level manually.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind the notes
above.
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4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the system includes equipment failures of the system components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds
of continuous operation. An alert appears in the Alerts Window on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck
microphone.
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
PFD FAILURE, DUAL SYSTEM
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1
automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency frequency is available
to both the copilot and pilot.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
(Standard single audio panel installation) If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the
pilot’s headset and microphone directly to the COM1 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker during
Fail-safe operation.
(Optional dual audio panel installation) If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects
the pilot’s headset and microphone directly to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the
COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker.
(Optional dual audio panel installation) If there is a failure of one Audio Panel, that side only has access to
their respective on-side fail-safe COM. The remaining one does not have access to the others side’s COM and
NAV. For example, if the pilot side Audio Panel fails, the copilot side Audio Panel has access to all the radios
except for COM1 and NAV1.
REVERSIONARY MODE
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section for
more information on Reversionary Mode.
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the three full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) and
one Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFDs and the MFD. A brief description of the GPS navigation data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V,
L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels are
only available with SBAS.
The Inset Map is a small version of the Navigation Map and can be displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD.
When the system is in reversionary mode, the Inset Map is displayed in the lower right corner. The Inset Map is
displayed by pressing the Map/HSI Softkey, pressing the Layout Softkey, then pressing the Inset Map Softkey.
Pressing the Map Off Softkey removes the Inset Map. The HSI Map is also a small version of the Navigation Map
and is displayed in the center of the HSI.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the Inset Map can be reduced by pressing the Map/
HSI Softkey on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey. The amount of displayed data for the Navigation Map
can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the MFD. The Navigation Map can be oriented three different
ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
The Direct-to Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Current Track Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD (Inset Map)
Navigation Mode
Current Track
Indicator
HSI Map
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD HSI Map
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Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1
minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD status box are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Right Holding Pattern
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The Navigation Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
BRG
DEST
DIS
DTG
DTK
END
ENR
ESA
ETA
ETE
FLT
FOB
FOD
GS
ISA
LDG
MSA
TAS
TKE
TRK
VSR
XTK
Bearing
Destination Airport Identifier
Distance
Distance to Go
Desired Track
Endurance
ETE to Final Destination
Enroute Safe Altitude
Estimated Time of Arrival
Estimated Time Enroute
Flight Timer
Fuel on Board
Fuel over Destination
Ground Speed
Temperature at Standard Pressure
ETA at Final Destination
Minimum Safe Altitude
True Airspeed
Track Angle Error
Track
Vertical Speed Required
Cross-Track Error
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the Aux-System Setup 1 Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the MFD Data Bar Fields Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the desired data.
5) Press the ENT Key. Selecting the Defaults Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system maps
can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.)
with names
• Map range
• Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Obstacle data
• Topography scale
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing
to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other
pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
• Topography data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
All Map Group Pages (MAP)
All Waypoint Group Pages (WPT)
Aux - Trip Planning
All Nearest Group Pages (NRST)
Flight Plan Pages (FPL)
Direct-to Window
PFD Maps
Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper left corner of the map.
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
• North up (North up) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (Track up) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Heading up (HDG up) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
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NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other displays that show
navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the Navigation Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Map Settings Window.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘Orientation’ field.
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
North Up Above Field
Figure 5-8 Map Settings Menu Window - Map Group
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
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The map can be configured to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the map range reaches a
minimum range.
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘North Up Above’ field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. When the map range
is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to accurately represent the map, a magnifying
glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick counter-clockwise
to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
NOTE: Rapid increase in map range, for either the MFD Navigation Map or the PFD Inset Map, may cause a
delay in map redraw and black blocks to be momentarily displayed.
Auto Zoom On
Figure 5-9 Map Range
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AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on Map Settings Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact areas. If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any map page capable of
displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic
advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the
active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of the ranges
at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times (set on the
Map Settings Window for the Map Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum distance
to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the Map Settings Page for the Map Group) determines how long auto
zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range available (1000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
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Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ on/off field, and select ‘Off’ or ‘On’ using the small FMS Knob.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Auto Zoom’ display selection
field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max Look FWD’ field. Times
are from zero to 999 minutes.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99 minutes).
11) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
When the panning function is selected by pushing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
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Panning the map:
1) With the desired map page displayed, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
NOTE: With the VSD Inset displayed, the map pointer may not pan the Navigation map in all the directions
if the range value is set to 1000 nm.
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
Map Pointer Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
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Information about Point
of Interest
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet above Mean Sea Level
(MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) With the desired map page displayed, place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Waypoint Information Page for the selected waypoint.
3) Press the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Waypoint Information Page and return to
the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) With the desired map page displayed, place the Map Pointer on the boundary of an airspace.
2) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and center the map on the aircraft.
Or:
1) Place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the Airspace
Information Page for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
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MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, push the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page Menu
and press the ENT Key.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures. Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable VSD Inset at the bottom of the navigation map.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
Topographic Data
on VSD Inset
TOPO Off
TOPO On
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation maps:
1) With the desired map page displayed, press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Map:
1) With the desired PFD map enabled, press the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD.
2) Press the Topo Softkey.
3) Press the Topo Softkey again to remove topographic data from the PFD Map. When topographic data is
removed from the PFD Map, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Topo On
Topo Off
Figure 5-14 PFD Inset Map - Topographic Data
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Displaying/removing topographic data using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ field.
6) Select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which topographic data is displayed.
NOTE: Items are removed on the PFD Inset Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the
Map Settings pages (e.g., a setting of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD navigation
maps, while the PFD Inset Map removes the same item at 50 nm). The same is true for small maps on the
MFD such as the map on the Trip Planning Page. However, items are removed from the HSI Map at the same
range as the MFD Navigation Map. On the Flight Plan Page, items are removed one zoom range sooner than
the MFD Navigation Map.
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range field. Ranges are from 1 nm to 1000 nm.
6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the
map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map - TOPO SCALE
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Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group and select the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ field.
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type of symbol
can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering of the
symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
Symbol
User Waypoint
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
25
40
Highways and Roads
Interstate Highway (Freeway)
50
400
International Highway (Freeway)
50
400
US Highway (National Highway)
15
150
State Highway (Local Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads (RAILROAD)
7.5
25
Large City (> 200,000)
100
1000
Medium City (> 50,000)
Small City (> 5,000)
50
25
400
100
State/Province
400
1000
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
1
1000
Local Road (Local Road)
N/A
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
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AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
Symbol
Large Airport (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airport (8100 ft > Longest Runway ≥ 5000 ft)
Small Airport (Longest Runway < 5000 ft)
(Medium Airport if it has a tower frequency)
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
100
1000
50
400
25
150
1.5
5
7.5
150
N/A
N/A
Intersection (INT)
25
40
Non-directional Beacon (NDB)
25
50
VOR
50
250
N/A
N/A
Visual Reporting Point (VRP)
25
1000
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
250
1000
VNAV Constraints
1000
1000
N/A
N/A
See Additional Features
Runway Extension
Missed Approach Preview On/Off (Missed APR)
(VOR) Compass Rose On/Off
N/A
N/A
(VNAV Constraints) Show All (show all constraints within
flight plan if VNAV Constraints are ‘On’ above)
N/A
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
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AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Smart Airspace On/Off
Airspace Altitude Labels (Airspace ALT LBL) On/Off
N/A
N/A
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Class B Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
N/A
N/A
Class C Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
N/A
N/A
Class D Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling)
N/A
N/A
Class B Airspace/TMA (CLASS B/TMA)
50
150
Class C Airspace/TCA (CLASS C/TCA)
50
100
Class D Airspace (CLASS D)
10
100
Restricted Area (RESTRICTED)
50
100
Military Operations Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
50
250
Other/Air Defense Interdiction Zone (OTHER/ADIZ)
50
250
Table 5-3 Airspace Symbol Information
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SYMBOL SETUP
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway extensions,
railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which items appear on the
display. For example, enabling “Runway Extension” displays a dashed line on the map extending from each
runway of an airport in the flight plan when the range is set at or below the value of the map settings option.
Setting up the ‘Land’, ‘Aviation’ or ‘Airspace’ group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
Decluttering the map:
Press the Detail Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown. With
each softkey selection, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Decluttering the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD.
2) Press the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
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Table 5-4 lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
Intersections
NDBs
VORs
VRPs
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA
Class C Airspaces/TCA
Class D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Detail 3
Detail 2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Detail 1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-4 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
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AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Figure 5-16 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY Softkey
selections, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also
be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
Displaying/removing airways:
1) With the desired map page displayed, press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
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3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (AWY LO).
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (AWY HI).
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed (AWY Off).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired ALT Airways ‘On/Off’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The airway range is the maximum map range on which airways are displayed.
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Airways Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airways (V Routes and T Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways (J Routes and Q Routes)
50
100
Table 5-5 Airways Symbol Information
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ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION MAP ITEMS
Navigation maps can display some additional items. These items (e.g. selected altitude intercept arc, track
vector, wind vector, fuel range ring, and SVT field of view) can be displayed/removed individually.
Setting up additional ‘Map’ group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Or:
If it is a data field, use the FMS Knob to select the range or time value.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected
altitude. The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
NOTE: Selected Altitude Intercept Arc is not displayed on any Waypoint Page Group maps, Procedure Page
maps, or the Stored Flight Plan Page map.
Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
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TRACK VECTOR
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track
vector is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is
selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track
vector. The track vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always
a straight line for the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map -Track Vector
WIND VECTOR
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector
information is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind
speeds greater than or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
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FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Total Endurance Range
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This
is only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
NOTE: Field of View will not be depicted on the NRST Page Group maps.
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Field of View
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IFR/VFR CHARTS
The system can display GPS navigation information on a VFR chart, a low altitude IFR chart, or a high altitude
IFR chart. The information overlaid on the IFR/VFR Charts is selected and setup on the Navigation Map, but
the IFR/VFR charts will not display some of the selected items. Only the following items will be overlaid on
the chart:
• Map Pointer (distance and bearing to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other pertinent information)
• Map Range (17 range choices from 1 nm to 150 nm)
• Map Orientation (always North Up for IFR/VFR Charts)
• Aircraft Icon (representing present position)
• Wind Direction and Speed
• Icons for enabled map features (Traffic only)
• Flight Plan Legs
• Track Vector
• Runway Extension
• Missed Approach Preview
• Intersections (only as part of active flight plan)
• Visual Reporting Points
• VNAV Constraints
• Selected Altitude Intercept Arc
Map panning on the IFR/VFR Charts works the same as on the Navigation Map. Map range selected on either
the Navigation Map or the IFR/VFR Charts applies to both. However, if the range selected on the Navigation
Map it is not a valid chart range, the chart is shown with a range of 7.5 nm.
When different VFR charts exist for the same area the chart type will automatically display according to the
range chosen. For example, in an area where both a Sectional and a Terminal Area Chart (TAC) are available,
a range of 10 nm or more will show the Sectional chart. Once the range is decreased below 10 nm, the system
will automatically change the displayed chart from the Sectional to the TAC.
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Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
VFR Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-22 GPS Navigation Information on the VFR Chart
Selecting the chart to display:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Map - IFR/VFR Charts Page.
2) Press the VFR softkey, IFR Low softkey, or IFR High softkey to display the desired chart.
Or:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Map - IFR/VFR Charts Page. Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Display VFR’ field, the ‘Display IFR Low’ field, or the ‘Display IFR High’ field.
3) Press the ENT Key. The selected chart is displayed.
Modifying the chart settings:
1) Press the MENU Key with the IFR Low / IFR High Chart displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Color Scheme’ setting.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, or ‘Night’. The IFR Chart display changes to reflect the setting.
4) If ‘Auto’ was selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the backlight threshold field (sets value for automatic
day/night switching).
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Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
IFR Low Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-23 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR Low Altitude Chart
Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
Map Range
IFR High Altitude
Chart
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 5-24 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR High Altitude Chart
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on autotuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the system. As a
waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the Spell’N’Find feature scrolls through the database,
displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation
leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Identifier Entry Field
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
Entered Waypoint on
Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-25 Waypoint Information Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a Duplicate
Waypoints Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
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Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
Figure 5-26 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
AIRPORTS
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs to be
aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the Airport Information Page
Map.
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport information,
load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be
involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies
(auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is
located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple
airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport Information
Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘Airport’, ‘Runways’, and ‘Frequencies’. For airports
with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on the Airport
Information Page by pressing the Info softkey until 1 is displayed.
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Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Airport/Runway
Diagram
Figure 5-27 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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Airport Information
Airport Directory
Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Figure 5-28 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the Info Softkey until
2 is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available) on the Airport
Directory Page:
• Airport:
Identifier, Site
Number, Name, City, State
• Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
• Traffic Pattern Altitudes
(TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
• Weather:
Service Type,
Frequency, Phone Number
• Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
• Runway: Headings, Length,
Width, Obstructions, Surface
• Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
• Special
Operations
at
Airport
• Location: Sectional, Magnetic
Variation
• Instrument
Approaches:
Published Approach, Freq.
• Services Available: Category,
Specific Service
• Frequencies: Type/Frequency
• NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
• Noise:
Noise Abatement
Procedures
• Notes: Airport Notes
• Charts: Low Altitude Chart
Number
• FBO:
Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit
Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
• Hours: Facility Hours, Light
Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon
Hours
• Transportation:
Ground
Transportation Type Available
• Approach: Approach Facility
Name, Frequency, Frequency
Parameter
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Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the WPT - Airport Information Page, press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the WPT - Airport Information Page 1 displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the WPT - Airport Information Page press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination
Airport is displayed.
The Airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
Gate
Terminal *
AWOS
Ground
TMA *
Center
Helicopter
Tower
Class B *
Multicom
TRSA *
Class C *
Other
Unicom
Clearance
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-6 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page. See the
Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for display (see
the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The Nearest Airports Window displays a list of
up to 25 of the nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there are more than three they
are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
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Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-29 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key while the Nearest Airports Window is shown displays the PFD Airport Information
Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing the ENT Key again returns to the Nearest Airports Window with
the cursor on the next airport in the list. Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information
pages for all airports in the Nearest Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-30 Airport Information Window on PFD
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the Airport Information
Window.
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘BACK’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key moves
through the airport list, alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
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The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use in
the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and
surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘Nearest Airports’,
‘Information’, ‘Runways’, ‘Frequencies’, and ‘Approaches’.
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the navigation map
from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one runway, up to three frequencies,
and up to four approaches are visible at one time. If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled.
If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Nearest Airport
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
Approaches Available
Window Selection
Softkeys
Figure 5-31 Nearest Airport Page
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the NRST page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Nearest Airports Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may already
be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list
is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the NRST - Nearest Airports Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight
‘Select Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
The Nearest Airports Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and surface type
used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports Page. A minimum
runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or runways that are
not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 3000 feet (or meters) for runway length
and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface and minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the runway surface field in the Nearest Airport Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, Hard/Soft, Water).
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the minimum length field in the Nearest Airport Box.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily the VOR
used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to displaying
a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection Information Page displays
intersection information in three boxes labeled ‘Intersection’, ‘Information’, and ‘Nearest VOR’.
Intersection Identifier
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Intersection
Figure 5-32 Intersection Information Page
Selecting an intersection:
1) With the WPT - Intersection Information Page displayed, enter an identifier in the Intersection Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the NRST - Nearest Intersections Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest Intersection Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path. In addition
to displaying a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest intersections in
three boxes labeled ‘Nearest INT’, ‘Information’, and ‘Reference VOR’.
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow. Up to 12 intersections are visible at a time. If there
are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display, text indicating that fact
is displayed.
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Intersection Information
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
Nearest
Intersection
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
Figure 5-33 Nearest Intersections Page
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NDBS
The NDB Information Page is used to view information about NDBs. In addition to displaying a map of
the currently selected NDB and surrounding area, the page displays NDB information in four boxes labeled
‘NDB’, ‘Information’, ‘Frequency’, and ‘Nearest Airport’.
NDB Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
NDB Information
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
Selected NDB
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-34 NDB Information Page
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon installed in
conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is at the Outer Marker;
when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
Selecting an NDB:
1) With the WPT - NDB Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the NDB, or the city in which
it’s located in the NDB Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the NRST - Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest NDB Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find a NDB close to the flight path. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs in three boxes labeled
‘Nearest NDB’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
A white arrow before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. Up to 12 NDBs are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. The list only includes waypoints that are within
200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no nearest NDBs is displayed. If there are
no nearest NDBs in the list, the information and frequency fields are dashed.
NDB Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
Nearest NDB
NDB Frequency
Figure 5-35 Nearest NDB Page
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VORS
The VOR Information Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS navigation signals, or to
quickly auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency. Localizer information cannot be viewed on the VOR Information
Page. If a VOR station is combined with a TACAN station it is listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information
Page and if it includes only DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected VOR and surrounding area, the VOR Information
Page displays VOR information in four boxes labeled ‘VOR’, ‘Information’, ‘Frequency’, and ‘Nearest Airport’.
VOR Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected VOR
VOR Information
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Selected VOR
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Figure 5-36 VOR Information Page
The VOR classes used in the VOR information box are: Low Altitude, High Altitude, and Terminal.
Selecting a VOR:
1) With the WPT - VOR Information Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the VOR, or the city in which
it’s located in the VOR Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the NRST - Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or press the VOR Softkey.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) With the NRST - Nearest VOR Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VOR Box.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. Also, a NAV
frequency from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying
a map of the surrounding area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations
in three boxes labeled ‘Nearest VOR’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’. The list only includes waypoints that
are within 200 nm.
A white arrow before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Up to 12 VORs are visible at a time.
If there are more than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no VORs in the list, text indicating
that there are no nearest VORs is displayed. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information is dashed.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
VOR
VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR
VOR Frequency
Figure 5-37 Nearest VOR Page
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VRPS
The VRP Information Page is used to view information about visual reporting points (VRPs). In addition to
displaying a map of the currently selected VRP and surrounding area, the VRP Information Page displays VRP
information in two boxes labeled ‘VRP’ and ‘Information’’.
VRP Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Selected VRP
- VRP Name
VRP Information
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Selected VRP
Figure 5-38 VRP Information Page
Selecting a VRP:
1) With the WPT - VRP Information Page displayed, enter the identifier or the name of the VRP in the VRP Box.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the NRST - Nearest VRP Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest VRP Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The Nearest VRP Page can be used to quickly find a VRP close to the aircraft. In addition to displaying a
map of the surrounding area, the Nearest VRP Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VRPs in two
boxes labeled ‘Nearest VRP’ and ‘Information’. The list only includes VRPs that are within 200 nm.
A white arrow before the VRP identifier indicates the selected VRP. Up to 12 VRPs are visible at a time. If
there are more than can be shown, the list can be scrolled. If there are no VRPs in the list, text indicating
that there are no nearest VRPs is displayed. If there are no nearest VRPs in the list, the information is dashed.
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest VRP
Nearest VRP
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-39 Nearest VRP Page
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USER WAYPOINTS
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from
any map page (except PFD Map, Aux-Trip Planning Page, SurfaceWatch Setup Page, or Procedure Pages) by
selecting a position on the map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing
a bearing/distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and longitude.
Once a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased
upon system power down.
User Waypoint Info
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
User Wpt Comment
Reference Wpt/Info
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint List
- Identifier
- Comment
# User Wpts Used
Figure 5-40 User Waypoint Information Page
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Selecting a User Waypoint:
1) With the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page displayed, enter the name of the User Waypoint, or scroll to the
desired waypoint in the User Waypoint List using the large FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the NRST - Nearest User Waypoints Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the Nearest User Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Nearest User Wpt List
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
User Waypoint Info
Selected User
Waypoint
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-41 Nearest User Waypoint Page
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CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the User Waypoint Information Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page:
1) Press the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the Information window using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the cursor to “Temporary” and
selecting the ENT Key to check the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the Information window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
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7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the cursor to “Temporary” and
selecting the ENT Key to check the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The User Waypoint Information Page is displayed with the captured position.
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is highlighted.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the Reference Waypoints window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the Information window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the cursor to “Temporary” and
selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List, if required, and press the ENT Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Renaming user waypoints:
1) With the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight a user waypoint in the User Waypoint List. Press the Rename Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’.
3) Enter a new name.
4) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA to BBBBBB?’ is displayed.
5) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) With the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
5) Press the ENT Key. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
A system generated comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing,
and distance. If a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
1) With the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a waypoint name or select the waypoint in the User Waypoint List, then press the ENT Key.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
5) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to define the waypoint.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint information
page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the User Waypoint Information Page.
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DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) With the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
3) Press the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘YES’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List, or enter a waypoint in the User Waypoint field.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
5) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) With the WPT - User Waypoint Information Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight a User Waypoint in the User Waypoint List.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints.’
5) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted, MOA
(Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR).
Upper and lower airspace altitude labels may be displayed on the MFD.
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
Airspace Altitude Label
Class D Airspace
MOA (Military)
Class C Airspace
Warning Area
TFR
Alert Area
ADIZ
Figure 5-42 Airspaces
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Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Airspace group, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace ALT LBL’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ to display labels and ‘Off’ to remove labels.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The Nearest Airspaces Page, Airspace Alerts Window, and Airspace Alerts on the PFD provide additional
information about airspaces and the location of the aircraft in relationship to them. The Airspace Alerts Box allows
the pilot to turn the controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off. This does not affect the alerts listed
on the Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the Navigation Map Page. It simply turns
on/off the warning provided when the aircraft is approaching or near an airspace.
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For example,
if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an alert message is
not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot
is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the altitude buffer field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the Airspace Alerts Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert on or counterclockwise to turn the alert off.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Map ranges for the airspace boundaries are selected from the Airspace Group in the Map Settings Menu. See
Table 5-3 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace
area.
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The Nearest Airspaces Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In addition, a selected
frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In addition to displaying
a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page displays airspace information in
four boxes labeled ‘Airspace Alerts’, ‘Airspace Agency’, ‘Vertical Limits’, and ‘Frequencies’.
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace 1
Airspace 2
Airspace 3
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Figure 5-43 Nearest Airspaces Page
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest Airspaces Page. The
Alerts and FREQ softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled only if one or more
frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Select the NRST - Nearest Airspaces Page.
2) Press the Alerts Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts Window’, and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Pressing the PFD Alerts Softkey displays the Alerts window on the PFD. The following airspace alerts are
displayed in the alerts window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less than
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-7 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
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The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The function
does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the airspace. If the
current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is
shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace,
the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
NOTE: Smart Airspace function will not de-emphasize airspaces on the HSI Map when the MFD is in reversionary mode.
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
Figure 5-44 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Map - Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Group’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ in the ‘Group’ Box and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ field in the Aviation Map Setup Window.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace ‘On’ or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key is quicker to use than a flight plan
when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The Direct-to Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Desired Course
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Figure 5-45 Direct-to Window - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-46 Direct-to Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the Direct-to Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan waypoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Any waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the Direct-to
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Active Flight Plan Window.
NOTE: When flying Direct-to the Final Approach Fix (FAF), the system will suspend (SUSP) leg sequencing if
the approach intercept angle exceeds 45 degrees.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
Figure 5-47 Waypoint Submenu
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Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the
active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, or the Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD.
2) Select the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Any Nearest, Recent or User waypoint can be selected as a direct-to destination in the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the
default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
The Direct-to Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation.
If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active flight plan
waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page defaults to the
displayed waypoint.
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
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Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the Nearest Airports Page and press the
FMS Knob.
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no airport,
NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is automatically
created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From the desired map page, push the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to
destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the system resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the course field (‘Course’) on the Direct-to Window.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Highlight the course field.
3) Enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The Direct-to Window is displayed with the destination field highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from the
aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint, or at the
specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All VNV altitudes prior to the directto destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful activation of a direct-to destination that is
part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on
Vertical Navigation for more information regarding the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ altitude field (‘ALT’ field on the PFD).
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint.
5) If the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose
‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now flashing in the VNV offset distance field.
7) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
8) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate?’ field is highlighted.
9) Press the ENT Key to activate.
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the Direct-to Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The system allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A roll steering path is a computed transition between two disconnected legs.
‡ A roll steering path in the flight plan that is beyond the next leg appears as a future roll steering path. When a future roll
steering path becomes the next leg in the flight plan, it appears as a roll steering path.
Table 5-8 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. Upon power up,
the previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft position is at the origin
airport and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not at the origin, on the ground, or if more
than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification, the previously active flight plan is not
retained. One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan
is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
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Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Active Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
NOTE: If the active flight plan is created while the aircraft is on ground, the system automatically selects the
closest flight plan leg to make the active leg.
Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
Turn Anticipation
Arc
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Vertical Deviation
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-48 Active Flight Plan Page
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Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Figure 5-49 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Figure 5-50 Flight Plan Catalog Page
The active flight plan is listed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Active Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is shown
on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or GPS APR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
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NOTE: The origin and destination header fields are not selectable. Instead, select the field below the header
and turn the small FMS knob to enter the airport identifier via Waypoint Information Window and then, if
desired, input the runway information via the Set Runway Window.
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key. Press the small FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
2) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The Set Runway Window is displayed with the Runway field highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
3) Repeat step number 2 for the destination airport and runway.
4) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed before the selected item).
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
5) Repeat step number 4 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor (if required).
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Creating a stored flight plan:
1) From the MFD, press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c)
Press the ENT Key. The Set Runway Window is displayed with the Runway field highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
5) Repeat step number 4 for the destination airport and runway.
6) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item.)
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The stored flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
8) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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Active flight plan progress can be displayed on the navigation map.
NOTE: ETE can be displayed as either HH+MM (ETE greater than 60 minutes) or MM:SS (ETE less than 60
minutes).
Displaying/removing the active flight plan progress on the navigation map:
1) Select the Map - Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the FPL PROG Softkey to display the active flight plan progress.
5) To remove the active flight plan progress from the navigation map, press the Off softkey.
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Flight Plan
Progress
enabled
Figure 5-51 Flight Plan Progress on Navigation Map
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FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT/EXPORT
Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “CANCEL” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
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FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No
stored flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
‘User waypoint database full. Not all
loaded.’
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight plan export failed.’
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight
plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
These waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans
stored in the system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however
others had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in
the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
One or more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can
support. The flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system
cannot find in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but
must be edited within the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored
user waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints
on the SD card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not
imported are locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the
system before it can be activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to
naming conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card
may not have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed
prematurely.
Table 5-9 Flight Plan Import/Export Messages
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ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select
the desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added to the flight plan. Flight plans are limited
to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of waypoints in the
flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the new
waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
NOTE: The origin and destination header fields are not selectable. Instead, select the field below the header
and turn the small FMS knob to enter the airport identifier via Waypoint Information Window and then, if
desired, input the runway information via the Set Runway Window.
NOTE: Manually adding waypoints to a flight plan after a MANSEQ leg creates a lateral gap in the flight
plan. Time, fuel, and distance values for legs beyond the gap do not include the distance across the gap.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Figure 5-52 Stored Flight Plan Page
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Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are
selected, the new waypoint will be placed before the selected item).
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a Duplicate Waypoint
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the new
waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new waypoint
will be placed before the selected item).
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Waypoint Information Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
Waypoint Information Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the Waypoint Information Window with a
waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob on the MFD to activate the cursor.
3) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the new
waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new waypoint
will be placed before the selected item).
4) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function on the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page and pan to the map
location of the desired user waypoint.
5) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user
waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the active
flight plan.
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ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the desired
airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway entry point,
select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be loaded if there is a
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach procedure.
The system also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on loaded flight plan waypoints.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Preview of
Selected Airway
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-53 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point. If this waypoint is not
a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at this time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey on the MFD, or press the MENU
Key and select “Load Airway” on the PFD. The Select Airway Page is displayed. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the
“Load Airway” menu item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint
ahead of the cursor position).
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways are
shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is
highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
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Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Airway Exit Points
Available
Figure 5-54 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
RESTRICTIONS ON ADDING AIRWAYS
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a directional
restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction. For example, airway “UR975” in
North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the list of airway waypoints. That is, each
waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to another waypoint.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the flight
plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
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ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation database into a
flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport (departure), arriving at
an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures section for more details.
Flight Plan Name
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
Load Departure Load Arrival Load Approach Activate Flight Plan
Figure 5-55 Stored Flight Plan Page
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DEPARTURE (DP)
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The
Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
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Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Departures Available at
KMKC
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-56 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Selected Runway
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Selected
Departure End
Point
Selected Transition
Departure Transition
Points Available
Figure 5-57 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
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ARRIVAL (STAR)
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition waypoints,
and a runway.
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The Arrival
Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
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Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Selected Runway
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-58 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
DBRY3
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Figure 5-59 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
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APPROACH (APR)
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only one
approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by designating
transition waypoints.
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The
Approach Loading Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach Channel field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
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Destination Airport
Selected
Approach
Approaches Available at
KCOS
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Figure 5-60 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Destination Airport
Selected
Approach
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-61 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
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FLIGHT PLAN STORAGE
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased when
the system is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored flight plan can be
viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) The Flight Plan Information is displayed showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute safe altitude
information for the selected Flight Plan.
5) Press the Edit Softkey to open the Stored Flight Plan Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the Stored Flight Plan Page.
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Selected Flight Plan
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
Stored Flight Plan Info
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
Figure 5-62 Stored Flight Plan Information
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight Plan Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
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ACTIVATE A FLIGHT PLAN
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Activate Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
COPY A FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows copying a flight plan into a new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without
affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating
a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Copy Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to flight plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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DELETE A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Delete Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete flight plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN EDITING
The active flight plan or any stored flight plan can be edited. The edits made to the active flight plan affect
navigation as soon as they are entered.
NOTE: Modifying, adding, or removing a waypoint immediately prior to the final approach fix (FAF) may
change the final approach course; obstacle clearance is not assured along the modified course.
NOTE: The origin and destination header fields are not selectable. To change the origin or destination
airport, the existing waypoint identifier (airport or runway) must be deleted. Once deleted, a new airport,
and runway if desired, can be entered.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The system allows deleting an active flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by the
system.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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DELETING FLIGHT PLAN ITEMS
Individual waypoints, entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints
in the final approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete
a waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification.’
NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the end waypoint of
the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and activated.
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the FPL - Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the header of the procedure to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored Flight
Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored Flight
Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored
Flight Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
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1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored Flight
Plan Page is displayed.
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
CHANGING FLIGHT PLAN COMMENTS (NAMES)
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for identification
and sorting.
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The Stored Flight
Plan Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight plan.
Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the system
reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances can be
entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along track
offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an
along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an along
track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at or after
the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-63 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the
current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
While flying a parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to will cancel the parallel track and fly direct-to the selected waypoint.
• Initiating a hold at the present position will cancel the parallel track and fly the holding pattern.
• Initiating a hold at a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is required to fly
to the hold waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the parallel track will be
resumed. Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be resumed upon exiting the hold.
Parallel Track is also cancelled if a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a
result of the course change.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with the ‘Direction’ field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘Distance’ field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Parallel Track’ is
highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
Offset Direction
Offset Distance
Activation Prompt
Figure 5-64 Parallel Track Window
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Parallel Track
Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Original Track
Parallel Track
Figure 5-65 Parallel Track Active
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation prompt
is displayed, but disabled. If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the
parallel track with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’. If the offset direction and distance
results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp turn of more than 120 degrees), the status indicates
that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable
Invalid Route Geometry’). If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status
indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’). Parallel track is also unavailable for a
leg if there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. Parallel track will
be cancelled if the active leg changes to a leg where one of the preceding is true.
Activation of parallel track will apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that does not
meet the criteria for parallel track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track at the beginning
of that leg.
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The Parallel Track Window is displayed
with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The system allows selection of a highlighted leg as the “active leg” (the flight plan leg which is currently
used for navigation guidance).
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INVERTING A FLIGHT PLAN
Any flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point.
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert active flight plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the Flight Plan Catalog Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be configured
to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan;
and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view, additional information is
displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and
Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Changing the flight plan view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the View Softkey to display the Wide, Narrow, Leg-Leg, and CUM Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the Leg-Leg Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Press the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or select the Narrow Softkey to display the narrow view.
5) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint. The system displays the bearing (BRG) and distance (DIS) to
the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user waypoint at this
location. Press the ENT Key. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference
waypoint.
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COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Stored or Active
Flight Plan Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value is
inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a collapsed
airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is automatically
expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight plan review.
All Airways
Collapsed View
V4.SLN Airway
Expanded View
Figure 5-66 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
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Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-67 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode
Button
(Time or Distance)
Map of Hold
Location
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To Waypoint Selection
Figure 5-68 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘Hold?’ instead of ‘Activate?’
when finished (MFD or PFD).
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC TIME), and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined
at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the active flight plan, the HOLD is inserted into
the active flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is
created.)
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the HOLD waypoint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the Direct To Window (PFD or MFD).
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF,
CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and terminal
phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a direct-to
waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a linear
deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
Cncl VNV Softkey
ENBL VNV Softkey
Figure 5-69 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling and Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the FPL- Active Flight Plan Page.
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the Active VNV Profile box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., FALUR)).
3) To Disable VNV guidance, press the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and
press the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is disabled.
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Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and
time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TOD items
displayed in the Active VNV Profile box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually enabled. Vertical
guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass
flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
3) Press the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key.
An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT) and/or flight
path angle (FPA) in the Active VNV Profile box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the Active VNV Profile box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database.
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Displayed Text
Examples
White Text
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Cyan Text with Pencil Icon
Cyan Text
Cross AT 2,300 ft
Temperature
Compensated
White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
Figure 5-70 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
5OOOFT
Altitude calculated by the system estimating the altitude of the aircraft
as it passes over the navigation point. No white line above or below to
indicate a potential constraint.
5OOOFT
Altitude is designated for use in determining
vertical guidance. A pencil icon indicates manual
designation or manual data entry.
5OOOFT
Altitude retrieved from the navigation database. White line above or
below indicates the type of constraint, as shown in the preceding figure.
These altitudes are provided as a reference, and are not designated to be
used in determining vertical guidance.
The system cannot use this altitude in
determining vertical guidance because of an
invalid constraint condition.
Table 5-10 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
Altitudes associated with arrival and approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means the system
automatically uses the altitudes loaded with the arrival or approach for giving vertical speed and deviation
guidance. Note that these altitudes are displayed as cyan text up to, but not including, the FAF. The FAF is
always a “reference only” altitude and cannot be designated, unless the selected approach does not provide
vertical guidance. In this case, the FAF altitude can be designated.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the CLR Key.
The altitude is now displayed only as a reference. It is not used to give vertical guidance. Other displayed
altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude
to a non-designated altitude.
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Designating a waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Designating a procedure waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and highlight the desired waypoint altitude. Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing
mode. .
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical guidance.
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest hundred. An
altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports. When a database altitude
restriction is displayed, the system allows entry of a different altitude when creating a waypoint, effectively
overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a database altitude restriction of type “AT or
ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical
profile.
An altitude constraint is invalid if:
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
• The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
• The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS or GPS
SBAS approach)
• The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF
Entering/modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
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Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the event
an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral
waypoint, the system displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no predicted altitude
can be provided. The system also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude constraint that has been
edited.
Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is replaced by a system
calculated altitude, if available).
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. The terrain,
obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active flight plan information
consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNAV profile, BOC/TOC, TOD/BOD, and
destination runway) can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode. See the Hazard Avoidance
section for information about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on the VSD.
NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNAV PATH descents because the lateral
distance of those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNAV profile for any legs that have no vertical
path guidance.
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track mode.
When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation map indicated
range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD altitude range automatically
changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant ratio of altitude range to horizontal
range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been met. At ranges above the maximum, the
altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on the vertical
scale is close to the top for a descent phase, at the bottom for on-ground or a climb phase, and in the middle
for a cruise phase or if the phase is unknown.
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure any text,
one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint is displayed as
darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO waypoint, (2) waypoint
with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
Enabling the Vertical Situation Display
1) Select the Map - Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable the Vertical Situation Display.
5) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Or:
1) Select the Map - Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
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Disabling the Vertical Situation Display
1) Select the Map - Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Off Softkey.
Or:
1) Select the Map - Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
VSD Mode (AUTO FPL)
Active FPL Waypoints
Altitude Constraints
Selected Alt. (8100ft)
Destination Runway
Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
Absolute Terrain
Current VNAV Profile
VSD Mode Buttons
Obstacle
Figure 5-71 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
VSD Mode Displayed
Button
Mode
AUTO FPL
Auto
AUTO TRK
FPL Criteria
Available active FPL & aircraft
within FPL swath
(1) Active FPL available &
aircraft not within FPL swath,
or (2) Active FPL not available
- FPL
- TRK
- Auto
Items available on VSD
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
selected altitude
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Flight Plan
FPL
Active FPL not available
Only shows message 'Flight Plan Not Available'
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
Track
TRK
NA
selected altitude
Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNAV profile, BOC/TOC, TOD/BOD,
and destination runway
Active FPL available
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Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough for the
terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown in gray if the terrain is selected Off on the navigation map).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon the
highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution, within a
predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft present position and the end of the map range
or active flight plan. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase.
Flight Phase
Approach, Departure
Terminal
En Route, Oceanic
Width of Swath
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
VSD MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Message
‘Loading...’
‘Flight Plan Not Available’
‘Flight Plan mode unavailable because aircraft off
course and active leg over 200 NM’
‘Aircraft Beyond Active Leg’
‘Active Leg Begins Beyond Aircraft Position’
‘VSD Not Available’
‘VSD Data Old. Deselect and Reselect VSD’
Description
VSD is loading data due to a range change, full/half switch, or first being
selected for display.
Flight Plan mode is selected and there is not a flight plan loaded with at
least one leg.
All of the following are true:
- Flight Plan mode is selected
- The active leg is greater than 200 nm
- The aircraft is outside the swath
Flight Plan mode is selected and the aircraft’s position, as projected on
the flight plan, is past the end of the active leg.
Flight Plan mode is selected and the aircraft’s position, as projected on
the flight plan, is prior to the beginning of the active leg.
At least one of the following is true:
- Valid terrain database not available
- GPS MSL altitude not available
- Current barometric altitude not available
- Neither current track nor current heading available
- GPS position not available
- Map range setting is less than 1 nm
VSD data has failed to update for 2 seconds or more.
Table 5-11 VSD System Messages
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APRs) are stored within the database and can be loaded using any
Procedures (PROC) Key.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and destination airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “load” or “activate”
is given. “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation
guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps
the procedure available on the Active Flight Plan Page for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds
the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in
the approach.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6,368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight
plan displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually initiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Figure 5-72 Procedure Leg Identifiers
Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group):
Press the DP Softkey. The WPT - Departure Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on
the Airport information Page.
Or.
Press the STAR Softkey. The WPT - Arrival Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on
the Airport information Page.
Or.
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Press the APR Softkey. The WPT - Approach Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the procedure. The procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available procedures. Press the ENT Key to select the procedure. The
cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runway or transition. Press the ENT Key to select the runway or
transition. The cursor moves to the next box (if available). The procedure is previewed on the map.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runway or transition. Press the ENT Key to select the runway
or transition. The cursor moves to the Sequence box or the Minimums box. The procedure is previewed on the
map.
7) Press the Info 1 Softkey or the Info 2 Softkey to return to the Airport Information Page.
Loading a procedure into the active flight plan from the <Procedure> Information Page:
1) From the Airport Information Page (first page in the WPT group):
Press the DP Softkey. The WPT - Departure Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on
the Airport information Page.
Or.
Press the STAR Softkey. The WPT - Arrival Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on
the Airport information Page.
Or.
Press the APR Softkey. The WPT - Approach Information Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different procedure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the procedure. The procedure is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available procedures. Press the ENT Key to select the procedure. The
cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runway or transition. Press the ENT Key to select the
runway or transition. The cursor moves to the next box (if available). The procedure is previewed on the
map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the Sequence box or the Minimums box. The procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the <Procedure> Information Page Menu.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load <procedure>’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the procedure into the active flight plan.
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DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING A DEPARTURE INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The PROC - Departure Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Available Procedure Actions
Departure Preview
Loaded Procedures
Figure 5-73 Departure Selection
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Departure Airport
Departure Choices
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Selected Departure
Loaded Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-74 Departure Loading
REMOVING A DEPARTURE FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, departures can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active
flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
LOADING AN ARRIVAL INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The PROC - Arrival Loading Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
Figure 5-75 Arrival Selection
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Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-76 Arrival Loading
REMOVING AN ARRIVAL FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, arrivals can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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APPROACHES
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “Load” or “Load and Activate” is given (“Load and
Activate” is only available for the active flight plan). “Loading” adds the approach to the end of the flight plan
without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows continued navigation via the intermediate
waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure available for quick activation when needed.
“Activating” also adds the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance
to the first waypoint in the approach.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
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The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels
according to the published chart. LNAV+V is an LNAV with advisory vertical guidance provided for assistance
in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is
displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. In all cases
where LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV minima are used.
NOTE: The system requires 30 seconds of valid SBAS integrity monitoring prior to selecting an approach that
SBAS vertical guidance.
The active approach service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
HSI Annunciation
Description
Example on HSI
LNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV minima
LNAV+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV minima. Advisory
vertical guidance is provided
L/VNAV
RNAV GPS approach using published LNAV/VNAV minima
(available only if (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
LP
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima (downgrades to
(available only if LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
LP+V
RNAV GPS approach using published LP minima
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
(available only if Advisory vertical guidance is provided (downgrades to LNAV if
SBAS available) SBAS unavailable)
LPV
RNAV GPS approach using published LPV minima (downgrades
(available only if to LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
SBAS available)
Table 5-12 Approach Service Levels
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LOADING AN APPROACH INTO THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The PROC - Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach Channel field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’ or ‘RAD ALT’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
NOTE: If there is no arrival procedure in the active flight plan, loading an approach after a destination
airport has already been entered will result in a duplicate destination airport waypoint being added to the
end of the enroute segment.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED
FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Destination Airport
Approach Preview
Approach Choices
Figure 5-77 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-78 Approach Loading
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Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the NRST - Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the NRST - Nearest Airports Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
PROC - Approach Loading Page is displayed with the transitions field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’ and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘LOAD?’ field is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure. The system continues
navigating the current flight plan until the approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected
final approach course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
A previously loaded approach can be activated from the Procedures Window.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps below to select ‘Activate Vector-To-Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the Procedures Window.
2) Highlight ‘Activate Vector-to-Final’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) From the PROC - Approach Loading Page, press the MENU Key. The page menu is displayed with ‘Load &
Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to
a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
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REMOVING AN APPROACH FROM THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
When plans change while flying IFR, approaches can be easily removed from the Active Flight Plan.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page (MFD) or the Active Flight Plan Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
MISSED APPROACH
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Fly past the MAP, and press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD.
Or:
Press the Go-Around Button.
Course to Altitude
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6600ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,600 feet is reached. After reaching 6,600 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
ADANE). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (ADANE) to begin the missed approach procedure.
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Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-79 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the
aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
VISUAL APPROACH
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches are not
defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the system calculates
the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach waypoints based on runway
position and course as specified in the navigation database.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRAIGHT) and the Vectors-toFinal transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial fix (STRGHT), the
final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree glide path is calculated from
the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended straight-in path.
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore, when
a visual approach is selected, the message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches” is
displayed on the approach selection page and must be acknowledged before the visual approach is loaded
into the flight plan.
Loading and activating a visual approach using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The PROC - Approach Loading Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
b) Select a visual approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
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4) Select a transition and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’, and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure (‘Load’ is only available if there is
no previous approach already loaded in flight plan); or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate’ and press
the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
7) The message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is displayed. Press ENT to continue.
Figure 5-80 Loading Visual Approach
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TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied temperature
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is displayed in slanted text.
Activating temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Temperature Compensation Window is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the temperature at the <airport>. The compensated altitude is computed as
the temperature is selected.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the Temperature Compensation Window on the
MFD, or in the References Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for the system,
therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums.
Refer to the Flight Instruments section for information about applying temperature compensation to the
MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-81 Temperature Compensation
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Compensated
Altitudes
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Figure 5-82 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
Cancelling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the FPL - Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The Page Menu is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Temperature Compensation Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitude at the FAF is cancelled.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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5.9 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on manually entered fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining
fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip Planning Page
located in the Aux Page Group.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-83 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure Time - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are from the
aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated Airspeed - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of information
is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated Altitude - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of information
is GPS altitude.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track - Desired Track is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints. It
is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown as
minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure time
all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the
ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected, the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current leg
being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to and
including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of
the flight plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
• Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as hours:minutes of
the time at the destination.
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FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency (Efficiency) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the current
fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance (Total Endurance) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained
by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (Remaining Fuel) - This value is calculated by taking the
amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (Remaining Endurance) - This value is calculated by taking
the time of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip (Fuel Required) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel
flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow (Total Range) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel
endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density Altitude
• True Airspeed
The pilot may select Automatic or Manual page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs) mode. In
automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTs selection).
Selected Leg(s)
Selected Flight Plan NN -
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-84 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-85 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
From the Aux - Trip Planning Page, press the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
From the Aux - Trip Planning Page, press the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight
‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) From the Aux - Trip Planning Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) From the Aux - Trip Planning Page, press the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) From the Aux - Trip Planning Page, press the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and
press the ENT Key. The cursor may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the Departure Time field and enter the desired value. Press the
ENT Key. The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat
until all desired values have been entered.
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5.10 ABNORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: The PFD map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the system
stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the system
uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when available) to
calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the system through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the ‘own
aircraft’ symbol as shown in Figure 5-86. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI slightly
below and to the left of the aircraft symbol on the CDI as shown in Figure 5-86. The CDI deviation bar remains,
but is removed from the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled in DR mode
as long as the deviation info is available (20 min.) Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message
appears on the PFD. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS
solution is restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in Figure
5-86. If the VSD Inset is selected on the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be displayed.
NOTE: GPS derived information will remain displayed in magenta (not amber) on the Flight Plan Progress
inset when operating in Dead Reckoning mode. However, this information shall still be considered as
degraded navigation source information.
Also, while the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the accuracy of
all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Course Deviation
Indicator
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Nav Data Bar
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
Figure 5-86 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard avoidance features available for the system are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• Garmin GDL 69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Optional)
• Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) (Optional)
• Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
• L-3 WX-500 Stormscope® Lightning Detection System (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVT (included with Garmin SVT option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Traffic
• Garmin GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) Traffic (Optional)
• Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic (Optional)
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6.1 DATA LINK WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
The Data Link Weather feature enables the system to receive weather information from a variety of weather
sources, depending on the equipment installed in the aircraft. These sources may include SiriusXM Weather and
Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B). For each source, a ground-based system processes the weather
information collected from a network of sensors and weather data providers.
The SiriusXM Weather service, available with the Garmin GDL 69A SXM data link receiver and an active
service subscription, updates its weather data periodically and automatically, and transmits this information to the
aircraft’s receiver via satellite on the S-Band frequency. This service provides continuous reception capabilities at
any altitude throughout North America.
The FIS-B Weather service, available when equipped with a capable transponder which can receive 978
MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data, delivers subscription-free weather information periodically
and automatically to the aircraft. FIS-B uses a network of FAA-operated Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) to
transmit the information to the aircraft’s receiver. Reception is limited to line-of-sight, and is available below
24,000 feet MSL in the United States. FIS-B broadcasts provide weather data in a repeating cycle which may take
approximately ten minutes to transmit all available weather data. Therefore, not all weather data may be present
immediately upon initial FIS-B signal acquisition. FIS-B is a component of the Automatic Dependent Surveillance
(ADS-B) system, which offers both weather and traffic data; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later in this
section for a more detailed discussion of the ADS-B system and its capabilities.
ACTIVATING DATA LINK WEATHER SERVICES
NOTE: Service activation is not applicable to the FIS-B Weather service.
ACTIVATING THE SIRIUSXM WEATHER SERVICE
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s customer service
the coded ID(s) unique to the installed data link receiver. The Data Radio ID must be provided to activate the
weather service. The Audio Radio ID enables the receiver to provide SiriusXM Radio entertainment. To view
this information, refer to the following locations:
• The Aux - XM Information Page on the MFD
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
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SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display weather data and/
or provide audio entertainment programming through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the Aux - XM Information Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather data) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website, www.siriusxm.com.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and the desired weather product subscription package.
After SiriusXM has been contacted, it may take approximately 15 minutes until the activation occurs.
Verifying the SiriusXM Weather service activation:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the Aux - XM Information Page.
3) View the list of supported Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather
product; a green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several
minutes for weather products in the selected subscription package to become available.
NOTE: Not all weather products offered by SiriusXM are supported for display on this system. This pilot’s
guide only discusses supported weather products.
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM Satellite
Radio)
Weather Products
(Available Products for
Service Class Indicated
in Green)
Select to Display XM
Information page
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
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WEATHER PRODUCT AGE
Unlike real-time weather information collected directly from weather sensors on-board an aircraft, such as an
airborne weather radar or a lightning detection system, data link weather by contrast relies on service providers
to collect, process, and transmit weather information to the aircraft. This information can come from a variety
of sources such as government agencies. Due to the time it takes to collect, process, and distribute data link
weather information, it is imperative for pilots to understand that data link weather information is not real-time
information and may not accurately depict the current conditions.
For each data link weather product which can be displayed as a map overlay, such METARs, the system can
also show a weather product age. This age represents the elapsed time, in minutes, since the weather service
provider compiled the weather product and the current time. It does not represent the age of the information
contained within the weather product itself. For example, a single mosaic of radar precipitation is comprised
data from multiple radar sites providing data at differing scan rates or intervals. The weather service provider
periodically compiles this data to create a single composite image, and assigns one time to this image which
becomes the basis of the product age. The service provider then makes this weather product available for data
link transmission at the next scheduled update time. The actual age of the weather data contained within the
mosaic is therefore older than its weather product age and should never be considered current.
SiriusXM and FIS-B weather products are broadcast automatically on a repeating cycle without pilot
intervention.
Each data link weather product age has an expiration time. The weather product age is shown in white if it
is less than half of this expiration time, otherwise it is shown in amber until reaching its expiration time. After
a weather product has expired, the system removes the expired weather product from the displays, and shows
white dashes instead of the age. If the data link receiver has not yet received a weather product ‘N/A’ appears
instead of the age to show the product is currently not available for display. This may occur, for example, after
powering on the system but before the data link receiver has received a complete weather data transmission. It
could also indicate a possible outage of a weather product.
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For PFD
maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
Enabling/disabling the weather product age for PFD Maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the WX LGND to show/remove the weather product age information for PFD maps.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Tables 6-1 and 6-2 show the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates for
SiriusXM Weather and FIS-B Weather, respectively. The broadcast rate represents the interval at which the
SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated weather product
information. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated or when the Data Link
Receiver receives new data. The service provider and its weather data suppliers define and control the data
update intervals, which are subject to change.
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SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
NEXRAD
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
7.5
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
30
5
Cell Movement
30
1.25
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
12
METARs
90
12
City Forecast
90
12
Surface Analysis
60
12
Freezing Levels
120
12
Winds Aloft
90
12
County Warnings
60
5
Cyclone Warnings
60
12
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
22
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
12
Air Report(AIREP)
90
12
Turbulence
180
12
30
Radar Coverage Not Available
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
No product symbol
30
60
5
12
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
No product symbol
60
12
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
METARs
90
5
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
10
Winds Aloft
90
10
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
5
FIS-B Weather Product
Symbol
No Radar Coverage
No product symbol
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
(TAF)
No product symbol
60
10
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
Table 6-2 FIS-B Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
DISPLAYING DATA LINK WEATHER PRODUCTS
WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
The Map - Weather Data Link (XM/FIS-B) Page is the principal map page for viewing data link weather
information. This page provides the capability for displaying the most data link weather products of any map
on the system. The Weather Data Link Page also provides system-wide controls for selecting the data link
weather source, if more than one source has been installed. The page title indicates the selected data link
weather source (e.g., “XM”, “FIS-B”).
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NEXRAD Weather
Product Display
Enabled Icon
NEXRAD Weather
Product Age (US)
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Viewing the Weather Data Link Page and changing the data link weather source, if applicable:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B) Page. The currently selected data link
weather source appears in the page title.
3) If the page title does not contain the desired weather source, press the MENU Key.
a) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’, or ‘Display FIS-B Weather’ (choices may vary
depending on the installed equipment).
b) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-3 Changing the Data Link Weather Source
The system presents the softkeys for the selected source on the Weather Data Link Page, and for map overlays
used throughout the system. The following figures show the softkeys for the Weather Data Link Page based on
the selected source.
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WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE SOFTKEYS
NOTE: Softkeys not related to data link weather are not shown in the following tables.
Level 1
NEXRAD
Level 2
Echo Top
CLD Top
XM LTNG
Cell MOV
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
Cyclone
SFC
FRZ LVL
Wind
ICNG
254
Level 3
Description
Enables/disables the NEXRAD weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Echo Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cloud Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Lightning weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cell Movement weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level SiriusXM Weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the Cyclone weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkey for enabling/disabling the Surface Analysis and
City Forecast weather product and selecting a forecast period.
Disables the Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather product overlay.
Displays the Surface Analysis for the current time period overlay.
Off
Current
12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, These softkeys display a Surface Analysis and City Forecast overlay for the
selected future time period.
48 HR
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the Freezing Level weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Displays altitude softkeys for the Icing weather product overlay.
Shows the previous level of Icing altitude softkeys.
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting winds from
the Icing altitude from
to 1,000 to 30,000 feet
Next
Legend
TURB
PREV
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting Turbulence
altitude from 21,000
feet to 45,000 feet
Next
Legend
Back
AIREPS
PIREPS
County
Back
Description
Disables the Icing weather product.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 1,000 feet to
30,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays softkeys for enabling/disabling the Turbulence weather product
overlay.
Shows the previous level of Turbulence altitude softkeys.
Disables the Turbulence weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 21,000 feet to
45,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the AIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the County Warnings weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B) PAGE SOFTKEYS
Level 1
NEXRAD
or
US
or
RGNL
or
US/RGNL
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
Level 2
Description
Cycles through NEXRAD display modes with each press:
NEXRAD (with annunciator disabled): No NEXRAD is shown.
US: Displays NEXRAD data for the Continental US (CONUS).
RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data.
US/RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data where available, and CONUS
NEXRAD data in other coverage areas.
More WX
Wind
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Level 3
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level Connext Weather product softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
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Level 1
Level 2
PIREPs
Back
Level 3
Description
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
The Weather Data Link Page can display a legend for each enabled weather product.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS
Knob.
Additional information about the following weather products can be displayed by panning the Map Pointer
over the following products on the Weather Data Link Page:
• Echo Tops
• METARs
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
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Additional
Information
on Weather
Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
Storm Cell
Selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-4 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Certain weather products, such as METARs or TFRs have associated full text. When a weather product is
selected with the Map Pointer, press the ENT Key. The system displays the full text for the selected weather
product in a window. To remove the window, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The Weather Data Link Page also has a page menu that can be accessed by pressing the MENU Key. It has
controls for enabling/disabling the weather products as an alternative to using the softkeys.
Customizing the Weather Data Link Page
The Weather Data Link Page includes controls for selecting the maximum map range to display each
weather product on the page. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range,
the system removes the weather product from the map. If more than one data link weather source has been
installed, the system uses the same maximum map range for the comparable weather product of another
source.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press the ENT Key.
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NOTE: ‘Product Group 2’ is not applicable to FIS-B Weather.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
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WEATHER PRODUCT MAP OVERLAYS
+
Echo Top
+
Data Link Lightning
+
Cell Movement
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
Flight Plan Pages
Cloud Top
Nearest Page Group
+
Aux - Trip Planning Page
+
Other Waypoint Pages
+
WPT- Weather Information
Page
Weather Data Link Page
NEXRAD†
Navigation Map Page
Data Link Weather Product
PFD Map
Other PFD and MFD maps and pages can display a smaller set of data link weather products. The following
table shows which data link weather products can be displayed on specific maps, indicated with a ‘+’ symbol.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+º
+
+
METARs
+
+
+
Surface Analysis & City Forecast
+
Freezing Levels
+
Winds Aloft
+*
+
County Warnings
+
Cyclone Warnings
+
Icing Potential
+
PIREPs
+
AIREPs
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
TAFs
+
+
+
† Animated SiriusXM NEXRAD available on navigation maps except the HSI Map.
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
º Full TFR text not available on the Nearest VRP Page.
Table 6-3 Weather Product Display Maps
Displaying Data Link Weather Products on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the softkey to enable/disable the desired weather product.
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The Navigation Map Page also can display legends for weather products enabled on this map with the
Legend Softkey. This softkey is subdued if no weather products are enabled.
Showing/removing the weather legend on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Legend Softkey to show the Weather Legends window.
4) When finished, press the Legend Softkey again, or press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the window.
The Navigation Map Page also allows the pilot to select the maximum map range to display weather
products. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the system removes
the weather product from the map. The system uses this setting for all navigation maps, including those
displayed on the PFD.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
The system can also display data link weather information on the PFD navigation maps.
Displaying Data Link Weather products on the PFD:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of data link products on the PFD map.
On the MFD maps, the weather product icon and age appear automatically when a weather is enabled and
the range is within the maximum display limits. On PFD maps, this information is available using the PFD
softkeys.
Enabling/disabling the weather product icon and age display (PFD maps):
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey to enable/disable the weather product age, source, and icon box display on PFD
Maps.
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the map range settings
above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the weather
product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The page menus
also provide an alternative to using the softkeys to enable/disable data link weather product overlays on maps.
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WEATHER PRODUCT OVERVIEW
The following is an overview of data link weather products the system can display.
NEXRAD (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Data link weather radar information cannot be displayed at the same time as relative terrain, echo
tops, icing, or turbulence data.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
Figure 6-5 NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity image.
This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various altitudes. For radar
sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from the lowest antenna tilt angle,
known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes
and the type of precipitation, if known.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-6 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in gray shade of purple.
The system can animate a loop of NEXRAD information. The animated view is available on the Weather
Data Link (XM) Page, and on navigation maps with the exception of the HSI Map. Animation begins after
the system has received at least two recent NEXRAD images since the avionics power cycle. When NEXRAD
animation is enabled, a timeline appears in the upper-right corner of the map, except for the PFD Inset Map.
A pointer on the timeline indicates the relative position of the displayed frame of animation, from oldest to
newest. The NEXRAD weather product age corresponds to the displayed frame. The system can show up
to six frames of NEXRAD animation when the USA coverage option is selected, and up to three frames of
animation when Canada is selected.
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Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’, then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The pilot enables/disables the NEXRAD animation feature for navigation maps from the Navigation Map
Page.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on navigation maps:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’ and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The pilot can select either the United States or Canada region for the desired NEXRAD coverage area. The
selection for the Weather Data Link (XM) Page is independent from the selection made on the Navigation
Map Page, which affects navigation maps. NEXRAD information is shown for the selected region, while a
gray shade of purple is shown over the region which is not selected when the NEXRAD overlay is enabled.
This is the same coloring used depict where NEXRAD coverage is not available. This indication appears over
other map overlays on navigation maps, such as topographical information. The NEXRAD weather product
age display indicates either ‘US’ or ‘CN’ for the selected coverage region.
Selecting the NEXRAD Coverage Region on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Region field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ (Canada), then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Selecting the NEXRAD Coverage Region on navigation maps:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Region US or CNDA field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
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Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
• An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
• Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar beam
overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site, the radar beam
is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any precipitation occurring
below the beam at this distance and altitude.
• At smaller map ranges, the smallest square block on the display represents an area of approximately
four square kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of radar
reflectivity sampled within the area.
• Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
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Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-7 NEXRAD Weather Product with 30 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless of
actual precipitation type.
• If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of actual
precipitation type.
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No Coverage
Above 55°N
Precipitation
Above 52°N
Always Displays
as Mixed
Figure 6-8 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
NEXRAD (FIS-B)
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as relative terrain on the same
map.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to FIS-B compiles
the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time
to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual
images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD
weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar synopsis and may not
depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for maneuvering
in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
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Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-9 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher resolution,
updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution, updated less
frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display on the same map.
When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display precedence where data is available,
and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional NEXRAD coverage area.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey. Each press cycles though a coverage option as the softkey name changes (US,
RGNL, or US/RGNL.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) To enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information for the continental United States, turn the small FMS
Knob to highlight the NEXRAD On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of NEXRAD for the continental United
States or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
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4) To enable/disable the display of Regional NEXRAD information, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
Regional On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of Regional NEXRAD or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
5) When finished, push the FMS Knob.
Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
No radar coverage
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-10 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
NOTE: When both NEXRAD options are enabled on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page menu, a combined
version is displayed.
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Enables/disables
regional NEXRAD
data display
Enables/disables
NEXRAD data display for
the continental United
States
Figure 6-11 Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page Menu
Figure 6-12 Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page Setup Menu
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
3) To change the type of NEXRAD displayed, press the MENU Key.
4) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data On/Off Field.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
8) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
9) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘CONUS’ (continental United States), ‘RGNL’ (regional), or ‘Combined’,
then press the ENT Key. This selection also affects display of NEXRAD on the PFD Maps.
10) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received from
ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white spiked boundary
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encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being displayed. The
system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this boundary area.
If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey enabled),
the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
No radar coverage
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-13 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the
information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed
on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page. For the NEXRAD legend, select the Legend Softkey when the
NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
No radar coverage
Boundary of radar
coverage area
Figure 6-16 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
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The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar data
is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple.
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during initial FIS-B signal
acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system may display areas of no radar
coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is received. It may take up to approximately ten
minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when adequate reception is available.
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional version
of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm tall. For the
continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5 nm wide by 5 nm
wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected within that area.
• The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of latitude.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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ECHO TOPS (SIRISUXM)
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is displayed.
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar echo. The
highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the highest altitude at
which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Altitude for
selected Echo Top
Figure 6-14 Echo Tops Weather Product
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are removed.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Legend
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CLOUD TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
NOTE: The broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30 minutes. As with all SiriusXM Weather products, the product
age becomes amber when it reaches half of the expiration time, which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops.
Therefore, this weather product age may be amber during routine operation.
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
Figure 6-16 Cloud Tops Weather Product
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the CLD Top Softkey.
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Legend
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DATA LINK LIGHTNING (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Lightning from a data link source cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as information
from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
The Data Link Light weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes.
A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact location of the
lightning strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-18 Data Link Weather Product
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG Softkey.
To display the Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link Page, press the Legend Softkey when Data Link
Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-19 Data Link Lightning Legend
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the XM LTNG Softkey.
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Enabling/disabling Data Link Lightning information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the Datalink Softkey to enable data link lightning from SiriusXM, or press the LTNG Off Softkey to
disable data link lightning.
4) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
CELL MOVEMENT (SIRIUSXM)
The Cell Movement weather product shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the
ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement indicated with
short, orange arrows.
Storm Cells
Additional
information for
selected Storm Cell
Figure 6-20 Cell Movement Weather Product
On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated CEL MOV
softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available with this weather product. In this case, the Storm Cell
base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
Displaying Cell Movement information on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the Cell MOV Softkey.
Figure 6-21 Cell Movement Legend
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For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the NEXRAD
Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map Settings menu
of the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation maps:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When set to ‘On’, Cell Movement
is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement
is not displayed on navigation maps.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to remove the menu.
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling the
NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the NEXRAD
Softkey.
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition
occurring at a localized geographical position.
NOTE: The SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET
has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
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AIRMET for
Turbulence
AIRMET for IFR
conditions
AIRMET for
Icing conditions
SIGMET
Figure 6-22 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows sample SIGMET text.
Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-23 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
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METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Additional Information on Weather
Feature Selected
with Map Pointer
METAR flag
selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-24 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information is displayed only in its original form when TAFs are available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the Weather Data Link Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
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4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
Figure 6-25 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the Legend Softkey when METARs
are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the information available.
Figure 6-26 METAR Legend
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The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MF.D.
The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated with a METAR flag next
to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map pointer
is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
3) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on the map.
4) When finished, press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST (SIRIUSXM)
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-27 Current Surface Analysis Data
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Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the SFC Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey
label changes to show the forecast time selected.
Or:
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
Figure 6-28 Surface Analysis Legend
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FREEZING LEVEL (SIRIUSXM)
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at
which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude
has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears when it
becomes available.
Figure 6-29 Freezing Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
Figure 6-30 Freezing Levels Legend
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WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up to 42,000 feet MSL.
If the FIS-B option is installed and FIS-B is the active data link weather source, the Winds Aloft weather
product also displays temperatures aloft next to the winds aloft arrows on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Wind Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Press the Next or Prev Softkey
to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-31 Winds Aloft Data at 12,000 Feet
Figure 6-32 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on the
Navigation Map Page. The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not
to aircraft speed.
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Winds Aloft Data Age
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
Altitude Scale
Figure 6-33 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in Table 6-4.
Headwind Symbol
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-4 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
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Settings on the Navigation Map Page control the display of Winds Aloft information shown on the VSD.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
COUNTY WARNINGS (SIRIUSXM)
The County warning weather product provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings
from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes, severe thunderstorms,
and flood conditions.
Flood
Warnings
Thunderstorm
Warning
Additional
Information
on Flood
Warning
Selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-34 County Flood Warning
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the County Softkey.
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Figure 6-35 County Warnings Legend
CYCLONE (SIRIUSXM)
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms,
and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of
DD/HH:MM.
Cyclone
Figure 6-36 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Cyclone Softkey.
Figure 6-37 Cyclone Legend
NOTE: The Cyclone weather product is not available unless at least one cyclone or tropical storm has been
received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
ICING (CIP & SLD) (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Icing information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map with NEXRAD.
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the current icing environment.
Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft
type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the
analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to
cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selected.
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Light Icing Potential
Moderate Icing
Potential
Figure 6-38 Icing Data at 6,000 Feet
Figure 6-39 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Turbulence information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map with NEXRAD.
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs, SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selection.
Figure 6-40 Turbulence Weather Product at 21,000 Feet
Figure 6-41 Turbulence Legend
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PIREPS AND AIREPS
NOTE: AIREPs are only available with the SiriusXM Weather service.
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots. When significant
weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit PIREPs.
A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear,
and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
AIREP
Urgent PIREP
PIREP selected with
Map Pointer
Figure 6-42 PIREPs and AIREPS on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS or AIREPS Softkey. (Note the AIREPS Softkey is only available with the SiriusXM Weather
service.)
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not present in the decoded version.
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
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Decoded PIREP Text
Original PIREP
Text
Figure 6-43 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-44 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where flight is
restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement,
natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on the
system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS),
and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ on maps on which the display of TFRs is enabled.
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Information for
selected TFR
Figure 6-45 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
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Figure 6-46 Full Text for Selected TFR
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the
TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range setting.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the Aux - ADS-B Status
Page.
Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aux - ADS-B Status Page.
On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature, which includes
all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B Weather’, and press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-47 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on the ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page Item
FIS-B Weather Status:
FIS-B Processing
Weather Products:
AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD
METAR
METAR GRAPHICAL
NOTAM/TFR
PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD
SIGMET
TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
Status
Message
ENABLED
DISABLED
----------------
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process and display FIS-B weather products.
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled.
No FIS-B weather data received from the transponder.
AVAILABLE
FIS-B weather data is available for display for the weather product.
Description
NOT AVAILABLE
FIS-B weather data is not available for the weather product, and/or the system is not
receiving the FIS-B weather service.
AWAITING DATA
The system is receiving the FIS-B weather service, and is waiting to receive the
weather product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
Table 6-5 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
NOTE: If the system is not receiving FIS-B weather data, a System Message indicating FIS-B has failed
appears on the PFDs. This may occur, for example, when the aircraft is on the ground without adequate
reception from a GBT. See the Appendices section for a list of System Messages.
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6.2 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Garmin GWX 70 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed radar with forty watts of output
power. The radar combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target
display. The GWX 70 has an effective pulse length of 27.31 microseconds (µs), and the system optimizes the
pulse length to maximize resolution at each range setting.
This aircraft uses a phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of pitch and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers crew-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º or a full 90º scan. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and cell
buildup activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
• Altitude-Compensated Tilt (ACT) management, which automatically adjusts the antenna tilt angle as the
aircraft altitude changes.
• An independent weather radar scan for each PFD HSI Map while the aircraft is in the air.
• Optional Turbulence Detection presents areas of turbulence associated with precipitation using Doppler
measurements.
• Optional Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS), to remove ground clutter from the displays.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Radar is an acronym for Radio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting a
microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return echo.
The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the center of
the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and receiving.
The system processes the returned signal and displays it on the system.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather, not for entering areas of severe weather. The
decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft
capabilities, and pilot experience. Airborne weather radar detects rain or hail, not clouds or mist. The display
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may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly between them.
The GWX 70, if equipped with the optional Turbulence Detection feature, can detect turbulence associated with
precipitation, but cannot detect clear air turbulence.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The following figure depicts
a radar beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the
same holds true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that
it is possible to miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the
antenna tilt set to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
10°
0
0
15
Half Power at
s
Beam Sidelobe
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-48 Radar Beam from a 10 inch Antenna
The curvature of the Earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings
of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
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320 nm
Figure 6-49 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the radar system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas in question appear as shadowed or gray
on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
NOTE: The accuracy of the displayed radar returns is reduced at higher map ranges due to attenuation and
other phenomena.
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RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
The weather radar detects precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the
Earth or solid structures. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence directly.
It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar signal
reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog or
drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
Figure 6-50 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
Ground Returns
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well-defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
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Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
The optional Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) feature, discussed later, can remove unwanted ground
clutter from the displays.
Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
Figure 6-51 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the
semicircular area of at least 10 feet from the 10-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this
zone. This recommendation slightly exceeds the calculation methods defined in Advisory Circular 2068B. With a scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly
reduced.
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MPEL
Boundary
10 ft. for 10”
antenna
Figure 6-52 MPEL Boundary
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt six degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down
four degrees from parallel with the ground.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes of 2,000 feet AGL or higher. If the displayed target advances on the display to within five
nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000 feet or less
below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt four degrees can help separate ground returns from weather returns
in relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground. Return the antenna
tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles. This
is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
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4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
Figure 6-53 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground,
a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet; at 50 nm, 20,000
feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being displayed at 10 nm
would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. When the ground target return moves to five
nm, maximum distance below the aircraft is 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the airborne weather radar. There are many
other factors to consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT (ACT)
The Altitude Compensated Tilt feature of the enables the system to automatically adjust the antenna beam
tilt angle setting based on aircraft altitude changes. For example, if the ACT feature is enabled and the aircraft
climbs, the system compensates by adjusting the tilt downward. As the aircraft descends with ACT enabled,
the system adjusts the antenna tilt upward.
Enabling/disabling Altitude Compensated Tilt on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page.
2) Press the Mode Softkey.
3) Press the ACT Softkey to enable/disable the Altitude Compensated Tilt feature.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar displays, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
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NOTE: The color magenta is not used unless the optional Turbulence Detection feature is installed.
Weather Mode Color
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
Magenta
(Optional)
Approximate
Precipitation Rate (in/hr.)
< 23 dBZ
< .01
23 dBZ to < 33 dBZ
.01 - 0.1
33 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
0.1 - 0.5
41 dBZ and greater
greater than 0.5
TURB- (Optional) Turbulence Detection uses the color magenta
to show areas of rain or hail that may also contain turbulence
Intensity (in dBz)
Table 6-6 Precipitation Intensity Levels in Weather Mode
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation.
Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should be
treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-54 Cell Irregularities
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Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-55 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-56 The Blind Alley
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (9 in the southern hemisphere), especially
if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern hemisphere) of
a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
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These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Mapping mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby Mode on landing.
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Antenna
Stabilization Status
Weather Radar Mode
Antenna Tilt Angle,
Bearing, Sector Scan
and Gain Settings
Figure 6-57 Weather Radar Page with a Horizontal Scan Selected
Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the Mode Softkey.
3) While on the ground, press the Standby Softkey.
a)
Press the Weather Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
Figure 6-58 Confirming Activating Radar
b)
Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
If the aircraft is airborne, press the Weather Softkey. The radar begins transmitting.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed. If desired, press the Vertical Softkey to change to vertical scanning.
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Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, press the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the Bearing field and displays
the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
Bearing Line
Scan Line
Figure 6-59 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
3) Press the Vertical Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is now displayed (Figure 6-60).
4) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
5) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
7) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the Horizon Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
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Figure 6-60 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the Tilt field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Press the Tilt Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line. If the Tilt Line is not
displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
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Tilt Line
Figure 6-61 Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle on a Vertical Scan Display
Enabling/disabling manual gain adjustment:
WARNING: Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity. Remember to return the gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation.
1) Press the Gain Softkey to activate the cursor in the Gain field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the Gain field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Press the Gain Softkey again to return to the calibrated gain setting. ‘Calibrated’ is displayed in the Gain field.
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Manual Gain set higher than Calibrated Gain Setting
Calibrated Gain Setting
Figure 6-62 Gain Calibration
Enabling/disabling Sector Scanning:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
Bearing field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Sector Scan field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired scan. Selecting ‘Full’ enables a 90º scan.
5) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
6) Press the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
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Figure 6-63 40° Sector Scan
Antenna Stabilization
When radar stabilization is active, the radar tilt is corrected for pitch and roll, and therefore is kept steady
with respect to an earth-fixed reference. The commanded tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the
Earth. When the stabilization is turned off, corrections are no longer made for pitch and roll, and the radar
tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the aircraft reference system.
Enabling/disabling antenna stabilization:
1) On the Weather Radar Page, press the Mode Softkey.
2) Press the STAB Softkey to enable/disable antenna stabilization. The current stabilization condition is, ‘STAB On’
or ‘STAB Off’ is shown in the upper right of the Weather Radar Page.
TURBULENCE DETECTION
The optional Turbulence Detection feature identifies areas of turbulence associated with precipitation using
the color magenta during a horizontal scan. These magenta areas represent precipitation moving at a high
rate of speed either toward or away from the radar antenna, using Doppler radar measurements. This feature
cannot detect areas of Clear Air Turbulence.
The Turbulence Detection feature is only available in Weather Mode while a horizontal scan is selected.
The system can detect turbulence up to 40 nm in front of the aircraft. At radar ranges of less than 200
nm, the system displays turbulence information when the feature is enabled. While Turbulence Detection
is enabled, if the radar range is 200 nm or greater, or a vertical scan is selected, the system automatically
removes turbulence information and shows a ‘TURB Detection Inactive’ annunciation on the Weather Radar
Page and the Turbulence Detection Button is subdued on the Touchscreen Controller. If the system is
missing information needed to detect turbulence, a ‘TURB Detection Unavailable’ annunciation appears on
the Weather Radar Page (Table 6-9).
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Enabling/Disabling Turbulence Detection during a Horizontal Scan:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page.
2) Press the Mode Softkey.
3) To activate or deactivate the turbulence detection feature, press the TURB Softkey. Turbulence detection is
enabled when the softkey annunciator is green; turbulence detection is disabled when the softkey annunciator
is gray. The system indicates the current turbulence detection feature status in the upper right of the Weather
Radar Page (Table 6-11).
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH®)
While in horizontal scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies
in displayed intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The
radar energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation,
and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy
of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions
with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the
extent of attenuation in a shaded area.
To activate or deactivate the WATCH feature, press the Watch Softkey.
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
Figure 6-64 Horizontal Scan with WATCH Enabled
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Removing Ground Clutter
With the optional Ground Clutter Suppression feature, the system can distinguish between reflected
ground returns (such as terrain features and buildings) and airborne weather phenomena. Ground clutter
may be most pronounced when using a low antenna tilt angle, or when approaching mountainous terrain.
The Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) feature is available while the weather radar Sector Scan is set to
‘Full’. When Ground Clutter Suppression is enabled, the system removes echoes determined to be ground
clutter from the display. While viewing a map with GCS enabled, adjustment of the map range or antenna
tilt angle will momentarily cause the display of ground clutter to return.
NOTE: The GCS feature of the airborne weather radar may remove the display of low-intensity precipitation
in addition to ground returns when the feature is enabled.
Enabling/disabling Ground Clutter Suppression on the Map - Weather Radar Page:
1) Press the Mode Softkey.
2) Press the GCS Softkey to enable/disable the Ground Clutter Suppression feature.
3) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘GND Clutter Suppression On’ or ‘GND Clutter Suppression Off’, then press the
ENT Key.
Weather Alert Bands and PFD Alert
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alerts are displayed as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is enabled,
the system also displays an alert on the PFD in the Alerts Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts from being displayed on the PFD, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey.
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Weather Alert
Bands
Figure 6-65 Weather Alert Bands on the Weather Radar Page
Figure 6-66 Weather Alert on PFD
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
Gain and Tilt Softkeys help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Mapping mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Mapping Mode Color
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
Table 6-7 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
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Operation in Ground Mapping Mode:
1) Press the Mode Softkey.
2) Press the Ground Softkey to place the radar in Ground Mapping mode.
3) Press the Back Softkey.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Tilt field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ADDITIONAL WEATHER RADAR DISPLAYS
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Airborne weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page. Airborne
weather radar is also available as an overlay on the HSI Map while the aircraft is in the air, with independent
controls from the weather radar information displayed on the MFD.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled on a navigation map, a weather radar information box
appears on the map. It indicates the selected radar mode, radar range, antenna tilt angle, and gain setting.
The navigation map overlay uses a horizontal scan. The GWX 70 allows either horizontal or vertical scan to
be selected on the Weather Radar Page, and shows a horizontal scan on the navigation maps with the weather
radar overlay.
Weather Radar Mode
Weather Radar Range
Antenna Tilt Angle
Gain Setting
Tilt and Bearing
Legend
Figure 6-67 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
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3) Press the WX Radar Softkey.
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the ‘Weather Radar’ overlay
selection (‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range, bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges between 1.5
and 500 nautical miles. At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the weather radar information
from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously adjusts the range of the weather
radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated in the weather radar information box that appears when
the overlay is enabled. When the radar range is adjusted on the Navigation Map Page, system also adjusts the
range on the Weather Radar Page up to a maximum range of 320 nm.
NOTE: The accuracy of the displayed radar returns is reduced at higher map ranges due to attenuation and
other phenomena.
The radar bearing is adjustable on the Navigation Map Page using the Joystick when the overlay is enabled.
The bearing line appears on the Navigation Map Page as a white dashed line, and is displayed during and
momentarily after adjustment.
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page using the
Joystick. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna tilt
angle.
Adjusting the bearing and antenna tilt angle on the Navigation Map Page:
1) With the weather radar overlay enabled, push the Joystick twice. The bearing and tilt legend is displayed.
2) Move the Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick up to adjust the
antenna tilt angle upward.
3) Move the Joystick left or right to adjust the bearing line in the desired direction. The bearing line is displayed
during and momentarily after adjustment.
If the aircraft is in the air, PFD softkeys can control the airborne weather radar overlay when the HSI Map is
displayed. These softkeys are subdued if the aircraft is on the ground. The pilot can select a weather radar mode
for the HSI Map, make adjustments to antenna gain, antenna tilt angle, enable/disable antenna stabilization,
Altitude Compensated Tilt, Weather Alert, as well as optional Turbulence Detection and GCS. Weather radar
settings on the HSI Map are independent from the MFD. For example, the PFD may have Weather Mode
selected while the MFD may have Standby Mode selected. The GWX 70 weather radar performs multiple scans
as necessary to accommodate displays of weather radar data for the PFD and MFD.
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Controlling of weather radar information on the HSI Map:
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
2) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
3) Press the Wx Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
4) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
5) To select a weather radar mode, press the Mode SEL Softkey
a) Press a softkey for the desired mode: Off, Standby, Weather, or Ground.
b) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
6) Press the Gain- Softkey to decrease the gain setting or press the Gain+ Softkey to increase the gain setting in
increments of 0.5 with each press, or press and hold the softkey for continuous adjustment. A gain setting of
0.0 is equivalent to the calibrated gain setting.
7) Move the PFD Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick down to adjust
the antenna tilt angle upward.
8) Press the WX Alert Softkey to enable/disable the display of Weather Alerts.
9) Press the STAB Softkey to enable/disable antenna stabilization feature.
10) Press the ACT Softkey to enable/disable the Altitude Compensated Tilt feature.
11) Press the GCS Softkey to enable/disable the optional Ground Clutter Suppression feature.
12) Press the TURB Softkey to enable/disable the optional Turbulence Detection feature.
13) When finished adjusting the HSI Map display of the airborne weather radar, press the Back Softkey.
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate the
intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert bands
is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and relative terrain present
information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the navigation maps disables
the display of the data link radar and relative terrain information for this page.
SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. Additional
information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a center banner annunciation. Refer to
the following tables for a list of annunciations and their locations for airborne weather radar.
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
Standby
STANDBY
Weather
Weather
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
Ground Mapping
Off
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
* See Table 6-10 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-8 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
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The system displays the status of the weather radar features in the upper-right corner of the Weather Radar
Page.
Radar Feature Status
STAB ON
STAB OFF
STAB INOP
ALTITUDE COMP TILT ON
ALTITUDE COMP TILT OFF
GND CLTR SUPPRESS ON
GND CLTR SUPPRESS OFF
GND CLTR SUPPRESS INACTIVE
GND CLTR SUPPRESS UNAVAILABLE
TURB DETECTION ON
TURB DETECTION OFF
TURB DETECTION INACTIVE
TURB DETECTION UNAVAILABLE
Description
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The antenna stabilization
feature is inoperative.
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected on.
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected off.
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected on.
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected off.
The ground clutter suppression feature is enabled, but the radar is in a mode
which cannot support ground clutter suppression (e.g. vertical scan or sector
scan).
The ground clutter suppression feature is missing data needed to suppress
ground clutter.
The turbulence detection feature is selected on.
The turbulence detection feature is selected off.
Turbulence detection is inactive when map range is greater than 160 nm, or
radar is in a mode which cannot support turbulence detection.
The radar is missing data needed to detect turbulence.
Table 6-9 Radar Feature Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Pane
If the weather radar unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center
of the Weather Radar Page.
Weather Radar Page Center
Description
Banner Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
RADAR FAIL
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system should be serviced.
Table 6-10 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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6.3 STORMSCOPE LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as lightning
information from data link lightning sources.
The system can display L-3 WX-500 Stormscope lightning detection system information on the Stormscope
Page, and as an overlay on navigation maps. The system uses the symbols shown in the following table to depict
lightning strikes and cells based on the age of the information.
Lightning Age
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-11 Lightning Age and Symbols
USING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
The Map - Stormscope Page is the principal map page for viewing Stormscope lighting information, and offers
map ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm. The Map - Stormscope Page map orientation is heading
up, or track up if there is no valid heading.
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
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Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Figure 6-68 Stormscope Page with Cell Mode Selected
Selecting ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the Mode Softkey. The Cell and Strike softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the Cell Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or press the Strike Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper right corner of the Stormscope Page.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level softkeys for the Stormscope Page.
Or:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Stormscope Page Menu. Either ‘Cell Mode’ or ‘Strike Mode’ is highlighted
in cyan to indicate the mode to be selected.
3) Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode and remove the menu. To remove the menu without changing
modes, press the MENU Key or the CLR Key, or push the FMS Knob.
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn . This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays on the system.
Manually clearing Stormscope cell or strike information:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the Clear Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Lightning Data’, then press the ENT Key.
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Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’, then press the ENT Key.
STORMSCOPE MAP OVERLAYS
The system can display Stormscope lightning on navigation maps as an overlay. When this overlay is
enabled, a Stormscope icon appears on the map, with the exception of the HSI Map. On MFD navigation
maps, a box also appears with the selected Stormscope mode and strike rate.
Displaying Stormscope information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Stormscope Navigation Map
Overlay Enabled Icon
Figure 6-69 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope Lightning Data
Enabling/disabling Stormscope information on PFD navigation maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the STRMSCP Softkey to enable Stormscope lightning or press the LTNG Off Softkey to disable Stormscope
lightning.
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
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4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections.
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The following options are available:
• Stormscope On/Off field – Enables/disables the display of Stormscope lightning symbols.
• Stormscope maximum display range – Selects the maximum map range to display Stormscope symbols.
Stormscope data is removed when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
• Stormscope Mode – Selects the Cell or Strike mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters or
cells of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity. Stormscope identifies clusters of
electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
Selecting the ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Mode field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change between ‘Cell’ and ‘Strike’ options. When the desired item is selected, press
the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn. This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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6.4 TERRAIN DISPLAYS
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process
the data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting requires the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B option. No terrain or obstacle
alerting occurs for the Terrain Proximity feature.
The terrain system increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and
obstacles.
One of the following terrain systems is installed on this aircraft:
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option when the Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B
(TAWS-B) is not installed; refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information about Garmin SVT.)
• TAWS-B (optional)
The installed terrain system provides color indications on map displays when terrain or obstacles are within
a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B furthermore provide advisory visual
annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence of threatening terrain or obstacles relevant to the projected
flight path. This alerting capability is not present in the Terrain Proximity feature. Compared to Terrain-SVT
alerting, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles. The
TAWS-B system includes more alerting capabilities than the Terrain-SVT system.
The terrain system requires the following for proper operation:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain and obstacle databases
The terrain system uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information
is based on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may
be shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content. However, the
displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may still contain inaccuracies.
The terrain system uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and
altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above
geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. The system
uses GSL altitude to determine alerts for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems. GSL altitude accuracy is affected
by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure
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altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widelyused MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to
calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by the terrain system are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position
and GSL altitude, terrain system displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the
position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, for the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, the system uses the
GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding
terrain and obstacles. In this manner, the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems can provide advanced alerts of predicted
dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
The terrain system uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200
feet above ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically
adjusts these colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the OnGround Legend. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain information using red,
yellow, green, and black, as shown on the In-Air Legend. As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or
from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. For
Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, if an alert occurs, the relative terrain colors transition to the In-Air Legend if
the On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the pilot with the most information possible.
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Figure 6-70 Relative Terrain Legend
The following figure shows the relative terrain coloring for the Terrain Proximity system.
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100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-71 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
The following figure shows relative terrain coloring for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-72 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Systems
NOTE: The Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset Window shows terrain at least 2000 feet below the aircraft
altitude as gray.
The following tables show the relative obstacle coloring used by the terrain systems.
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-12 Relative Obstacle Symbols and Colors
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Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft
altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-13 Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
The Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems show potential impacts areas for terrain and obstacles using yellow and
red as shown in the the following table.
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
TAWS-B Warning
Warning
Terrain-SVT Warning
or
Caution
or
Table 6-14 Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
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The Map - Terrain Proximity or Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Page is the principal map page for viewing terrain
information. Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following maps and pages:
• PFD Maps
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Flight Plan Page
• Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (MFD maps other than the terrain page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the Map/HSI Softkey).
2) Press the TER Softkey until REL is shown to display terrain and obstacle data.
When relative terrain is selected on maps other than the terrain page, an icon to indicate the feature is enabled
for display and a legend for the relative terrain colors are shown.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map.
Terrain information can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles recognized
by Terrain Proximity as yellow or red are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within
the setting limit.
Maps besides the Terrain Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The maximum
display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation Map. If
the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest obstacle
display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• Terrain Display – Turns the display of relative (‘REL’) terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which
terrain is shown
• Obstacle Data – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are
shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the Joystick. If the
map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
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Additional
Information on
Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Lighted Obstacle
Selected with Map
Pointer
Red Lighted
Obstacles
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-73 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
TERRAIN PAGE
The Map - Terrain Proximity, or Map - Terrain-SVT, or Map - TAWS-B Page is specialized to show terrain,
and obstacle in relation to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. This page is the
principal page for viewing terrain information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be
enabled for reference.
For Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems only, this page also shows potential impact areas. If an obstacle and
the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically adjusts to a map range if necessary to
emphasize the display of the potential impact area.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading, in which case the
orientation is track up. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 250 feet to 1000 nm, which is indicated
on the map range arc.
Displaying the terrain page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the terrain page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Orientation
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-74 Terrain Proximity Page
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles in an
inset window on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. Although the VSD does not display Terrain-SVT or
TAWS-B alerts and potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors and symbols as these
systems to depict relative terrain and obstacles within the VSD.
Enabling/Disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable or disable the VSD.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the Navigation Map Page
also control the display of this information in the VSD.
VSD DISPLAY
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low
enough or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain will be shown
in gray if the TER Softkey is selected off on the Navigation Map Page).
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The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon
the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution,
within a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present position and the end of the
map range. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as annunciated on the HSI, and is widest
during enroute or oceanic phases.
Flight Phase
Approach
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Total VSD Width
0.6 nm
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 6-15 VSD Terrain Width Varies with Phase of Flight
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the top-left corner
of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan, and if no active
flight plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In Track Mode, the contour
is based on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based on the active flight plan, when
available, otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
Selecting a VSD Mode:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Inset Softkey.
3) Press the VSD Softkey displaying the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey cycles through a mode
selection: FPL (flight plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the VSD is adjusted
to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the Navigation Map range is
adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical mile. When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the VSD; only an outline of the terrain will be
displayed in black in the VSD Inset Window.
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Track Mode
Boundary
Relative
Terrain legend
VSD Mode
Selected Altitude
Figure 6-75 VSD on the Navigation Map Page with Relative Terrain Information
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL
is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for especially tall obstacles), a vertical
line appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as
shown in the following figure.
Figure 6-76 VSD with Tall Obstacles
TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The boundary is
shown as a white rectangle on the Navigation Map Page and is only available when the VSD is enabled in
Track Mode. White range markers on both edges of the Track Mode Boundary rectangle match the range
markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window whenever the profile range is at least four
nautical miles (or 7.5 km if configured for metric units).
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The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘VSD’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• TRK Mode BNDRY – Enables/disables the display of the Track Mode Boundary and sets maximum range at
which Track Mode Boundary is shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS-B ALERTING DISPLAYS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B software
algorithms. Terrain alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an
alert is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are simultaneously issued.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The terrain alert annunciation appears
to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and bottom left on the MFD. If the terrain page is not
displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Page)
Alert Annunciation
Pop-up
Alert
Figure 6-77 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
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Potential Impact
Area
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-78 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
The following table lists the possible Terrain-SVT alerts.
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVT Page)
Voice Alert
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-16 Terrain-SVT Alerts Summary
The following table lists the TAWS-B alerts.
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Alert Type
PFD/MFD*
Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
Voice Alert
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Voice Callout
(VCO) “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
“Sink Rate”
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
“Don’t Sink”
* Annunciation is displayed on the MFD when terrain display is enabled.
Table 6-17 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B compares the projected
flight path as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and obstacle databases.
The system issues FLTA alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of the
projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the ground
speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest runway
along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes narrower until
the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-79 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination
runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
ADDITIONAL TAWS-B ALERTING
In addition to the FLTA alerting discussed previously, TAWS-B provides the following additional types of
alerts.
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide notification when the aircraft is
determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain a rate that is calculated to be excessive relative to height
above terrain. Figure 6-80 shows the parameters for the alert.
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6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
NK
: “SI
ion
Caut
3500
”
RATE
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
Descent Rate (FPM)
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-80 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-81 PDA Alerting Threshold
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NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual annunciations. NCR alerting is
only active when departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-82 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-83 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
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FIVE-HUNDRED VOICE ALERT
The purpose of the TAWS-B “Five-hundred” voice alert is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft
descends to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of an
airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft
is more than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain
(as determined by the GPS altitude and Terrain Database).
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alert.
INHIBITING ALERTING
The pilot can manually inhibit FLTA alerts. If TAWS-B is installed, PDA alerts are also inhibited with FLTA
alerts.
Terrain-SVT System
TAWS-B System
Figure 6-84 Alerting is Inhibited when Annunciation is displayed
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B or Terrain-SVT Alerting:
1) Select the terrain page.
2) Press the Inhibit Softkey. Alerting is inhibited when softkey annunciator is green.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired inhibit or enable option and press the ENT Key.
SYSTEM STATUS
TERRAIN-SVT
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice alert
is issued at test completion.
Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain System
Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the annunciation
‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the Terrain-SVT Page. The voice alert “Terrain
System Not Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the
database coverage area, the voice alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
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PFD/MFD† Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
None
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, and
Terrain-SVT operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle databases
None
Terrain-SVT Page Center
Banner Annunciation
TERRAIN TEST
Voice Alert
None
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”*
None
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
† Annunciation is shown on Terrain-SVT Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-18 Terrain-SVT System Status Annunciations
TAWS-B
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice alert is
issued at test completion. The pilot can also manually select a TAWS-B system test. The system test option is
unavailable when the ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the TAWS-B Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status, and
GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is generated
along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the system
displays the ‘TAWS N/A’ annunciation, and issues the “TAWS Not Available” voice alert. When the GPS signal
integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the system issues the voice alert, “TAWS
Available” .
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PFD/MFD* Alert TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
None
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
No GPS position
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage
area
TAWS-B System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
None
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
None
None
“TAWS System Test Test OK”
None
None
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
None
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-19 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
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6.5 TAS TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of traffic system limitations. Traffic systems require transponders of other
aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due
to phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: Refer to the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic discussion for more
information about ADS-B traffic displays.
The optional Garmin GTS 825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). It enhances flight crew situational awareness
by displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual annunciations
and voice alerts to help the pilot visually acquire traffic.
The traffic system is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders,
and up to 30 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest
threat potential can be displayed simultaneously.
No TAS surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating transponders.
TAS THEORY OF OPERATION
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system directly interrogates the transponders of other
aircraft in the vicinity. The traffic system uses this information to derive the distance, relative bearing, and if
reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The traffic system then
calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the closure
rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts.
TAS SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
The GTS 825 TAS surveillance system actively scans the airspace within ±10,000 feet of its altitude. Under
ideal conditions, the GTS 825 scans transponder traffic up to 40 nm in the forward direction. The range is
somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of the aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In
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areas of greater transponder traffic density or when TCAS II (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II)
systems are detected, the on-board traffic system automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power
(and therefore range) in order to limit potential interference from other signals.
NOTE: The TAS system does not display Mode S transponder equipped traffic determined to be on the
ground. The TAS system also does not display Mode C transponder equipped aircraft determined to be on
the ground if own aircraft has a radar altimeter displaying 1700’ AGL or lower. However, if own aircraft is
receiving traffic information from an ADS-B source (including ADS-R, ADS-B, TIS-B), the system does display
ground traffic while operating in SURF Mode. Refer to the ADS-B Traffic Section for more information.
The symbols in the following table depict traffic, and include Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
(ADS-B) traffic symbols. Refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later in this section for more information.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information is beyond the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing.
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground
traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or
own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic with ADS-B directional information. Pointed end indicates direction of travel. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface
(SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-20 Traffic Symbols with TAS and ADS-B
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a solid amber circle or circle enclosing an arrow, alerts the crew to a
potentially hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria.
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A TA that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the
screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or arrow, indicates the intruding aircraft is
within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
Other, non-threat traffic, shown as an open white diamond or arrow, is displayed for traffic beyond six
nautical miles that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet. When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus sign ‘-’
indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in
either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol.
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-85 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting when the aircraft is more likely to be near an airport. The system uses Level A (less) sensitivity
when the height above terrain is at or below 2,000’ AGL. If the height above terrain is unavailable, Level A
sensitivity applies when the ground speed is less than 120 knots. In all other conditions, Level B (higher)
sensitivity applies.
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.2 NM.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.55 NM.
Table 6-21 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
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NOTE: The TAS system issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using TAS alerting criteria. The ADS-B system
issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using the Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting (CSA) criteria. See
the ADS-B Traffic section for more information about CSA.
TAS ALERTS
When the TAS detects a new TA, the following occur:
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA. For example, the
announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own aircraft,
above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-22 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
NOTE: The TAS system mutes TA voice alerts when own aircraft is below 400 feet AGL.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the right of the airspeed tape on the PFDs, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected.
• A PFD map is automatically displayed with TA traffic. If no PFD map was shown prior to the TA, a Traffic
Map appears on the PFDs. If a navigation map was already shown prior to the TA, the system enables the
Traffic overlay, if necessary, on the PFD maps in order to display the traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Maps and in the lower-left corner of navigation maps with traffic enabled instead of TA symbol. The
text will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if
known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
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Traffic Appears
when TA is
Detected
Figure 6-86 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
SYSTEM TEST
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes about ten seconds
to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on any displayed traffic
maps. The test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing TA is shown to the west, level
Other Non-Threat traffic is shown to the northwest, and a descending Proximity Advisory is in the northeast,
relative to own aircraft.
The system announces, “Traffic System Test”. When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters
Standby Mode.
Testing the traffic system:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern to be displayed during test.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to place the TAS system into Standby Mode.
5) If the ADS-B Softkey is enabled, press the ADS-B Softkey to disable ADS-B traffic.
6) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
1) With the Traffic system in Standby mode and the ADS-B softkey disabled, press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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TAS Test Mode
Figure 6-87 System Test in Progress with Example Test Pattern
OPERATION
NOTE: The Garmin GTS 825 TAS automatically changes from Standby to Operating mode eight seconds
after takeoff. The system also automatically changes from Operating to Standby mode 24 seconds after
landing.
When the avionics system initially receives power on the ground, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The
system must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Changing traffic system modes on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Press the Operate or TAS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘OPERATING’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in
the Traffic mode field.
Or:
1) With the Traffic Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2)
Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired mode.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Map - Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. The pilot can adjust the map range with
the Joystick. A range indication appears on each range ring.
The system annunciates the traffic mode and altitude display mode in the upper right corner of the Traffic
Map Page.
TAS Operating Mode
Annunciation
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 below,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ above,
descending
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Proximity
Advisory, 1200’
feet below,
descending
Figure 6-88 Traffic Map Page
Altitude Display Mode
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic is
displayed. If traffic meets the criteria for a TA, it is also displayed even if it is outside of the selected volume
of airspace.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
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• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in the previous step 2):
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The pilot can adjust the range of traffic displayed on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. Range indications
appear on rings shown on the page. The minimum map range is 750 feet. A maximum map range of 40
nautical miles is available.
Selecting the Traffic Map Display Range:
1) Select the Map - Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick as needed to select the desired map range.
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic unit
is operating:
• Map - Navigation Map Page
• FPL - Active Flight Plan Page
• Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page
• FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page
• Map - Traffic Map Page
• Aux - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest (NRST) Pages
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, the system shows a traffic status icon
to indicate traffic is enabled for display as well as the altitude display mode (Above, Below, Normal, Unres).
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Proximity
Advisory
Traffic Advisory
Traffic
Advisory OffScale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic overlay
enabled icon and
Altitude Display
Mode
Figure 6-89 TAS Traffic on Navigation Map
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays only Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels (relative altitude, vertical trend) are
shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
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the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
A traffic-only inset map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map appears on
the PFD. This map resembles the Traffic Map Page, and presents a heading up format. Traffic information
can also be overlaid on PFD navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling traffic overlay on PFD navigation maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information.
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page)
Traffic System Test
Initiated
OPERATING
Operating
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
Standby
Traffic System Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-24 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-23 Traffic Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-24 TAS Failure Annunciations
NOTE: If the GTX 345R transponder has failed, the GTS 825 TAS enters failure mode, and the system will not
display traffic information.
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-25 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.6 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic
control system. It offers improved surveillance services, both air-to-air and air-to-ground, especially in areas
where radar coverage is ineffective due to terrain, or where it is impractical or cost prohibitive. ADS-B is
comprised of three segments for the purposes of providing traffic information: ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R
(Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).
ADS-B includes the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on
fixed objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail
Number, ICAO registration number, etc.), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status.
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Figure 6-90 ADS-B System
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
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The ADS-B system operates on two frequencies: 1090 MHz and 978 MHz. Both frequencies provide the same
traffic information. An aircraft may be ADS-B In, Out, or participating on one or both frequencies, depending
on the installed equipment. The 1090 MHz frequency portion of ADS-B is known as 1090 Extended Squitter
(1090 ES). The 978 MHz portion of ADS-B is known as Universal Access Transceiver (UAT).
The Garmin GTX 345R transponder provides ADS-B Out functions using the 1090 ES data link. It also
performs ADS-B In functions using the UAT data link. This includes the reception of Flight Information ServicesBroadcast (FIS-B) data link weather service, provided when the aircraft is receiving data from a participating
ground station; refer to the Data Link Weather section for more information about FIS-B Weather.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking traffic data from one
link and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, if two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground
station, and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other is transmitting on 978 MHz, the ground station
retransmits the data from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each other as
traffic.
If another aircraft can only receive 978 MHz UAT information, it cannot directly ‘see’ another aircraft
sending only 1090 ES information aircraft unless an ADS-R ground station in the vicinity rebroadcasts the
1090 ES data over the 978 MHz UAT frequency. This is also true for an aircraft when can only receive 1090
ES data; it would need an ADS-R ground station to ‘see’ another aircraft operating on the UAT frequency.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
TIS-B provides a link between the secondary surveillance radar (SSR)-based system ATC uses and the ADSB-based system. When an ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B
ground station, the ground station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is
then included in the list of aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in SSR coverage, and the
other aircraft is also in SSR coverage, and is transmitting its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTX 345R-equipped aircraft according to
the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
Other Aircraft Equipment
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped Aircraft
1090ES Out Equipped
Yes
UAT Receive Only Capable
No
UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S Transponder
Yes*
* Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar coverage, or own
aircraft is equipped with a TAS system and traffic is within the TAS surveillance range.
Table 6-26 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
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ADS-B WITH TAS
When the system is receiving ADS-B In traffic and with a Garmin GTS 825 TAS in Operating Mode, the
system attempts to match (or “correlate”) data the two traffic sources. When a correlation is made, the system
displays the traffic information for the tracked aircraft determined to be the most accurate. Any traffic that is
not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the other) is also displayed for the flight crew. This
may occur, for example, if another aircraft is beyond the surveillance range of the TAS, but own aircraft is
receiving information via ADS-B for the other aircraft. The traffic correlation feature improves the accuracy
of the traffic displayed, while reducing the occurrence of displaying the same traffic for a given aircraft twice.
NOTE: In certain situations, a single aircraft may be depicted as two aircraft on the display if the system
is unable to correlate the traffic. This may occur, for example, when operating on the edges of ATC radar
coverage, or when using an optional active traffic system providing intermittent data. This may also occur
if TIS-B traffic data does not closely match the traffic data from other sources, especially while the traffic
tracked by ATC radar is turning.
NOTE: The TAS system issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using TAS alerting criteria. The ADS-B system
issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using the Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting (CSA) criteria.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TAS system discussed previously.
When a TA occurs with is equipment, the displays a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation and provides a voice alert. This
annunciation and voice alert is the same as the alerts issued by the Garmin GTS 825 TAS discussed previously.
NOTE: The system mutes TA voice alerts from ADS-B sources when own aircraft is below 400 feet AGL.
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to adjust the sensitivity of the CSA
algorithm in accordance with the following table:
Sensitivity
Level
Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
4
4
4
5
5
Any
Any
Unavailable
Any
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
5
6
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GPS Phase of Flight
Any
Any
Approach
Any
Any
Terminal
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Vertical
Protected
Own Altitude Look-ahead
Threshold for Volume
(Feet)
time (sec)
Alert (feet)
(NM)
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
<=5000
25
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850
0.20
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7
Unavailable or
>2350
8
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
Table 6-27 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
ADS-B traffic can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two ADS-B
applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness (SURF). The
system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five NM and 1,500 feet above the nearest airport.
When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five NM and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation.
When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map
Page range of one nm or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to
traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for
more information about SafeTaxi displays.
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially
when runways are in close proximity to each other.
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic symbols
may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic to be displayed
in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Availability for
AIRB and SURF is depicted on the Aux - ADS-B Status Page, discussed later in this section.
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SURF Application On
Ground-based
vehicle
Aircraft on the
ground
Figure 6-91 Traffic Map Page with SURF Mode On
NOTE: Refer to the TAS Traffic section for a table of ADS-B and TAS traffic symbols the system can display.
OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map
range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper right corner of the page.
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AIRB Application On
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 below,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ above,
descending
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Proximity
Advisory, 1200’
feet below,
descending
Figure 6-92 Traffic Map Page
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test pattern display.
3) Ensure the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
4) If the optional TAS is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
5) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
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A test pattern of traffic symbols appears during the test, and a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears on the PFD.
At the conclusion of the test, the system issues the voice alert “Traffic System Test”. If the test pattern is
displayed and the voice alert is heard, the system has passed the test.
ADS-B Test Mode
Figure 6-93 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is displayed.
TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Press one of the following softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Map Page, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options (see softkey description in the previous step
2:
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future. If the system does not have
sufficient information to calculate motion vectors, they are not shown.
Absolute
Motion Vectors
Absolute Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-94 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
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Relative Motion
Vectors
Relative Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-95 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press one of the following softkeys:
•
Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
Off: Disables the display of the motion vector.
Or:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion Vector Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press the Duration Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, press the Back Softkey to return to the Traffic Map Page.
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Displaying Additional Traffic Information
The Traffic Map Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may include
the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service vehicle,
unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV), course, track, groundspeed), and other information.
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. A cyan border appears on the first selected traffic symbol. Additional information appears
in a window in the lower-left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob to move the cyan border until another symol is selected.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The pilot can adjust the range of traffic displayed on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. Range indications
appear on rings shown on the page. The minimum map range is 750 feet. A maximum map range of 40
nautical miles is available.
Selecting the Traffic Map Display Range:
1) Select the Map - Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick as needed to select the desired map range.
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous TAS discussion
for information about these additional traffic displays.
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ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B: AIRB
None
ADS-B: SURF
None
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
ADS-B TRFC N/A
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
ADS-B Mode
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-29 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-28 ADS-B Modes
NOTE: If the optional TAS fails, the display of ADS-B traffic (ADS-B In) also fails, unless a GTX 345R
transponder is installed. In this case, if the TAS fails, the display of ADS-B traffic continues even if the TAS
has failed.
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-29 Traffic Failure Annunciations
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-30 Traffic Status Annunciations
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the Aux - ADS-B Status Page.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Aux - ADS-B Status Page.
Figure 6-96 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page
Item
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface (SURF),
Airborne Alerts (CSA)
Status Message
Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does
not meet performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the
application has failed.
Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this
annunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
The system is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The system is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink from a ground station
occurred. If no uplink has been received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear
instead of the number of minutes.
Available to Run
Not Available
Fault
Not Configured
TIS-B/ADS-R Coverage
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Ground Uplink Status:
Last Uplink
---------------Available
Not Available
--------------External #1
External #2
--------Number of minutes, or
‘------’
Table 6-31 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS OVERVIEW
NOTE: The approved Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The Garmin AFCS is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the system
avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description.
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
• Flight Director (FD) — The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and referred to as
pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both PFDs.
The flight director provides:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Autopilot communication
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos. It also provides
servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering commands, Attitude and
Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
AFCS CONTROL UNIT
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
HDG Key
APR Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
4
NAV Key
FD Key
5
XFR Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command
Bars. If the autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which flight
director the autopilot is tracking
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer
directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
Toggles Airspeed Reference between IAS and Mach for Flight Level Change Mode
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes
(see Table 7-2 for change increments in each mode)
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is
available under approach conditions)
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
Engages/disengages the autopilot
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD
1
2
3
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
ALT Key
7 VS Key
8 FLC Key
17 CRS Knobs
6
9
SPD Key
11 NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
12 VNV Key
13 ALT SEL Knob
10
14
15
16
18
19
YD Key
AP Key
BANK Key
BC Key
HDG Knob
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8
11
10
Annunciator
Light
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
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ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
AP DISC Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
CWS Button
(Control Wheel
Steering)
Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and interrupts pitch trim operation
An AP DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Mode)
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
GA Button
(Go Around)
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Disengages the autopilot and selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around
(in air) Mode
If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates the missed approach when
the selected navigation source is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC and
a valid frequency has been tuned.
The GA Button is located on the throttle.
Used to command manual electric pitch trim
MEPT Switch
(Manual Electric An MEPT Switch is located on each control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
This composite switch is split into left and right sides. The left switch is the ARM
contact and the right switch controls the DN (forward) and UP (rearward) contacts.
Pushing the MEPT ARM Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged, but
does not affect yaw damper operation. The MEPT ARM Switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
Manual trim commands are generated only when both sides of the switch are operated
simultaneously. If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three
seconds, MEPT function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ is displayed as the AFCS Status
Annunciation on the PFDs. The function remains disabled until both sides of the
switch are inactivated.
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BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed description
follows in Section 7.4.
• Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit.
Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to hold the
current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case, ‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will
be annunciated.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will smoothly
pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director modes remain
unchanged.
• Autopilot Disengagement — One way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the AP DISC
Switch, which is located on the control stick. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and annunciated on
the PFD. Other ways to disconnect the autopilot include:
– Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
– Pressing the GA Switch (located on the left throttle)
– Operating the MEPT Switch (located on each control wheel)
– Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker
In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP DISC Switch will disconnect the
autopilot and remove all power to the servos.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (−15°, +20°) and roll (22°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side flight
director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from the
displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
FLC Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
GA Button
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
VOR
LOC
HDG
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Takeoff (on ground)
TO
Go Around (in air)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Flight Level Change
FLC
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Lateral Modes
Armed
Active
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status Status
Flight Director
Indicator Arrow
Vertical Modes
Active
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes. Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights (Figure 7-1) which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed
or active.
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the FD Key is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic
transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation moving to the green
active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of GPS Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
SWITCHING FLIGHT DIRECTORS
The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. The autopilot follows the selected flight
director only, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or copilot side, in the center of the AFCS
Status Box. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR Key. The annunciator light arrow for the
selected flight director is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are switched, the
vertical and lateral modes revert to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director Selected
Copilot-side Flight Director Selected
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
COMMAND BARS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a single cue.
The Aircraft Symbol (in yellow) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format; the Command Bars do
not override the Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars move together vertically to indicate pitch
commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-5 Single-cue Command Bars
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.3 AFCS MODES
The AFCS is capable of operating in a variety of independent Lateral Modes, Vertical Modes and Combination
of both the Lateral and Vertical Modes.
VERTICAL MODES
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode
reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes. The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while operating
under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode.
Vertical Mode
Pitch Hold
Selected Altitude Capture
Altitude Hold
Vertical Speed
Flight Level Change, IAS Hold
Description
Holds the current aircraft pitch
attitude; may be used to climb/
descend to the Selected Altitude
Captures the Selected Altitude
Holds the current Altitude Reference
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
speed; may be used to climb/descend
to the Selected Altitude
Maintains the current aircraft
airspeed in IAS while the aircraft is
climbing/descending to the Selected
Altitude
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
-15° to
+20°
0.5°
nnnn fpm
-3000 to
+2000 fpm
100 fpm
nnn kt
80 to
175 kt
1 kt
Control Annunciation
(default)
PIT
*
ALTS
ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
VS Key
VS
FLC Key FLC
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, TO, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured
instead of VNV Target Altitude
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
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PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch
Hold Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’
annunciation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter), since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to
the nose-up/down limit.
Changing the Pitch Reference
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-6 Pitch Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at
least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude
is to be captured instead of the VNV Target
Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see previous figure for
example). The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected
Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed (next figure). This automatic transition is indicated by the
green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-7 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the Selected Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the
new Selected Altitude.
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ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current
aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference,
shown in the AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter.
Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode.
Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when the altitude error is
less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude Reference.
Changing the Altitude Reference
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude Reference. When the
CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is established as the Altitude Reference.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-8 Altitude Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current
aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical
Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is
selected.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS
Status Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the
Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is
shown on the indicator.
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-9 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference in IAS while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter).
When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected Altitude,
airspeed, and altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the
Airspeed Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
Changing the Airspeed Reference
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Airspeed Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Airspeed Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Selected
Airspeed Altitude Capture
Reference Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-10 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer
to the combination modes section for information regarding Go Around and Takeoff modes.
Lateral Mode
Roll Hold
Low Bank
Heading Select
Description
Control Annunciation
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum commanded BANK
roll angle
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
Navigation, GPS Arm/Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the selected
Navigation, VOR Enroute Arm/Capture/Track
navigation source (GPS, VOR,
Navigation, LOC Arm/Capture/Track
LOC)
(No Glideslope)
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
ROL
22°
*
15°
HDG
22°
GPS
VOR
22°
22°
LOC
22°
NAV
Key
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll
Scale of the Attitude Indicator.
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
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ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls the wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank
angle condition.
Figure 7-11 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 22°
> 22°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 25°
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
Changing the Roll Reference
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low bank
arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select
or Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). Low Bank Mode is automatically activated when the current roll
attitude is less than 6 degrees and baro altitude is at or above 25,000 feet. Low Bank Mode will automatically
deactivate if any the required modes are not coupled or armed, or if roll attitude is less than 6 degrees and
baro altitude is at or below 25,000 feet. The annunciator light next to the BANK Key illuminates while Low
Bank Mode is selected.
Low Bank Arc
Figure 7-12 Low Bank Mode Limits
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HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains
the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in the box to the
upper left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob on either PFD. Pressing the CWS Button and
hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the
Selected Heading upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading
changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-13 Heading Select Mode
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NAVIGATION MODES (GPS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
NOTE: If NAV is pressed to arm the GPS capture before activating a Direct-To, the GPS mode may not capture
the Direct-To course.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering
commands from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision
GPS and LOC approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the
selected mode is armed. If the CDI shows less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when
the NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active lateral mode.
Figure 7-14 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed
prior to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic navigation
source switch from GPS to LOC
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Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when
the CWS Button is released.
GPS Navigation
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation Source
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track GPS Course
Figure 7-15 Navigation Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
COMBINATION MODES (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA)
The following table lists the modes that operating by using both Vertical and Lateral Modes with their
corresponding controls and annunciations.
Mode
Description
Vertical Path Tracking
VNV Target Altitude Capture
Glidepath
Glideslope
Control
Captures and tracks descent
legs of an active vertical VNV Key
profile
Captures
the
Vertical
Navigation (VNV) Target
*
Altitude
Captures and tracks the
SBAS glidepath on approach
APR Key
Captures and tracks the ILS
glideslope on approach
Captures
and
tracks
a localizer signal for BC Key
backcourse approaches
Annunciation
Maximum
Roll
Command
Limit
VPTH
ALTV
GP
GS
BC
22° Capture
10 Track
Approach, GPS Arm/Capture/Track
GPS
22°
Approach, VOR Arm/Capture/Track Captures and tracks the
selected navigation source APR Key
Approach, ILS Arm/Capture/Track (GPS, VOR, LOC)
(Glideslope Mode automatically
armed)
Disengages the autopilot
and commands a constant
GA
Takeoff
pitch angle and wings level
Button
on the ground in preparation
for takeoff
Disengages the autopilot
and commands a constant
GA
Go Around
pitch angle and wings level Button
in the air
VAPP
Backcourse Arm/Capture/Track
Reference
Range
22° Capture
10 Track°
LOC
TO
7°
GA
7°
* ALTV is armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude.
Table 7-5 Flight Director Combination Modes
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations any
time that VNV flight planning is available. Refer to the GPS Navigation Section for more information on VNV
flight plans. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
• The selected navigation source is GPS.
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD).
• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude.
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight
control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon
reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and
cancels any armed VNV modes.
Vertical Path Tracking Mode (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope
Mode is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable,
the appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the
Selected Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-16 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
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Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude
by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within one minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and
the descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation
Status Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation,
and vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required
VNV Target
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-17 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile (next figure). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as
appropriate.
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Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-18 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path
(without commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV
vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV
Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director
to revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in
the vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by
flight plan changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
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Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode
to allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-19 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected
Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target
Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded
from a database (see the GPS Navigation Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute”
is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains
displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RSVI) is removed
once VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active,
the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to
indicate the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing
upcoming descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
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Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-20 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the VNV Target Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes
the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude
capture mode are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude,
depending on which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the GPS Navigation Section
for details).
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting Glidepath Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V should be flown to an MDA, until visual with the
landing surface, even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle) with the autopilot coupled, the
aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Figure 7-21 Glidepath Mode Armed
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Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• A GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight plan.
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
GPS Approach
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Glidepath
Mode Active
LPV Approach
Active
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 7-22 Glidepath Mode
GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When Glideslope
Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral flight director
mode.
Selecting Glideslope Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
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2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-23 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the
glideslope, the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Approach
Mode Active
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Mode Active
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 7-24 Glideslope Mode
APPROACH MODES (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the
selected navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected
navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the
CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the active
lateral mode). If the CDI is less the 1 dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
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If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
• During a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC.
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Selecting GPS Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-25 GPS Approach Mode Armed
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC
Approach Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the
difference between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
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Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when
the CWS Button is released.
BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the mode
is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the BC Key is
pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation when in
Backcourse Mode.
Backcourse
Mode Active
LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Figure 7-26 Backcourse Mode
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data while in Backcourse
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course when the CWS Button is released.
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INTERCEPTING AND FLYING A DME ARC
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that GPS
Navigation Mode is engaged, GPS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is
the active flight plan leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS.
Thus, even if the APR key is pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides vectors
to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically
intercept or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms GPS Navigation
Mode. The AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of the
arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects GPS Navigation
Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
Go Around and Takeoff modes are coupled pitch and roll modes and are annunciated as both the vertical
and lateral modes when active. In these modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude and
wings level. The GA Button is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends
on whether the aircraft is on the ground.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the GA Button. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude.
Pressing the GA Button while in the air activates the flight director in wings level, pitch-up attitudes,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Go Around Mode disengages the autopilot and
arms Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically. Subsequent autopilot engagement is allowed. Attempts
to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e., with the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or CWS Button) result in reversion to Pitch
and Roll Hold modes.
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Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Takeoff Mode Active
Figure 7-27 Takeoff and Go Around Modes
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7.4 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the POH/AFM for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight control. The
autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the flight director. Pitch
autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any sustained effort required by the pitch
servo. The yaw damper is automatically engaged with autopilot engagement.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response. It also
uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns.
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ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot. When the
AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are activated and the
annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight director
engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-28 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Engaged
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-29 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
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DISENGAGEMENT
To manually disengage only the autopilot and not he Yaw Damper push the AP Key on the AFCS Control
Unit, the GA Switch or the MEPT ARM Switch. Manual autopilot disengagement is indicated by a five-second
flashing yellow ‘AP’ annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert.
Figure 7-30 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
Pushing the AP DISC Switch or YD disengages both the yaw damper and the autopilot. When the yaw
damper and autopilot are manually disengaged, both the ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciation turn yellow and flash for
three seconds and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert is generated.
Figure 7-31 Yaw Damper Disengagement
After manual disengagement, the autopilot disconnect aural alert may be cancelled by pushing the MEPT ARM
or AP DISC Switch (AP DISC Switch also cancels the flashing ‘AP’ annunciation).
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or MEPT ARM
Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Stall warning (YD also disengages)
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes
(FD also disengages automatically)
• Yaw damper failure while both are engaged
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
Figure 7-32 Automatic Autopilot and Yaw Damper Disengagement
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7.5 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS CAS MESSAGES
System Status Field
Figure 7-33 AFCS System Status Field
The following alert annunciations appear in the AFCS System Status field on the PFD.
Condition
Pitch Failure
Annunciation Description
Pitch axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
Roll Failure
Roll axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
MET Switch Stuck,
or Pitch Trim Axis
Control Failure
If annunciated when AP is engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage the
autopilot. If annunciated when AP is not engaged, move each half of the MET
switch separately to check if a stuck switch is causing the annunciation.
Yaw Damper Failure
YD control failure; AP also inoperative
System Failure
AP and MET are unavailable. FD may still be available.
Elevator Mistrim Up
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a sustained force. Be
prepared to apply nose up control wheel force upon autopilot disconnect.
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a sustained force. Be
prepared to apply nose down control wheel force upon autopilot disconnect.
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a sustained left force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance
limits.
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a sustained right force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a sustained force. Ensure
the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a sustained force.
Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and observe any maximum fuel imbalance
limits.
Performing preflight system test. Upon completion of the test, the aural alert will be
heard.
Preflight system test has failed.
Elevator Mistrim
Down
Aileron Mistrim Left
Aileron Mistrim
Right
Rudder Mistrim Left
Rudder Mistrim
Right
Preflight Test
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OVERSPEED PROTECTION
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in ALT, GS or GP modes.
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Overspeed protection is provided to limit the flight director’s
pitch command in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain the mode reference for the
selected vertical mode without exceeding Vne.
When Overspeed Protection is active, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed Indicator,
flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference adjusted
to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
Figure 7-34 Overspeed Annunciation
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7.6 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SUSPECTED AUTOPILOT MALFUNCTION
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as specifics that may
supplement or amplify this procedure.
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the following steps:
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
2) Press and hold the AP DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed from the trim motor.
Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged solenoids. Note the visual and aural alerting
indicating autopilot disconnect.
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid components.
5) Release the AP DISC Switch.
OVERPOWERING AUTOPILOT SERVOS
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied to the pitch controls
when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or force on the pitch controls can cause the autopilot
automatic trim to run to an out-of-trim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to the
controls should be avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to run, resulting in an outof-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is prolonged. In this case, larger than anticipated
control forces are required after the autopilot is disengaged.
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• Flight Data Logging
• AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
• SurfaceWatch™
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information.
The AOPA and AC-U-KWIK Airport Directories offer detailed information for a selected airport, such as available
services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69 SXM Data Link Receiver
handles more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment
choices and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
The optional SurfaceWatch™ feature provides voice and visual annunciations to aid in maintaining situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport
environment.
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8.1 SAFETAXI
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• PFD Maps
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
• NDB Information Page
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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Airport
Features
Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
Figure 8-1 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
The Detail Softkey (declutter) label advances to Detail All, Detail 3, Detail 2 and Detail 1 each time the softkey
is selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the Detail All Softkey removes the taxiway
markings and airport feature labels. Selecting the Detail 3 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol,
and intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the Detail 2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the Detail 1 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the ‘MAP-Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map Settings’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Aviation’ Group options to SafeTaxi.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘MAP-Navigation Map’ Page.
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8.2 CHARTS
If multiple chart sources are available, the preferred charts source can be selected within the system. The active
chart source for a particular procedure is shown on the information pane under Source.
Selecting Preferred Charts Source:
1) While viewing a chart select the MENU Softkey to display the ‘Page Menu’ options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ menu option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Preferred Charts Source’ option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the available options (FliteCharts, ChartView).
Preferred Charts Source Option
Chart Setup Option
Figure 8-2 Preferred Charts Source
Chart Source
Figure 8-3 Chart Source
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CHARTVIEW
Chartview is optional equipment. ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures
charts. The charts are displayed in full color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft
position on the moving map in the planview of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots
are outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes are not considered within the chart boundaries.
Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol is removed
from the display.
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading
is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale
areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of
this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview,
not to the off-scale area.
Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-4 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
• Approaches
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TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the ‘MAP-Navigation Map’ Page, NRST-Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL-Flight Plan’ Page, select the
Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to Charts.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page Options Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu
Figure 8-5 Option Menus
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner CHART Not Available appears on the screen.
The CHART Not Available banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability of
a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-6 Chart Not Available Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
Figure 8-7 Unable To Display Chart Banner
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When a chart is not available by selecting the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the ‘MAP-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL-Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST-Nearest Airports’ Page, select
the Charts Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the ‘WPT-Airport Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Approach’ Box. (Select the APR
Softkey if the ‘Approach’ Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Approach’ Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
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Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Chart Scale
Figure 8-8 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
While the Approaches Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the
boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If
the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not
Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Selecting the Chart Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the Chart Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
Selecting the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart.
If the displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey has no effect. The aircraft position is
shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is within the chart boundaries.
Another source for additional airport information is from the Info Box above the chart for certain airports.
This information source is not related to the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey. When the Info Box is selected using the
FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering information;
the Airport Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and Airline
Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.)
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Aircraft
Current
Position
Figure 8-9 Airport Information Page, INFO View, Full Screen Width
In the example shown in following figure, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart.
Figure 8-10 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from INFO View
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- Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
- Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
- Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
- Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available
only when a SiriusXM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
- Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Selecting
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When
NOTAMS are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM
Softkey may appear on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections. Selecting the
NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
Selecting the All Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
Complete
Chart
Shown
Figure 8-11 Approach Information Page, All View
- Selecting the Header Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
- Selecting the Plan Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
- Selecting the Profile Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
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- Selecting the Minimums Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
- If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, selecting the Fit WDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
- Selecting the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the Full SCN Softkey to display the information windows (Airport,
Info).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Airport, Info, Runways, or Frequencies Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Selecting the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys. The full screen
view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the ‘Full Screen’ and ‘Color Scheme’ Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the ‘On and Off ‘‘Full Screen’ Options.
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-12 Page Menus
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DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-13 Page Menu Chart Setup
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day, Auto, and Night’ Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu.
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Figure 8-14 Arrival Information Page, Day View
Figure 8-15 Arrival Information Page, Night View
FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. These charts will display an
Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
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Figure 8-16 Aircraft Not Shown Icon
(located in the lower right corner of the MFD)
An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas are
indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of
this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview,
not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Airport Diagrams
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
Figure 8-17 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
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NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, selecting the Charts Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT Opt, Chart, Info, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and Go
Back. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
Selecting the Go Back Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: All, Fit WDTH, Full SCN, and Back.
While viewing the CHRT Opt Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the ‘MAP-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST-Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL-Flight Plan’ Page, select
the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to ‘Charts.’
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner NO AVAILABLE CHARTS appears on the screen.
The NO AVAILABLE CHARTS banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability
of a particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-18 No Available Charts Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner UNABLE TO DISPLAY CHART is then displayed.
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Figure 8-19 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by selecting the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, selecting
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
The chart shown is one associated with the WPT – Airport Information page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the ‘MAP-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL-Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST-Nearest Airports’ Page, select
the Charts Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the ‘WPT-Airport Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Approach’ Box. (Select the APR
Softkey if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Approach’ Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
While the Approach Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE,
and the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen.
Selecting the Chart Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the Chart Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the WPT – Airport Information page.
Selecting the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart.
If the displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey has no effect.
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Another source for additional airport information is from the INFO Box above the chart or to the right of the
chart for certain airports. This information source is not related to the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey. When the
INFO Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank.
Pressing the ENT Key displays the IFR Alternate Minimums Chart.
Selecting the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
Selecting the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Selecting the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
Selecting the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data if a data link weather receiver is installed.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, select the WX Softkey to display the information windows.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Info’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Info’ Box choices. When the ‘Info’ Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to
complete the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Selecting the Go Back Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
CHART OPTIONS
Selecting the CHRT OPT Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
Selecting the All Softkey shows the complete chart on the screen.
Selecting the Fit WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
Selecting the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the ‘Full Screen’ and ‘Color Scheme’ Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the ‘On’ and ‘Off’ Full Screen Options.
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DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu ‘Options.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day, Auto, and Night’ Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu.
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8.3 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISIONS
CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation, ChartView,
SafeTaxi, Airport Directory. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable during a period that
extends from the cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page
displays the current status of the databases. As an example, see the table below for the various FliteCharts
Power-up Page displays and the definition of each. The expiration date and disables date varies for each database.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Table 8-2 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current. Yellow text,
such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no longer viewable and
have expired.
Database time critical information can also be found on the Aux - System Status page. The database Region,
Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue or yellow text.
Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not within the current
subscription period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the Database window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the applicable database information is shown.
Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
YYTI
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
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YYII
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
422
Database Cycle Number Format
YYII
Revision Cycle
28 days
YYMI
Not Applicable
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
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8.4 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver is available
for the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A SXM can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment
services at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the GDL 69A SXM.
Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send
an activation signal that, when received by the GDL 69A SXM, allows it to play entertainment programming.
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ page.
4) Select the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux-XM Information’ Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
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Audio
Radio ID
Data
Radio ID
Weather
Products
Window
Figure 8-20 XM Information Page
If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are blank on the XM
Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather Data
Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for
subscription.
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Select the Radio Softkey to show the ‘XM Radio’ Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
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The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category.
Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the ‘AUX-XM Radio’ Page, select the Channel Softkey.
2) Select the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the ‘Channels’ Box, or move down the list with the
CH – Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
1) While on the ‘AUX-XM Radio’ Page, select the Channel Softkey.
2) Select the Direct CH Softkey. The channel number in the ‘Active Channel’ Box is highlighted.
3) Select the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
CATEGORY
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is Presets to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Select the Category Softkey on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page.
2) Select the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
selecting the Presets and More Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to the
channel list for the Presets category.
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the ‘XM Radio’ Page, while listening to an ‘Active Channel’ that is wanted for a preset, select the Presets
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (Preset 1 - Preset 5).
2) Select the More Softkey to access the next five channels (Preset 6 – Preset 10), and again to access the
last five channels (Preset 11 – Preset 15). Selecting the More Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset
channels.
3) Select any one of the (Preset 1 - Preset 15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
4) Select the Set Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
Selecting the Back Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top level softkeys.
VOLUME
Radio volume is shown as a percentage. Volume level is controlled by selecting the Volume Softkey, which
brings up the Mute Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the ‘AUX-XM Radio’ Page displayed, select the Volume Softkey.
2) Select the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or select the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is selected, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.)
SiriusXM Radio volume may also be adjusted on each passenger headset.
Mute SiriusXM audio:
1) Select the ‘AUX-XM Radio’ Page or ‘AUX-XM Information’ Page.
2) Select the Mute Softkey to mute the audio. Select the Mute Softkey again to unmute the audio.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.5 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport identifier. The
file is created automatically each time the system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the Aux-Utility Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the system is capable of logging.
• Date
• Time
• GPS altitude (MSL)
• GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
• AFCS roll/pitch commands
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• HSI source
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• Vertical speed (fpm)
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• GPS vertical speed (fpm)
• OAT (degrees C)
• True airspeed (knots)
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Lateral and Vertical G Force (g)
• Ground Track (degrees
magnetic)
• Autopilot On/Off
• Selected course
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• Ground Speed (kts)
• Latitude (degrees; geodetic;
+North)
• AFCS roll/pitch modes
• GPS fix
• GPS horizontal alert limit
• GPS vertical alert limit
• SBAS GPS horizontal protection
level
• CDI deflection
• SBAS GPS vertical protection
level
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Fuel Qty (right & left)(gals)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Turbine RPM
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Bearing to next waypoint
(degrees)
• Torque
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in the following figure. This file can be
imported into most computer spreadsheet applications.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_130210_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-21 Log File Format
Data logging status can be monitored on the Aux-Utility Page.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.6 SURFACEWATCH
NOTE: The SafeTaxi database must be available to provide information regarding taxiways, aprons and
other objects in the airport environment.
NOTE: When the flight plan is modified, data manually entered on the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch’ Page will be
cleared.
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides visual annunciations to help the flight crew maintain situational awareness
and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport environment.
The SurfaceWatch feature is comprised of the following key components:
• Alert Annunciations
Taxiway Takeoff
Runway Too Short (during takeoff or landing)
Check Runway (during takeoff or landing)
Taxiway Landing
• Runway distance remaining
• Provides information on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) that contains runway and taxiway information that
changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment.
The SurfaceWatch feature is not available in Reversionary Mode.
Inhibit/uninhibit SurfaceWatch:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1 Page.’
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor..
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the SurfaceWatch field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to toggle the SurfaceWatch alerts on or off.
INFORMATION BOX
The SurfaceWatch™ Information Box is displayed on the PFD. It contains runway and taxiway information
that dynamically changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment. The information that is
displayed in the Information Box is the aircraft’s relative position to nearby aprons, taxiways, and runways.
There are three components to the SurfaceWatch™ Information Box. These components are Currently
Occupied, Approaching, and Crossing Runways.
Crossing Runways
Currently Occupied
Approaching
Figure 8-22 Information Types Displayed in the Information Box
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CURRENTLY OCCUPIED
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘ON’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. The aircraft is
currently ‘ON’ runway 04 right (RWY 04R). The remaining runway distance is also shown when the aircraft
is situated on and aligned with a runway.
If the aircraft is airborne and approaching an airport, ‘AIRBORNE TO’ and the destination airport identifier
will be displayed.
Information regarding non-manuevering areas not labeled on the SafeTaxi diagram will not be displayed.
APPROACHING COMPONENT
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘APPROACHING’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. In the
previous figure, the aircraft is currently ‘APPROACHING’ taxiway H (TWY H). The distance to the taxiway
is also shown.
When the aircraft is taxiing and approaching an intersection of multiple taxiways, the taxiway identifiers
will be listed in order of proximity and the distance to the nearest is displayed.
When the aircraft is taxiing and crossing an intersection of multiple taxiways, ‘CROSSING’ will be displayed
and no distance will be shown.
CROSSING RUNWAYS
This component lists the runways, from closest to furthest, that are ‘CROSSING’ the runway the aircraft
currently occupies. The distance to each runway is also shown in order of closest distance. Runways behind
the aircraft are not depicted.
The Crossing Runways component is shown in conjunction with the Currently Occupied component of
the Information Box.
ALERTS
The SurfaceWatch alert annunciations are displayed in the central portion of the PFD. The alert annunciations
are accompanied by a corresponding voice alert.
SurfaceWatch Alert
Annunciation
Associated Voice
Alert
“Taxiway”
“Runway too short”
“Check runway”
“Taxiway”
Description
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway)
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from, or landing on, a runway with a length
less than needed as entered.
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from, or landing on, a runway different than
that entered in the Takeoff Data or Landing Data screen.
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Table 8-4 SurfaceWatch Alert Annunciations
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TAKEOFF ALERTS
The Takeoff phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Takeoff Alerts.
Taxiway Takeoff
The Taxiway Takeoff alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway) or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alerts, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied taxiway (or other maneuvering area) and potentially the next area (apron or maneuvering area) to
be occupied (based on aircraft heading and the airport geometry) and the distance to that area.
Figure 8-23 Typical Taxiway Information Displayed in the Information Box
Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short (during takeoff) alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway
and the remaining runway length is less than the required length. The insufficient runway length condition
is determined based on aircraft current position during the takeoff roll and the required takeoff distance
information entered on the Takeoff Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway from which the aircraft is
taking off, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in the Takeoff
Data.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will contain a textual description of the
currently occupied runway and the remaining runway length.
Figure 8-24 Typical Runway Information Displayed in the Information Box
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway that does not
match the departure runway entered in the Takeoff Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied runway.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
LANDING ALERTS
The On-Final phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Landing Alerts. Landing alerts are removed when a climb is initiated during a go-around.
Taxiway Landing
The Taxiway Landing alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway)
or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING TWY” to indicate a non-runway landing is being attempted.
Figure 8-25 Typical Information Displayed During a Taxiway Landing Alert
Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway where the remaining
runway length is less than the required landing runway length entered in the Landing Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway with which aircraft is aligned,
the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in entered in the Landing
Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING REMAINING” to indicate a the remaining runway length.
Figure 8-26 Typical Information Displayed During a Runway Too Short Alert
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway that does not match the
arrival runway specified in the Landing Data.
Additionally, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier, the runway with which
the aircraft is aligned, and the distance to the runway.
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Figure 8-27 Typical Information Displayed During a Check Runway Alert
SURFACEWATCH SETUP
Origin/destination airport, runway and distance data entered integrates with SurfaceWatch technology to alert
the flight crew to a runway too short for takeoff/landing, or to advise of a potential taxiway takeoff/landing. The
runway selected in SurfaceWatch Setup appears on the airport diagram in cyan, and appears outlined in cyan on
the synthetic vision representation of the runway on the PFD.
Entering origin/destination airport:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Origin or Destination Airport field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to input the desired Origin or Destination Airport.
Selecting origin/destination runway:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Runway or Landing Runway field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired available Runway or Landing Runway. As the small FMS Knob is
turned, the preview of the selected runway or landing runway is also displayed.
Selecting required takeoff/landing distance:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the REQD Takeoff DIS or REQD Landing DIS field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the required takeoff or landing distance. Upon pressing the FMS Knob and
committing the required takeoff or landing distance, the Runway Length field will turn amber if an insufficient
runway length exists.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
SIRIUSXM DATA LINK RECEIVER TROUBLESHOOTING
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page for
GDL 69 SXM status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the
GDL 69 SXM the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the Aux - System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status Page.’
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
• Ensure the installed Data Link Receiver has an active subscription or account.
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver.
Ensure that nothing is plugged into the MUSIC 1 or MUSIC 2 jacks because that would prevent SiriusXM
radio from being heard.
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
Message Location
CHECK ANTENNA
XM Information Page (MFD)
UPDATING
XM Information Page (MFD)
XM Information Page Weather Datalink Page Loss of signal; signal strength too low for
(MFD)
receiver
NO SIGNAL
LOADING
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Acquiring channel audio or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page (MFD)
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILED
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
XM Information Page (MFD)
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
within last 5 minutes
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
WAITING FOR DATA...
434
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service
required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
SiriusXM subscription is activating.
SiriusXM subscription confirmed downloading
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
weather data.
Table 8-5 GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver Messages
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APPENDIX A
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
The Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
• CAS Window: The Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is based on alert
levels described in the following section. The CAS Window is located to the right of the Altimeter and Vertical
Speed Indicator. All Crew Alerting System (CAS) annunciations can be displayed simultaneously in the CAS
Window. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from annunciations that are
not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are displayed towards the top of the window.
• Messages Window: The Messages Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized alert messages.
Pressing the Messages Softkey displays the Messages Window. Pressing the Messages Softkey a second time
removes the Messages Window from the display. When the Messages Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can
be used to scroll through the alert message list.
• Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the Messages Softkey may appear as a flashing annunciation
to accompany an alert. The Messages Softkey assumes a new label consistent with the alert level (Warning,
Caution, or Advisory). By pressing the softkey when flashing an annunciation, the alert is acknowledged. The
softkey label then returns to Messages. If alerts are still present, the Messages label is displayed in white with
black text. Pressing the Messages Softkey a second time views the alert text messages.
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is supplied by
a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the System Annunciations Section for more information.
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
CAS
Window
Alert Window
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-1 Alerting System
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APPENDIX A
CAS MESSAGE PRIORITIZATION
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Any CAS messages that are generated when the system is first powered on are considered already
acknowledged. They do not flash or trigger the Master Warning or Master Caution.
The Alerting System uses three alert levels. Messages are grouped by criticality (warning, caution, advisory)
and sorted by order of appearance (most recent messages on top). The color of the message is based on its
urgency and on required action:
The Crew Alerting System (CAS) Window is located on the right side of the PFD. Warning messages cannot
be scrolled through and remain at the top of the CAS display. The scroll bar appears if more caution and
advisory messages exist than can be displayed at once or if messages have been scrolled off the display. The
CAS softkeys also become available.
NOTE: Aural alerts associated with abnormal conditions and advisories are managed through the audio
panels. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information.
Warning: This level of alert requires immediate attention. When a new warning CAS message appears in the
CAS Window, it flashes (inversely red on white) in conjunction with the Warning Softkey (see Figure A-3) and
is accompanied by a repeating triple chime. Pressing the Warning Softkey acknowledges all flashing warning
messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once acknowledged, warning messages are shown in red text and are
displayed until the issue is corrected. Warning voice alerts repeat continuously until acknowledged by pressing
the Warning Softkey.
Caution: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may require
intervention. When a new caution message appears in the CAS Window, it is shown in black on amber inverse
video in conjunction with the Caution Softkey (see Figure A-3) and is accompanied by a double chime.
Pressing the Caution Softkey Indicator acknowledges all amber messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once
acknowledged, caution messages are displayed until the issue is corrected.
Advisory: This level of alert provides general information. When a new white advisory appears on the CAS
display, it is shown in black on white inverse video in conjunction with the Advisory Softkey (see Figure A-3)
and may be accompanied by a single chime.
Some CAS messages can be display in more than one alert level group. For example, a message might
display as both a warning and a caution, but cannot appear more than once at any given time (unless the CAS
is being tested). If the received signals justify multiple priorities for a certain message, the message is displayed
for the higher priority condition. When graduating to a higher priority, the message flashes and requires
new acknowledgment. When degrading to a lower priority condition, the message moves to the top of the
appropriate grouping, but does not require new acknowledgment.
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APPENDIX A
CAS
Window
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-2 CAS Message Prioritization
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (Message Softkey Labels)
CAS ANNUNCIATIONS
Red annunciation window text signifies warnings, amber signifies cautions, and white signifies advisories.
See the POH for a list of CAS annunciations and for recommended pilot action.
WARNING ANNUNCIATIONS
Annunciation Window Text
A-ICE PRESS LOW*
BATTERY OVHT*
BETA*
EMERG PWR LVR
ENGINE FIRE
FUEL SELECT OFF
GENERATOR OVHT*
OIL PRESS LOW
RSVR FUEL LOW
VOLTAGE HIGH
VOLTAGE LOW
Audio Alert
Repeating Chime
* Applicable installations only
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APPENDIX A
CAUTION ANNUNCIATIONS
Annunciation Window Text
A-ICE FLUID LO*
A-ICE PRESS HI*
ALTNR AMPS
ALTNR OVHT*
BATTERY HOT*
CHIP DETECT
DOOR UNLATCHED
EMERG PWR LVR**
ETM EXCEED
FUEL BOOST ON
L FUEL LOW
R FUEL LOW
L-R FUEL LOW
FUEL PRESS LOW
FUEL TEMP LOW**
GENERATOR AMPS
GENERATOR OFF
PROP DE-ICE*
L P/S HEAT
R P/S HEAT
L-R P/S HEAT
STALL HEAT
STARTER ON
STBY PWR INOP
XPDR1 ADSB FAIL
XPDR2 ADSB FAIL
Audio Alert
Single Chime
Single Chime
* Applicable installations only
** PT6A-140 only
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APPENDIX A
ADVISORY ANNUNCIATIONS
Annunciation Window Text
A-ICE NORM*
A-ICE HIGH*
CVR FAIL*
ETM CAPTURE*
ETM EXCEED
FDR FAIL*
IGNITION ON
PREV EXCEED
SPD NOT AVAIL
STBY PWR ON
TORQUE GAGE**
Audio Alert
None
* Applicable installations only
** PT6A-140 only
DISPLAY INHIBITS
Inhibits prevent certain CAS messages from being displayed during the following conditions:
If two alert levels of the same message are active simultaneously (e.g., L FUEL QTY warning and L FUEL
QTY caution) only the higher alert level is displayed.
If a GEA or GIA fails, all CAS messages depending on sensors associated with that LRU are automatically
inhibited. Inhibits cannot be activated by invalid sensor data.
MESSAGE ADVISORY ALERTS
Alerts Window Message
PFD1 FAN FAIL –PFD1 display fan is inoperative.
PFD2 FAN FAIL – PFD2 display fan is inoperative.
MFD FAN FAIL – MFD display fan is inoperative.
ETM FAULT – Engine Trend Monitor needs service.
Audio Alert
None
VOICE ALERTS
Voice Alert
“Minimums, minimums”
“Vertical track”
“Traffic”
“Traffic Not Available”
“Traffic, Traffic”
“Traffic System Test”
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Description
The aircraft has descended below the preset barometric minimum descent altitude.
The aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent. Issued only when vertical navigation is enabled.
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued (TIS and ADS-B).
The aircraft is outside the Traffic Information Service (TIS or ADS-B) coverage area.
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued (TAS system).
Played during a pilot-initiated self test (GTX 345 only).
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APPENDIX A
Voice Alert
Description
“One o’clock” through Played to indicate bearing of traffic from own aircraft.
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Played to indicate altitude of traffic relative to own aircraft.
Altitude” (if within 200
feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”, Played to indicate distance of traffic from own aircraft.
“One Mile” through
“Ten Miles”, or “More
than ten miles”
SYSTEM MESSAGES
This section describes various system message advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU or an
LRU function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation as
shown previously in the System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This section provides information regarding message advisories that may be displayed by the
system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities must
be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The Pilot’s Operating
Handbook (POH) takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
Message
ABORT APR – Loss of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
AHRS1 CAL – AHRS1 calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS1 CONFIG – AHRS1 config error.
Config service req’d.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS1 SERVICE – AHRS1 Magneticfield model needs update.
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
Comments
Abort approach due to loss of GPS navigation.
The #1 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
AHRS2 CAL – AHRS1 calibration version
The #2 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
error. Srvc req’d.
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APPENDIX A
Message
Comments
AHRS2 CONFIG – AHRS1 config error. AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
Config service req’d.
system should be serviced.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS2 SERVICE – AHRS1 Magneticfield model needs update.
AHRS2 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
APR DWNGRADE – Approach
downgraded.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less
than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
than 2 nm.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
APR INACTV – Approach is not active.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
COM1 CONFIG – COM1 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM1 MANIFEST– COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
COM1 RMT XFR – COM1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
190-02138-00 Rev. A
The #2 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
Use LNAV minima when approach is downgraded.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the airspace within
10 minutes.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
The system notifies the pilot that the loaded approach is not active. Activate approach
when required.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
The COM1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced
COM1 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
The COM1 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM1 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
441
APPENDIX A
Message
COM1 SERVICE – COM1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM1 TEMP – COM1 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM2 CONFIG – COM2 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM2 MANIFEST– COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM2 PTT – COM2 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
COM2 RMT XFR – COM2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
Comments
The system has detected a failure in COM1. COM1 may still be usable. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced
COM2 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
The COM2 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
The system has detected a failure in COM2. COM2 may still be usable. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM2. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
COM2 SERVICE – COM2 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM2 TEMP – COM2 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COPILOT RADIOS MUTED – Copilot
The copilot radios are set on mute.
radios are muted.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
Verify user modified procedures.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains procedures that have been manually
edited. This alert is issued only after an navigation database update. Verify that the
user-modified procedures in stored flight plans are correct and up to date.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent
Verify stored airways.
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify use of airways in stored flight plans and reload airways as needed.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation
The PFD and MFD have different navigation database versions or types installed.
database mismatch. Xtalk is off.
Crossfill is off. Check the Aux-Databases Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the Aux-Databases Status Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database The PFD and MFD have different obstacle database versions or types installed.
mismatch.
Check the Aux-Databases Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the
Aux-Databases Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Standby Navigation The PFD and MFD have different standby navigation database versions or types
database mismatch.
installed. Check the AUX-Aux-Databases Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the Aux-Databases Page for a database synchronization function not completed.
After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
The PFD and MFD have different terrain database versions or types installed. Check
mismatch.
the Aux-Databases Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the AuxDatabases Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
442
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
FAILED PATH – A data path has
failed.
FIS-B FAILED – FIS-B information is
unavailable.
FPL TRUNC – Flight plan has been
truncated.
Comments
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is inoperative.
G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is inoperative.
G/S2 SERVICE – G/S2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GDC1 MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GDC2 MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GDL69 CONFIG – GDL 69 config
error. Config service req’d.
GDL69 FAIL – GDL 69 has failed.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The receiver may still be
available. The system should be serviced when possible.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 2. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 2. The receiver may still be
available. The system should be serviced when possible.
A data path connected to the GDU or the GIA 63W has failed.
Flight Information Service weather datalink failure or aircraft outside of FAA GBT area
coverage.
This occurs when a newly installed navigation database eliminates an obsolete
approach or arrival used by a stored flight plan. The obsolete procedure is removed
from the flight plan. Update flight plan with current arrival or approach.
FPL WPT LOCK – Flight plan waypoint Upon power-up, the system detects that a stored flight plan waypoint is locked. This
is locked.
occurs when an navigation database update eliminates an obsolete waypoint. The
flight plan cannot find the specified waypoint and flags this message. This can also
occur with user waypoints in a flight plan that is deleted.
Remove the waypoint from the flight plan if it no longer exists in any database,
OR
update the waypoint name/identifier to reflect the new information.
FPL WPT MOVE – Flight plan
The system has detected that a waypoint coordinate has changed due to a new
waypoint moved.
navigation database update. Verify that stored flight plans contain correct waypoint
locations.
GDL69 MANIFEST – GDL software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEA1 CONFIG – GEA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GEA1 MANIFEST – GEA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS1 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
GFC MANIFEST – GFC software
mismatch, communication halted.
190-02138-00 Rev. A
The AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GDL 69A SXM configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 69A or GDL 69A SXM. The receiver is
unavailable. The system should be serviced.
The GDL 69A SXM has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GEA1 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The #1 GEA 71 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
Incorrect servo software is installed, or gain settings are incorrect.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
443
APPENDIX A
Message
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 temperature
too low.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 over
temperature.
GIA1 MANIFEST – GIA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA1 SERVICE – GIA1 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 over
temperature.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 temperature
too low.
GIA2 MANIFEST – GIA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA2 SERVICE – GIA2 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GMA1 CONFIG – GMA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GMA1 FAIL – GMA1 is inoperative.
GMA1 MANIFEST – GMA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMA1 SERVICE – GMA1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
Comments
The GIA1 have an error in the audio configuration. The system should be serviced.
The GIA1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to
warm up to operating temperature.
The GIA1 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The GIA1 1 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GIA1 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 have an error in the audio configuration. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The GIA2 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to warm up to
operating temperature.
The GIA 2 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may
still be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be serviced
when possible.
GMA2 CONFIG – GMA2 config error. The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory.
Config service req’d.
The system should be serviced.
GMA2 FAIL – GMA2 is inoperative.
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
GMA2 MANIFEST – GMA2 software
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
GMA2 SERVICE – GMA2 needs
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may
service. Return unit for repair.
still be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be serviced
when possible.
444
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
GMU1 MANIFEST – GMU1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMU2 MANIFEST – GMU1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Insufficient satellites.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. Position error.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
navigation. GPS fail.
GPS1 SERVICE – GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GPS2 SERVICE – GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GRS1 MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GRS2 MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GSD1 CONFIG – GSD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GSD1 COOLING – GSD1
temperature too low.
GSD1 COOLING – GSD1 over
temperature.
GSD1 MANIFEST – GSD1 software
mismatch. Communication halted.
GSD1 SERVICE – GSD1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
GTS CONFIG – GTS config error.
Config service req’d.
GTS MANIFEST – GTS software
mismatch, communication halted.
GTX1 MANIFEST – GTX1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX CONFIG – GWX config error.
Config service req’d.
GWX FAIL – GWX is inoperative.
GWX MANIFEST – GWX software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX SERVICE – Needs service.
Return unit for repair.
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Comments
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GMU 44 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient satellites.
Loss of GPS navigation due to position error.
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
A failure has been detected in the GPS1 and/or GPS2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GSD1 and the CDU have different copies of the GSD1 configuration.
GSD1 is reporting a low temperature condition.
GSD1 is reporting an over-temperature condition.
GSD1 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GSD1 is reporting an internal error condition. The GSD may still be usable.
GTS 825 configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The
system should be serviced.
The GTS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GWX 70 configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The
G1000 system should be serviced.
The GDU is not recieving status packet from the GWX 70 or the GWX 70 is reporting
a fault. The GWX 70 radar system should be serviced.
The GWX 70 has incorrect software installed. The G1000 system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GWX 70. The GWX 70 may still be usable.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
445
APPENDIX A
Message
HDG FAULT – AHRS1 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HDG FAULT – AHRS2 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1 communication
halted.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2 communication
halted.
Comments
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
A fault has occurred in the #2 GMU 44. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses
GPS for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
LOCKED FPL – Cannot navigate
locked flight plan.
This occurs when the pilot attempts to activate a stored flight plan that contains
locked waypoint. Remove locked waypoint from flight plan. Update flight plan with
current waypoint.
LOI – GPS integrity lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
MANIFEST – MFD1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – PFD1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MANIFEST – PFD2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
MFD SOFTWARE – MFD mismatch,
communication halted.
MFD TERRAIN DSP – MFD Terrain
awareness display unavailable.
MFD1 BACKLIGHT CALIBRATION –
MFD1 calibration. Return for repair.
MFD1 CARD 1 ERR – Card 1 is
invalid.
MFD1 CARD 1 REM – Card 1 was
removed. Reinsert card.
MFD1 CONFIG – MFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
MFD1 COOLING – MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Airport
Directory database error exists.
446
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where only one is SBAS capable.
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight.
The PFD and/or MFD has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU has different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
One of the terrain or obstacle databases required for TAWS in the specified GDU is
missing or invalid.
The specified GDU’s backlight calibration cannot be found or is invalid. The system
should be serviced.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD
card needs to be reinserted.
The MFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The MFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display.
If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure that the data
card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 basemap
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Chartview
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Flightcharts
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 navigation
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database missing.
MFD1 SERVICE – MFD1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
MFD1 KEYSTK – MFD1 [key name]
is stuck.
MFD1 VOLTAGE – MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
NAV1 MANIFEST – NAV1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
NAV1 RMT XFR – NAV1 remote
transfer key is stuck.
Comments
The MFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The MFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure that
the data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure that the data card
is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the data card
is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is
properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the MFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The MFD voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
NAV1 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
The remote NAV1 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
NAV1 SERVICE – NAV1 needs service. A failure has been detected in the NAV1 receiver. The receiver may still be available.
Return unit for repair.
The system should be serviced.
NAV2 MANIFEST – NAV2 software
NAV2 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
447
APPENDIX A
Message
NAV2 RMT XFR – NAV2 remote
transfer key is stuck.
Comments
The remote NAV2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
the transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
NAV2 SERVICE – NAV2 needs service. A failure has been detected in the NAV2 receiver. The receiver may still be available.
Return unit for repair.
The system should be serviced.
NON-MAGNETIC UNITS– NonNavigation angle is not set to MAGNETIC at power-up.
magnetic NAV ANGLE display units
are active.
NON WGS84 WPT – Do not use GPS The position of the selected waypoint [xxxx] is not calculated based on the WGS84
for navigation to [xxxx]
map reference datum and may be positioned in error as displayed. Do not use GPS to
navigate to the selected non-WGS84 waypoint..
PFD1 BACKLIGHT CALIBRATION –
PFD1 calibration lost. Return for repair.
PFD1 CARD 1 REM – Card 1 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD1 CARD 2 REM – Card 2 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD1 CARD 1 ERR – Card 1 is invalid.
PFD1 CARD 2 ERR – Card 2 is invalid.
PFD1 CONFIG – PFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
PFD1 COOLING – PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1
navigation database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 obstacle
database missing.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain
database missing.
PFD1 KEYSTK – PFD1 [key name] is
stuck.
448
The PFD1 backlight calibration cannot be found or is invalid. The system should be
serviced.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD
card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The
SD card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The PFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display.
If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The PFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the data card is
properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is
properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
PFD1 KEYSTK – PFD2 [key name] is
stuck.
PFD1 SERVICE – PFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
PFD1 TERRAIN DSP – PFD1 Terrain
awareness display unavailable.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD2 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
PFD2 BACKLIGHT CALIBRATION –
PFD2 calibration lost. Return for repair.
PFD2 CARD 1 REM – Card 1 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD2 CARD 2 REM – Card 2 was
removed. Reinsert card.
PFD2 CARD 1 ERR – Card 1 is invalid.
PFD2 CARD 2 ERR – Card 2 is invalid.
PFD2 CONFIG – PFD2 config error.
Config service req’d.
PFD2 COOLING – PFD2 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 basemap
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 multiple
database errors exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2
navigation database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database missing.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain
database missing.
PFD2 KEYSTK – PFD2 [key name] is
stuck.
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Comments
The PFD1 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The PFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
One of the terrain or obstacle databases required for TAWS in PFD1 is missing or
invalid.
The PFD2 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
The PFD2 backlight calibration cannot be found or is invalid. The system should be
serviced.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The SD
card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD. The
SD card needs to be reinserted.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD or MFD contains invalid data.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The PFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display.
If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The PFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure that the data card is
properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is
properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
449
APPENDIX A
450
Message
PILOT RADIOS MUTED – Pilot
radios are muted.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
past IAF.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
bad geometry.
Comments
SCHEDULER [#] – <message>.
SLCT FREQ – Select appropriate
frequency for approach.
SLCT MAG– Select MAGNETIC NAV
ANGLE display units.
SLCT NAV – Select NAV on CDI for
approach.
SLCT NON-MAG– Select alternate
NAV ANGLE display units.
STEEP TURN – Steep turn ahead.
STRMSCP FAIL – Stormscope has
failed.
SURFACEWATCH DISABLED - Too
far north/south.
SURFACEWATCH FAIL - Invalid
audio configuration.
SURFACEWATCH FAIL - Invalid
configurable alerts.
SURFACEWATCH FAIL - One or
more inputs invalid.
SURFACEWATCH - INHIIBITED.
SVT DISABLED – Out of available
terrain region.
SVT DISABLED – Terrain DB
resolution too low.
SW MISMATCH – GDU software
version mismatch. Xtalk is off.
Message criteria entered by the user.
The system notifies the pilot to load the approach frequency for the appropriate NAV
receiver. Select the correct frequency for the approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avionics Settings Screen
to Magnetic.
The system notifies the pilot to set the CDI to the correct NAV receiver. Set the CDI to
the correct NAV receiver.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avionics Settings Screen
to True.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare to turn.
TERRAIN AUD CFG – Trn Awareness
audio config error. Service req’d.
TERRAIN DISABLED – Terrain
Awareness DB resolution too low.
TAWS is disabled because the audio configuration is invalid. The system should be
serviced.
TAWS is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (4.9 arc-second or
better) is not currently installed.
The pilot radios are set on mute.
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been passed.
Bad parallel track geometry.
Stormscope has failed. The system should be serviced.
The SurfaceWatch system has been disabled. It disables when greater than 87
degrees..
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to an invalid audio configuration.
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to invalid configurable alerts.
The SurfaceWatch system has failed due to one or more invalid inputs.
The SurfaceWatch system has been inhibited.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because the aircraft is not within the boundaries of the
installed terrain database.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (4.9 arcsecond or better) is not currently installed.
The MFD and PFD have different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Message
TIMER EXPIRD – Timer has expired.
TRAFFIC FAIL – Traffic device has
failed.
TRN AUD FAIL – Trn Awareness
audio source unavailable
Comments
The system notifies the pilot that the timer has expired.
The system is no longer receiving data from the traffic system. The traffic device
should be serviced.
Terrain Awareness audio is unavailable. The system should be serviced.
UNABLE V WPT – Can’t reach current The current vertical waypoint can not be reached within the maximum flight path
vertical waypoint.
angle and vertical speed constraints. The system automatically transitions to the next
vertical waypoint.
VNV – Unavailable.
crosstrack error.
VNV – Unavailable.
angle error.
VNV – Unavailable.
selected.
VNV – Unavailable.
type in flight plan.
Excessive
The current crosstrack exceeds the limit, causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
Excessive track
Parallel course
Unsupported leg
WPT ARRIVAL – Arriving at waypoint
-[xxxx]
XPDR1 ADS-B 1090 – Datalinik:
ADS-B 1090 receiver has failed.
XPDR1 ADS-B TRFC – Transponder:
ADS-B traffic has failed
XPDR1 ADS-B UAT – Datalink:
ADS-B in UAT receiver has failed.
XPDR1 CONFIG – XPDR1 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR1 CSA FAIL - Traffic: ADS-B In
traffic alerting has failed.
XPDR1 FAIL – XPDR1 is inoperative.
XPDR1 FAULT – Datalink: ADS-B in
has failed.
XPDR1 FIS-B WX – Datalink: FIS-B
Weather has failed.
XPDR1 OVER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder over temp.
190-02138-00 Rev. A
The current track angle error exceeds the limit, causing the vertical deviation to go
invalid.
A parallel course has been selected, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
The lateral flight plan contains a procedure turn, vector, or other unsupported leg
type prior to the active vertical waypoint. This prevents vertical guidance to the active
vertical waypoint.
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is the waypoint name.
A failure has been detected in the 1090 receiver.
The Transponder is incapable of processing traffic information.
A failure has been detected in the UAT receiver.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
ADS-B Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is unavailable.
There is no communication with the #1 or #2 transponder.
The transponder is unable to receive ADS-B information.
The transponder is unable to receive FIS-B weather information.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in XPDR1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Message
XPDR1 PRES ALT –Transponder:
ADS-B no pressure altitude.
XPDR1 SRVC – XPDR1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR1 UNDER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder under temp.
XPDR2 ADS-B 1090 – Datalinik:
ADS-B 1090 receiver has failed.
XPDR2 ADS-B TRFC – Transponder:
ADS-B traffic has failed
XPDR2 ADS-B UAT – Datalink:
ADS-B in UAT receiver has failed.
XPDR2 CONFIG – XPDR2 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR2 CSA FAIL - Traffic: ADS-B In
traffic alerting has failed.
XPDR2 FAIL – XPDR2 is inoperative.
XPDR2 FAULT – Datalink: ADS-B in
has failed.
XPDR2 FIS-B WX – Datalink: FIS-B
Weather has failed.
XPDR2 OVER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder over temp.
XPDR2 PRES ALT –Transponder:
ADS-B no pressure altitude.
XPDR2 SRVC – XPDR1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR2 UNDER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder under temp.
XTALK ERROR – A flight display
crosstalk error has occurred.
452
Comments
Unable to provide pressure altitude information.
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an under temperature condition in XPDR1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the 1090 receiver.
The Transponder is incapable of processing traffic information.
A failure has been detected in the UAT receiver.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
ADS-B Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is unavailable.
There is no communication with the #1 or #2 transponder.
The transponder is unable to receive ADS-B information.
The transponder is unable to receive FIS-B weather information.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in XPDR1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
Unable to provide pressure altitude information.
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an under temperature condition in XPDR1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD and PFD are not communicating with each other. The system should be
serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX B
DATABASE MANAGEMENT
Database information is obtained from third party sources. Inaccuracies in the data may be discovered from
time to time. Garmin communicates this information by issuing a Database Alert. These notifications are available
on http://fly.garmin.com.
Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information. These
discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles and fixes;
or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go to http://fly.
garmin.com and select Aviation Data Error Report.
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interruption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load and store various types of data. For basic flight operations,
SD cards are required for database storage as well as database updates. Not all SD cards are compatible with the
system.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ message will be displayed until database
synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can be
monitored on the Aux – Databases Page.
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration date on the
power-up screen and the effective date on the Aux – Databases Page being displayed in amber.
LOADING UPDATED DATABASES
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interruption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ system messages will be displayed until
database synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can
be monitored on the Aux-Database Page.
All databases are updated through a single SD card, loaded on the MFD. When the card is inserted, the
databases on the card will be copied to standby and synchronized across all powered, configured units. When
in standby, databases are not immediately available for use, but stored to be activated at a later time.
The cycles and dates for both standby and active databases are displayed on the “Aux – Databases” page on
the MFD. Any active databases with expiration dates in the past will be highlighted with amber text. When
an expired active database has a standby database that is ready to become effective, a cyan double-sided arrow
will be displayed between the database cycles. Also, the database swap ready icon will be present in the MFD
status window. When this arrow is visible, it indicates that the standby and active databases in that row will
be switched on the next power cycle, activating the current standby database. Databases can also be manually
selected (or deselected) by highlighting a list item and pressing the ENT key, provided a valid, verified standby
database is present.
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453
APPENDIX B
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the database
product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin authorized service
facility in order to use some database features.
The navigation database contains the aeronautical data used by the system for the flight management and
flight planning functions. Included is detailed data for waypoints, procedures (arrivals, departures, approaches),
and airways. The navigation database is updated every 28 days.
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and towns.
It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. These databases are updated periodically and have
no expiration date.
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to aircraft.
Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle database. This database is
updated on a 56-day cycle.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government agencies. Garmin
accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of
the data.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory provides data on airports and heliports throughout the U.S. or
worldwide, respectively. The AOPA Directory offers detailed information for over 5,300 U. S. airports, along
with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. These databases are updated every 56 days. The
AC-U-KWIK Directory offers detailed information for more than 8,000 airports with runways longer than 3,000
feet worldwide.
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in following
ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in relation to taxiways,
ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts for the United States only. This database is updated on a
28-day cycle. If not updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no longer function.
The ChartView database is updated on a 14-day cycle. If the ChartView database is not updated within 70
days of the expiration date, ChartView will no longer function. The ChartView database must be purchased
directly from Jeppesen, but can be updated at www.jeppesen.com or www.flygarmin.com.
The IFR/VFR charts database contains VFR and IFR raster charts. The VFR Charts are digital representations
of the Sectional Aeronautical Charts and Terminal Area Charts. The IFR Charts include both IFR High (designed
for navigation at or above 18,000 ft) and IFR Low (designed for navigation below 18,000 ft). IFR/VFR Charts
are updated every 28 days except for Canadian IFR/VFR Charts which are updated every 56 days.
UPDATING DATABASES
The Garmin database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation
Databases’ section of the Garmin website (fly.garmin.com). Once the updated files have been downloaded
from the website, a PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and program the new
databases onto an existing Supplemental Data Card. Equipment required to perform the update is as follows:
454
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190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX B
• Windows-compatible PC computer
• SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
• Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
• Supplemental SD Cards
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the database
product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin authorized service
facility in order to use some database features.
Updating Databases:
1) With the system OFF, remove an SD Card from the bottom SD card slot of the MFD.
2) Download and install the databases on an SD card.
3) Put the SD Card in the bottom SD card slot of the MFD.
4) Turn the system ON.
5) Press the ENT Key or the right most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Database page group on the MFD.
8) Monitor the Sync Status on the Database page. Wait for all databases to complete syncing, indicated by ‘Sync
Complete’ being displayed. A cyan double arrow will appear between the Standby and Active columns to show
which Standby databases will be transferred to Active at the next power cycle.
Figure B-1 Database Page before Activation of Standby Databases
9) Verify the correct database cycle information is shown in the Standby Database column.
10) Remove power from the system.
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APPENDIX B
11) Remove the SD card from the bottom slot of the MFD.
12) After restarting the system, turn the large FMS Knob and select the Aux page group on the MFD.
13) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Databases page.
14) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database column.
Figure B-2 Aux - Database Page - Updated Databases
15) To view database information for an individual display, press and then turn the FMS Knob to select the database,
and then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
Figure B-3 Database Page Details
16) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will become
active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database column.
17) Remove power from the system.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX B
MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION DATABASE UPDATE
A copy of the current magnetic field variation database (MV DB) is included with the navigation database.
At startup, the system compares this version of the MV DB with that presently being used by the AHRS. If the
system determines the MV DB needs to be updated, a prompt is displayed on the Navigation Map Page.
Figure B-4 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
Loading the magnetic field variation database update:
With ‘OK’ highlighted, as seen in Figure B-4, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed as
shown in Figure B-5. When the upload is complete, the system is ready for use.
Figure B-5 Uploading Database
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APPENDIX B
Blank Page
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APPENDIX C
GARMIN AVIATION GLOSSARY
ACARS
Airborne Communications Addressing
and Reporting System
ACC
Accuracy
ACT, ACTV
Active, Activate, Altitude Compensated
Tilt
AHRS
Attitude and Heading Reference System
ADC
Air Data Computer
ADF
Automatic Direction Finder
ADI
Attitude Direction Indicator
ADIZ
Air Defense Identification Zone
ADS-B
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast
ADS-R
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceRebroadcast
AF
Arc to Fix Leg
AFCS
Automatic Flight Control System
AFM
Airplane Flight Manual
AFMS
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
AFRM
Airframe
AGL
Above Ground Level
AHRS
Attitude and Heading Reference System
AIM
Aeronautical Information Manual
AIRB
Airborne
AIRMET
Airman’s Meteorological Information
AIRREP
Air Reports
ALRT
Alert
ALT
Altitude
ALT, ALTN
Alternator
ALTS
Selected Altitude Capture Mode
ALTV
VNAV Altitude Capture Mode
AMPS
Amperes
ANNUNC/ANN Annunciation/Annunciator
ANT
Antenna
AOA
Angle of Attack, ACARS Over AVLC
AOC
Aeronautical Operational Control
AOG
Aircraft On Ground
AOPA
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
AP
Autopilot
AP DISC
Autopilot Disconnect
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPR, APR
APT
APTSIGNS
ARINC
ARSPC
ARTCC
ARV
AS
ASB
ASOS
AT
ATC
ATCRBS
ATIS
ATK
AUTOSEQ
AUX
AVG
AVLC
AWOS
Approach
Airport, Aerodrome
Airport Signs
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
Airspace
Air Route Traffic Control Center
Arrival
Airspeed
Aviation Support Branch
Automated Surface Observing System
Auto Throttle
Air Traffic Control
ATC Radar Beacon System
Automatic Terminal Information Service
Along Track
Automatic Sequence
Auxiliary
Average
Aviation VHF Link Control
Automated Weather Observing System
B
B ALT
BARO
BATT
BC
Bearing
BOC
BOD
BRG
Both Runways
Barometric Altitude
Barometer, Barometric
Battery
Backcourse
The compass direction from the present
position to a destination waypoint.
Beat Frequency Oscillator
Backspace
Wireless standard for data exchange over
short distances
Bottom of Climb
Bottom of Descent
see also Bearing
°C
C
Degrees Celsius
Center Runway
BFO
BKSP
Bluetooth
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APPENDIX C
CA
CAL
CALC
Calibrated
Airspeed
CAS
CD
CDI
CDU
CF
CG
CH, CHNL
CHT
CHKLIST
CI
CLD
CLR
CM
CMC
CN
CNS
CO
COM
CONFIG
COOL
COPLT
Course
Course to
Steer
CPDLC
CPL
CR
CRG
CRNT
Crosstrack
Error
460
Course to Altitude Leg
Calibrated
Calculator
Indicated airspeed corrected for
installation and instrument errors.
Crew Alerting System
Course to DME Distance Leg
Course Deviation Indicator
Control Display Unit
Course to Fix Leg
Center of Gravity
Channel
Cylinder Head Temperature
Checklist
Course to Intercept Leg
Cloud
Clear
Centimeter
Central Maintenance Computer
Canada
Communication, Navigation, &
Surveillance
Carbon Monoxide
Communication Radio
Configuration
Coolant
Copilot
The line between two points to be
followed by the aircraft.
The recommended direction to steer
in order to reduce course error or stay
on course. Provides the most efficient
heading to get back to the desired course
and proceed along the flight plan.
Controller Pilot Datalink Communications
Couple
Course to Radial Leg
Cockpit Reference Guide
Current
The distance the aircraft is off a desired
course in either direction, left or right.
CRS
CRSR
CSA
CSC
CTA
CTR
CTRL
Cumulative,
CUM
CVDR
CVR
CVRG
CWS
CYL
see also Course, Course to Steer
Cursor
Conflict Situational Awareness
Current Speed Control
Control Area
Center
Control
The total of all legs in a flight plan.
D ALT
D-ATIS
DB, DBASE
dBZ
DCL
DCLTR, DECLTR
DEC FUEL
DEG
DEIC, DEICE
DEP
Desired Track
Density Altitude
Digital Automatic Terminal Info Service
Database
Decibels ‘Z’ (Radar Return)
Departure Clearance
Declutter
Decrease Fuel
Degree
De-icing
Departure
The desired course between the active
“from” and “to” waypoints.
Destination
Deviation
Direct to Fix Leg
Default
Directional Gyro
Degrade
Decision Height
A measure of GPS satellite geometry
quality on a scale of one to ten (lower
numbers equal better geometry, where
higher numbers equal poorer geometry).
Direction
Distance
DES, DEST
DEV
DF
DFLT
DG
DGRD
DH
Dilution of
Precision
DIR
DIS
Cockpit Voice Data Recorder
Cockpit Voice Recorder
Coverage
Control Wheel Steering
Cylinder
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190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Distance
DL LTNG
DLS
DME
DN
DOP
DP
DPRT
DR
DSBL
DTG
DTK
DQR
E
EAS
ECU
EDM
EFC
Efficiency
The ‘great circle’ distance from the
present position to a destination
waypoint.
Datalink Lightning
Data Link System
Distance Measuring Equipment
Down
see also Dilution of Precision
Departure Procedure
Departure
Dead Reckoning
Disabled
Distance To Go, Remaining distance to
last active FPL waypoint
see also Desired Track
Data Quality Requirements
Empty, East
Engine and Airframe Systems
Engine Control Unit
Emergency Descent Mode
Expected Further Clearance
A measure of fuel consumption,
expressed in distance per unit of fuel.
EGNOS
European Geostationary Navigation
Overlay Service
EGT
Exhaust Gas Temperature
EICAS
Engine Indication and Crew Alerting
System
EIS
Engine Indication System
ELEV
Elevation, Elevator
ELT
Emergency Locator Transmitter
EMER, EMERG, Emergency
EMERGCY
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
END, ENDUR
Endurance
Endurance
Flight endurance, or total possible flight
time based on available fuel on board.
ENG
Engine
ENGD
Engaged
ENR
Enroute; ETE to Final Destination
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Enroute Safe Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe
Altitude (ESA) altitude within ten miles left or right of
the desired course on an active flight
plan or direct-to.
ENT
Enter
EPE
see also Estimated Position Error
EPU
Estimated Position Uncertainty
ERR
Error
ES
Extended Squitter
ESA
see also Enroute Safe Altitude
ESP
Electronic Stability and Protection
Estimated
A measure of horizontal GPS position
Position Error error derived by satellite geometry
(EPE)
conditions and other factors.
Estimated
The estimated time at which the aircraft
Time of Arrival should reach the destination waypoint,
(ETA)
based upon current speed and track.
Estimated
The estimated time it takes to reach
Time Enroute the destination waypoint from the
(ETE)
present position, based upon current
groundspeed.
ETA
see also Estimated Time of Arrival
ETE
see also Estimated Time Enroute
EVS
Enhanced Vision System
EXPIRD
Expired
°F
FA
FAA
FADEC
FAF
FAIL
FANS
FBO
FC
FCC
FCST
FD
FDE
FF, FFLOW
FIS-B
FISDL
Degrees Fahrenheit
Course From Fix to Altitude Leg
Federal Aviation Administration
Full Authority Digital Engine Control
Final Approach Fix
Failure
Future Air Navigation System
Fixed Base Operator
Course From Fix to Distance Leg
Federal Communication Commission
Forecast
Flight Director, Course From Fix to DME
Distance Leg
Fault Detection and Exclusion
see also Fuel Flow
Flight Information Services-Broadcast
Flight Information Service Data Link
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APPENDIX C
FL
FLC
FLT
FLTA
FM
Flight Level
Flight Level Change
Flight Timer
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Course From Fix to Manual Termination
Leg
FMS
Flight Management System
FOB
see also Fuel On Board
FOD
see also Fuel Over Destination
FPA
Flight Path Angle
FPL
Flight Plan
FPM
Feet Per Minute, Flight Path Marker
FREQ
Frequency
FRMT
Format
FRZ
Freezing
FSM
Flight System Messages
FSS
Flight Service Station
FT
foot/feet
Fuel Flow
The fuel flow rate, expressed in units of
fuel per hour.
Fuel On Board The total amount of usable fuel on board
the aircraft.
Fuel Over
The estimated fuel remaining when the
Destination
aircraft reaches the destination waypoint,
based upon current fuel flow.
FWD
Forward
G/S
GA
GAL, GL
GBOX
GBT
GCU
GCS
GDC
GDL
GDR
GDU
GEA
GEO
GFC
462
Glideslope
Go-Around
Gallon(s)
Gearbox
Ground Based Transceiver
Garmin Control Unit
Ground Clutter Suppression
Garmin Air Data Computer
Garmin Satellite Data Link
Garmin Data Radio
Garmin Display Unit
Garmin Engine/Airframe Unit
Geographic
Garmin Flight Control
GIA
GLONASS
GLS
GMA
GMC
GMT
GMU
GND
GPH
GPN
GPS
GPWS
Grid MORA
(Minimum
Off—Route
Altitude)
Groundspeed
Ground Track
GRS
GS
GSA
GSD
GSL
GSR
GSU
GTC
GTS
GTX
GWX
HA
HDG
HDOP
Heading
Garmin Integrated Avionics Unit
Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite
Landing System
Global Navigation Satellite Landing
System
Garmin Audio Panel System
Garmin Mode Controller
Greenwich Mean Time
Garmin Magnetometer Unit
Ground
Gallons per Hour
Garmin Part Number
Global Positioning System
Ground Proximity Warning System
One degree latitude by one degree
longitude in size and clears the highest
elevation reference point in the grid by:
a) 1,000 feet where the highest elevation
is <5001MSL or b) 2,000 feet where the
highest elevation is >5000MSL
The velocity that the aircraft is travelling
relative to a ground position.
See Track
Garmin Reference System
Ground Speed, Glideslope
Garmin Servo Adapter
Garmin Data Concentrator
Geodetic Sea Level
Garmin Satellite Radio
Garmin Sensor Unit
Garmin Touchscreen Controller
Garmin Traffic System
Garmin Transponder
Garmin Weather Radar
Hold Terminating at Altitude Leg
see also Heading
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
The direction an aircraft is pointed,
based upon indications from a magnetic
compass or a properly set directional
gyro.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
HF
HFOM
Hg
HI
HI SENS
HM
HNS
Horizontal
Figure of
Merit
hPa
HPL
HR
HRZN HDG
HSDB
HSI
HT
HUL
Hz
I
IAF
IAS
IAT
IAU
ICAO
ICS
ID
IDENT, IDNT
IEEE
IF
IFR
IG
ILS
IMC
IN
INACTV
INC FUEL
IND
190-02138-00 Rev. A
High Frequency, Hold Terminating at Fix
Leg
see also Horizontal Figure of Merit
Mercury
High
High Sensitivity
Hold with Manual Termination Leg
Hybrid Navigation System
A measure of the uncertainty in the
aircraft’s horizontal position.
Indicated
Hectopascal
Horizontal Protection Level
Hour
Horizon Heading
High-Speed Data Bus
Horizontal Situation Indicator
Heat
Horizontal Uncertainty Level
Hertz (cycles per second)
ITT
Inner Marker
Initial Approach Fix
Indicated Air Speed
Indicated Air Temperature
Integrated Avionics Unit
International Civil Aviation Organization
Intercom System
Identification/Morse Code Identifier
Identification
Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
Initial Fix
Instrument Flight Rules
Imperial Gallon
Instrument Landing System
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
Inch
Inactive
Increase Fuel
Indicator, Indicated
INFO
IN Hg
INS
INT
INTEG
IrDA, IRDA
ISA
KEYSTK
KG
kHz
KM
KT
Information provided by properly
calibrated and set instrumentation on the
aircraft panel.
Information
Inches of Mercury
Inertial Navigation System
Intersection(s)
Integrity (RAIM unavailable)
Infrared Data Association
International Standard Atmosphere; ISA
Relative Temperature
Inter-Turbine Temperature, Interstage
Turbine Temperature
Key Stuck
Kilogram
Kilohertz
Kilometer
Knot
L
LAT
LBL
LB
LCD
LCL
LDA
LDG
LED
Left Over Fuel
On Board
Left, Left Runway
Latitude
Label
Pound
Liquid Crystal Display
Local
Landing Distance Available
ETA at Final Destination
Light Emitting Diode
The amount of fuel remaining on board
after the completion of one or more legs
of a flight plan or direct-to.
Left Over Fuel The amount of flight time remaining,
Reserve
based on the amount of fuel on board
after the completion of one or more legs
of a flight plan or direct-to, and a known
consumption rate.
Leg
The portion of a flight plan between two
waypoints.
LGND
Legend
LIFR
Low Instrument Flight Rules
LMM
Location Middle Marker
LNAV
Lateral Navigation
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APPENDIX C
LO
LOA
LOC
LOI
LOM
LON
LP
LPV
LRU
LT
LTNG
LVL
Low
Letter of Authorization
Localizer
Loss of Integrity (GPS)
Location Outer Marker
Longitude
Localizer Performance
Localizer Performance with Vertical
Guidance
Line Replaceable Unit
Left
Lightning
Level
M
Meter, Middle Marker, Mach
MMO (VMO)
Maximum Speed
Mach Number Mach number is the ratio of the true
airspeed to the speed of sound.
MAG
Magnetic
MAG VAR
Magnetic Variation
MAHP
Missed Approach Hold Point
MAN IN
Manifold Pressure (inches Hg)
MAN SQ
Manual Squelch
MANSEQ
Manual Sequence
MAP
Missed Approach Point
MASQ
Master Avionics Squelch
MAX
Maximum
MAXSPD
Maximum Speed (overspeed)
MB
Marker Beacon
MDA
Barometric Minimum Descent Altitude
MEPT
Manual Electric Pitch Trim
MET
Manual Electric Trim
METAR
Aviation Routine Weather Report
MFD
Multi Function Display
MFW
Multi Function Window
MGRS
Military Grid Reference System
MHz
Megahertz
MIC
Microphone
MIN
Minimum
464
Minimum Safe Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe
Altitude (MSA) altitude within ten miles of the aircraft
present position.
MKR
Marker Beacon
MOA
Military Operations Area
MON
Monitor
MOV
Movement
MORA
Minimum Off-Route Altitude
MPEL
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level
MPM
Meters per Minute
MSA
see also Minimum Safe Altitude
MSAS
Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation
System
MSG
Message
MSL
Mean Sea Level
MT, M
Meter
mV
Millivolt(s)
MVFR
Marginal Visual Flight Rules
N
NAV
NAVAID
NDB
NEXRAD
NM
NoPT
NOTAM
NRST
O
OAT
OBS
OFST
OOOI
North
Navigation
Navigation Aid
Non-Directional Beacon
Next Generation Radar
Nautical Mile(s)
No Procedure Turn Required (procedure
shall not be executed without ATC
clearance)
Notice To Airman
Nearest
OXY
Outer Marker
Outside Air Temperature
Omni Bearing Selector
Offset
Out of the gate, Off the ground, On the
ground, and In the gate
Oxygen
P ALT
PA
PASS
Pressure Altitude
Passenger Address, Proximity Advisory
Passenger(s)
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
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APPENDIX C
PC
PDC
PFD
PG
PI
PIREP
PIT, PTCH
POA
POH
POHS
POS, POSN
PPH
PPM
P. POS
PRES, PRESS
PROC
PROP
PROX
PSI
PT
PTK
PTT
PWR
Personal Computer
Pre-Departure Clearance
Primary Flight Display
Pilot’s Guide
Procedure Turn to Course Intercept Leg
Pilot Report
Pitch
Plain Old ACARS
Pilot’s Operating Handbook
Pilot’s Operating Handbook Supplement
Position
Pounds per Hour
Parts per Million
Present Position
Pressure
Procedure(s), Procedure Turn
Propeller
Proximity
Pounds per Square Inch
Procedure Turn
Parallel Track
Push-to-Talk
Power
QFE
QNH
QTY
Field Elevation Pressure
Sea Level Pressure
Quantity
R
RA
RAD
RAD ALT
RAIM
Right, Right Runway
Resolution Advisory, Radio Altimeter
Radial
Radio Altimeter
Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring
Random Access Memory
Ram Air Temperature
Receiver
Reference
Remaining (fuel remaining), Reminder
Required
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
RAM
RAT
RCVR
REF
REM
REQ
RES
190-02138-00 Rev. A
REV
RF
RMI
RMT
RNAV
RNG
RNP
RNWY, RWY
ROL
ROM
RPM
RST FUEL
RSV
RT
RVRSNRY
RVSM
RX
S
SA
SAR
SAT
SBAS
SCIT
SD
SEC
SEL, SLCT
SELCAL
SENS
SFC
SIAP
SID
SIG/AIR
SIGMET
SIM
SLD
SLP/SKD
SMBL
SMS
Reverse, Revision, Revise
Radio Frequency, Constant Radius Turn to
Fix Leg
Radio Magnetic Indicator
Remote
Area Navigation
Range
Required Navigation Performance
Runway
Roll
Read Only Memory
Revolutions Per Minute
Reset Fuel
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
Right
Reversionary
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums
Receive
South
Selective Availability
Search and Rescue
Static Air Temperature
Satellite-Based Augmentation System
Storm Cell Identification and Tracking
Secure Digital
Second(s)
Select
Selective Calling
Sense
Surface
Standard Instrument Approach
Procedures
Standard Instrument Departure
SIGMET/AIRMET
Significant Meteorological Information
Simulator
Supercooled Large Droplet
Slip/Skid
Symbol
Short Message System
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APPENDIX C
466
SNGL
SPC
SPD
SPI
SPKR
SQ
SRVC, SVC
SSID
STAB
STAL
STAR
STATS
STBY
STD
STRMSCP
SUA
SURF
SUSP
SVT
SW
SYNC
SYN TERR
SYN VIS
SYS
Single
Space
Speed
Special Position Identification
Speaker
Squelch
Service
Wireless Service Set Identifier
Stabilization
Stall
Standard Terminal Arrival Route
Statistics
Standby
Standard
Stormscope
Special Use Airspace
Surface
Suspend
Synthetic Vision Technology
Software
Synchronize
Synthetic Terrain
Synthetic Vision
System
T
TA
TACAN
TAF
TAS
TAT
TAWS
TCA
TCAS
TEL
TEMP
TERM
TF
TFR
True
Traffic Advisory
Tactical Air Navigation System
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
True Airspeed, Traffic Advisory System
Total Air Temperature
Terrain Awareness and Warning System
Terminal Control Area
Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System
Telephone
Temperature
Terminal
Track Between Two Fixes Leg
Temporary Flight Restriction
TGT
T HDG
TIS
TIS-B
TIT
TKE
TMA
TMR/REF
TOC
TOD
TOGA, TO/GA
TOLD
TOPO
TORA
TOT
TPA
Track
Track Angle
Error
TRK
TRSA
TRUNC
TTL
TURB
TURN
TWIP
TX
Target
True Heading
Traffic Information Service
Traffic Information Service-Broadcast
Turbine Inlet Temperature
see also Track Angle Error
Terminal Maneuvering Area
Timer/Reference
Top of Climb
Top of Descent
Take-Off, Go-Around
Takeoff and Landing Data
Topographic
Takeoff Run Available
Total
Traffic Pattern Altitude
Direction of aircraft movement relative to
a ground position; also ‘Ground Track’.
The angle difference between the desired
track and the current track.
see also Track
Terminal Radar Service Area
Truncated
Total
Turbulence
Procedure Turn
Terminal Weather Information for Pilots
Transmit
UAT
UHF
UNAVAIL
US
USR
UTC
UTM/UPS
Universal Access Transceiver
Ultra-High Frequency
Unavailable
United States
User
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Transverse Mercator/ Universal
Polar Stereographic Grid
V
V, Vspeed
Volts
Velocity (airspeed)
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
V1
V2
VA
VAPP , VAC
VFE
VLE
VLNDx
VLO
VMC
VMO (MMO)
VNE
VR
VREF
Takeoff Decision Speed
Takeoff Safety Speed
Maneuvering Speed
Approach Climb Speed
Maximum Flap Extended Speed
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed
Approach Speed (Flaps at x°)
Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed
Minimum Control Speed
Maximum Operating Speed
Never-Exceed Speed
Takeoff Rotate Speed
Landing Approach Speed, Reference
Landing Speed
VSB
Maximum Speedbrake Speed
VSR
Stall Speed
VT
Takeoff Flap Retraction Speed
VTIRE
Maximum Tire Speed
VX
Best Angle of Climb Speed
VY
Best Rate of Climb Speed
VYSE
Best Single-Engine Rate of Climb Speed
V DEV
Vertical Deviation
VA
Heading Vector to Altitude Leg
VAC
Volts Alternating Current
VAPP
VOR Approach
VAR
Variation
VD
Heading Vector to DME Distance Leg
VDC
Volts Direct Current
VDL
VHF Datalink
VERT
Vertical
Vertical Figure A measure of the uncertainty in the
of Merit
aircraft’s vertical position.
Vertical Speed The vertical speed necessary to descend/
Required
climb from a current position and altitude
to a defined target position and altitude,
based upon current groundspeed.
VFOM
see also Vertical Figure of Merit
VFR
Visual Flight Rules
VHF
Very High Frequency
VI
Heading Vector to Intercept Leg
VLOC
VOR/Localizer Receiver
190-02138-00 Rev. A
VM
VMC
VNAV, VNV
VOL
VOR
VORTAC
VPATH, VPTH
VPL
VPROF
VR
VRP
VS
VSD
VSI
VSR, VS REQ
VTF
W
WAAS
WARN
WATCH
WGS-84
WI-FI, WIFI
Heading Vector to Manual Termination
Leg
Visual Meteorological Conditions
Vertical Navigation
Volume
VHF Omnidirectional Range
VHF Omnidirectional Range Station and
Tactical Air Navigation
Vertical Path
Vertical Protection Level
VNAV Profile, Vertical Profile
Heading Vector to Radial Leg
Visual Reporting Point
Vertical Speed
Vertical Situation Display
Vertical Speed Indicator
see also Vertical Speed Required
Vector to Final
WOG
WOW
WPT
WT
WW
WX
Watt(s), West
Wide Area Augmentation System
Warning
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight
World Geodetic System - 1984
Wireless Local Area Network based on
IEEE 802.11
Weight on Gear
Weight on Wheels
Waypoint(s)
Weight
World Wide
Weather
XFER, XFR
XM LTNG
XPDR
XTALK
XTK
Transfer
SiriusXM Lightning
Transponder
Cross-Talk
Cross-Track, Crosstrack Error
YD
Yaw Damper
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APPENDIX C
Blank Page
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APPENDIX D
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
If a particular aspect of system operational capability is not addressed by these commonly asked questions or in
the index, contact Garmin (see the copyright page or back cover for contact information) or a Garmin-authorized
dealer. Garmin is dedicated to supporting its products and customers.
What is SBAS?
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) uses a system of ground stations to correct any GPS signal
errors. These ground stations correct for errors caused by ionospheric disturbances, timing, and satellite
orbit errors. It also provides vital integrity information regarding the health of each GPS satellite. The signal
correction is then broadcast through geostationary satellites. This correction information can then be received
by any SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.
SBAS is designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary to enable users to rely
on GPS for all phases of flight.
There are several SBAS systems serving different parts of the world. The Wide Area Augmentation System
(WAAS) is currently available in the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The European Geostationary
Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) offers coverage of Europe, parts of the middle east and northern Africa.
The Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) covers mainly Japan and parts of northern Australia.
How does SBAS affect approach operations?
Both LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches use the accuracy of SBAS to include vertical (glide path) guidance
capability. The additional accuracy and vertical guidance capability allows improved instrument approaches to
an expanded number of airports throughout the U.S.
The implementation of LPV approaches further improves precision approach capabilities. LPV approaches
are designed to make full use of the improved GPS signal from the SBAS. This approach combines the LNAV/
VNAV vertical accuracy with lateral guidance similar to the typical Instrument Landing System (ILS). LPV
approaches allow lower approach minimums.
What is RAIM and how does it affect approach operations?
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring. RAIM is a GPS receiver function that
performs the following functions:
• Monitors and verifies integrity and geometry of tracked GPS satellites
• Notifies the pilot when satellite conditions do not provide the necessary coverage to support a certain phase
of flight
• Predicts satellite coverage of a destination area to determine whether the number of available satellites is
sufficient to satisfy requirements
NOTE: If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become
active, as indicated by the “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP” message and the LOI annunciation
flagging on the HSI.
190-02138-00 Rev. A
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APPENDIX D
For RAIM to work correctly, the GPS receiver must track at least five satellites. A minimum of six satellites is
required to allow RAIM to eliminate a single corrupt satellite from the navigation solution.
RAIM ensures that satellite geometry allows for a navigation solution calculation within a specified protection
limit (2.0 nm for oceanic and en route, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). The
system monitors RAIM and issues an alert message when RAIM is not available (see Appendix A). Without
RAIM, GPS position accuracy cannot be monitored. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the pilot
must fly the missed approach procedure.
What is GSL altitude?
GSL (Geodetic Sea Level) altitude is the height above Mean Sea Level (MSL), as calculated geometrically,
generally using a global positioning system (GPS) as the primary data source. The calculated result may or may
not include a barometric component, but the primary source is geometric.
Why are there not any approaches available for a flight plan?
Approaches are available for the final destination airport in a flight plan or as a direct-to (keep in mind
that some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If a destination airport does not have a
published approach, the system indicates “NONE” for the available procedures.
What happens when an approach is selected? Can a flight plan with an approach, a departure, or an
arrival be stored?
When an approach, departure, or arrival is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach, departure,
or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan, along with a header line showing the title of the selected
instrument procedure. The original en route portion of the flight plan remains active, unless the instrument
procedure is activated. This may be done either when the procedure is loaded or at a later time.
Flight plans can also be stored with an approach, a departure, or an arrival. Note that the active flight plan
is erased when the system is turned off. Also, the active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is
activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, a departure, or an arrival, the system uses the waypoint
information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the
system automatically updates the information, provided the procedure has not been modified. Should an
approach, departure, or arrival procedure no longer be available, the flight plan becomes locked until the
procedure is deleted from the flight plan.
Can “slant Golf” (“/G”) be filed using the G1000 NXi System?
“/G” may be filed for a flight plan. The system meets the requirements of TSO-C145a Class 3 and ETSO C145
Class 3 installations. GPS approaches are not to be flown with an expired database. See the approved Pilot’s
Operating Handbook (POH) as well as the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for more information.
What does the OBS Softkey do?
The OBS Softkey is used to select manual sequencing of waypoints. Activating OBS mode sets the current
active-to waypoint as the primary navigation reference and prevents the system from sequencing to the next
waypoint in a flight plan. When OBS mode is cancelled, automatic waypoint sequencing is continued, and
the system automatically activates the next waypoint in the flight plan once the aircraft has crossed the present
active waypoint.
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APPENDIX D
•
•
•
•
Normal (OBS not activated)
Automatic sequencing of waypoints
Manual course change on HSI not possible
Always navigates ‘TO’ the active waypoint
Must be in this mode for final approach course
•
•
•
•
OBS
Manual sequencing - ‘holds’ on selected waypoint
Manually select course to waypoint from HSI
Indicates ‘TO’ or ‘FROM’ waypoint
Cannot be set for final approach course or published holding patterns
When OBS mode is active, the system allows the pilot to set a desired course to/from a waypoint using the
CRS/BARO Knob and HSI (much like a VOR).
The most common application for using the OBS Softkey is the missed approach. The system suspends
automatic waypoint sequencing (indicated by a ‘SUSP’ annunciation placed on the HSI) when the missed
approach point (MAP) is crossed. This prevents the system from automatically sequencing to the missed
approach holding point (MAHP). During this time, the OBS Softkey designation changes to SUSP. Pressing
the SUSP Softkey reactivates automatic waypoint sequencing. The OBS Softkey then resumes its normal
functionality.
Why might the system not automatically sequence to the next waypoint?
The system only sequences flight plan waypoints when automatic sequencing is enabled (i.e., no ‘OBS’ or
‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI). For automatic sequencing to occur, the aircraft must also cross the bisector of
the turn being navigated. The bisector is a line passing through the waypoint common to two flight plan legs
at an equal angle from each leg.
How can a waypoint be skipped in an approach, a departure, or an arrival?
The system allows the pilot to manually select any approach, departure, or arrival leg as the active leg of
the flight plan. This procedure is performed on the MFD from the Active Flight Plan Page by highlighting the
desired waypoint and pressing the ACT Leg Softkey then the ENT Key to approve the selection. The GPS then
provides navigation along the selected flight plan leg.
When does turn anticipation begin?
The system smooths adjacent leg transitions based on a normal 15° bank angle (with the ability to roll up to
30°) and provides three pilot cues for turn anticipation:
• A waypoint alert (‘Next DTK ###° in # seconds’ or ‘Next HDG ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10
seconds before the turn point and flashes as it counts down to zero.
• A flashing turn advisory (‘Turn [right/left] to ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10 seconds before the
turn and flashes as it counts down to zero. ‘Turn [right/left] to ###° now’ or ‘Next [DTK/HDG] to ###° now’
is displayed when the pilot is to begin the turn and the HSI (GPS mode) automatically sequences to the next
DTK or HDG value.
• The To/From indicator on the HSI flips momentarily to indicate that the midpoint of the turn has been
crossed.
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APPENDIX D
When does the CDI scale change?
Once a departure is activated, the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) full scale deflection is set to 0.3 nm. The
CDI scale changes to 1.0 nm (terminal mode) then ramps up to 2.0 nm (enroute mode) at 30 nm from the
departure airport. When 31 nm from the destination, the CDI scale smoothly transition from 2.0 nm back
to 1.0 nm (terminal mode). At 2.0 nm before the FAF during an active approach, the CDI scale transitions
down further based on the type of approach activated (LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, LPV). When a missed approach is
activated, the CDI is set to 0.3 nm. See the Flight Instruments Section for more details on CDI scaling.
Why does the HSI not respond like a VOR when OBS mode is active?
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS equipment is based on the crosstrack distance to the desired
course, not on the angular relationship to the destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on the GPS is constant
regardless of the distance to the destination and does not become less sensitive when further away from the
destination.
What is the correct missed approach procedure? How is the missed approach holding point selected?
To comply with TSO specifications, the system does not automatically sequence past the MAP. The first
waypoint in the missed approach procedure becomes the active waypoint when the SUSP Softkey is selected
after crossing the MAP. All published missed approach procedures must be followed, as indicated on the
approach plate.
To execute the missed approach procedure prior to the MAP (not recommended), select the Active Flight Plan
Page and use the ACT Leg Softkey to activate the missed approach portion of the procedure.
After a missed approach, how can the same approach be re-selected? How can a new approach be
activated?
NOTE: Do not attempt to reactivate the current approach prior to crossing the missed approach point
(MAP). If an attempt to do so is made, an alert message “Are you sure you want to discontinue the current
approach?” appears. The system directs the pilot back to the transition waypoint and does not take into
consideration any missed approach procedures, if the current approach is reactivated.
After flying the missed approach procedure, the pilot may reactivate the same approach for another attempt by
pressing the PROC Key. Once the clearance is given for another attempt, activate the approach by highlighting
‘Activate Approach’ using the large FMS Knob and pressing the ENT Key. The system provides navigation along
the desired course to the waypoint and rejoins the approach in sequence from that point.
To activate a new approach for the same airport, select the new procedure by pressing the PROC Key. Choose
‘Select Approach’, select the desired approach from the list shown, and press the ENT Key. Select the desired
transition, then activate the approach using the ENT Key.
To activate a new approach to a different airport, press the Direct-to Key and select the desired airport using
the FMS Knobs. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected airport, then follow the steps in the preceding
paragraph to select an approach for the new airport.
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APPENDIX E
MAP SYMBOLS
US Highway
AVIATION SYMBOLS
Item
National Highway
Symbol
Unknown Airport
Large City (> 200,000)
Medium City (> 50,000)
Non-towered, Non-serviced Airport
Small City (> 5,000)
Towered, Non-serviced Airport
State or Province Border
Non-towered, Serviced Airport
International Border
Towered, Serviced Airport
Road
Restricted (Private) Airport
Railroad
Heliport
Latitude/Longitude
Intersection
River/Lake
LOM (compass locator at outer marker)
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
NDB (non-directional radio beacon)
AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
VOR
Item
Class B Airspace Altitude Label
(ceiling/floor)
Class C Airspace Altitude Label
(ceiling/floor)
Class D Airspace Altitude Label
(ceiling)
ICAO Control Area
Class B Airspace
VOR/DME
VOR/ILS
VORTAC
VRP
TACAN
Mode C Tower Area
LAND SYMBOLS
Item
User Waypoint
Interstate Highway
State Highway
Symbol
Symbol
Warning Area Prohibited Area
Alert Area
Restricted Area
Caution Area Training Area
Unknown Area
Danger Area
Class C
Terminal Radar Service Area
Mode C Area
Military Operations Area (MOA)
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APPENDIX E
MISCELLANEOUS
Item
Symbol
ARTCC Frequency or FSS Frequency
Map Pointer (when panning)
Elevation Pointer
(on Topography Scale when panning)
Measuring Pointer
Wind Vector
Overzoom Indicator
User Waypoint
Vertical Navigation Along Track Waypoint
Parallel Track Waypoint
Unanchored Flight Path Waypoint
Top of Descent (TOD)
Bottom of Descent (BOD)
Navigating using Dead Reckoning
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INDEX
A
Activate a Flight Plan---------------------------------------201
Active frequency------------------------------- 100, 105, 106
AC-U-KWIK------------------------------------------- 403, 454
ADF audio----------------------------------------------------106
ADS-R---------------------------------------------------------353
Advisory alerts-----------------------------------------------439
AIRB----------------------------------------------------------355
Aircraft Symbol----------------------------------------- 52, 372
Airport Directory------------------------------------- 403, 454
Airport Information
--------------------------------------------------------------157
Airport Signs-------------------------------------------------- 71
Airspace Alerts--------------------------------------- 174, 244
Airspeed Indicator---------------------------------------42, 44
Airspeed Reference----------------------------366, 378–379
Airways
Collapsing/Expanding-----------------------------------211
Alerting system----------------------------------------------435
Alerts
Arrival------------------------------------------------------- 35
Audio voice------------------------------------------------ 35
Levels------------------------------------------------------436
Along Track Offset------------------------------------------206
Altimeter--------------------------------------------------42, 47
Altitude
Constraints------------------------------------------------218
Altitude Alerting--------------------------------------------- 66
Altitude Compensated Tilt (ACT)-------------------------302
Altitude Hold Mode----------------------------------------376
Altitude Reference----------------------------- 375, 376, 388
Ammeter------------------------------------------------------ 89
Annunciations
System------------------------------------------------------ 10
Test tone---------------------------------------------------- 12
Annunciator lights------------------------------------------116
AOPA-------------------------------------------------- 403, 454
AP-------------------------------------------------------------399
Approach-----------------------------------------------------470
Activating-------------------------------------------------234
Loading--------------------------------------- 198, 232, 234
Removing--------------------------------------------------235
Visual------------------------------------------------------236
Approach channel----------------------------------- 198, 232
Approach Mode (GPS, VAPP, LOC)---------------- 384, 391
APR softkey------------------------------------------- 234, 243
Arrival procedure------------------ 181, 182, 196, 228, 229
Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)-440, 441,
443, 446
Attitude & Heading Reference System (AHRS)---------- 13
Attitude Indicator----------------------------------------42, 46
Audio Panel----------------------------------------------------- 9
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Audio panel controls
SPKR-------------------------------------------------------116
Audio panel fail-safe operation---------------------------121
Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)--------- 365–402
Alerts and annunciations------------------------ 399–400
Controls-------------------------------------------- 366–367
Status Box-------------------------------------------------370
Automatic squelch------------------------------------------100
Autopilot--------------------------------- 365, 396–398, 399
Autopilot Disconnect-------------------------------- 367, 398
Auto-tuning--------------------------------------------------109
Auto-tuning, COM------------------------------------------101
Auto-tuning, NAV-------------------------------------------107
Auto Zoom---------------------------------------------------130
AUX - system status page---------------------------------421
Aviation Symbols------------------------------- 138, 139, 143
B
Backcourse Mode-------------------------------------------393
Backlighting-------------------------------------------------- 40
Barometric Altimeter Setting---------------------------42, 48
Bearing/distance, measuring------------------------------134
Bearing Information----------------------------------------- 55
Bearing Information Windows----------------------------- 43
Bearing Line------------------------------------------ 307, 310
Bearing Pointer----------------------------------------------- 55
Bearing Source----------------------------------------------- 55
Bus voltage--------------------------------------------------- 89
C
Calibrated Airspeed-----------------------------------------240
CAUTION-----------------------------------------------------436
Caution alerts-----------------------------------------------438
Caution Annunciations-------------------------------------438
Chart Not Available-----------------------------------------408
Chart options----------------------------------------- 412, 419
CHART SETUP box----------------------------------- 414, 420
ChartView--------------------------------------------- 403, 407
Clearance Recorder-----------------------------------------118
Closest Point-------------------------------------------------210
COM channel spacing--------------------------------------104
COM Frequency Box--------------------------------- 100, 105
Command Bars----------------------------------------------372
Comparator--------------------------------------------------- 83
Comparator Annunciation---------------------------------- 43
COM Tuning Failure-----------------------------------------121
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA)--------------------354
Controls--------------------------------------------------------- 4
Control Wheel Steering (CWS)--------------------- 367, 397
Copy a Flight Plan------------------------------------------201
Correlation---------------------------------------------------354
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
I-1
INDEX
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)---------- 52, 56–60, 230
Changing scale-------------------------------------------472
Course Pointer------------------------------------------------ 52
Crew Alerting System (CAS)
Annunciations--------------------------------------------437
Inhibits-----------------------------------------------------439
Messages------------------------------------------- 436–437
Current Heading--------------------------------------------- 52
D
Database(s)----------------------------------------------------- 7
Data Link Receiver------------------------------------------434
Datalink receiver troubleshooting------------------------434
Data logging-------------------------------------------------428
Date and time------------------------------------------------ 32
Day/Night views-------------------------------- 414, 415, 420
DB Mismatch------------------------------------------------453
Dead Reckoning---------------------------------------------- 82
Decision Height---------------------------------------------- 67
Declutter, Display-------------------------------------------- 85
Delete Flight Plans------------------------------------------202
Deleting
An entire airway----------------------------------- 203, 204
An entire procedure------------------------------ 203, 204
An individual waypoint--------------------------- 203, 204
Flight Plan Items-----------------------------------------203
Density Altitude---------------------------------------------242
Departure
Procedure------------------------------------ 194, 226, 227
Select----------------------------- 226, 228, 232, 234, 236
Time--------------------------------------------------------240
Desired Track------------------------------------------------- 43
Digital audio entertainment---------------------------------- 2
Dilution of Precision (DOP)--------------------------------- 16
Direct-to--------- 150, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 216, 217
Display backup-------------------------------------------- 9, 99
DME audio---------------------------------------------------106
DME Information Window------------------------------43, 56
DME tuning--------------------------------------------------110
E
Electrical indications----------------------------------------- 89
Emergency frequency---------------------------------------121
Entering Flight ID-------------------------------------------111
Entertainment inputs---------------------------------------119
Estimated Position Error (EPE)----------------------------- 16
F
Fail-safe operation------------------------------------------121
Failure
Input-------------------------------------------------------- 14
Field of View (SVT)------------------------------------------146
I-2
Flight Director (FD)--------------------- 365, 369–370, 399
Pitch modes---------------------------------------- 373–379
Switching------------------------------------------- 368, 371
Flight ID------------------------------------------------------115
Flight Instruments----------------------------------41, 41–56
Flight Level Change Mode---------------------------------378
Flight Path Marker------------------------------------------- 71
Flight Phase--------------------------------------------------- 52
Flight plan
Storing-----------------------------------------------------470
Flight Plan, Active
Creating---------------------------------------------------184
Leg Type---------------------------------------------------181
Flight Plan Progress----------------------------------------186
FliteCharts-------------------------------------- 403, 415, 416
Functions--------------------------------------------------417
FPA------------------------------------------------------------217
Frequency
Nearest----------------------------------------------------172
Frequency spacing------------------------------------------104
Frequently asked questions--------------------------------469
Fuel
Calculations------------------------------------------------ 93
Efficiency--------------------------------------------------242
Endurance-------------------------------------------------242
Flow-----------------------------------------------------89, 92
Quantity------------------------------------------------89, 92
Remaining-------------------------------------------- 92, 242
Required---------------------------------------------------242
Statistics---------------------------------------------------242
Used--------------------------------------------------------- 92
Fuel on Board-----------------------------------------------242
Fuel Range Ring---------------------------------------------- 93
G
Garmin SVT--------------------------------------------------- 70
Geodetic Sea Level (GSL)----------------------------------323
Glidepath Mode (GP)-------------------------- 389, 390, 392
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Navigation----------------------------------------- 176–246
Receiver information--------------------------------- 17–19
Go Around Mode-------------------------------------------394
Ground Mapping, Weather Radar------------------------315
Groundspeed------------------------------------------------- 38
H
Heading------------------------------------------------------- 42
Select Mode-----------------------------------------------381
Heading Bug-------------------------------------------------- 42
HI SENS-------------------------------------------------------110
Horizon Heading--------------------------------------------- 71
Horizontal Scan--------------------------306, 307, 308, 314
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
INDEX
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)-42, 52–54, 231, 471,
472
HSI double green arrow------------------------------------106
HSI magenta arrow-----------------------------------------106
HSI Map------------------------------------------------------- 43
HSI single green arrow-------------------------------------106
HW Mismatch-----------------------------------------------446
I
IDENT function----------------------------------------------112
ID indicator--------------------------------------------------105
IFR/VFR Charts----------------------------------------------147
Chart settings---------------------------------------------148
Importing a Flight Plan-------------------------------------187
Import/Export Messages--------------------------------188
Indicated Altitude-------------------------------------------240
Intercom------------------------------------------------------117
Intercom system (ICS)--------------------------------------119
Intersection
Information---------------------------------------- 158–159
Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT)------------------89, 92
Interturbine Temperature (ITT)-------------------------89, 92
Inverting a flight plan------------------------------- 201, 209
IOI------------------------------------------------------ 333, 334
L
Land Symbols------------------------------------------------137
Lateral Deviation Scale-------------------------------------- 52
LO SENS------------------------------------------------------110
Low Altitude Annunciation--------------------------------- 67
Lubber Line--------------------------------------------------- 52
M
Magnetometer----------------------------------------------- 14
Map
Panning----------------------------------------------------131
Map symbols------------------------------------------------473
Marker Beacon----------------------------------------------109
Marker Beacon Annunciations-------------------------43, 66
MASQ processing-------------------------------------------- 95
Measurement units, changing displayed----------------- 33
Menus--------------------------------------------------------- 26
MET-----------------------------------------------------------399
Minimum Descent Altitude--------------------------------- 67
Minimum Descent Altitude/ Decision Height------------ 43
Minimums----------------------------------------------------439
Missed Approach------------------------------------ 181, 235
Mistrim-------------------------------------------------------399
MKR/MUTE--------------------------------------------------109
Mnimum Runway Length----------------------------------157
Mode S-------------------------------------------------------111
Mode selection softkeys---------------------------- 111, 112
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Morse code identifier---------------------------------------105
Motion Vectors----------------------------------------------359
N
National Weather Service (NWS)-------------------------285
NAV1 audio--------------------------------------------------106
NAV2 audio--------------------------------------------------106
Navigation
Database--------------------------------------------------218
Map--------------------------------------------------------179
Mode------------------------------------------------ 382–383
Navigation mode selection--------------------------------106
Navigation Source----------------------------------52, 56–57
Nav radio selection-----------------------------------------106
Nearest
Airport--------------------------- 154, 155, 156, 157, 234
Airport Minimum Runway Length---------------------157
Airports Page-------------------------------- 155, 156, 157
Airport Surface Matching-------------------------------157
VOR--------------------------------------------------------163
VRP-------------------------------------------------- 164, 165
Nearest airports, frequency tuning-----------------------102
NextGen------------------------------------------------------352
No Available Charts----------------------------------------417
Non-path descent-------------------------------------------388
Normal display operation------------------------------------- 8
Normal operating mode-------------------------------------- 8
O
OBS Mode------------------------------------------------52, 61
Odometer----------------------------------------------------- 38
Oil
Pressure---------------------------------------------------- 89
Temperature----------------------------------------------- 89
Omni Bearing Selector (OBS)----------------------- 470–471
Other Statistics--------------------------------------- 240, 242
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)---------------------------- 42
Overview-------------------------------------------------------- 1
P
Page groups--------------------------------------------- 27–29
Page navigation---------------------------------------------- 35
Parallel Track-------------------------------------------------207
Passenger address------------------------------------------118
PA system----------------------------------------------------118
PFD failure---------------------------------------------------121
Pitch Hold Mode--------------------------------------------374
Pitch Modes, Flight Director------------------------ 373–379
Power ON settings------------------------------------------116
Pressure, oil--------------------------------------------------- 89
Propeller speed-------------------------------------------89, 92
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
I-3
INDEX
R
Radar Altimeter---------------------------------------------- 43
Radar Signal Attenuation----------------------------------298
Radar Signal Reflectivity-----------------------------------299
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM)-17–18,
230, 469
Reminder messages----------------------------------------- 38
Required Vertical Speed Indicator------------------------- 43
Reserve fuel--------------------------------------------------- 93
Reversionary Mode------------------------------------ 70, 121
Reversionary Sensor Annunciation------------------------ 43
Reversionary Sensor Window------------------------------ 84
ROC---------------------------------------------------- 333, 334
Roll Hold Mode---------------------------------------------380
Rotating Compass Card------------------------------------ 52
RS-232----------------------------------------------------------- 1
RS-485----------------------------------------------------------- 1
Runway-------------------------------------------------------- 71
Runway Extension------------------------------------------140
RX indicator--------------------------------------------------101
S
SafeTaxi------------------------------------------------ 403, 404
SBAS--------------------------------------------------- 446, 469
Scheduler------------------------------------------------- 38–39
Sector Scan--------------------------------------------------310
Secure Digital (SD) card---------------------------------6, 453
Selected Altitude-42, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 385, 388
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc----------------------------144
Selected Course----------------------------------52, 383, 393
Selected Heading--------------------------- 43, 52, 366, 381
Selected Heading Bug--------------------------------------- 52
Sensor--------------------------------------------------------- 84
Sequencing waypoints
Automatic-------------------------------------------------471
SIGMET-------------------------------------------------------276
SiriusXM Radio------------------------------ 2, 119, 423, 424
SiriusXM Radio Active Channel---------------------------424
SiriusXM Radio Presets------------------------------------426
SiriusXM Radio Service Class-----------------------------424
SiriusXM Radio Volume------------------------------------426
SiriusXM Weather
AIREPs-----------------------------------------------------290
AIRMETs---------------------------------------------------276
Cell Movement-------------------------------------------275
Cloud Tops------------------------------------------------273
County Warnings-----------------------------------------285
Cyclones & Hurricanes----------------------------------286
Echo Tops--------------------------------------------------272
Freezing Level---------------------------------------------282
Icing--------------------------------------------------------287
Lightning--------------------------------------------------274
I-4
PIREPs-----------------------------------------------------290
SIGMETs---------------------------------------------------276
Surface Analysis------------------------------------------280
Turbulence-------------------------------------------------289
Winds Aloft------------------------------------------------283
Slip/Skid Indicator-------------------------------------------- 42
Softkeys------------------------------------ 20, 22, 23, 25, 42
EIS----------------------------------------------------------- 23
MFD--------------------------------------------------------- 23
PFD---------------------------------------------------------- 20
Speaker-------------------------------------------------------116
Stabilization, Antenna--------------------------------------311
Standby frequency-----------------------100, 101, 105, 106
Standby frequency field----------------------------- 100, 105
Standby Navigation Database----------------------------455
Stereo headsets---------------------------------------------116
Stuck microphone-------------------------------------------121
Sunrise / Sunset---------------------------------------------241
SURF----------------------------------------------------------355
Surface Analysis---------------------------------------------280
SUSP Annunciation------------------------------------------ 62
SVT Troubleshooting----------------------------------------434
Symbols, map------------------------------------------------473
Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)------------------- 70, 450
System
Annunciations--------------------------------------------435
Message advisories--------------------------------------440
System Alerting----------------------------------------------- 66
System Status Page------------------------------------------ 12
T
TA-------------------------------------------------------------439
Takeoff Mode------------------------------------------------394
TAS----------------------------------------------------- 440, 441
Temperature, Interstage Turbine-----------------------89, 92
Temperature, oil---------------------------------------------- 89
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)----------------------278
Terminal procedures charts------------------- 406, 408, 417
Terrain--------------------------------------------------------442
Terrain Proximity--------------------------------------------323
Tilt, Antenna-------------------------------------------------308
Tilt Line-------------------------------------------------------308
Timer----------------------------------------------------------- 36
Departure-----------------------------------------------36, 37
Flight----------------------------------------------------36, 37
Generic----------------------------------------------------- 36
To/From Indicator-------------------------------------------- 52
TOPO Data---------------------------------------------------136
TOPO Scale---------------------------------------------------137
Torque-----------------------------------------------------89, 92
Track Indicator------------------------------------------------ 52
Traffic Advisory----------------------------------------------439
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
INDEX
Traffic Advisory System (TAS)----------------- 306, 308, 311
Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B)-----------354
Transponder--------------------------------------------------- 23
Transponder code entry------------------------------------114
Transponder data box--------------------------------------- 95
Transponder standby mode-------------------------------112
Trip Planning------------------------------------ 240, 241, 242
Trip Statistics--------------------------------------38, 241, 242
True Airspeed (TAS)------------------------------- 42, 44, 242
Turn anticipation--------------------------------------------471
Turn Rate and Heading Trend Vector---------------------- 52
Turn Rate Indicator--------------------------------------42, 54
TX indicator--------------------------------------------------101
Waypoint
Automatic sequencing----------------------------------471
Skipping---------------------------------------------------471
Waypoint Submenu---------------------------- 177, 184, 190
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH)--------312
Weather (real-time)-------------------------------------------- 2
Wind----------------------------------------------------------145
Wind Data Box----------------------------------------------- 43
Wind Information, PFD-------------------------------------- 63
U
Unable to Display Chart---------------------------- 408, 417
User-Defined Holding Pattern-----------------------------215
V
Vectors to Final----------------------------------------------234
Vertical Deviation-------------------------------------------387
Vertical Deviation Indication------------------------------- 43
Vertical Navigation (VNAV)------------------------ 180, 218
Direct-to---------------------------------------------------217
Flight Control-------------------------------------- 385–389
Guidance--------------------------------------------------218
Vertical Path Tracking Mode------------------------ 385–386
Vertical Scan, Weather Radar---------------------- 308, 311
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)---------------------------221
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)------------------------------ 42
Vertical Speed Mode---------------------------------------377
Vertical Speed Reference----------------------------------377
Vertical track-------------------------------------------------439
VFR code-----------------------------------------------------114
Visual Approach---------------------------------------------236
VNAV Target Altitude-------------------------------- 385–388
VNAV Target Altitude Capture Mode--------------------388
VNV guidance
Enabling---------------------------------------------------216
VNV Indications---------------------------------------------- 65
VNV Target Altitude----------------------------------------- 43
VOL annunciation-------------------------------------------118
Voltmeter------------------------------------------------------ 89
Volume-------------------------------------------------------426
VOR selection------------------------------------------------106
VRP---------------------------------------------- 138, 164, 165
VS TGT--------------------------------------------------------217
W
WAAS---------------------------------------------------------469
Warning Annunciations------------------------------------437
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
I-5
INDEX
Blank Page
I-6
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Caravan
190-02138-00 Rev. A
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Tel: 913.397.8200
Fax: 913.397.8282
Aircraft On Ground (AOG)
Hotline: 913.397.0836
Aviation Dealer Technical
Support: 888.606.5482
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Tel: 503.581.8101
Fax 503.364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR U.K.
Tel: +44 (0) 238 052 4000
Fax: +44 (0) 238 052 4004
Aviation Support: +44 (0) 370 850 1243
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Zhangshu 2nd Road
Xizhi District,
New Taipei City, Taiwan
Tel: 34-93-357-2608
Fax: 34-93-429-4484
www.garmin.com
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