Garmin | G1000 NXi: Cessna Citation Mustang | Garmin G1000 NXi: Cessna Citation Mustang G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide, Textron Model 510 Mustang, System Software Version 0413.40 or later

Garmin G1000 NXi: Cessna Citation Mustang G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide, Textron Model 510 Mustang, System Software Version 0413.40 or later
®
Pilot’s Guide
Cessna Mustang
System Software Version 0413.40 or later
Copyright © 2019 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 0413.40 or later for the G1000 NXi Cessna Mustang. Some differences in
operation may be observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
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incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
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Printed in the USA
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: Do not rely on the displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) as the sole source of obstacle
and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum
clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Do not operate this equipment without first obtaining qualified instruction.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and heading indications in the following geographic
areas (due to variations in the earth’s magnetic field): North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes; South
of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W.
(Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada);
North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South
latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity
of the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
CAUTION: Do not allow repairs to be made by anyone other than an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the
aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured
compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable
database and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
AFM(S) and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: Electronic aeronautical charts displayed on this system have been shown to meet the guidance in AC
120 76D as a Type B Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) for FlightCharts and ChartView. The accuracy of the charts
is subject to the chart data provider. Own-ship position on airport surface charts cannot be guaranteed to
meet the accuracy specified in AC 120-76D. Possible additional requirements may make a secondary source
of aeronautical charts, such as traditional paper charts or an additional electronic display, necessary on the
aircraft and available to the pilot. If the secondary source of aeronautical charts is a Portable Electronic
Device (PED), its use must be consistent with the guidance in AC 120-76D.
NOTE: The navigation databases used in Garmin navigation systems contain Special Procedures. Prior
to flying these procedures, pilots must have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the
corresponding current, and legitimately-sourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special
Procedure in the navigation database DOES NOT imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process the
data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: The nose of the ‘own ship’ symbol represents the location of the aircraft. The center of any traffic
symbol represents the location of that traffic. The traffic and own ship symbols are an abstract representation
and do not reflect the physical extent of the aircraft/traffic, and should not replace other methods for
identifying traffic.
NOTE: Operate G1000 NXi system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days of continuous
operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
BY USING THE DEVICE, COMPONENT OR SYSTEM MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY GARMIN (“THE GARMIN PRODUCT”), YOU AGREE TO
BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT
CAREFULLY. Garmin Ltd. and its subsidiaries (“Garmin”) grants you a limited license to use the software embedded in the Garmin Product
(the “Software”) in binary executable form in the normal operation of the Garmin Product. Title, ownership rights, and intellectual property
rights in and to the Software remain with Garmin and/or its third-party providers. You acknowledge that the Software is the property of
Garmin and/or its third-party providers and is protected under the United States of America copyright laws and international copyright
treaties. You further acknowledge that the structure, organization, and code of the Software are valuable trade secrets of Garmin and/or its
third-party providers and that the Software in source code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin and/or its third-party providers.
You agree not to reproduce, decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse assemble, reverse engineer, or reduce to human readable form the
Software or any part thereof or create any derivative works based on the Software. You agree not to export or re-export the Software to
any country in violation of the export control laws of the United States of America.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
I
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-02522-00
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Revision
A
Date
01/2019
Page Range
Description
All
Production release for GDU 20.88
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
REVISION INFORMATION
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................. 1
Garmin Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)............................. 1
System Controls....................................................... 4
PFD Controls................................................................. 4
MFD Controller.............................................................. 6
Secure Digital (SD) Cards................................................ 8
System Operation..................................................... 9
System Power-up........................................................... 9
Normal Operation........................................................ 10
Reversionary Mode...................................................... 11
System Annunciations.................................................. 12
System Status Page...................................................... 13
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 14
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 15
Accessing System Functionality........................... 20
Softkey Function.......................................................... 20
Menus........................................................................ 25
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 26
Split Screen Functionality............................................. 28
System Settings........................................................... 30
System Utilities............................................................ 35
Display Backlighting.............................................. 39
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 44
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 44
Generic Timer.............................................................. 46
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 47
Altimeter.................................................................... 48
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 53
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 53
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 55
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 61
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data..................................... 69
Temperature Displays................................................... 69
Wind Data.................................................................. 70
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 71
190-02522-00 Rev. A
2.3 Garmin Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT).......... 72
SVT Operation............................................................. 73
SVT Features............................................................... 74
2.4 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 84
System Annunciations.................................................. 84
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 85
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 85
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 86
Minimum Altitude Alerting........................................... 86
BARO QFE Indications.................................................. 87
2.5 Abnormal Operations............................................ 88
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 88
Comparator Annunciations........................................... 89
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations............................... 90
Garmin SVT Troubleshooting......................................... 91
SVT Unusual Attitudes.................................................. 91
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 92
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
3.1 Engine Indication System (EIS)............................. 94
Destination Elevation................................................... 96
3.2 EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)......................... 97
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 Overview................................................................. 99
PFD Controls and Frequency Display............................ 100
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 102
4.2 COM Operation..................................................... 106
COM Tuning Boxes..................................................... 106
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 107
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency................................. 107
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 110
4.3 NAV Operation...................................................... 111
NAV Tuning Boxes..................................................... 111
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 112
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 112
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD............... 113
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 115
ADF/DME Tuning (OPTIONAL)..................................... 115
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.4 Mode S Transponder............................................ 120
Transponder Controls................................................. 120
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 121
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 123
IDENT Function......................................................... 124
Flight ID Reporting.................................................... 124
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions...................... 125
Power-Up.................................................................. 125
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 125
Speakers................................................................... 125
Intercom System (GMA 1347D)................................... 125
Intercom System (GMA 1360D)................................... 126
Passenger Address System.......................................... 127
Simultaneous COM Operation..................................... 127
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 128
Telephone/Entertainment Inputs.................................. 128
3D Audio (GMA 1360D)............................................. 130
Blue-Select Mode (GMA 1360D)................................. 131
Bluetooth Setup (GMA 1360D)................................... 132
4.6 Audio Panels Preflight Procedure....................... 133
4.7 Abnormal Operation............................................ 134
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 134
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 134
PFD Failure, Dual System............................................ 134
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation (GMA 1347D)............. 134
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation (GMA 1360D)............. 134
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 134
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 Introduction.......................................................... 135
Navigation Status Box and Data Bar............................ 137
5.2 Using Map Displays.............................................. 139
Map Orientation........................................................ 139
Map Range............................................................... 141
Map Panning............................................................. 143
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 145
Topography............................................................... 146
Map Symbols............................................................ 150
Airways.................................................................... 154
Additional Navigation Map Items................................ 156
5.3 Waypoints.............................................................. 159
Airports.................................................................... 160
Non-Airport Waypoints............................................... 166
ii
5.4 Airspaces............................................................... 175
Nearest Airspace....................................................... 176
Smart Airspace.......................................................... 178
5.5 Direct-to Navigation............................................ 179
5.6 Flight Planning...................................................... 184
Selection and Modification Methods........................... 185
Flight Plan Display..................................................... 188
Creating a Flight Plan................................................ 191
Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications............ 193
Flight Plan Operations................................................ 202
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 206
Managing Flight Plans............................................... 209
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 219
Constraints............................................................... 220
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)................................... 224
Vertical Navigation Direct-To...................................... 228
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 229
Departures................................................................ 231
Arrivals..................................................................... 234
Approaches............................................................... 237
5.9 Weight and Fuel Planning................................... 249
Weight Caution And Warning Conditions..................... 251
5.10 Trip Planning......................................................... 252
Trip Planning............................................................. 252
5.11 Abnormal Operation............................................ 256
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 Datalink Weather.................................................. 260
Activating Data Link Weather Services......................... 261
Weather Product Age................................................. 263
Weather Data Link (XM) Page Softkeys........................ 266
Weather Product Map Overlays................................... 273
Weather Product Overview......................................... 275
FIS-B Weather Status................................................. 308
6.2 Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 310
System Description.................................................... 310
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather Radar................ 310
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 315
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup............................................. 316
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 317
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 329
Additional Weather Radar Displays.............................. 329
System Status............................................................ 331
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.3 Terrain Displays.................................................... 333
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 334
Terrain Page.............................................................. 338
Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain........................ 339
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Alerting Displays.................... 342
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance............................. 345
Additional TAWS-B Alerting........................................ 346
Inhibiting Alerting...................................................... 348
System Status............................................................ 349
6.4 Traffic Information Service (TIS)......................... 351
Displaying Traffic Data............................................... 352
Traffic Map Page........................................................ 353
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 354
System Status............................................................ 356
6.5 TAS Traffic.............................................................. 358
TAS Theory of Operation............................................. 358
TAS Alerts................................................................. 361
System Test............................................................... 362
Operation................................................................. 364
6.6 ADS-B Traffic......................................................... 370
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 370
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting.................... 373
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 374
Operation................................................................. 375
ADS-B System Status................................................. 381
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Controls....................................................... 386
7.2 Flight Director Operation.................................... 388
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 388
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 389
Flight Director Modes................................................. 389
Switching Flight Directors........................................... 390
Command Bars.......................................................... 391
7.3 Vertical Modes...................................................... 392
Pitch Hold Mode (PIT)................................................ 393
Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)........................ 394
Altitude Hold Mode (ALT)........................................... 395
Vertical Speed Mode (VS)........................................... 396
Flight Level Change Mode (FLC).................................. 397
Vertical Navigation Modes (VPTH, ALTV)...................... 398
Glideslope Mode (GS)................................................ 405
Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes..................... 406
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7.4 Lateral Modes....................................................... 408
Roll Hold Mode (ROL)................................................ 409
Low Bank Mode........................................................ 409
Navigation Modes (GPS, VOR, LOC)............................. 411
Approach Modes (GPS, VAPP, LOC).............................. 412
Backcourse Mode (BC)............................................... 414
7.5 Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation.............. 416
Flight Control............................................................ 416
Engagement.............................................................. 417
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 417
Disengagement......................................................... 418
7.6 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts.......................... 419
AFCS Status Alerts..................................................... 419
Overspeed Protection................................................. 420
Emergency Descent Mode (EDM)................................ 420
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SafeTaxi................................................................. 424
Charts..................................................................... 427
ChartView................................................................. 428
FliteCharts................................................................ 437
Terminal Procedures Charts........................................ 437
IFR/VFR Charts.......................................................... 440
Database Cycle Number and Revisions............. 443
Cycle Number and Revision........................................ 443
SurfaceWatch........................................................ 445
Information Box........................................................ 445
Alerts....................................................................... 447
Surfacewatch Setup................................................... 449
Connext Setup...................................................... 452
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment........................... 455
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 455
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 456
Flight Data Logging............................................. 459
Abnormal Operation............................................ 461
Data Link Receiver Troubleshooting............................. 461
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 463
CAS Message Prioritization......................................... 464
Alert Level Definitions................................................ 465
CAS Messages........................................................... 465
System Messages...................................................... 469
Flight Plan Import/Export Messages............................ 481
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Database Management................................................. 483
Loading Updated Databases....................................... 483
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update................... 493
Aviation Terms and Acronyms....................................... 495
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 507
Miscellaneous Map Symbols........................................ 511
INDEX
Index .................................................................................I-1
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the G1000 NXi Integrated Avionics System as installed in the Cessna
Citation Mustang. The system presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication, and
identification information to the pilot through large-format displays.
GARMIN LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRUs)
• GDU 1050A (2) – Each unit is configured as a Primary Flight Display (PFD) that features a 10-inch highresolution LED backlit display. The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as PFD1, and the one
installed on the right/copilot side is designated as PFD2. These units communicate with each other, the
Multifunction Display (MFD), and with the on-side GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU).
• GDU 1550 (1) – Features a 15-inch high-resolution LED backlit display and is configured as the MFD. This
unit is linked to both PFDs.
• GCU 475 (1) – Provides controls for the MFD.
• GIA 63W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the on-side PFD. Each
GIA 63W contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system
integration microprocessors. Each GIA 63W is paired with the on-side PFD. The GIA 63Ws are not paired
together and do not communicate with each other directly.
• GA 36 (1 or 2) and GA 37 (1 optional) – The GA 36 is a through-mount GPS/SBAS antenna. The GA 37 is a
through-mount GPS/SBAS antenna with SiriusXM Datalink.
• GDC 74B (2) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the GTP 59 OAT probe. This unit
provides pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system, and it communicates
with the on-side GIA 63W, the on-side PFD, the MFD, and the on-side GRS 77. The GDC 74B is designed to
operate in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.
• GTP 59 (2) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the on-side GDC 74B.
• GEA 71 (2) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit communicates
with both GIA 63Ws.
• GRS 77 (2) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information to the on-side PFD, the MFD, and the on-side
GIA 63W. The GRS 77 contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces
with the on-side GMU 44 to obtain magnetic field information, with the GDC 74B to obtain air data, and with
both GIA 63Ws to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of operation are discussed later in this document.
• GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GRS 77 for processing to determine aircraft
magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GRS 77 and communicates with the GRS 77.
• GMA 1347D (2), GMA 1347D-20 (2 optional), or GMA 1360D (2 optional) – Integrates NAV/COM digital
audio, intercom system, and marker beacon controls. GMA 1360D additionally provides Bluetooth®
capability. They are installed on the outboard sides of PFD1 and PFD2. This unit also enables the manual
control of the display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP button) and communicates with the on-side
GIA 63W.
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• GTX 33D ES (1 or 2) or GTX 345R (1 optional) – Solid-state transponders that provide Modes A, C, and S
capability. The GTX 33D ES provides Mode S ES capability with ADS-B Out. The GTX 345R provides ADS-B
In and Out capability. Both transponders can be controlled from either PFD, and only one transponder can
be active at a time. Each transponder communicates with the on-side GIA 63W.
• GDL 69A SXM (1 optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides data link weather information to the
MFD (and indirectly to the PFD Inset Map) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A SXM
communicates with the MFD. Subscriptions to the SiriusXM Weather or SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are
required to enable GDL 69A SXM capability.
• GWX 68 (1 optional) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data directly to the MFD
through the optional GDL 69A SXM.
• Flight Stream 510 (1) – The Flight Stream 510 Wireless Transceiver provides wireless connectivity between a
compatible tablet/mobile device and the avionics system. GPS, AHRS, ADC, ADS-B, traffic, SiriusXM audio,
and weather data can then be shared with the mobile device, and flight plans can be transferred to or from
the mobile device. Also, database updates may be performed using the Flight Stream 510.
Figure 1-1 shows interactions between the LRUs. The system is also capable of interfacing with the following
optional third-party equipment:
• RA 3502 ADF
• KTA 870 TAS
• KN63 DME
• KHF 1050 HF Radio
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment shown in Figure 1-1, consult the applicable user’s guide.
This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of this additional equipment.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GMC 710
(AFCS Controller)
#1
GDU 1050A
(PFD1)
GDL 69A SXM
(Datalink Receiver)
GCU 475
(Display
Controller)
#3
GDU 1550
(MFD)
#2
GDU 1050A
(PFD2)
GWX 68
(Weather Radar)
#1 GMA 1347D,
1347D-20, or
1360D
(Audio Panel)
FlightStream
510 (SD Card
Wireless
Transceiver)
#1 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#2 GMA 1347D,
1347D-20, or
1360D
(Audio Panel)
KHF 1050
(HF)
KTA 870
(TAS)
#1 GTX 33D ES
(Transponder)
KN63
(DME)
RA 3502
(ADF)
#2 GTX 33D ES
(Transponder)
or GTX 345R
VHF COM
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
VOR/LOC
G/S
AP
FD
#2 GIA 63W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#1 GDC 74B
(Air Data
Computer)
#2 GDC 74B
(Air Data
Computer)
#1 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#2 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#1 GRS 77
(AHRS)
#1 GEA 71
(Engine &
Airframe I/F)
GPS/SBAS
VOR/LOC
G/S
AP
FD
#2 GRS 77
(AHRS)
#2 GEA 71
(Engine &
Airframe I/F)
GSA 81
(Pitch Trim)
GSA 81
(Pitch)
406 MHz ELT
GSA 80
(Roll)
GSA 80
(Yaw)
Garmin Equipment
Non-Garmin Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 System Block Diagram
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SYSTEM CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel (GMA 1347D or GMA 1360D) is described in the Audio Panel & CNS section.
NOTE: The AFCS Controller (GMC 710) is described in the AFCS section.
The system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels, MFD Controller, AFCS Controller and audio panel.
The controls for the PFD, MFD, and MFD Controller are discussed within the following pages of this section.
PFD CONTROLS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12
10
13
11
14
15
16
Figure 1-2 PFD Controls
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a percentage)
Push to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF
2 NAV Frequency
Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies
Transfer Key
3 NAV Knob
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
Push to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2
4 Joystick
Turn to change map range
Push to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Moves the Quick Select Box or cursor on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the
MFD when moved. See the Flight Management Section for more information on
the Quick Select Box.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
5
6
7
8
9
10
Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting
Push to set barometric reference to STD BARO
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
COM Knob
kHz)
Push to toggle light blue tuning box between COM1 and COM2
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies
COM Frequency
Transfer Key
Press and hold 2 seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically
(EMERG)
into the active frequency field
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM
Frequency Box)
Push to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF
Direct-to Key ( ) Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint
and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route)
Displays flight plan information
FPL Key
BARO Knob
11
CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
12
MENU Key
13
PROC Key
14
ENT Key
15
FMS Knob
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page (MFD only).
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making
setting changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
(Flight Management Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large knob
moves cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor location)
System Knob)
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar
appears, indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll
through the list.
16 Softkey Selection
Press to select softkey shown above the bezel key on the PFD or MFD
Keys
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD CONTROLLER
The controls for the MFD are located on both the MFD bezel and the MFD Controller (GCU 475). The bottom
portion of the MFD bezel features 12 softkeys that are designed to perform various functions depending upon
the specific page being displayed. These softkeys are discussed throughout the Pilot’s Guide documentation.
The following figure and list provides an overview of the controls located on the MFD Controller:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
15
14
13
12
11
10
Figure 1-3 MFD Controller (GCU 475)
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1
Alphabetic Keys – Allow the user to enter letters quickly, without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob. When the Quick Select Box is shown on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the
MFD, alphanumeric keys can be used to enter data into the Quick Select Box area.
2
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob. This knob selects the MFD page to be viewed. The large
knob selects a page group while the small knob selects a specific page within the page group. Pushing the
FMS Knob turns the selection cursor ON and OFF. When the cursor is ON, data may be entered in the
applicable window by turning the small and large knobs. In this case, the large knob moves the cursor on
the page, while the small knob selects individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
3
FPL Key – Displays the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page for creating and editing the active flight plan, or for
accessing stored flight plans.
4
Direct-to Key ( ) – Allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the
selected destination (the destination is either specified by the identifier, chosen from the active route, or
taken from the map pointer position).
5
MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list of options. This list allows the user to access additional
features or make setting changes that relate to particular pages.
6
PROC Key – Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan. If a flight plan is used, available procedures for the departure and/or
arrival airport are automatically suggested. Theses procedures can then be loaded into the active flight
plan. If a flight plan is not used, both the desired airport and the desired procedure may be selected.
7
Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated. Activates the map pointer when pressed. Moves the
Quick Select Box or cursor on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD when joystick is moved left,
right, up, or down. See the Flight Management Section for information on the Quick Select Box.
8
Numeric Keys – Allows the crew to enter numbers quickly without having to select individual characters
with the FMS Knob.
9
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
10
SEL Key – The center of this key activates the selected MFD softkey, while the right and left arrows move
the softkey selection box to the right and left, respectively.
11
Plus (+) Minus (-) Key – Toggles a (+) or (-) character.
12
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
13
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes page menus. Pressing and holding this key
displays the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
14
SPC Key – Adds a space character.
15
BKSP Key – Moves the cursor back one character space.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SECURE DIGITAL (SD) CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the navigation databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting any SD cards.
The PFD and MFD data card slots use SD cards and are located on the top right portion of the display bezels.
Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used for aviation database and system
software updates as well as terrain database storage. Also, flight plans may be imported or exported from an
SD card in the MFD.
Inserting and Removing an SD card:
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel. To remove, gently press on the SD card to release the
spring latch and eject the card.
PFD
MFD
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-4 Display Bezel SD Card Slots
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
This section discusses powering up the system, normal and reversionary display operation, system status, AHRS
modes of operation, and GPS receiver operation.
SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
NOTE: See the current pertinent flight manual for specific procedures concerning avionics power application
and emergency power supply operation.
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical busses.
The PFD, MFD, and supporting subsystems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features that
exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
When powering up the system, test annunciations are displayed and key annunciator lights also become
momentarily illuminated on the audio panel and the display bezels. On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize
and displays ‘AHRS ALIGN: Remain Stationary’. All system annunciations should disappear typically within
one minute of power-up.
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
• System version
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Airport Directory name and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
• IFR/VFR charts database information
• Copyright
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted to
continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page.
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NORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD (see Section 1.5). In
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display.
PFD
In normal mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed, altitude
and vertical speed), thereby replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster. The PFD also offers control for
COM and NAV frequency selection.
MFD
In normal mode, the right portion of the MFD displays a full-color moving map with navigation information,
while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System (EIS).
The following figure gives an example of the displays in normal mode.
PFD1
MFD
PFD2
Figure 1-5 Normal Operation
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REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices for
further information regarding system-specific alerts.
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented identically
on at least one of the remaining displays (see following figure). As flight parameters are presented in the same
format as in normal operation mode, operation in reversionary mode should be straightforward to the crew.
When a display fails, the system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode as follows:
• PFD1 failure – MFD and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
• MFD failure – PFD1 automatically switches to reversionary mode.
• PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
Pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP
button activates/deactivates
reversionary mode for both the
on-side PFD and the MFD.
Figure 1-6 Reversionary Mode
Figure 1-7 DISPLAY BACKUP Button
Reversionary mode can be activated manually by pressing the dedicated DISPLAY BACKUP button at the
bottom of the audio panel (refer to the Audio Panel & CNS Section for further details). Pressing this button
again deactivates reversionary mode.
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
• PFD1 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left audio panel.
• MFD – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the left or right audio panel.
• PFD2 – By pressing the DISPLAY BACKUP button on the right audio panel.
Should the connection between a PFD and the on-side GIA 63W become inoperative, the on-side GIA 63W
can no longer communicate with the remaining PFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM
functions provided to the failed PFD by the on-side GIA 63W are flagged as invalid (red ‘X’) on the remaining
PFD (see following figure).
Figure 1-8 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to initialize. All windows
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, a
Garmin-authorized repair facility should service the system.
When an LRU or LRU function fails, a large red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated with the
failed data (refer to the following table for example flags and the responsible LRUs).
NOTE: Refer to the current pertinent flight manual for additional information regarding pilot responses to
these annunciations.
System Annunciation
Comment
System Annunciation
Comment
Air Data, Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
attitude information from the
AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
valid heading input from the
AHRS or magnetometer.
Display system is not receiving
altitude input from the air data
computer.
AHRS calibration incomplete or
configuration module failure.
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid for
navigation use. Note that
AHRS utilizes GPS inputs
during normal operation.
AHRS operation may be
degraded if GPS signals are not
present.
Other Various Red X
Indications
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
A red ‘X’ through any other
display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input from the air
data computer.
Table 1-1 System Annunciations
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS PAGE
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page. Active LRUs are indicated
by green check marks; failed by red “X”s. Note failed LRUs and inform a service center or Garmin-authorized
dealer.
Figure 1-9 Example System Status Page
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page select the applicable list (‘LRU Information’
or ‘Airframe’ Window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
Pressing the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected) places the
cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Pressing the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Pressing the softkey a third time will change the softkey label to PFD2 DB
and displays PFD2 database information. Press the softkey a fourth time to return to MFD1 DB. MFD database
information is displayed again in the database window.
The ANN Test Softkey, when selected, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
Viewing LRU Information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
Press the LRU Softkey
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key
b) With the ‘Select LRU’ Window highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
In normal mode, the GRS 77 AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field measurements (air data is not used).
If one or more of these three external inputs is unavailable or unreliable, the AHRS uses the remaining inputs
for attitude/heading determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available (Figure 1-10) and depend
upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is
communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic Field
Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field
and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when
an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being
displayed to the pilot.
Figure 1-10 AHRS Operation
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS Failure
Failure of the internal AHRS inertial sensors may result in loss of attitude and heading information
(indicated by red ‘X’ flags over the corresponding flight instruments).
GPS Input Failure
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the information
provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using the other
GPS receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs
fail, the AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and magnetometer
inputs are available and valid.
Magnetometer Failure
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red ‘X’).
Air Data Input Failure
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while AHRS is operating in normal mode.
A failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red ‘X’ flags).
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA 63W IAU contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified receiver (GPS1 for the #1
IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
GPS1 provides information to the pilot-side PFD and GPS2 provides data to the copilot-side PFD. Internal
system checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the PFDs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing a better
GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better solution is automatically
coupled to both PFDs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” is displayed in the Reversionary Sensor
Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning
properly, but one receiver is performing better than the other at that particular time.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Viewing GPS receiver status information
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux’ Page Group (see Section 1.4 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select the ‘GPS Status’ Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Select the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection
Softkeys
RAIM Softkey
Selected
SBAS Softkey Selected
Figure 1-11 ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM
The ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page displays satellites currently in view at their respective positions on a sky view
diagram. The sky view is always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the
inner circle representing 45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the satellite identification number. Satellites whose
signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
SATELLITE STATUS
This ‘Satellite Status’ Box provides information regarding signal status. The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS
fix is calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and
vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a circle centered on an estimated horizontal
position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying. EPU is a statistical error indication and not
an actual error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
GPS RECEIVER STATUS
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active GPS
receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page. When the receiver
is in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. “Acquiring” is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired for
computing a solution.
The system will determine if messages are being received from the WAAS engine. If so, the SBAS will read
‘Active’. If no messages have been received for 4 seconds and SBAS providers are enabled, the SBAS status will read
‘Inactive’. If SBAS providers are disabled, SBAS status will read ‘Disabled’. Note, that a fix is not required, but rather
the status is determined by communication with the WAAS engine.
RAIM PREDICTION (RAIM SOFTKEY SELECTED)
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected
approach may be outside the SBAS coverage area, and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for
the intended approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is not
predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated by
the messages “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available from FAF to Map”. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
NOTE: The system RAIM prediction capability does not meet all RAIM prediction requirements. Reference
the RAIM/Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) Prediction Tool at flygarmin.com as required.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Push the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key.
Refer to Section 1.4 for instructions on entering alphanumeric data into the system.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or User waypoints, if
required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system automatically fills in the
identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
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3) Push the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
SBAS SELECTION (SBAS SOFTKEY SELECTED)
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable EGNOS, WAAS, or MSAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the
‘SBAS’ Field in the ‘GPS Status’ Box indicates Disabled. There may be a small delay for the ‘GPS Status’ Box
to be updated upon SBAS enabling/disabling.
Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Push the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’, or ‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
GPS SATELLITE SIGNAL STRENGTHS
The ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor
satellite coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is
displayed for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite identification number below each bar. The
progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
• No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
• Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
• Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
• Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
• Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
• “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.4 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey
level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to press the appropriate softkey.
There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an annunciator on the softkey
label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects among several options, indicated by
the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option.
The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also,
these softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled,
the softkey label is subdued (dimmed).
Softkey Subdued Softkey On
Softkey Off
Softkey Names
(displayed)
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (press)
Figure 1-12 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
PFD SOFTKEYS
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions, including
GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back Softkey which can be
pressed to return to the previous level. If messages remain after acknowledgement, the Messages Softkey
is black on white. The Messages Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the
transponder (XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
The following table describes PFD Softkey functions. Softkeys which display another set of softkeys are
indicated in the table by showing the given set as an increased level. For example, the Map/HSI softkey is
shown in the Level 1 column. When pressed, the Map/HSI softkey will display another set of softkeys and
these softkeys are explained in the Level 2 column. If a softkey on Level 2 provides yet another set of softkey
functions, those new available softkeys are then explained in the Level 3 column, etc.
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Map/HSI
Layout
Map Off
Inset Map
HSI Map
Inset Trfc
HSI Trfc
Detail
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Level 4
Description
Displays the PFD Map display settings softkeys.
Displays the PFD Map selection softkeys.
Removes the PFD Map from display (Inset, HSI, or Traffic).
Displays the Inset Map.
Displays the HSI Map.
Replaces the Inset Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Replaces the HSI Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Selects desired amount of map detail:
All (No Declutter): All map features visible
Detail 3: Declutters land data
Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA data
Detail 1: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
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Level 1
Level 2
Traffic
TER
TFC Map
PFD Opt
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Level 3
Level 4
Description
Displays traffic information on PFD Map.
Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers,
lakes) and elevation scale on PFD Map.
REL: Displays relative terrain information on the PFD Map.
Off: Removes terrain.
Displays/removes the name of the selected weather data provider and the
WX LGND
weather product icon and age box (for enabled weather products).
Displays NEXRAD weather and coverage on PFD Map (optional).
NEXRAD
Displays METAR information on PFD Map (optional).
METAR
Adds/removes the display of SiriusXM or Connext lightning information
Lightning
(based on weather data source selection) on the PFD Map.
Disables lightning function on PFD Map. The softkey annunciator is green
LTNG Off
when the lightning function is off.
Selects the datalink weather source for the PFD Map.
Datalink
Turns on or off weather radar overlay in the PFD Map (optional).
WX Radar
Displays radar options (optional).
RDR Opt
Displays softkeys for radar mode selection.
Mode
Standby Put the radar in standby mode.
Weather Enable weather mapping mode.
Ground Enable ground mapping mode.
Decrease radar gain setting.
Gain Increase radar gain setting.
Gain +
Enable ground clutter suppression.
GCS
Opens the additional feature softkeys.
Features
Display weather alerts as system messages.
WX
ALRT
Enable the Weather Attenuated Color Highlight feature.
WX
WATCH
Activate the altitude-compensated tilt feature.
ACT
TURB
Enable turbulence warnings.
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD options.
Displays additional SVT overlay softkeys (optional).
SVT
Displays Pathway Boxes on the Synthetic Vision Display.
Pathways
Enables synthetic terrain depiction.
Terrain
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line.
HDG LBL
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the
APT Sign
current aircraft position and identifiers within approximately 9 nm.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Wind
Off
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
DME
Bearing 1
Sensors
ADC
ADC1
ADC2
AHRS
AHRS1
AHRS2
Bearing 2
ALT Units
Meters
IN
HPA
STD Baro
OBS
CDI
ADF/DME
Cycles through FMS, NAV1, and NAV2 navigation modes on the CDI.
Displays the ADF/DME Tuning Window, allowing tuning and selection of
the ADF and DME (optional).
XPDR
Displays the transponder selection softkeys.
Selects Transponder 1 as the active transponder.
Selects Transponder 2 as the active transponder.
Transponder standby mode (not transmitting).
Transponder on mode (transmits mode A code replies).
Transponder ALT mode (transmits mode C altitude and code replies).
Sets transponder transmit code to the configured VFR code.
XPDR1
XPDR2
Standby
On
ALT
VFR
22
Description
Displays the wind option softkeys.
Wind information not displayed.
Headwind/Tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed
components.
Total wind direction arrow and numeric speed.
Total wind direction arrow with digital numeric direction and speed.
Displays DME Information Window (optional).
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, FMS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency,
and Off.
Open sensor softkeys
Open ADC softkeys
Select ADC 1 as the PFD’s data source.
Select ADC 2 as the PFD’s data source.
Open AHRS softkeys
Select AHRS 1 as the PFD’s data source.
Select AHRS 2 as the PFD’s data source.
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information Window through NAV1, NAV2, FMS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency,
and Off.
Displays softkeys to select altitude unit parameters.
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters.
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury.
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopascals.
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are
selected).
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available
with active leg). When OBS is on, the softkey annunciator is green.
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Code
0-7
Ident
BKSP
Ident
Ident
TMR/REF
Nearest
Messages
Level 4
Description
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7.
Use numbers to enter code.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Removes numbers entered, one at a time.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Displays ‘References’ Window.
Displays ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
Displays the ‘Messages’ Window when pressed. System generated
messages cause the Messages Softkey label to change to a flashing
‘Message’ label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the ‘Messages’
Window, acknowledges the message, and the softkey reverts to the
‘Messages’ label.
Table 1-2 PFD Softkeys
MFD SOFTKEYS (‘MAP - NAVIGATION MAP’ PAGE)
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including FMS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and weather (optional). There are many softkey functions available on the MFD depending on the page group
and page selected.
The following table provides an example of the MFD Softkey functions accessed from the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page. Further information concerning softkeys providing more navigation and flight planning functions
may be found in the Flight Management Section. Terrain, traffic, and weather softkey descriptions may
be found in the Hazard Avoidance section. Further description of optional equipment and corresponding
softkey functions may be found in the Additional Features Section.
Level 1
Level 2
CAS ↑
CAS ↓
Map Opt
Traffic
Inset
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Level 3
Description
When available, scrolls up through CAS messages.
When available, scrolls down through CAS messages.
Displays map display option softkeys.
Displays traffic information on ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Displays inset window second level softkeys.
Removes insets from the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Off
FPL PROG Toggles Flight Plan Progress display inset.
Toggles Vertical Situation Display inset.
VSD
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Detail
Charts
24
Level 2
Level 3
Description
Adjusts VSD inset settings with profile information of terrain/obstacles along the
VSD
current track, vertical track vector, and selected altitude.
Auto: Automatically displays either VSD profile information for active flight plan
information or along current track with no active flight plan.
FPL: Displays VSD profile information for active flight plan.
TRK: Displays VSD profile information along current track.
Displays terrain on the map; cycles through the following:
TER
Off: No terrain information shown on MFD Map.
Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and
elevation scale on MFD Map.
REL: Displays relative terrain information on the MFD Map.
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
AWY
Off: No airways are displayed.
On: All airways are displayed.
LO: Only low altitude airways are displayed.
HI: Only high altitude airways are displayed.
Displays NEXRAD weather and coverage on ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page (optional).
NEXRAD
Displays XM lightning information on ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page (optional).
XM LTNG
Displays METAR information on ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page (optional).
METAR
Displays legends for the displayed weather products (optional).
Legend
Turns on weather radar overlay (optional).
WX Radar
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through the following levels:
Detail All: All map features visible.
Detail 3: Declutters land data.
Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Detail 1: Removes everything except for the active flight plan.
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts.
Displays chart display settings softkeys (if available).
CHRT Opt
ROT CCW Rotates chart 90 degrees counter clockwise.
ROT CW Rotates chart 90 degrees clockwise.
Fit WDTH Chart zoom adjusted to fill width of display.
Full SCN When the annunciator bar is green, full screen mode is enabled. The annunciator
bar is grey when in split screen mode.
Displays the chart associated with the current phase of flight.
SYNC
Returns to the selected airport information chart (Airport Diagram, Alternate
Info
Minimums, Climb/Descent Table, Diverse Vector Area, Hot Spot, INOP Components,
LAHSO, and Takeoff Minimums)
Displays departure procedure chart.
DP
Displays standard terminal arrival procedure chart.
STAR
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Level 1
Level 2
APR
Checklist
Level 3
Description
Displays approach procedure chart.
When available, displays optional checklists.
Table 1-3 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
MENUS
The system has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently
displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional
submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘No Options’ when there are
no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group
operations are described in Section 1.2. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
Navigating the Page Menu Window:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pushing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
No Options
with Nearest
Airports Window
Displayed on PFD
Options with
Active Flight Plan
Page Displayed
on MFD
Figure 1-13 Page Menu Examples
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The page group and active
page title are displayed in the upper right of the screen to the right of the Navigation Status Box. In the bottom
right corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs
are displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs.
The current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan.
Page Group
MFD
Active Page Title
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-14 Page Title and Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
There are several pages which may be selected by selecting the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page
(or from the page menu). In this case, the active page title will change when a different page softkey is selected,
but the page will remain the same (i.e. the Radio and Info Softkeys show different active page titles (‘Aux - XM
Radio’ and ‘Aux - XM Information’ respectively) within the same page, ‘XM Radio’.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Group
Map (Map Page Group)
WPT (Waypoint Page Group)
Pages within Page Group
• Navigation Map
• Weather Data Link (optional)
• IFR/VFR Charts
• Terrain Proximity
• Traffic Map
• Terrain-SVT (optional)
• Weather Radar (optional)
• TAWS-B (optional)
• Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
- Airport Information (Info 1 Softkey)
- Airport Directory Information (Info 2 Softkey)
- Departure Information (DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information (STAR Softkey)
- Approach Information (APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional) (WX Softkey)
• Intersection Information
• VRP Information
Aux (Auxiliary Page Group)
• NDB Information
• User WPT Information
• VOR Information
• Weight Planning
• System Status
• Trip Planning
• ADS-B Status
• Utility
• Connext Setup
• GPS Status
• Databases
• System Setup 1/2
• XM Radio (service optional)
- XM Radio (Radio Softkey)
FPL (Flight Plan Page Group)
- XM Information (Info Softkey)
• Active Flight Plan
- Wide View, Narrow View (View Softkey)
• Flight Plan Catalog
- Stored Flight Plan (via New Softkey)
NRST (Nearest Page Group)
• SurfaceWatch Setup
• Nearest Airports
• Nearest VRP
• Nearest Intersections
• Nearest User WPTS
• Nearest NDB
• Nearest Frequencies
• Nearest VOR
• Nearest Airspaces
Table 1-4 Page Group and Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages
• Departure Loading
• Arrival Loading
• Approach Loading
SPLIT SCREEN FUNCTIONALITY
Chart pages may be viewed in split screen mode with either the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ or ‘FPL - Active
Flight Plan’ Page open. To activate the split screen functionality, press the Charts Softkey. Two display panes
are displayed on the MFD. If split screen is activated from the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, the page title will
show ‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’. If split screen is activated from the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, the
page title will change to show ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’.
MFD in Split Screen Mode (Narrow View)
Page Title shows
‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’
Purple Pane Selector
shows Charts is the
active display pane
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Figure 1-15 Split Screen Mode
CONTROLLING DISPLAY PANES
In split screen mode, the active display pane is outlined by a dark purple box called the pane selector.
Softkeys and menu options will automatically change depending on which display pane is active. Display
panes may be displayed vertically in Narrow View, or horizontally in Wide View. In Narrow View, move the
Joystick left or right to move the pane selector. In Wide View, move the Joystick up and down to move the
pane selector. To change between Wide View and Narrow View, push and hold the Joystick.
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MFD in Split Screen Mode (Wide View)
Pane Selector Box
- Move Joystick in
direction of purple
arrows to move
display pane
- Push and hold
Joystick to change
Narrow/Wide view
Purple Pane Selector
shows Charts
is the active display
pane
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Figure 1-16 Split Screen in Wide View
For information on viewing Charts and the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page with the flight plan map, see the
Flight Management Section.
For more information on Charts and how to enable Charts Full Screen, see the Additional Features Section.
Enabling/disabling split screen mode:
1) From the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page press the Charts Softkey, or press
the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode On’. If necessary, press the CHRT Opt Softkey and press the Full SCN
Softkey to disable full screen mode.
2) To disable the split screen mode, press the Charts Softkey again or press the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode
Off’. The display returns to the base page, either the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight
Plan’ Page.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM SETTINGS
System settings are managed from the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Pages. Fields shown in cyan text may be
edited. System time format, display units, and audio voice format settings are discussed in this section. For
other system settings, see the references to the respective sections.
If desired, the default system settings may be restored at any time.
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
2) Press the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
The message ‘Restore Setup X Page Defaults?’ is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Configure System
Time
Fields shown in Cyan may
be edited
Change Display
Unit Settings
Restore Page Defaults
Change audio alert
voice setting
Select System Setup Page
- Setup 1
- Setup 2
Figure 1-17 ‘Aux - System Setup 1/2’ Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DATE/TIME
The system obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page). System time (displayed in the lower right corner of
the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is set by adding/
subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
Figure 1-18 System Time (UTC Format)
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. If local time
format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ field is highlighted.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DISPLAY UNITS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system are listed on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
The units can be set according to the table from here.
Category
Navigation Angle
Settings
Affected Quantities
Track
Magnetic (North) * Heading
Course
Desired Track
True (North)
Bearing
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Nautical *
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Status Box)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page)
All speeds on MFD
Distance and Speed ***
†
Altitude and Vertical Speed
Temperature **
Fuel and Fuel Flow
Weight **
Position
Feet *
Meters
Celsius *
Fahrenheit
All altitudes on MFD
All elevations on MFD
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page)
††
Fuel parameters (‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page)
††
N/A
Kilograms
Pounds *
Pounds *
Kilograms
HDDD°MM.MM’ * All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
*** Not configurable
† Excludes: airspeed indicator, altitude, true airspeed (PFD), wind speed vector, map range (‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page),
CDI scaling (System Setup), and fuel range calculation (EIS)
†† Excludes: Engine Indication System (EIS)
Table 1-5 Display Units Settings (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page)
NOTE: The altimeter barometric correction units may only be changed using the softkeys on the PFD.
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Changing a display unit setting:
1) While on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
BARO TRANSITION ALERT
See the Flight Instruments Section for a discussion on setting the Baro Transition Alert.
AIRSPACE ALERTS
See the Flight Management Section for a discussion on Airspace Alerts settings.
FLIGHT DIRECTOR
The Flight Director command bar format can be set to Single Cue or X Pointer. See the Flight Instruments
and AFCS Section for more information.
MFD DATA BAR FIELDS
See the Flight Management Section for a discussion on the MFD Data Bar Fields settings.
GPS CDI
See the Flight Instruments Section for a discussion on setting the GPS CDI format.
COM CONFIGURATION
See the Audio Panel & CNS Section for a discussion on the COM Configuration for channel spacing.
NEAREST AIRPORT
See the Flight Management Section for a discussion on the Nearest Airport settings.
SYNCHRONIZATION
See the Flight Instruments Section for a discussion on the Synchronization settings.
PAGE NAVIGATION
The large FMS Knob displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates through the tabs. The small FMS Knob
navigates through the pages listed within a specific group. The number of clicks it takes to display the Page
Group Tabs and change to the next tab can be controlled from the Page Navigation box on the ‘Aux - System
Setup 2’ Page.
Off – Displays the Page Group Window with one click of either FMS Knob.
On – Displays the Page Group Window and navigates to the next page group with one click of either FMS Knob.
The crew can select from the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page the amount of time the Page Group Window is
displayed (in the lower right corner of the MFD). The timeout can range from two to ten seconds.
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Selecting page navigation settings:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Change On 1st Click’ field in the Page Navigation Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Timeout Seconds’ field in the Page Navigation Box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired number of seconds
7) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO
The ‘Audio’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page allows the audio alert voice setting (male or female).
Changing the audio alert voice:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice field in the ‘Audio’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired voice setting and press the ENT Key.
CHARTS
See the Additional Features Section for a discussion on chart settings.
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SYSTEM UTILITIES
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the ‘Aux - Utility’
Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a record of the
time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum groundspeeds—are
displayed from the time of the last reset.
Figure 1-19 Utility Page
TIMERS
The system timers available on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page include:
• Stopwatch-like generic timers
• Total time-in-flight timer
• Time since departure
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the countdown
on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before reaching zero on
a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when reset, the digits return
to zero.
Setting the generic timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the ENT Key.
4) If a starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
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5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (‘Pwr-On’ or ‘In-Air’) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled from
the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (‘Pwr-On’ or ‘In-Air’) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are
reset to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
SCHEDULER
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Switch fuel tanks”, “Order
lunch”, etc.) in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display based on a specific date
and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting), or recurrently whenever
the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting automatically reset to
the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, messages are retained until
deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Scheduler messages appear in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD and cause the Messages Softkey label
to change to a flashing ‘Message’ label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the ‘Messages’ Window and
acknowledges the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the ‘Messages’ label. Pressing the Messages
Softkey again removes the ‘Messages’ Window from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from
the message queue.
Figure 1-20 PFD Messages Window
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty field within the ‘Scheduler’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter text within the ‘Message’ Field to be displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the ‘Type’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• ‘Event’ — Message issued at the specified date/time
• ‘One-time’ — Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• ‘Periodic’ — Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YY) and press the ENT Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Message’ Field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
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1.5 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, PFD and MFD bezel, AFCS Controller keys, MFD Controller Keys, and
Audio Panel keys are automatically adjusted via built-in photocells when the COCKPIT - DISPLAYS dimming
knob is set to the DAY setting. If automatic adjustment is inadequate, display and key brightness can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the COCKPIT - DISPLAYS dimming knob, or
• Using the PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from the PFDs. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from any remaining displays.
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD Display’. If
desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to ‘MFD Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the PFD Setup Menu. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD Display’ or ‘MFD Display’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD Key’ or ‘MFD Key’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Auto’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Figure 1-21 PFD Setup Menu
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: In the event that the airspeed, attitude, altitude, or heading indications become unusable, refer
to the backup instruments.
The system increases pilot situational awareness by providing easy-to-scan Primary Flight Displays (PFDs)
featuring a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, vertical speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the
flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the
PFDs and are explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on each PFD:
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
– True Airspeed
• Vertical Navigation indications
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Mach number
– Turn Rate Indicator
– Ground Speed
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– DME Information Window (optional)
– Reference bugs
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
• Altimeter, showing
– HSI Map
• ADF/DME Tuning Window (optional)
– Barometric setting
• Ram Air Temperature (RAT)
– Selected Altitude
• International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
temperature deviation
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and
Glidepath Indicators
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
• System time
• Wind data
The PFDs also display various alerts and annunciations.
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20
19
18
17
16
1
15
14
2
13
3
12
4
5
11
6
10
7
9
8
1
Airspeed Indicator
11
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
2
Ground Speed
12
Turn Rate Indicator
3
Mach Number or True Airspeed
13
Altimeter Barometric Setting
4
Current Heading
14
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
5
Selected Heading Bug
15
Selected Altitude Bug
6
16
Altimeter
7
International Standard Atmosphere
(ISA) temperature deviation
Ram Air Temperature (RAT)
17
Selected Altitude
8
Softkeys
18
Navigation Status Box
9
System Time
19
Slip/Skid Indicator
10
Transponder Data Box
20
Attitude Indicator
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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9
8
1
2
7
6
5
4
3
1
Selected Heading
6
NAV Course
2
Wind Data
7
Barometric Minimum Alert Setting
3
DME Information Window (optional)
8
Glideslope Indicator
4
Bearing Information Windows
9
Marker Beacon Annunciation
5
HSI Map
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the current pertinent flight manual for applicable speed criteria and Vspeed values.
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed (TAS) in
knots or Mach number is displayed below the Airspeed Indicator. The ground speed is displayed to the left of
the TAS or Mach number. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals
of 10 knots, while minor tick marks on the moving tape are indicated at intervals of 5 knots. Speed indication
begins above 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed appears inside
the black pointer. The pointer remains black until reaching the high airspeed limit, at which point it appears
red.
Takeoff/approach
flap extension
speed limit
Indicated
Airspeed
Airspeed
Trend Vector
Landing flap
extension
speed limit
Ground
Speed
Figure 2-4 Red Pointer showing Overspeed
True
Airspeed
Figure 2-3 Airspeed Indicator
The Mach number is displayed below the Airspeed Indicator (see Figure 2-1) for airspeeds at or above Mach
0.4 or at altitudes exceeding 27,120 feet. The color of the indicator corresponds to the color of the indicated
airspeed pointer.
Flap extension maximum speed references for takeoff/approach (TA) and landing (LD) conditions are
displayed as flags to the right of the Airspeed Indicator for altitudes below 18,000 feet. These flags cannot be
turned off or modified. If the flaps are in either condition, a “barber pole” appears above the corresponding
extension limit airspeed. The airspeed pointer will turn red upon entering the barber pole region.
A red low speed awareness band extends up to the computed low speed awareness velocity, VLSA. An aural
stall warning is generated and the airspeed pointer turns red if the airspeed falls below VLSA. An open green
circle on the airspeed tape is called the Approach Speed Cue. It indicates a dynamically computed approach
reference speed.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
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tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses either
the high or low airspeed awareness ranges, the text of the indicated airspeed indication changes to amber while
the pointer remains black. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains constant or if any data needed to
calculate airspeed is not available.
The pilot can enable/disable the display of Vspeed Reference Bugs for Vref, Vapr, V1, Vr, V2, and Venr. When
enabled, the Vspeed Reference Bugs appear in their respective positions to the right of the airspeed scale. When
the indicated airspeed is below 20 knots, enabled Vspeed Reference Bugs and their numeric values appear in a
list at the bottom of the airspeed tape, ordered from highest to lowest. The crew cannot change the names of
the Vspeed Reference Bugs.
Landing
Takeoff
Vspeeds are categorized as either takeoff or landing. Takeoff Vspeed flags are automatically turned off when
airspeed reaches 160 knots. The order in which the categories are displayed in the ‘References’ Window is
determined by whether the aircraft is on the ground or in the air. When the aircraft is on the ground, the
takeoff Vspeeds are displayed at the top of the Vspeed list. When the aircraft is in the air, the landing Vspeeds
are displayed at the top.
Figure 2-5 Vspeed References, Approach Speed
Cue, and Low Speed Awareness Band
Vspeed
Flag
V1
1
VR
R
V2
2
VENR
E
VAPR
AP
VREF
RF
Table 2-1 Vspeed Flag Labels
Configuring individual Vspeed Reference Bugs:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field of the desired Vspeed to be changed.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to change the Vspeed in 1-kt increments. When a speed is changed from a default
value, an asterisk (*) appears next to the speed.
4) Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the On/Off field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to ‘On’ to enable or counterclockwise to ‘Off’ to disable selected Vspeed bug.
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
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References Window
References Window Menu
Figure 2-6 References Window and Menu
The pilot can also enable/disable all Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group.
Enabling/disabling Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) To activate or deactivate all Vspeed bugs, press the ENT Key with ‘All References (On or Off)’ highlighted.
4) To activate or deactivate Vspeed bugs by category, turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Takeoff References (On or
Off)’ or ‘Landing References (On or Off)’ and press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the References Window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Restoring all Vspeeds defaults:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Restore Defaults’ and press the ENT Key.
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer is displayed above the system time and can be accessed with the TMR/REF Softkey.
Starting the PFD generic timer:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey, then turn the large FMS Knob to select the time field (hh:mm:ss). Turn the FMS
Knobs to set the desired time, then press the ENT Key. The Up/Dn field is now highlighted.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Up/Down window. Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’, then press
the ENT Key. ‘Start?’ is now highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key to start the timer (if the timer is counting down, it will start counting up after reaching zero).
Subsequent presses of the ENT Key will stop, then reset the timer. Press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey
to remove the window.
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ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
8
1
7
2
6
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-7 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚. When the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) system is enabled, the pitch scale is reduced to
10˚ up and 7.5˚ down.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
Figure 2-8 Slip/Skid Indication
The symbolic aircraft on the Attitude Indicator changes appearance based on selection of AFCS Flight Director
Command Bar format. Both PFDs show the same Command Bar format and Aircraft Symbol. The Command
Bar format (Single Cue or X Pointer) is crew-selectable on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
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Single Cue
X Pointer
Figure 2-9 Flight Director/Symbolic Aircraft Format Settings
Changing Command Bar and Aircraft Symbol format:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Single Cue’ or ‘X Pointer’ in the Flight Director box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the Flight Director format.
ALTIMETER
The Altimeter displays 600 feet (or 200 meters when set to meters) of barometric altitude at a time on a
moving tape rolling number gauge. Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet
(or 50 meters). Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20 feet (or 10 meters). The indicated altitude is displayed
inside the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the overlay value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box below the Selected and above the Indicated Altitudes (Figure 2-10).
The Altitude Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the left of the altitude range strip when
the aircraft is either climbing or descending. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the tip of the altitude
pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down according to the rate of vertical speed. For any
constant rate of vertical speed, the moving end of the line shows approximately what the indicated altitude
value will be in six seconds. The trend vector is absent if the altitude remains constant or if data needed for
calculation is not available due to a system failure.
Setting the Selected Altitude:
Turn the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude.
If set, the Minimum Altitude Alert value is also available for the Selected Altitude.
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Selected
Altitude
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Selected
Altitude
(Meters
Overlay)
Indicated
Altitude
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters
Overlay)
Barometric
Setting
(Hectopascals)
Figure 2-10 Altimeter (Feet with and without Metric Overlay)
Barometric
Setting
Displaying the complementary altitude overlay:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the Meters (or Feet) Softkey to enable/disable the complementary altitude indication overlay.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical deviation, moving
the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the
descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not
reestablish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
Selecting standard barometric pressure:
Push the BARO Knob to select standard pressure; ‘STD BARO’ is displayed in barometric setting box.
Or:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD Baro Softkey; ‘STD BARO’ is displayed in barometric setting box.
Figure 2-11 Standard Barometric Altimeter Setting
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
Or, press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa; see Figure 2-10).
4) Press the BACK Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
ALTIMETER SYNCHRONIZATION
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between PFDs, the barometric settings appear amber. The settings
can be synchronized on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page. Once the settings are synchronized (BARO SYNC
turned on), they remain synchronized until the setting is turned off.
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘BARO’ in the Synchronization box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘ON’ or counterclockwise to ‘OFF’.
Barometric Settings not
Synchronized on PFD
Displayed in Amber
Figure 2-12 ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, Barometric Pressure Synchronization
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BARO QFE ALTIMETER SETTING
WARNING: A QFE altimeter setting should only be used in the terminal environment for the corresponding
issuing airport to ensure adequate obstacle clearance.
When a QFE altimeter setting is used, the BARO QFE setting enables the system to automatically adjust
certain altitudes in the system between QNH (height above sea level) and QFE (height above airport reference
datum). Altitudes that may be automatically adjusted by the system between QFE and QNH altitudes are
displayed in parenthesis when based on a BARO QFE setting. Refer to PFD Annunciations and Alerting
Functions in this section for QFE annunciations.
BARO QFE mode should be enabled and the altimeter should be set to the QFE setting in conjunction with
each other. This can be done automatically by arming QFE while the baro setting is still set to STD BARO
ahead of time; at the appropriate time set the baro setting on the PFD to the QFE setting when QFE operation
is required. When both PFD baro settings are set to something other than STD BARO with QFE armed, BARO
QFE mode will automatically become active.
When entering QFE VNAV altitude constraints, it is important to note that only the current QFE reference
is used. It is not possible to enter a QFE constraint for the destination while the origin is the current reference.
Therefore, while QFE is active and the QFE reference is the origin:
• QFE constraints cannot be entered for the destination airport/runway
• QFE constraints cannot be entered for any arrival/approach waypoints
• Entering an MSL/AGL constraint for any departure/enroute waypoints displays a message clarifying that the
constraint will be shown as a converted QFE value relative to the origin
NOTE: ‘FMS ORIG’ and ‘FMS DEST’ references do not dynamically update with flight plan changes. Always
verify QFE settings when changing the QFE reference (airfield, runway, etc.) or flight plan and re-enter
settings on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
NOTE: VPTH, VSD, and VNV discontinuities may occur when switching from QNH to QFE Baro settings.
Setting BARO QFE while on the ground:
1) Set the appropriate QFE BARO setting on both PFDs.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘REF’ field in the BARO QFE Box.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ or ‘FMS ORIG’, and press the ENT Key to accept.
6) If ‘Manual’ was selected, use the FMS Knobs to enter the field elevation of the departure airport in the ‘ELEV’
field and press the ENT Key.
7) If ‘FMS ORIG’ was selected, the field elevation of the selected departure airport/runway from the flight plan will
be shown in the BARO QFE Box. Verify this information is correct.
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8) The ‘On/Off’ Field will automatically highlight, turn the small FMS Knob to change the selection from ‘Off’ to
‘On’.
9) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor. QFE mode is now active.
Change the BARO setting on both PFDs to STD BARO to disable BARO QFE.
Setting BARO QFE while in flight:
1) Set the BARO setting to STD BARO on both PFDs.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘REF’ field in the BARO QFE Box.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ or ‘FMS DEST’, and press the ENT Key to accept.
6) If ‘Manual’ was selected, use the FMS Knobs to enter the field elevation of the destination airport in the ‘ELEV’
field and press the ENT Key.
7) If ‘FMS DEST’ was selected, the field elevation of the selected destination airport/runway from the flight plan
will be shown in the BARO QFE Box. Verify this information is correct.
8) The ‘On/Off’ Field will automatically highlight, turn the small FMS Knob to change the selection from ‘Off’ to
‘On’.
9) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor. BARO QFE mode is now armed.
10) Enter the reference field QFE BARO setting. As soon as barometric settings change from STD Baro, QFE mode
activates.
Change the BARO setting on both PFDs to STD BARO to disable BARO QFE. The desired BARO setting can now be
entered.
BARO TRANSITION ALERTS
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the barometric
pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition Alert occurs when
climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The flight level Baro Transition
Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at 200 feet above this flight level.
The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the barometric pressure setting. The pilot
can enable/disable either of the Baro Transition Alerts, and choose the altitude or flight level used to trigger the
alerts.
Setting the Baro Transition Alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Altitude or Level in the Baro Transition Alert box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to turn the alerts ‘OFF’ or ‘ON’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude or level and press the ENT Key.
6) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob.
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Figure 2-13 Baro Transition Alert
(‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page)
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape labeled at 2000
and 4000 fpm (or 20 and 10 mps) with minor tick marks every 1000 fpm (or 5 mps). The current vertical
speed is displayed in the pointer along the tape. Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or descent rate
is greater than 100 fpm (or 0.5 mps). If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 4000 fpm (or 20 mps), the pointer
appears at the corresponding edge of the tape and the rate appears inside the pointer.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a VNV
Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features and refer to the Supplemental Flight Data section for more
information about VNV indications on the PFDs.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
When Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used (Figure 2-14), the Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) appears
to the left of the altimeter and is displayed with a magenta ‘V’ at the top of the scale and a magenta chevron
indicating the VNV vertical deviation. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” alert.
The VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management Section
for details on VNV features and refer to Supplemental Flight Data in this chapter for more information about
VNV indications on the PFD.
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-15) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is
tuned in the active NAV field and the selected course and heading are within 107°. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
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VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Scale
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
Glideslope Preview when
FMS is NAV source
Glideslope
Indicator
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Figure 2-14 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
Figure 2-15 Glideslope Indicator
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the
active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC clearance, the aircraft may be
centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath Indicator appears.
NOTE: When the temperature is warmer than a standard day, the system-generated glidepath guidance for
a non-precision approach may cross below the FAF minimum altitude restriction.
The glidepath is analogous to the glideslope for RNAV approach service levels supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (L/VNAV, LPV) or advisory vertical guidance (LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual). When one of these RNAV
approaches is loaded into the flight plan, GPS is the selected navigation source, and SBAS is used for vertical
approach guidance, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta diamond (Figure 2-16). Full-scale deflection
(two dots), is angular with upper and lower limits. The upper limit is ±492 feet (150 meters) and lower limits
depend on approach service level.
• LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual is ±148 feet (45 meters).
• LPV is ±49 feet (15 meters).
If the approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach, and between the FAF and MAP, Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
appear as vertical white lines (Figure 2-17) indicating the area where deviation exceeds allowable limits for the
glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator provides a scaled representation of ±75 feet of the calculated
glidepath. The “window” between the lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The length of the lines
will change while progressing through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator enters an excessive
deviation area, the Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators are amber.
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach and SBAS is unavailable, baro VNAV (barometric vertical
navigation) is used for vertical guidance. This occurs due to any of the following conditions:
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• SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
• The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
• SBAS is manually disabled on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page
Baro VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV procedure does not support
SBAS vertical guidance. Baro VNAV is an RNAV system which uses barometric altitude information from the
aircraft’s pitot-static system and air data computer to compute vertical guidance for the flight crew. This vertical
path is typically computed between two waypoints or as an angle from a single waypoint. While using baro
VNAV guidance, the flight crew should check for any temperature limitations on the approach chart which may
result in approach restrictions
While baro VNAV is being utilized, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta pentagon (Figure 2-17). If
the approach type downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the pentagon.
Glidepath
Indicator
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 2-16 Glidepath Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
(excessive
deviation)
Figure 2-17 Glidepath Indicator (Baro VNAV)
and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation.
Letters indicate the cardinal points and numeric labels occur every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals
and minor tick marks at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI, and
the current track is represented on the HSI by a magenta diamond indicator. The HSI also presents turn rate,
course deviation, bearing, and navigation source information and is available in two formats (360˚ compass rose
and HSI Map).
Changing the HSI display format:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Map, HSI Map, Inset Trfc, HSI Trfc, or Map Off Softkey.
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The 360˚ HSI contains a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI), with a Course Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a
sliding deviation bar and scale. The course pointer is a single line arrow (FMS, VOR1, and LOC1) or a double
line arrow (VOR2 or LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/From arrow rotates with
the course pointer and is displayed when the active NAVAID is received.
The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay capabilities
such as topographical, weather, and land information. The HSI Map contains a Course Pointer, a combined To/
From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral deviation scale. Upon passing a station, the To/
From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the HSI Map
can appear either as an arrowhead (FMS, VOR, OBS) as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight Management
Section for information about using HSI Map overlays.
18
16
17
1
2
15
3
14
4
5
13
6
12
7
11
8
10
9
Figure 2-18 Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
56
1
Turn Rate Indicator
10
Cross-Track Error
2
Selected Heading
11
To/From Indicator
3
Heading Bug
12
Course Pointer
4
Lateral Deviation Scale
13
Flight Phase
5
Navigation source
14
Current Track Indicator
6
Aircraft
7
8
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
Rotating Compass Rose
Selected Course or Desired
Track
16 Turn Rate/Heading Trend
Vector
17 Current Heading
9
OBS Mode Active
18
15
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Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation Source
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
Course Pointer
Figure 2-19 HSI Map
To the upper left of the HSI, the Selected Heading shows in cyan which corresponds to the cyan heading
bug on the compass rose. The Desired Track (DTK) shows in magenta to the upper right of the HSI when
the selected navigation source is FMS and OBS Mode is not active. The Selected Course (CRS) shows to the
upper right of the HSI when the selected navigation source is VOR or LOC and in magenta when the selected
navigation source is FMS with OBS Mode active. Upon station passage, the To/From Indicator flips and points
to the tail of the aircraft, just like a conventional To/From flag. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on
the can appear in two different ways: an arrowhead (FMS, VOR, OBS) or a diamond (LOC).
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Push the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Push the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station (see OBS Mode for adjusting a FMS course).
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected
Course
Selected
Heading
Selected
Heading
Bug
Figure 2-20 Heading and Course Indications
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Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page and are either
corrected to the computed magnetic variation (‘Mag Var’) or referenced to true north (denoted ‘T’). When an
approach referenced to true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change
the navigation angle setting to ‘True’ at the appropriate time.
Figure 2-21 Heading and Course Indications (Referenced to True North)
Changing the navigation angle setting:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘NAV Angle’ in the ‘Display Units’ box (following figure).
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
• True - References angles to true north (denoted with ‘T’)
• Magnetic - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (‘Mag Var’)
Figure 2-22 ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, Navigation Angle Settings
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TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and
right of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector
shows the current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in six seconds, based
on the present turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the
standard turn rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates
greater than four deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is
no longer valid.
Half-standard
Turn Rate
Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 deg/sec
Figure 2-23 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can displays on the HSI for NAV and GPS sources by
pressing the PFD Opt Softkey then a Bearing Softkey. The bearing pointers are cyan and are single-line
(Bearing 1) or double-line (Bearing 2). A pointer symbol shows in the information window to indicate the
navigation source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are visually separated from the CDI by a
white ring, except when the HSI Map is enabled. Bearing pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible
due to data unavailability.
DME Information Window
(optional)
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Distance
Bearing 1 Information Window
Distance to
Bearing Source
Bearing
Source
Pointer
Icon
Bearing 1
Pointer
Bearing 2
Pointer
Bearing 2
Information
Window
Figure 2-24 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
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When a bearing pointer is displayed, the associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows are displayed at the lower sides of the HSI and give the following information:
• Bearing source (FMS, NAV, ADF)
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, FMS)
• Pointer icon
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Frequency (ADF)
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
identifier when the station is within range. If FMS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed instead of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and ‘NO DATA’ is displayed in the information window if
the NAV radio is not receiving a VOR station or if FMS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not
selected.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information
window with NAV 1.
3) Press either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to display the desired bearing pointer and information
window with NAV 2.
4) Press either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to change the bearing source to FMS.
5) Press either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to change the bearing source to ADF (ADF radio
installation is optional).
6) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey
again.
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
NOTE: DME radio installation is optional.
The DME Information Window is displayed above the Bearing Information Windows and show the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “– –.– NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel & CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the Bearing Information Window.
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
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COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
NOTE: If a heading change of greater than 105˚ with respect to the course is made, the CDI on the Arc HSI
switches to the opposite side of the deviation scale and displays reverse sensing.
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
Flight
Phase
Navigation
Source
Navigation
Source
Crosstrack
Error
Flight
Phase
CDI
Scale
Crosstrack
Error
CDI
HSI Map
360º HSI
Figure 2-25 Course Deviation Indicator
The CDI can display two sources of navigation: FMS or NAV (VOR, LOC). Color indicates the current
navigation source: magenta (for FMS) or green (for NAV); the Selected Course readout also follows these color
indications. When coupled to FMS, the full scale limits for the CDI are defined by a GPS-derived distance.
When coupled to NAV, the CDI has the same angular limits as a mechanical CDI. If the CDI exceeds the
maximum deviation on the scale (two dots) while coupled to FMS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed
below the white aircraft symbol.
Navigation
Source Selected
on Both PFDs
Figure 2-26 Navigation Sources
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Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from FMS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to FMS.
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
FMS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Selecting the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-27 Selecting a Navigation Source
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation turns
amber on both displays (unless synchronized). Once the CDIs are synchronized (CDI Synchronization enabled),
they remain synchronized until the setting is disabled.
Synchronizing the CDIs:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux’ page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘System Setup’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the CDI On/Off field in the ‘Synchronization’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
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Figure 2-28 System Setup Page, CDI Synchronization
The system automatically switches from FMS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
• The FMS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
FMS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until GPS information becomes invalid. Activating
a Vector-to-Final (VTF; see the Flight Management Section) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation
source; FMS steering guidance is not provided after this switch.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to
the FAF (following figure), it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from GPS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
Fix Prior to the FAF
Glideslope Intercept Point
Figure 2-29 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
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GPS CDI SCALING
When FMS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current FMS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page inside the
‘GPS CDI’ Box and the full-scale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 NM, 1.0 NM, 0.3 NM, or Auto)
from this page (following figure). If the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and
terminal phases, the CDI is scaled accordingly and the selected setting is be displayed rather than the flight
phase annunciation.
Changing the selected GPS CDI setting:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux’ page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘System CDI’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
7) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Figure 2-30 ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, GPS CDI Settings
When set to ‘Auto’ (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (following figures and table).
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Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Terminal
Approach
(Oceanic 4.0 nm if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-31 Automatic CDI Scaling
• When a departure procedure is active, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not CA or FA
• At 30 nm from the departure airport the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport)
or the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0 nm).
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (see following figures). This transition normally
occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling automatically
once the approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-to-Final (VTF) is selected.
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
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2 nm
FAF
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
angle based
on database
information
course width
2 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
angle set
by system
350 ft
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-32 Typical LNAV, LNAV+V, and Visual Approach
Service Level CDI Scaling
Figure 2-33 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LP, LPV, and LP+V Approach
Service Level CDI Scaling
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal scaling under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not CA or FA
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Approach
(Non-precision)
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Approach
(LP+V)
Approach
(LP)
Missed Approach
Annunciation
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
LNAV
LNAV+V
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (see Figure 2-32)
VISUAL
L/VNAV
LPV
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (see Figure 2-33)
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
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OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (FMS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to” waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected (see Figure 2-34).
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving map.
If desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the FMS flight
plan returns to normal operation with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line.
FMS
Selected
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-34 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a FMS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Push the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
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As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in Figure 2-35. Pressing the SUSP Softkey deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
Figure 2-35 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
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2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including
temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
The system Ram Air Temperature display (RAT), which is adjusted for compressibility effects, and the
deviation from International Standard Atmosphere Temperature display (ISA) are shown in degrees Celsius
(°C) by default in the lower left of the PFD under normal display conditions, or below the true airspeed in
reversionary mode.
Normal Display
Reversionary Mode
Figure 2-36 Outside Air Temperature
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Changing temperature display units:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Temperature’ field in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Celsius’ or ‘Fahrenheit’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the
selection.
5) To cancel the selection, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
WIND DATA
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed in a window to the upper left of the HSI. When the
window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window shows ‘NO WIND
DATA’. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways:
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Figure 2-37 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data below the Selected Heading.
3) Press one of the Option softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• Option 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
• Option 2: Total wind direction arrow with numeric speed
• Option 3: Total wind direction arrow with digital numeric direction and speed
4) To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management section for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD according to the
criteria listed in Table 2-2.
Top of Descent Message
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
FMS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Phase of
Flight
Figure 2-38 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
VNV Indication Removed
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey selected on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
X
X
X
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint cannot be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
X
Last altitude-constrained waypoint in active flight plan reached
X
X
(30 sec before)
Criteria
Table 2-3 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
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2.3 GARMIN SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY (SVT)
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
Figure 2-39 Synthetic Vision Imagery
The optional Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) is a visual enhancement to the system. SVT depicts a forwardlooking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of view is approximately
64 degrees laterally. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD), or on the Multifunction
Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS
three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arc-second database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. Loss
of any of the required data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled until the
required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle database. Cultural
features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even
if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with
lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Terrain-SVT is integrated within SVT to provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain
and obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and amber shading
on the PFD.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the terrain or obstacle data displayed by the SVT.
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
• Pathways
• Airport Signs
• Flight Path Marker
• Runway Display
• Horizon Heading Marks
• Terrain Alerting
• Traffic Display
• Obstacle Alerting
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch attitude scale is reduced from 20
degrees up and down to 10 degrees up to 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The softkeys
are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign. The Back Softkey returns to the previous level of
softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
Pathways, HDG LBL, and APT Sign Softkeys are only available when the Terrain Softkey is activated (gray
with black characters). After activating the Terrain Softkey, the Pathways, HDG LBL, and APT Sign softkeys
may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When system power is cycled, the last selected
state (on or off) of the Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign softkeys is remembered by the system.
• Pathways Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HDG LBL Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
• APT Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the Terrain Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the Pathways Softkey.
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Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HDG LBL Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APT Sign Softkey.
SVT FEATURES
Airport
Runway
Selected
Altitude
Pathways Color
Matches CDI
Indicating Nav
Source
Flight
Path
Marker
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Horizon
Heading
Marks
Airplane
Symbol
Synthetic
Terrain
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 2-40 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
PATHWAYS
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active FMS or FMS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by white boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the navigation map indicating an inactive leg.
Selected
Altitude
Programmed
Altitudes
Figure 2-41 Programmed and Selected Altitude
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV and Visual approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not
be used independent of the CDI, VDI, glidepath indicator, and glideslope indicator. They are removed from
the display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Departure and Enroute
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers
at each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first
leg of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is
the first active FMS leg or active leg with FMS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight
plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude
selected or programmed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 2-42 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
Descent and Approach
During an approach, Pathways be can shown for the programmed descent, level transition flight, and
at the Selected Altitude within the approach segments. When an approach providing vertical guidance is
activated, the corresponding approach glideslope or glidepath will be displayed using a color corresponding
to the selected navigation source and conditions.
White Pathways represent the next segment of the approach that is not yet active. Magenta Pathways
represent the active segment with FMS as the navigation source. Green Pathways indicate the ILS/LOC
navigation source. During the arrival/approach phases of flight, gray pathways indicate the anticipated
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preview glidepath/glideslope. The gray Approach Preview Pathways will be displayed beginning at the start
of the segment leading to the FAF waypoint. With active approach vertical guidance, the selected altitude
will be displayed as a level gray Pathway if the Selected Altitude is lower than the glidepath/glideslope.
The gray Selected Altitude Preview Pathways are displayed until they converge with the green glideslope
or magenta glidepath pathways. If approach vertical guidance is not yet active, pathways at the Selected
Altitude will be displayed in magenta throughout the arrival/approach.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if FMS is the selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with the
LOC selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and
glideslope. VOR, LOC, BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are
displayed in magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than FMS or ILS, such as heading legs or
VOR final approach courses are not displayed.
Missed Approach
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
MAHP
Figure 2-43 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than FMS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
FLIGHT PATH MARKER (FPM)
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Wind
Vector
Figure 2-44 Flight Path Marker
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
Pathway boxes.
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The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate a
potential conflict. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or obstacle avoidance should not be made using
only the FPM.
ZERO PITCH LINE
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
HORIZON HEADING
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HDG LBL Softkey.
TRAFFIC
NOTE: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a partial
symbol.
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic displayed on the navigation or
traffic maps. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For more
details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
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AIRPORT SIGNS
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Figure 2-45 Airport Signs
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until the
aircraft is approximately 8 nm from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the airspeed or altitude
display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APT Sign Softkey.
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RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
Airport
Runway
Other
Runway
on Airport
Figure 2-46 Airport Runways
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
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TERRAIN AND OBSTACLE ALERTING
PULL UP
Annunciation
Obstacle
Caution
TERRAIN
annunciation
Terrain
Warning
Terrain
Caution
Potential
Impact
Area
Figure 2-47 Terrain Warning and Caution, Obstacle Caution
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the amber terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning alert
on the navigation map displays. For more detailed information regarding Terrain-SVT refer to the Hazard
Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower or wind
turbine symbols found on the navigation maps and charts. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view
with relative height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the Inset map and MFD moving map
display, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warn of potential conflict with the
aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000
feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
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FIELD OF VIEW
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
Figure 2-48 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines forming a
V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
Configuring field of view:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Map’ group options to ‘Field of View’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Navigation Map’ Page.
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2.4 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to Appendix A for more
information on alerts and annunciations.
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
The System Messages Window conveys messages to the flight crew regarding problems with the System.
When a new message is issued, the Messages Softkey flashes to alert the flight crew. It continues to flash
until selected, which opens the System Messages Window and acknowledges the message(s) which initiated
the flashing. When the window is open, messages for which the trigger conditions no longer exist turn gray.
Messages generated while the window is open are not automatically displayed, but cause the Messages Softkey
to begin flashing again. Pressing the Messages Softkey while the System Messages Window is open closes the
window, unless the Messages Softkey is flashing.
Messages
Window
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure 2-49 System Messages
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in blue, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel & CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Outer Marker
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
Altimeter
Figure 2-50 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ALTITUDE ALERTING
The Altitude Alerting function provides the pilot with visual and aural alerts when approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The following occur when
approaching the Selected Altitude:
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter)
changes to black text on a cyan background, flashes for five seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to cyan text
on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude), the Selected Altitude changes to amber text on a black background, flashes for five seconds, and an
aural tone is generated.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-51 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: A Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available. This annunciation is only
available when Terrain-SVT alerting has been inhibited, is not available, or has failed.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet (50 meters) below
the prescribed altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber LOW ALT annunciation appears to the top left of the
Altimeter, flashes for several seconds, then remains displayed until the condition is resolved.
Figure 2-52 Low Altitude Annunciation on PFD
MINIMUM ALTITUDE ALERTING
For altitude awareness, a barometric minimum altitude alert can be set in the ‘References’ Window and is reset
if the current approach is deleted, another approach is loaded, or on the next avionics power cycle.
If desired, the system can also compensate this altitude based on a pilot-supplied temperature at the
destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases the
displayed minimum altitude alert accordingly.
When minimum altitude alerting is active, the altitude setting is displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter.
Once the altitude is within the range of the tape, a bug appears at the selected altitude on the Altimeter. The
following visual annunciations occur when approaching the minimum altitude alert setting:
• When the aircraft altitude is beyond 100 feet of the alert setting, the BARO MIN or COMP MIN box appears
with the altitude in cyan text. The bug appears on the altitude tape in cyan (or magenta for COMP MIN) once
in range.
• When the aircraft is within 100 feet of the alert, the bug and text become white.
• Once the aircraft reaches the alert, the bug and text become amber and a “Minimums, Minimums,” voice alert
occurs.
Beyond 100 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Minimum
Bug
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-53 Minimum Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the alert
setting. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the alert altitude, once it reaches 50 feet above the
alert altitude, alerting is disabled.
Setting the Minimum Altitude Alert and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select BARO or TEMP COMP. Off is selected by default. Press the ENT Key or turn
the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet/4,876 meters when ‘BARO’ or
‘TEMP COMP’ is selected).
5) If TEMP COMP was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field and then
enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
Figure 2-54 BARO and TEMP COMP Minimums
BARO QFE INDICATIONS
BARO QFE will be set to armed mode if either PFD baro altimeter is set to STD BARO and BARO QFE on the
‘Aux - System Setup Page 1’ on the MFD is set to ‘On’. When the altimeter setting is moved from STD BARO,
BARO QFE Mode is active. During QFE operations an annunciation will be displayed to the left of the altimeter.
BARO QFE
Annunciation
BARO QFE Mode Active
BARO QFE Mode Armed
Figure 2-55 BARO QFE Altimeter Annunciations on the PFD
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.5 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in the following table can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur
(following figure). Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
GPS LOI
Location
Right of HSI
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits (annunciation
GPS INTEG OK Right of HSI
displayed for 5 seconds)
Lower left of Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS position to compute
DR
aircraft symbol navigation data and sequence active flight plan waypoints
Table 2-4 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-56 Example HSI Annunciations
DR Mode causes the following items on the PFD to be shown in amber:
• CDI (when FMS is the selected navigation source; removed after 20 minutes in DR mode operation)
• Current Track Indicator and Current Track Line
• Wind data and pointers in the Wind Data Box on the PFD
• FMS bearing pointers
• Distances in the Bearing Information windows
• Active Flight Plan distances, bearings, and ETE values
The accuracy items should be verified when operating in DR Mode.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the sensors exceed
a specified amount, a miscompare annunciation is displayed in black text on an amber background. If one or
both of the sensed values are unavailable, a no compare annunciation is displayed with black text on a white
background. Refer to the Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
Miscompare Annunciations
No Compare
Annunciations
Figure 2-57 Sensor Comparator Annunciations on the PFD
The following is a list of the possible annunciations:
Annunciation
ALT
IAS
HDG
Condition
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 10 knots.
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors is > 7 knots.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
PIT
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
ROL
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
VDI
Difference in temperature compensated altitudes is > 50 ft.
ALT
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
IAS
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
HDG
No data from one or both heading sensors.
PIT
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
ROL
No data from one or both roll sensors.
VDI
No temperature compensated altitude data available.
Table 2-5 Sensor Comparator Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated on the upper left center of the PFD. These annunciations
reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the PFD Opt Softkey accesses the Sensors
Softkey. Pressing the Sensors Softkey accesses the ADC and AHRS softkeys. These softkeys allow switching of
the sensors being viewed on each PFD. With certain types of sensor failures, the system may make some sensor
selections automatically. The GPS sensor cannot be switched manually.
Figure 2-58 Reversionary Sensor Annunciation
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
Condition
BOTH ON ADC1
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC1.
BOTH ON ADC2
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC2.
BOTH ON AHRS1
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS1.
BOTH ON AHRS2
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS2.
BOTH
ON GPS1
Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS1.
BOTH
ON GPS2
Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS2.
USING ADC1
PFD2 is displaying data from ADC1. Shown while PFD1 is displaying data from ADC2.
USING ADC2
PFD1 is displaying data from ADC2. Shown while PFD2 is displaying data from ADC1.
USING AHRS1
PFD2 is displaying data from AHRS1. Shown while PFD1 is displaying data from AHRS2.
USING AHRS2
PFD1 is displaying data from AHRS2. Shown while PFD2 is displaying data from AHRS1.
USING
GPS1
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
USING
GPS2
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
Table 2-6 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
GARMIN SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
Garmin SVT™ is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs.
SVT is disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVT data,
the PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
• Attitude data
• 4.9 arc-second terrain data
• Heading data
• Obstacle data
• GPS position data
• TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or
failed
SVT UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
During extreme pitch attitudes, the display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or bottom
of the screen to represent earth or sky. The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great
enough to completely fill the display. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the horizon during extreme
pitch attitudes.
Blue Band
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Figure 2-59 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red extreme pitch warning chevrons pointing toward the
horizon are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon line.
Nose High
Nose Low
Figure 2-60 Pitch Attitude Warnings
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from the PFD (and corresponding softkeys are disabled) when the aircraft
experiences unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• Transponder Status Box
• Minimum Altitude Alert
• Flight director Command Bars
• PFD Setup Menu
• Inset Map
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• Ram Air Temperature (RAT)
• International Standard
Atmosphere Temperature (ISA)
temperature deviation
– Timer/References
• Selected Altitude
– Nearest Airports
• VNV Target Altitude
– Flight Plan
• System Time
• DME Information Window
(optional)
– Alerts
• Wind data
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• Altimeter Barometric Setting
– Procedures
– ADF/DME Tuning (optional)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for limitations.
The system offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically monitoring critical
system parameters and providing system alerts during all phases of flight. The Engine Indication System (EIS)
displays electrical, fuel, engine, and other system information on the left side of the Multi Function Display
(MFD).
EIS Display
Figure 3-1 Multi Function Display (Normal)
The EIS instrument types include vertical slider gauges, horizontal slide bar indicators, and digital displays.
Green bands indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution and warning, respectively.
When unsafe operating conditions occur, displays and labels may change color corresponding to the level of the
condition. The pointers (labeled left, L, and right, R) on the horizontal bar indicators appear in white to indicate
normal operation and change to amber or red to indicate caution or warning conditions.
If sensory data to an instrument becomes invalid or unavailable, an red or amber “X” is shown across the
instrument. If a display value is out of range, dashes ‘---’ are shown instead of a display.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
1
1
2
12
2
3
4
3
5
13
4
5
6
14
7
12
15
8
13
16
9
10
6
8
17
18
11
10
19
20
21
22
Figure 3-2 EIS Display (Normal Mode)
7
9
14
15
17
22
19
Figure 3-3 EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)
1 Thrust Mode
Displays the trust mode indications CRU for Cruise, CLB for Max Climb, or T/O for Takeoff.
When the Thrust Lever Angle (TLA) position corresponds to the indicated Thrust Mode, the
indication is shown in green; otherwise, the indication appears in white.
2 N1 Target Value
Displays the minimum N1 target digital value for both engines.
3 N1 Target Bug
Displays the N1 target bug on the vertical scale.
The N1 target bug is based on the indicated Thrust Mode for each engine.
4 Engine Fan Rotation Speed (N1) Displays the engine fan rotation speed for each engine.
The N1 display ranges from 20 to 110% of maximum rotational speed. Values and limits
are obtained from the Full Authority Digital Engine Controller (FADEC). If N1 drops
below 20%, the sliders are removed from the scale while the displays remain.
5 SYNC Indicator
94
Is displayed in green between the left and right engine N1 indicators when the N1 values
of the engines are synchronized.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
6 Oil Pressure
Displays engine oil pressure in pounds per square inch (PSI).
Normal mode: Pressure is displayed on a vertical scale.
Reversionary mode: Pressure is displayed in numeric digits.
7 Oil Temperature
Displays engine oil temperature in degrees Celsius (°C).
Normal mode: Temperature is displayed on a vertical scale.
Reversionary mode: Temperature is displayed in numeric digits.
8 Fuel Quantity
Displays left and right wing tanks and total fuel quantity in pounds (LBS).
Normal mode: Quantity is displayed on vertical scale and in numeric digits.
Reversionary mode: Quantity is displayed in numeric digits. No total is displayed.
9 Fuel Flow
Displays current fuel flow for each engine in pounds per hour (PPH)
10 Fuel Temperature
Displays fuel temperature in degrees Celsius (°C).
11 Crew Alerting System (CAS)
Displays the Crew Alerting System (CAS) on the EIS display in normal mode. Up to 15
messages can be displayed. When more than 14 messages accumulate, the CAS softkey
becomes available.
In Revisionary mode, CAS is displayed on right side of display.
Message Window
12 Interstage Turbine Temperature Displays the ITT in degrees Celsius (°C).
(ITT)
When the respective engine ignitors are commanded on, ‘IGN’ appears in green text at
the top of the ITT scales.
13 Engine High Pressure Turbine
The N2 displays the engine high pressure turbine rotation speeds as a percentage.
Rotation Speed (N2)
14 Direct Current (DC) Electrical
Displays both DC Voltage (Volts) and DC Ampere (Amps).
Normal mode: Electrical is displayed on a vertical scale and in numeric digits.
Reversionary mode: Electrical is displayed in numeric digits only.
15 Battery Electrical
Displays Battery electrical information.
Normal mode: Displays Battery Voltage (Volts) and DC Ampere (Amps).
Reversionary mode: Displays Battery Voltage (Volts) only.
16 Cabin Pressure Rate of Change Displays the cabin pressure rate of change in 1,000 feet per minute (FPM).
Normal mode: Pressure is displayed on a vertical scale and in numeric digits.
Reversionary mode: Not displayed.
17 Cabin Pressure Altitude
Displays the cabin pressure altitude in 5,000 foot increments. The cabin altitude scale
and corresponding “CABIN ALT” CAS messages shift up to higher altitude when in
high altitude pressurization mode. High altitude mode is active whenever all the
following are true:
• The takeoff or destination elevation is above 8,000 feet
• The aircraft altitude is less than 24,500 feet
• The pressurization system has verified the conditions
Normal mode: Pressure is displayed on a vertical scale and in numeric digits.
Reversionary mode: Pressure is displayed in numeric digits only.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
18 Destination Elevation*
Displays the destination elevation in feet or meters as selected.
Not displayed in Revisionary mode.
19 Differential Cabin Pressure
Displays the differential cabin pressure.
Normal mode: Pressure is displayed on a horizontal scale and in numeric digits.
Reversionary mode: Pressure is displayed in numeric digits only.
20 Aileron Trim
Displays the aileron trim position.
Reversionary mode: Not displayed.
21 Rudder Trim
Displays the rudder trim position.
Reversionary mode: Not displayed.
22 Flap Position
Displays flap position settings.
Normal mode: Position is displayed on a rotating scale.
Reversionary mode: Position displays Up (UP), Takeoff and Approach (TO/APR),
and Landing (Land).
*Destination field elevation setting from feet to meters is selectable on the MFD ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ page, however, the display of cabin pressure on the
EIS is always in feet, including the destination field elevation.
DESTINATION ELEVATION
The destination elevation is displayed below the cabin altitude readings on the EIS display. This value is
retained by the system on power-down.
Setting the destination elevation:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘DEST ELV’ field.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the destination elevation (in 10-ft increments from -1,000 to 14,000 feet or
in 10-m increments if metric units are chosen).
4) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 EIS DISPLAY (REVERSIONARY MODE)
In the event of a PFD or MFD display failure, the display(s) operating in Reversionary Mode are configured to
present PFD symbology together with the EIS Display (refer to the System Overview for information about display
reversionary mode).
The CAS is moved to a window on the right side of the display. CAS messages are treated in the same way as they
are during normal display. Messages are prioritized by criticality. See Appendices section for CAS prioritization
and messages.
EIS
Display
CAS
Window
Figure 3-4 Reversionary Mode
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panels, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponders. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panels and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Primary Flight Display (PFD) (2)
• Audio Panel (2)
• Multi Function Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder (2)
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The dual Audio Panels provide the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio
selection. The Audio Panels include an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and passengers, a
marker beacon receiver, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a
feature called Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces
the amount of background noise from the radios.
The dual Mode S transponders are controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary Flight
Display (PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays
the active four-digit code, mode, and reply status.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9
10
11
13
12
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and ADF/DME Tuning Window
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Push to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Push to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue box) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected COM
transceiver frequency is displayed in green. COM transceiver frequency is displayed directly below the
COM Frequency Box.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Push to move the frequency selected for tuning (light blue box) and the Frequency Transfer Arrow
between COM1 and COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency
field as a percentage of maximum volume. Push to turn the COM automatic squelch on and off.
9
‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window – Displays ADF/DME frequency pairing mode. Display by selecting the DME
Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms ADF/DME pairing mode and Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes, select ADF/DME modes,
and Auto-tune entries when ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window or Nearest Window is present. Push the FMS
Knob to turn the selection cursor on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small
knob selects individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
13
ADF/DME Softkey – Displays the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window.
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AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
1
2
1
2
3
4
3
4
5
6
25
17
7
8
13
14
9
10
15
16
11
12
7
8
13
14
26
27
15
16
28
29
10
17
18
19
20
21
21
34
11
12
19
21
30
Volume/Squelch
Annunciations
23
22
32
31
33
24
24
GMA 1347D
GMA 1347D-20
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
GMA 1360D
NOTE: When a GMA 1347D key is selected, the annunciator above the key is illuminated. When a GMA
1360D Key is selected, the in-key annunciation is illuminated.
Control Name
102
1
COM1 MIC
2
COM1
Description
GMA
GMA
1347D
1360D
1347D-20
Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM
receiver to be heard. COM2 receiver audio can be added by pressing the
COM2 Key. When the PTT is active the annunciation will be flashing.
X
X
When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
X
X
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Control Name
Description
GMA
GMA
1347D
1360D
1347D-20
Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM
receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be added by pressing the COM1
Key. When the PTT is active the annunciation will be flashing.
X
X
When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
X
X
3
COM2 MIC
4
COM2
5
COM3 MIC
Reserved for optional HF radio.
X
6
COM3
Reserved for optional HF radio.
X
7
PA
Selects the passenger address system. The selected COM transmitter is
deselected when the PA Key is pressed. A solid annunciation indicates PA
mode is active, while a flashing annunciation indicates PTT has been keyed.
X
Not used in the Cessna Citation Mustang.
X
8
TEL
9
MUSIC
10
SPKR
11
MKR/MUTE
12
HI SENS
13
DME
14
Selects/Deselects the TEL audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device to
the TEL audio. Press the TEL key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key
annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired
audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source.
Toggles the Music input on or off. Pressing and holding toggles music muting
on or off.
Selects and deselects the on-side flight deck speaker.
Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker
beacon receiver audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon
audio is received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio.
Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker
beacon receiver audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon
audio is received.
Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to
low sensitivity.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Turns optional DME audio on or off.
X
X
NAV1
When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
X
X
15
ADF
Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
X
X
16
NAV2
When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
X
X
17
AUX
Not used in this aircraft.
X
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Reserved for optional HF radio.
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Control Name
18
19
20
21
PLAY
INTR COM
MAN SQ
22
ICS Knob
23
MSTR Knob
24
Press to enable the recording of up to 2.5 minutes of COM receiver audio.
When no audio is being received, nothing is recorded. Press again to stop
recording.
Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again to stop playing.
Press twice within 0.5 second while audio is playing and the previous block
of recorded audio will be played. Each subsequent two presses within 0.5
second plays each previously recorded block.
Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is
playing and the previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent
press plays each previously recorded block. Pushing PTT, changing COM
selection, or receiving a COM transmission stops play.
Selects and deselects the pilot/copilot intercom on both Audio Panels.
Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, push
the ICS Knob to illuminate SQ. Turn the ICS Knob to adjust squelch.
Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, push
the VOL/SQ Knob to illuminate the squelch annunciation. Turn the VOL/SQ
Knob to adjust squelch.
Turn to adjust intercom volume or squelch. Push to switch between volume
and squelch control as indicated by illumination of VOL or SQ. The MAN SQ
Key must be selected to allow squelch adjustment.
The Master Volume Control adjusts volume for the blended NAV, COM,
intercom audio, and alert warnings.
DISPLAY
Manually selects PFD/MFD Reversionary Mode.
BACKUP Button
25
AUX MIC
26
CREW ICS
27
MUS1
28
PASS ICS
29
104
REC
Description
MUS2
Reserved for optional HF radio.
Controls the crew intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable onside
Bluetooth recording mode.
Selects/Deselects the MUS1 audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device
to the MUS1 audio. Press the MUS1 key until the annunciator turns blue. The
in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the
wired audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source.
GMA
GMA
1347D
1360D
1347D-20
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Not used in this aircraft.
X
Selects/Deselects the MUS2 audio source and can assign the Bluetooth device
to the MUS2 audio. Press the MUS2 key until the annunciator turns blue. The
in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. BLUE selects the
Bluetooth audio source.
X
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Control Name
Description
GMA
GMA
1347D
1360D
1347D-20
Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
Volume/Squelch The volume for each audio input into the audio panels can be controlled
30
Indicator
independently. Use the CRSR knob to select the desired source and then use
the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust the volume for that source.
Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the selected source
(indicated by the flashing white or blue annunciator). When the volume
control cursor is not active push to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume
Volume/
control cursor is active, push twice (once to cancel the cursor, twice to activate
Squelch (VOL/
31
Blue-Select mode). Push and hold for 2 seconds to enable the audio panel as
SQ) Control
discoverable for pairing. The Bluetooth Annunciator will flash to indicate that
Knob
the unit is discoverable. The unit will remain discoverable for 60 seconds or
until a successful pair is established. Once a successful pair is established, the
Bluetooth Annunciator will quit flashing and be a solid blue.
Cursor (CRSR) Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or blue annunciator) to the desired
32
Control Knob source.
Bluetooth
A flashing blue annunciator indicates the unit is discoverable. A solid blue
Connection
33
annunciator indicates an active Bluetooth connection.
Annunciator
34
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CABIN
Not used in this aircraft.
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X
X
X
X
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TUNING BOXES
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
8
Figure 4-3 COM Tuning Box Indications
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
106
1
Active Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
left. An active COM frequency is displayed in green and indicates that the COM transceiver is selected
on the Audio Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white
indicate that no COM radio is selected for transmitting or the PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel.
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Transfers the standby frequency from the Frequency Tuning Box to the active
field.
3
Standby Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the right. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
4
Frequency Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields and indicates which
COM transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field. Moving the Frequency Tuning Box is accomplished
by pushing the COM knob on the PDF.
5
Automatic Squelch Indication – Indicates that Automatic Squelch is disabled. Automatic Squelch quiets
unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good sensitivity to weak COM
signals. When Automatic Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise
is heard over the headsets and speakers, if selected.
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6
Transmit and Receive Indications – During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM
frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow. During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by
the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow.
7
Frequency Spacing – The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or
8.33-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When
8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in
the complete 3040-channel list.
COM Volume – COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
When the same COM radio is selected on both Audio Panels, the pilot has transmit priority on COM1, the
copilot has transmit priority on COM2.
8
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of each PFD.
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Push the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (PFD)
• ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’ Page
• ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
on the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD to open the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window. A list of 25 nearest airport
identifiers and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
Select the Nearest Softkey to open
the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
Figure 4-4 ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (PFD)
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT
page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pushing the FMS Knob or
pressing the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency field.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the selected COM frequency field.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu .
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency field.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the selected COM frequency field.
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‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Menu
‘NRST - Nearest Frequencies’ Menu
‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Menu
Figure 4-5 Nearest Pages Menus
On the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pushing the
FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency is transferred to the COM Standby Field with the
ENT Key.
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Runway
Information
Press ENT Key to
display the ‘Load
Frequency’ Window.
Select Info 1 Softkey
for Airport, Runways,
and Frequencies
Windows
Turn the FMS Knob to
select the desired COM
field location. Press the
ENT Key again to load
the frequency into the
selected location.
Figure 4-6 ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page, ‘NRST – Nearest
Frequencies’ Page, and ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate
softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
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FREQUENCY SPACING
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000
to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected,
all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
COM channel spacing is set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
While the ‘COM Configuration’ Field is selected, the softkeys are blank.
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-7 ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page
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4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV TUNING BOXES
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
Figure 4-8 NAV Tuning Box Indications
1
Standby Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the left. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Transfers the standby frequency from the Frequency Tuning Box to the active
field.
3
Active Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
right. An active NAV frequency is displayed in green. The active NAV radio is selected by pressing the
CDI softkey on the PFD. Both active NAV frequencies appearing in white indicate that no NAV radio is
selected.
4
NAV Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields and indicates which NAV
transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field. Moving the Frequency Tuning Box is accomplished by
pushing the NAV knob on the PDF.
5
VOR/LOC Morse Code Audio Indication – When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio,
a white ID replaces the Frequency Transfer Arrow to the left of the active NAV frequency. In order to
listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the Audio Panel. Pushing the VOL/ID
Knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV Tuning Box. To turn on/off both
NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pushing the small NAV Knob and
pushing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
6
Decoded Morse Code Station Identifier – The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code
station identifier that is received from the navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station can
be accomplished by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pushing the NAV VOL/
ID Knob.
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7
NAV VOLUME – NAV radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by selecting the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Selecting the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Selecting the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Selecting the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Selecting the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for tuning,
the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active NAV frequency
color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
• GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the previously selected NAV
standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished
by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pushing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel. Pressing the
NAV1, NAV2, ADF, or DME Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected audio can be heard over
the headset and the speakerss (if selected). All radios can be selected individually or simultaneously.
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the PFDs.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Push the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
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AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
• ‘WPT – Airport Information’
• ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’
• ‘WPT – VOR Information’
• ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or WPT page
group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pushing the FMS Knob or the
appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ and ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor
on the NAV frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
Or:
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
‘NRST - Nearest VOR’
‘NRST - Nearest Frequencies’
‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’
Figure 4-9 Nearest Pages Menus
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey and
loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
Press ENT Key to
display the ‘Load
Frequency’ Window.
Press the VOR or FREQ
Softkey to place the
cursor in the respective
window.
Turn the FMS Knob to
select the desired NAV
field location. Press the
ENT Key again to load
the frequency into the
selected location.
Figure 4-10 Loading the NAV Frequency from the ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’ Page
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’,
‘WPT – Airport Information’, ‘WPT – VOR Information’, and ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’ Pages on the MFD
in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated in GPS Mode, the system switches to NAV Mode as
the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight Instruments Section for
details.
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NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency field on approach activation, on both
PFD1 and PFD2.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 or NAV2
active frequency fields. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 or NAV2 active frequency fields are
transferred to standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
or NAV2 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of an ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
The Audio Panels provide three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations. The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The MKR/MUTE Key
Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker beacon signal
is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while marker beacon
audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
ADF/DME TUNING (OPTIONAL)
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 NXi for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME
tuning and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME and bearing information windows (ADF) and
using the ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
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The system tunes the ADF receiver (optional) and DME transceiver (optional). The ADF is tuned by entering
the frequency in the ADF standby frequency field of the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window. The softkey may be
labeled either ADF/DME, ADF, or DME depending on installed equipment.
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic
and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The following ADF/DME information is displayed in the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window:
• Active and standby ADF frequencies
• ADF receiver mode
• ADF receiver volume
• DME tuning mode (DME transceiver pairing)
When the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window is displayed, the selection cursor is placed over the standby ADF
frequency field.
Turning the large FMS Knob moves the selection cursor through the various fields (standby ADF frequency,
ADF receiver mode, ADF radio volume, and DME tuning mode). Pushing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates
the selection cursor in the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window. The ADF frequency is entered using the FMS Knob
and the ENT Key.
Active ADF Frequency
Standby ADF Frequency
ADF
Mode
ADF
Volume
DME
Tuning
Mode
Figure 4-11 ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window
ADF TUNING
ADF frequencies in the 190.0-kHz to 1799.5-kHz range are entered in the standby ADF frequency field of the
‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window. The G1000 System does not tune the ADF emergency frequency, 2182.0‑kHz.
Tuning an ADF frequency:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin data entry and change each digit.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next digit position.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete data entry for the standby frequency.
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Turn the small
FMS Knob to
enter data in the
Standby ADF
Frequency Field
Press the
ENT Key to
complete ADF
frequency entry
Turn the large
FMS Knob to
move the cursor
to the next
character
Figure 4-12 Entering ADF Standby Frequencies
Pressing the CLR Key before completing frequency entry cancels the frequency change and reverts back to
the previously entered frequency.
Pressing the CLR Key when the cursor is flashing, clears the frequency and replaces the standby field with
‘0000.0’.
Transferring the active and standby ADF frequencies:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency field.
2) Press the ENT Key to complete the frequency transfer.
Press the ENT
Key to transfer
the ADF
Frequencies
Figure 4-13 Transferring ADF Frequencies
SELECTING ADF RECEIVER MODE
The following modes can be selected: (In all modes NDB audio can be heard by pressing the ADF Key on
the Audio Panel.)
• ANT (Antenna) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees. Best mode for listening to NDB
audio.
• ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB station.
• ADF/BFO (ADF/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB
station and an audible tone confirms signal reception. This mode allows identification of the interrupted
carrier beacon stations used in various parts of the world.
• ANT/BFO (Antenna/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees
while an audible tone is provided when a signal is received. This mode also allows identification of the
interrupted carrier beacon stations and confirms signal reception.
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Selecting an ADF receiver mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF mode field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired ADF receiver mode.
Turn the small
FMS Knob
to select the
mode
Figure 4-14 Selecting ADF Receiver Mode
ADF receiver volume level can be adjusted in the tuning window from 0 to 100%. The default volume level
is set to 50%. The ADF volume level is the same for both Audio Panels.
Adjusting ADF receiver volume:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF volume field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust volume as desired.
Turn the small
FMS Knob
to select the
volume
Figure 4-15 Adjusting ADF Receiver Volume
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DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, it will remember the last frequency used for DME tuning and
the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The DME transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-16 ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window, DME Modes
The following DME transceiver pairings can be selected:
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the data entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pushinging the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor
in the ‘ADF/DME Tuning’ Window.
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4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDER
Two Mode S Transponders provides Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. A
Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1,
XPDR2, Standby, On, ALT, VFR, Code, Ident, Back.
When the Code Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Ident, BKSP, Back. The
digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters the transponder
code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit.
Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Selecting the Back Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the Back
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the Ident Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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Figure 4-17 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
Selecting and activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the other transponder.
On power up the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit, regardless of which transponder was
active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder 1 and Transponder 2, the code and mode
remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active transponder, switching transponders does not bring
back the previous code.
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Mode) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes). The
Standby, On, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the transponder mode selection softkeys.
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the Standby Softkey. In Standby, the transponder is
powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted. When Standby is selected,
a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-18 Standby Mode
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MANUAL ON MODE
On Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the On Softkey. An On indication will appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting On mode enables transmission of transponder replies and
squitters, but transmissions will not include altitude information. The On indication and transponder code
in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and white while on the ground. When the
transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode
S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Airborne On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Figure 4-19 On Mode
ALTITUDE MODE
ALT Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ALT Softkey. When ALT mode is selected,
an ALT indication will appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting ALT mode enables
transmission of transponder replies and squitters. Transmissions will include pressure altitude information.
The ALT indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and
white while on the ground. When the transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable
replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic
systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground ALT Mode
Airborne ALT Mode
Figure 4-20 Altitude Mode
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REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to
Interrogation
Figure 4-21 Reply Indication
VFR CODE
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by selecting the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is selected, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
VFR Code
Figure 4-22 VFR Code
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the Code Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be pressed within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Press the BKSP
Softkey to move the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR and the Code Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
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Pressing the CLR Key or pushing the small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and
restores the previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
Selecting the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The Ident Softkey
appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is selected, a green Ident indication is
displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the Ident Softkey is selected while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level
softkeys.
Ident
Indication
Select the
Ident Softkey
to Initiate the
ID Function
Figure 4-23 Ident Softkey and Indication
FLIGHT ID REPORTING
NOTE: If the Flight ID is required but the system is not configured for it, contact a Garmin-authorized service
center for configuration.
When the Flight ID must be entered before flight operation, the identifier is placed in the ‘References’ Window
on the PFD. The Flight ID is not to exceed seven characters. No space is needed when entering Flight ID.
When a Flight ID contains a space, the system automatically removes it upon completion of Flight ID entry.
Entering a Flight ID:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey to display the ‘References’ Window.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the selection cursor, if not already activated.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll down to the Flight ID.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired Flight ID.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete Flight ID entry.
If an error is made during Flight ID entry, pressing the CLR Key returns to the original Flight ID entry. While
entering a Flight ID, turning the FMS Knob counterclockwise moves the cursor back one space for each detent
of rotation. If an incorrect Flight ID is discovered after the unit begins operation, reenter the correct Flight ID
using the same procedure.
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panels perform a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off. The exceptions are the speakers and intercom, which are always
selected during power up.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKERS
There are two cockpit speakers and each Audio Panel controls its own on-side speaker. Pressing the SPKR
Key selects and deselects the speaker. All radio and audio alerts are heard over the speaker when SPKR is on.
Certain aural alerts and warnings (stall, overspeed, gear warnings) are always heard on the speaker, even when
the SPKR Key is not selected.
Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pushed.
During oxygen mask use the on-side speaker is always enabled.
INTERCOM SYSTEM (GMA 1347D)
The intercom system (ICS) connects the pilot and copilot together. Pressing the INTR COM key on either
audio panel selects or deselects the intercom system and both INTR COM annunciators are illuminated or
extinquished.
When both the pilot and copilot INTR COM annunciators are illuminated, the pilot and copilot hear all
selected radios, aural alerts, and can communicate with each other. When the INTR COM annunciators are
not illuminated, the pilots hear their on-side selected radios and all aural alerts and warnings, but cannot hear
or communicate with each other.
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
The ICS knob controls intercom volume or squelch adjustment. Pushing the ICS Knob switches between
volume and squelch control as indicated by the VOL or SQ annunciation being illuminated. The VOL and SQ
annunciations at the bottom of the unit indicate which function the knob is controlling.
Pressing the MAN SQ Key selects either automatic or manual control of squelch setting. Manual control of
squelch is enabled when the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated. Automatic squelch is enabled when the
MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished. The MSTR Knob controls on-side audio panel volume.
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• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is extinguished, automatic squelch is on, and the ICS Knob controls
intercom volume.
• When the MAN SQ Annunciator is illuminated, manual squelch is on, and the ICS Knob controls squelch.
GMA 1347D-20
GMA 1347D
Manual Squelch
Annunciator; Off
for Automatic
Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
ICS
Press to switch
between VOL and SQ.
Turn to adjust Squelch
when SQ Annunciation
is lit, Volume when
VOL Annunciation is lit.
Master Volume
Control for
Pilot Side or
Copilot Side
Volume Annunciation
Squelch
Annunciation
Figure 4-24 Intercom Controls
INTERCOM SYSTEM (GMA 1360D)
The GMA 1360D includes an intercom system (ICS), music input, and one telephone/entertainment input.
Pilot (Audio Panel #1)
Copilot (Audio Panel #2)
Figure 4-25 Intercom Controls (GMA 1360D)
Press the CREW ICS Key to enable intercom audio between the pilot and copilot. When CREW ICS
annunciators are illuminated, the pilot and copilot hear all selected radios, aural alerts, and can communicate
with each other. If the annunciators are not illuminated the pilots are isolated from each other. The PASS ICS
Key is not used in this aircraft.
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
The VOL/SQ and CRSR Knobs control selection, volume, or manual squelch adjustment for active audio
sources. The VOL/SQ knob controls volume or squelch. Turning the CRSR knob activates and/or moves
the cursor (flashing white annunciator or flashing blue annunciator in Blue-Select Mode) to select the audio
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source to adjust. The cursor will time-out after a few seconds and the position of the cursor will always
default back to the CREW ICS Key. Pushing the VOL/SQ knob cancels the cursor.
Manual Squelch Key
Off for Automatic Squelch,
On for Manual Squelch
Volume Annunciation
Manual Squelch Annunciator
Off for Automatic Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
Volume/Squelch Indicator
Indicates volume/squelch setting
relative to full scale
Squelch Annunciation
VOL/SQ Control Knob
Turn to adjust squelch when
SQ Annunciation is lit, volume
when VOL Annunciation is lit.
CRSR Control Knob
Turn to move the cursor (flashing
white or blue annunciator) to
the desired audio source
Figure 4-26 Volume/Squelch Control (GMA 1360D)
PASSENGER ADDRESS SYSTEM
A passenger address system (PA) is provided by pressing the PA Key to deliver messages to the passengers.
The message is heard by the other pilot on the headset only if the INTR COM Key (GMA 1347D) or CREW
ICS Key (GMA 1360D) is enabled. PA messages are one way from the cockpit to the passengers.
A Push-to-talk (PTT) must be pressed to deliver PA announcements. The announcements are heard over the
two cockpit speakers and by passengers using ear buds.
When PA is selected on the Audio Panel, the annunciator flashes once per second while pressing the PTT, the
COM MIC annunciator is no longer lit, and the active COM frequency for that Audio Panel changes to white,
indicating that no COM is selected.
PA Key selected on
the Audio Panel.
Pushing PTT changes
the active frequency
color to white.
Figure 4-27 PA Key Selected for Cabin Announcements
SIMULTANEOUS COM OPERATION
Both the pilot and copilot can transmit and receive on the same radio. The selected COM MIC Annunciator
flashes when either pilot’s microphone PTT is pushed.
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If the pilot and copilot are transmitting on separate radios, whichever mic began transmitting first will have
the priority. If the pilot and copilot have selected the same COM radio for transmission, the pilot will have
priority if COM1 is selected and the copilot will have priority if COM2 is selected.
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
NOTE: Pressing the Play Key on the pilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Pilot. Pressing the Play
Key on the Copilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Copilot.
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected COM
radio signal. Recording is continuous for the GMA 1347D-20 and GMA 1360D. The GMA 1347D records
only while the REC Button is enabled. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5
minutes of recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks,
starting from the oldest block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. The PLAY annunciator remains lit to indicate when play is in
progress. The PLAY annunciator turns off after playback is finished.
For the GMA 1347D, press the PLAY Key once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again to stop
playing. Press twice within 0.5 second while audio is playing and the previous block of recorded audio will be
played. Each subsequent two presses within 0.5 second plays each previously recorded block.
For the GMA 1360D, press the PLAY Key once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio
is playing and the previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent press plays each previously
recorded block. Pushing PTT, changing COM selection, or receiving a COM transmission stops play.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
PLAY Key Controls
the Play Function
Figure 4-28 PLAY Key
TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS (GMA 1347D)
NOTE: Music audio cannot be completely turned off. Audio level for the crew and passengers can be
adjusted by a Garmin-authorized service center.
NOTE: The stereo entertainment input is not controlled by the AUX Key on the Audio Panel. The AUX Key
is reserved for an auxiliary radio input.
The Audio Panel(s) provides a stereo entertainment input from the data link receiver (optional), or an Aux
Audio In jack for the crew and passengers. The Aux Audio In jack input is compatible with popular portable
entertainment devices such as MP3 players and other tablet devices through a 3.5-mm stereo phone jack,
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installed in a convenient location. The headphone outputs of the entertainment devices are plugged into the
Aux Audio In jack.
The current ICS state of isolation affects the distribution of the entertainment input.
Crew Music
Music can be heard by the pilot and copilot when both the PILOT and the COPLT ICS Annunciators are
extinguished. Music can also be heard by the pilot when the COPLT Annunciator is illuminated and by the
copilot when the PILOT Annunciator is illuminated.
Music Muting
Music muting occurs when aircraft radio or marker beacon activity is heard. Music is always soft
muted when an interruption occurs from these sources. Soft muting is the gradual return of music to its
original volume level. The time required for music volume to return to normal is between one-half and
four seconds.
Music Muting Enable/Disable
Press and hold the MKR/MUTE Key for three seconds to switch music muting on and off. When
switching, either one or two beeps are heard; one beep indicates that music muting is enabled, two beeps
indicate music muting is disabled. Music muting is reset (enabled) during power up.
Passenger Music
Music coming through the passenger phone jacks can be heard only by the passengers and is never
muted.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio Entertainment
SiriusXM Satellite Radio requires installation of the optional Data Link Receiver and an optional
subscription to SiriusXM Satellite Radio Service. SiriusXM Satellite Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver
may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously. Refer to the Additional Features Section for more
details on the Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to the Aux Audio In jack removes the SiriusXM Satellite Radio Audio from that
input.
TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS (GMA 1360D)
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs:
• The TEL Key controls the Bluetooth or Iridium telephone connection.
• The MUS1 Key controls the Auxiliary Input, SiriusXM Radio Entertainment, or a Bluetooth audio
connection. If a device is plugged into the Auxiliary Jack, that device will have priority over the Sirius XM
radio.
• The MUS2 Key is not used in this aircraft.
Iridium phone distribution for passengers can be controlled by either Audio Panel , but the volume
adjustment is controlled only by the on-side audio panel, even if TEL has been deselected.
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Telephone and Entertainment Muting
Telephone and entertainment muting is managed via airframe configuration. Regardless of configuration,
telephone and entertainment audio is always muted during alerts.
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously
(optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional Features Section for
more details on the Data Link Receiver.
3D AUDIO (GMA 1360D)
Do not use 3D Audio with monaural headsets. 3D Audio is useful when multiple COM audio sources are
present. By using different responses in each ear, 3D audio processing creates the perception that each COM
audio source is coming from a unique location on the horizontal plane. Because this feature uses different
signals for left and right channels, it requires wiring for stereo intercom and stereo headsets.
With a single COM selected and 3D Audio enabled, the listener hears the audio source at the 12 o’clock
position. If both COMs are selected, the listener hears COM1 at 11 o’clock and COM2 at the 1 o’clock position.
All other audio inputs are processed so that the listener hears the audio source at the 12 o’clock position.
In order to change your headset microphone position (ie: left side to right side) while using 3D Audio, use the
L-R Swap function so that the listener hears the audio source from the correct position.
3D Audio and L-R Swap can be selected or deselected on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2” Page.
Selecting/Deselecting 3D Audio:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Pilot or Copilot 3D Audio Field in the Audio Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Select On or OFF
Figure 4-29 ‘Aux – System Setup 2’ Page
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Selecting/Deselecting L-R Swap:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight Pilot or Copilot L-R Swap in the Audio Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Select On or OFF
Figure 4-30 ‘Aux – System Setup 2’ Page
BLUE-SELECT MODE (GMA 1360D)
Blue-Select Mode is available for telephone and music sources that are selected on. The following example
indicates that the pilot will hear the telephone, and the passengers will hear Music 1 audio.
Pilot (Audio Panel #1)
Copilot (Audio Panel #2)
Figure 4-31 Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution) (GMA 1360D)
NOTE: Bluetooth Telephone is not available to the passengers.
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pushing the small knob when the volume control cursor (flashing white
annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, push the small knob twice. The first push will
cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select Mode.
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The annunciator over the TEL Button will be flashing blue and the CREW ICS Button will be illuminated.
Bluetooth telephone cannot be distributed to other positions. Only the pilot who initiated blue select mode is
able to use the telephone and the other pilot cannot hear the conversation. Passengers cannot hear or use the
Bluetooth telephone.
For music, select the desired source button (MUS1 or MUS2) to turn the blue annunciator on or off, then
distribute the audio to crew or passenger positions using the CREW ICS and/or PASS ICS Buttons.
Selecting any button other than CREW ICS, PASS ICS, TEL, MUS1, or MUS2 will cancel Blue-Select
Mode. Pushing the VOL/SQ Knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After approximately ten seconds with no
input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel.
BLUETOOTH SETUP (GMA 1360D)
NOTE: Pairing is only necessary during the first attempt to connect a Bluetooth device. Once paired, the
Audio Panel and the device will connect automatically.
PAIRING A BLUETOOTH DEVICE WITH AN AUDIO PANEL
Push and hold the VOL/SQ Knob for two seconds. The Bluetooth Annunciator flashes to indicate the
unit is discoverable and the aural message “Bluetooth Discoverable” is heard. The Audio Panel will remain
discoverable for 60 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once paired, the Bluetooth Annunciator
will quit flashing and turn a steady blue.
ADDITIONAL BLUETOOTH CONTROL FUNCTIONS
When the Audio Panel detects a recording device as the Bluetooth connected device, the CREW ICS
Annunciator will turn BLUE. All audio heard by the Pilot will be recorded. Press and hold the CREW
ICS Button to enable/disable Bluetooth Recording mode and the aural messages “Bluetooth Recording Mode
Enabled” or “Bluetooth Recording Mode Disabled” is heard.
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4.6 AUDIO PANELS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: Adjusting the PILOT volume control affects ICS audio that is heard in the headset for the flight crew
member that is performing the adjustment. Keep in mind that the intercom volumes on the Audio Panels
are independent of one another, but the radio volumes are not.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot. If
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the knobs turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the System, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well as
prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a pilot
boards the aircraft to ensure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
Setting the Audio Panel(s) during preflight (GMA 1347D):
1) Verify that the INTR COM key is selected.
2) Verify manual squelch is set to full minimum.
3) Turn the MSTR Knob (Master Volume Control) on both Audio Panels clockwise two full turns. This sets the
headset audio level to max volume (least amount of attenuation).
4) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV) to a suitable level.
5) Adjust the ICS Volume Knob volume to the desired intercom level.
6) Reset squelch to automatic, or adjust to the appropriate level manually.
Setting the Audio Panels during preflight (GMA 1360D):
1) Verify that the CREW ICS and SPKR annunciators are lit.
2) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV, etc.) to a suitable level.
3) Use the Blue-Select Mode to distribute TEL and MUS1 appropriately.
4) Use the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust the intercom volumes to the desired level.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind the notes
above.
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4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Abnormal operation of the system includes equipment failures of the system components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck
microphone.
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may appear on the
frequency display.
PFD FAILURE, DUAL SYSTEM
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable. COM1
automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency frequency is available
to both the copilot and pilot.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION (GMA 1347D)
If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on
the speakers.
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION (GMA 1360D)
If there is a failure of one audio panel, the failed audio panel will only have access to their respective on-side
fail-safe COM. The working audio panel will still have access to both COM radios and all COM/NAV radios,
Alerts, and other COM/NAV equipment connected to the working side.
If there is a failure of both Audio Panels, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver and the copilot’s headset directly to the COM2 transceiver. Audio is not available on
the speakers.
REVERSIONARY MODE
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section for
more information on Reversionary Mode.
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the three full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and
a Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on each PFD and the MFD.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), Approach (VIS, LNAV, LNAV+V, L/
VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)).
The Inset Map and HSI Map are small versions of the Navigation Map. The Inset Map is displayed in the lower
left corner of the PFD (lower right during reversionary mode), and the HSI Map is displayed in the center of
the HSI. The Inset Map and the HSI Map may each be referred to as the PFD Map. A PFD Map is displayed by
pressing the Map/HSI Softkey, pressing the Layout Softkey, then pressing either the Inset Map or HSI Map
Softkey. Pressing the Map Off Softkey removes the PFD Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the Inset Map can be reduced by pressing the Map/
HSI Softkey on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey. The amount of displayed data for the Navigation Map
can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the MFD. The Navigation Map can be oriented three different
ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft icon
to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. To change the map range on any
map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in (– , decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+, increasing).
The ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘Flight Plan’ Window, the ‘Procedures’ Window, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
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Navigation Status Box
Current Track Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD Inset Map
Navigation Mode
Current Track
Indicator
HSI Map
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD HSI Map
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Navigation Data
Bar
Map Orientation
Display
Title
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Map Range
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at
Present Position
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘¯ KICT’ or ‘KIXD ñ KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1 minute’)
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The symbols used in the PFD status box are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Right Holding Pattern
The MFD Navigation Data Bar located contains four data fields, each displaying one of the following items:
• BRG
(Bearing)
• FOB (Fuel on board)
• DIS
(Distance)
• GS
• DTK
(Desired tack)
• LDG (ETA at final destination)
• ENR
(ETE to final destination)
• TAS
(True airspeed)
• ESA
(Enroute safe altitude)
• TRK
(Track)
• ETA
(Estimated time of arrival)
• XTK
(Cross-track error)
• ETE
(Estimated time enroute)
(Groundspeed)
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
The information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box on the ‘Aux
– System Setup 1’ Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the ‘MFD Data Bar Fields’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the desired data.
5) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the Defaults Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system maps
can display the following information:
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.)
with names
• Map range
• Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Obstacle data
• Topography scale
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing
to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other
pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
• Topography data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (‘Map’)
• All Nearest Group Pages (‘NRST’)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (‘WPT’)
• Direct To Window
• ‘Aux – Trip Planning’ Page (‘Aux’)
• PFD Maps
• Flight Plan Pages (‘FPL’)
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper left corner of the map.
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
The North Up Above setting configures the map to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the
map range reaches a minimum range.
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
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NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page. Any other displays that
show navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
North Up Above Field
Figure 5-8 Map Settings Menu - Map Group
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map
Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Map Settings’ Window.
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now highlighting the ‘Orientation’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
6) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
7) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
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Enabling/disabling North Up Above and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘North Up Above’ Field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. When the map range
is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to accurately represent the map, a magnifying
glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick counter-clockwise
to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
Auto Zoom On
Figure 5-9 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on ‘Map Settings’ Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
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If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact areas. If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any navigation map displaying
traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic advisory. When
terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of the ranges
at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times (set on the
‘Map Settings’ Window for the ‘Map’ Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum distance
to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the
auto zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the Map Group) determines how long
auto zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range
available (1000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Configuring automatic zoom:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ On/Off Field, and select ‘Off’ or ‘On’ using the small FMS
Knob.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Auto Zoom’ display selection
field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max Look FWD’ Field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99 minutes).
11) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
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MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• Graphically create user waypoints
• Measure the bearing and distance from the aircraft present position to any location on the navigation map, or
between any two points on the navigation map
• View obstacle, airspace, and airway information
When the panning function is selected by pushing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
Map Pointer Information
Map Pointer
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
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When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet above Mean Sea Level
(MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Panning the map:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer and place the
Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Information Page for the selected waypoint.
3) Press the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Information Page and return to the ‘Map –
Navigation Map’ Page.
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Viewing airspace information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer. Place the
Map Pointer on the boundary of an airspace. Information about the airspace is displayed on the map next to
the map pointer.
2) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and center the map on the aircraft.
Or:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer. Place the Map
Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted; if not, select it. Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Information’
Window for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the Airspace Information Page.
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the Navigation Map Page displayed).
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, push the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page Menu
and press the ENT Key.
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Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Measurement Line
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures. Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable profile map at the bottom of the navigation
map.
Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following procedures. Topographic data
can also be displayed on the selectable VSD Inset at the bottom of the navigation map. In addition, the
Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the map) showing a
scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.
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Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
Topographic Data
on VSD Inset
TOPO Off
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
TOPO On
Absolute Terrain On
Absolute Terrain Off
Figure 5-14 PFD Inset Map - Absolute Terrain Data
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Topo Data On
Topo Data Off
Figure 5-15 HSI Map - Topographic Data
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Figure 5-16 Navigation Map - Topo Scale
Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey .
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is displayed.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
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Displaying/removing topographic data using the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ ‘Page Menu’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range field. Ranges are from 1 nm to 1000 nm.
6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
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MAP SYMBOLS
This section discusses the types of land, aviation, and airspace symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type
of symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering
of the symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Land Symbols
Symbol
User Waypoint
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
25
1000
Highways and Roads
Interstate Highway (Freeway)
50
400
International Highway (Freeway)
50
400
US Highway (National Highway)
15
150
State Highway (Local Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads
7.5
25
Large City (> 200,000)
100
1000
Medium City (> 50,000)
Small City (> 5,000)
50
25
400
100
State/Province
400
1000
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
1
1000
Local Road (Local Road)
N/A
Table 5-1 Land Symbol Information
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AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Aviation Symbols
Symbol
Large Airport (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airport (8100 ft > Longest Runway ≥ 5000 ft, or
Longest Runway < 5000 ft with control tower)
Small Airport (Longest Runway < 5000 ft without a control
tower)
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
100
1000
50
400
25
150
1.5
5
7.5
150
N/A
25
N/A
40
Non-directional Beacon (NDB)
25
50
VOR
50
250
N/A
N/A
Visual Reporting Point (VRP)
25
40
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
250
1000
VNAV Constraints
1000
1000
See Additional Features
Runway Extension
Missed Approach Preview On/Off (Missed APPR)
Intersection (INT)
VOR Compass Rose On/Off
N/A
N/A
Table 5-2 Aviation Symbol Information
AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Class B Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
*
*
Class C Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
*
*
Class D Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling)
*
*
Class B/Terminal Maneuvering Area and surrounding airways
(CL B/TMA/AWY)
50
150
Class C Airspace/Control Area
(CL C/CTA)
50
100
Class D Airspace/ Class A Airspace
(CL A/D)
10
100
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Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Restricted and Prohibited Areas
(Restricted)
50
100
Military Operations Areas
(MOA (Military))
50
250
50
250
ADIZ, Alert, Danger, and Warning
(Other)
(see below)
ADIZ
Alert
Danger/Warning
* Label placement and range is determined by the system for best display and minimal clutter
Table 5-3 Airspace Symbol Information
SYMBOL SETUP
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway extensions,
railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which items appear on the
display. For example, enabling “Runway Extension” displays a dashed line on the map extending from each
runway of an airport in the flight plan when the range is set at or below the value of the map settings option.
Setting up the ‘Land’, ‘Aviation’ or ‘Airspace’ group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5 through 7 as necessary.
9) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
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The following table lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
Detail 3
Detail 2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
VRPs
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA/AWY
Class C Airspaces/CTA
Class A/D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Detail 1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 5-4 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
Decluttering the MFD navigation map:
Press the Detail Softkey with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown.
With each softkey press, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key to apply the next declutter level and return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
Decluttering the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
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AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Figure 5-17 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY Softkey
selections, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway range can also
be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific number.
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The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Airways Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Low Altitude Airways (V Routes and T Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways (J Routes and Q Routes)
50
100
Table 5-5 Airways Symbol Information
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (‘AWY LO’).
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (‘AWY HI’).
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed (‘AWY Off’).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or the ‘High ALT Airways’ On/Off Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’. Press the ENT Key.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’ range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
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ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION MAP ITEMS
Navigation maps can display some additional items. These items (e.g. Selected Altitude Intercept Arc, Track
Vector, Wind Vector, Fuel Range Ring, and SVT Field of View) can be displayed/removed individually.
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for information on displaying obstacles (Point Obstacle) on the map.
Setting up additional ‘Map’ Group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Or:
If it is a data field, use the FMS Knob to select the range or time value.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat Steps 5 through 7 as necessary.
9) Push the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map.
TRACK VECTOR
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track
vector is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is
selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track
vector. The track vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always
a straight line for the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Track Vector
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map -Track Vector
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SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected
altitude. The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
NOTE: Selected Altitude Intercept Arc is not displayed on any Waypoint Page Group maps, Procedure Page
maps, or the Stored Flight Plan Page map.
Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
WIND VECTOR ON MFD
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the MFD. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater
than or equal to 1 kt.
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
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FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This
is only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
NOTE: Field of View will not be depicted on the NRST Page Group maps.
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Figure 5-22 Navigation Map - Field of View
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5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) Pages, Nearest (NRST) Pages, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on auto-tuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the system. As
a waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the system scrolls through the database, displaying
those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation leg to the
selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Identifier Entry Field
Facility Entry Field
City Entry Field
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Identifier Symbol
Entered Waypoint on Map
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-23 ‘Waypoint Information’ Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a ‘Duplicate
Waypoints’ Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
Identifier with
Duplicates
Duplicate
Waypoints
Duplicate Message
Figure 5-24 ‘Waypoint Information’ Window - Duplicate Identifier
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AIRPORTS
AIRPORT INFORMATION
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs
to be aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the ‘WPT – Airport
Information’ Page Map.
The ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page allows the pilot to view airport information, load frequencies (COM,
NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures that may be involved in the flight
plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading frequencies (auto-tuning). After
engine startup, the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is located. After
a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple airports, it
defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the ‘WPT – Airport
Information’ Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘Airport’, ‘Runways’, and ‘Frequencies’.
For airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on
the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page by pressing the Info Softkey until ‘Info 1’ is displayed.
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Airport/Runway
Diagram
Softkeys
Figure 5-25 Airport Information Page
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The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled lighting)
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
Airport Directory
Information
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Softkeys
Figure 5-26 Airport Directory Page Example
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The airport directory information is viewed on the ‘WPT – Airport Directory’ Page by pressing the Info
Softkey until ‘Info 2’ is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available)
on the ‘WPT – Airport Directory’ Page:
Airport: Identifier, Type, Name,
City, State, Map
Facility Lighting and Beacon:
Hours operating, Type and Location,
CTAF, beacon colors
Runways: Headings, Length,
Width, Facility Obstructions, Surface,
Condition, Clearance Slope
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
Control Tower: Full/Part-time
Hours, Days Open
Noise Abatement: Flying
Procedures
Attendance: Annual, weekly, daily,
hours
Pattern Altitudes: Aircraft Class/
Altitude
FBO: Name/Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit Cards,
Phone/Fax, Hours Internet, Courtesy
Car
Weather Contacts: Service Type
and Frequencies/Phone (AWOS/
ASOS)
Approaches: Types
Aircraft Businesses/Clubs:
Name, Type (sales, training,
servicing), Frequencies/Phone/Fax,
Credit Cards, Internet, Services
Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
Special Operations at Airport:
Helicopters, etc.
Restaurants: On the Field and
Nearby
Attractions: Hotels, Museums,
Raceways, Golfing, etc.
NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
Elevation: Airfield Elev (ft)
Mag Var: Airfield Mag Var
(degrees)
General Information and/or
Notes: Fees, Airport Notes, local
area information
Transportation: Taxi Services, Car
Rentals, Type and Availability (public,
shuttle, limo, etc.)
Charts: VFR Sectional
Airport Manager: Phone
The ‘Frequencies’ Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
FSS
Terminal *
AWOS
Gate
TMA *
Center
Ground
Tower
Class B *
Helicopter
TRSA *
Class C *
Multicom
Unicom
Clearance
Other
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-6 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
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A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page.
See the Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for
display (see the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey), push the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location within the ‘Airport’ Box.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
1) With the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) displayed, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
4) To remove the flashing cursor, push the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination
Airport’. The Destination Airport is displayed.
NEAREST AIRPORT
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The ‘Nearest Airports’ Window displays a list
of up to 25 of the nearest airports. If there are more than three they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there
are no airports within 200 NM available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-27 ‘Nearest Airports’ Window on PFD
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Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD ‘Airport Information’ Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing
the ENT Key again returns to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list.
Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest
Airports list.
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-28 ‘Airport Information’ Window on PFD
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey to display the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the ‘Airport Information’
Window.
3) To return to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘BACK’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window and the ‘Airport Information’
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
The ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential
use in the event of an in-flight emergency. The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed
white line is drawn on the navigation map from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. The currently
selected airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the page displays
nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘Nearest Airports’, ‘Information’, ‘Runways’, ‘Frequencies’,
and ‘Approaches’. If there are more than can be shown in the given box, each list can be scrolled. If there
are no items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed. See the Audio Panel and CNS
Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
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Nearest Airports
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
Nearest Airport
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
Approaches Available
Window Selection
Softkeys
Figure 5-29 Nearest Airport Page
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may
already be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or push the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list
is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport.)
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight
‘Select Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The ‘Nearest Airports’ Box on the ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page defines the minimum runway length and
surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’
Page. A minimum runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways
or runways that are not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 3000 feet (or
meters) for runway length and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface and minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Runway Surface’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, Hard/Soft).
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Minimum Length’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
WAYPOINT INFORMATION
Non-Airport Waypoints are considered to be Intersections, VORs, NDBs, VRPs, and User Waypoints. For
each of these waypoints, their respective information pages will show a map of the currently selected waypoint,
the waypoint identifier, and location. Additionally, intersections will show the nearest VOR while both the
VOR and NDB waypoints will show their frequency and the nearest airport. User Waypoint information also
provides the waypoint type (radial/radial, radial/DME, or latitude/longitude), temporary status, comments,
and a User Waypoint list.
The ‘VOR Information’ Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly tune a VOR or ILS frequency. If a VOR station is combined
with a TACAN station it is listed as a VOR-TACAN on the ‘VOR Information’ Page and if it includes only DME,
it is displayed as VOR-DME. Also, the VOR class (Low Altitude, High Altitude, and Terminal) will be shown
in the VOR ‘Information’ Box.
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The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from
any map page (except PFD Inset Map, ‘Aux – Trip Planning’ Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position
on the map using the Joystick, or from the ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page by referencing a bearing/
distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and longitude. Once
a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased
upon system power down.
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the ‘WPT – Intersection Information’ Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily
the VOR used to define the intersection.
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Waypoint:
Intersection
(as seen here)
NDB
VOR
VRP, or
User Waypoint
Figure 5-30 Non-Airport Waypoint Information Page (Intersection Example)
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NDB Identifier/Type
VOR Identifier/Type
NDB Information
VOR Information
NDB Frequency
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Nearest Airport Info
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
User Waypoint Info
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- VRP Name
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
VRP Information
User Waypoint Comment
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Reference Waypoint Info
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
User Waypoint List
- Identifier/ Comment
Figure 5-31 Non-Airport Waypoint Information Pages (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User Waypoint)
Viewing Non-Airport Waypoints:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT – (Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPT) Information’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User Waypoint Box.
4) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
5) Press the ENT Key, if needed.
6) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NEAREST NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
The Nearest pages can be used to quickly find waypoints close to the aircraft. The system will display
a scrollable list of up to 25 nearest waypoints with bearing and distance from the aircraft, a map of the
surrounding area, and additional information particular to the type of waypoint chosen. A white arrow before
the waypoint identifier/name indicates the currently selected waypoint shown on the map, with its associated
information in the lower box or boxes:
– The ‘NRST – Nearest Intersection’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest INT’, ‘Information’, and a
‘Reference VOR’.
– The ‘NRST – Nearest NDB’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest NDB’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NDB ‘Information’ Box will show a Compass Locator if the NDB is associated with either a Locator
Outer Marker (LOM) or Locator Middle Marker (LMM).
– The ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest VOR’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NAV frequency from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’ Page via the
FREQ Softkey. See the Audio & CNS Section for more information.
– The ‘NRST – Nearest VRP’ Page will show two boxes labeled ‘Nearest VRP’ and ‘Information’. Information
will contain the VRP Name, Country and latitude/longitude.
– The ‘NRST – Nearest User WPTS’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest User’, ‘Information’, and
‘Reference Waypoints’. Information will include any Comments and the latitude/longitude. The ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box will provide a reference NAVAID with a radial/DME that coincides with the User Waypoint.
The nearest waypoint list will only include waypoints within 200nm. If there are no waypoints in the list,
text indicating that there are no nearest waypoints will be displayed, and the information and frequency fields
(if applicable) will be dashed.
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Nearest Intersections
Navigation Map
- White arrow indicates
the selected waypoint
shown.
Showing Nearest
Intersection
Nearest Non-Airport
Waypoint:
Intersection NDB VOR VRP User Waypoint -
Intersection Info
- Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Figure 5-32 Nearest Intersection Page
Viewing Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST – Nearest (Intersections, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPTS)’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the ‘Nearest (INT, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User)’ Box,
Or:
If the ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’ Page is displayed, to display the flashing cursor, press the VOR Softkey; or press the
Menu Key, highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) If needed, press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob as needed to select an identifier.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NDB Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest User Wpt List
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
User Waypoint Info
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-33 Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User WPTS)
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CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page:
1) Press the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to the
‘Temporary’ Field and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
4) With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
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7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to the
‘Temporary’ Field and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page is displayed with the captured position. If the
pointer is within the boundary of an airspace, a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or
‘Create User Waypoint’. Highlight ‘Create User Waypoint’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to the
‘Temporary’ Field and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Once a user waypoint has been created, it may be edited, renamed, or deleted. A system generated comment
for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing, and distance. If a system generated
comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the ‘WPT — User Waypoint
Information’ ‘Page Menu’ Window. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power cycle.
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page displayed. Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box, if required, and press the ENT Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page.
DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) With the ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’
Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Press the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘Yes’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’
Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) With the ‘WPT – User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’
Box.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints.’
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B, TMA, and Airways surrounding TMA, Class C, CTA,
Class A, Class D, Restricted (Prohibited), MOA (Military), and other airspace provided by the navigation database.
Some examples of typical airspaces are depicted below. See the Airspace Symbol Information Table previously given
in this Flight Management Section for the maximum ranges for each type of airspace and the symbol used to define
the airspace area. Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) are discussed in the Hazard Avoidance Section.
MOA (Military)
Class B Airspace
Airspace Altitude Label
Restricted Area
Class D Airspace
Class C Airspace
Alert Area
ADIZ
Warning Area
Figure 5-34 Airspaces
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Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace’ Group, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace ALT LBL’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ to display labels and ‘Off’ to remove labels.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
NEAREST AIRSPACE
SETTING AIRSPACE ALERTS
The ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box (‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page) on the MFD allows the pilot to turn the controlled/
special-use airspace message alerts on or off. This does not affect the alerts listed on the ‘NRST – Nearest
Airspaces ‘ Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page. It simply turns on/off
the message provided in the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD when the aircraft is approaching or near an airspace.
Pressing the PFD Alerts/Message Softkey displays the ‘Alerts’ Window on the PFD. The following airspace
alerts may be displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window:
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less than
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Table 5-7 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For
example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an
alert message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected
to enter it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Enabling/disabling airspace alerts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude Buffer’ Field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VIEWING NEAREST AIRSPACE INFORMATION
The ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In
addition, a selected frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’
Page. In addition to displaying a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the ‘NRST – Nearest
Airspaces’ Page displays airspace information in four boxes labelled ‘Airspace Alerts’, ‘Airspace Agency’,
‘Vertical Limits’, and ‘Frequencies’.
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’
Page. The Alerts and FREQ Softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled
only if one or more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Information
about nearest
airspace
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace
AHEAD < 2nm
Airspace Vertical Limits
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
INSIDE Airspace
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
- Map centers
around nearest
airspace
Softkeys
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airspaces
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page.
2) Press the Alerts Softkey on the MFD; or Push the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts
Window’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SMART AIRSPACE
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The
function does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the
airspace. If the current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace
boundary is shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of
the airspace, the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
Figure 5-36 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The ’Map Settings’ Window is displayed
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace On or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace Off.
6) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.5 DIRECT-TO NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on either the MFD Controller or the
PFD, is quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
NOTE: When flying Direct-to the Final Approach Fix (FAF), the system will suspend (SUSP) leg sequencing if
the approach intercept angle exceeds 45 degrees.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The ‘Direct To’ Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The ‘Direct To’ Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Location of Destination
- Bearing/Distance
Desired Course
Figure 5-37 ‘Direct To’ Window - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-38 ‘Direct To’ Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the ‘Direct To’ Window. Also, any waypoint
contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘FPL –
Active Flight Plan’ Page, or the active ‘Flight Plan’ Window.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD “Flight Plan” or
“Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into
the flight plan.
Waypoint Submenu
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
Figure 5-39 Waypoint Submenu
The ‘Direct To’ Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to
navigation. If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active
flight plan waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page
defaults to the displayed waypoint.
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field on the ‘Direct To’ Window.
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Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan waypoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu – press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the active
flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window with a list of flight plan
waypoints.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD), and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
desired waypoint.
3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the default
selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
2) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the ‘NRST – Nearest Airports ‘Page on
the MFD and Push the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page. If no
airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is
automatically created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, push the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, VRP, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the system resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
Vertical Navigation Direct-to is discussed in the Vertical Navigation portion of Flight Management. Offset
distances (along track offsets) are discussed in the Flight Planning portion of Flight Management.
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The system allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A Roll Steering Path is displayed for: transitions between two disconnected legs (i.e. holding), some procedure turn
segments, parallel track segments, or transitions after some fly-over waypoints (discussed later in this section).
‡ A Roll Steering Path that is beyond the next leg will appear as a Future Roll Steering Path. When a Future Roll Steering Path
becomes the next leg, it appears as a Roll Steering Path.
Table 5-8 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. Upon power up,
the previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft position is at the origin
airport and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not within 5 nm of the airport origin, on the
ground, or if more than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification, the previously active
flight plan is not retained.
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One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight plan is overwritten
when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure, or arrival, the
system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is
changed or updated, the system automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been modified.
If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is removed from the affected
stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that one or
more stored flight plans need to be edited.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
SELECTION AND MODIFICATION METHODS
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
• ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
To create or modify a flight plan, the cursor can be used to edit the required fields within the flight plan and
the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box within the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page. The cursor will appear as a blinking
field consisting of a solid cyan or magenta rectangle. The cursor can be activated by pushing the FMS Knob.
Fields can be highlighted by turning the large FMS Knob, and edits can be accomplished within the field by
combining small and large FMS Knob turns or utilizing the alphanumeric keypad on the MFD Controller.
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Active FPL Waypoint List
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Vertical Navigation Profile
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Required
- Vertical Deviation
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Figure 5-40 Active Flight Plan Page
Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan
Waypoint List
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Figure 5-41 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
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Catalog Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
Figure 5-42 Flight Plan Catalog Page
Within the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, the pilot can use the Quick Select Box instead of the
cursor for the same functions. When the cursor is removed, the Quick Select Box will take its place. The Quick
Select Box will appear as an open dashed cyan rectangle surrounding a field. Moving the Joystick left, right,
up, or down will move the Quick Select Box to the desired field or location in order to add, modify, or remove
data. Edits can be accomplished by combining small and large FMS Knob turns within a field or utilizing the
alphanumeric keypad on the MFD Controller. When returning to the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page from
another page, the Quick Select Box will move to most relevant location in the flight plan with respect to the
aircraft’s location.
The Insertion Point Indicator is displayed as a small cyan triangle and is associated with both the cursor and
the Quick Select Box location. The purpose of the Insertion Point Indicator is to show where new data entry
information will be placed within the flight plan.
Insertion Point Indicator
Quick Select Box
Figure 5-43 Insertion Point Indicator and Quick Select Box
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FLIGHT PLAN DISPLAY
Flight plan information can be viewed in different locations and formats. The Flight Plan Progress inset may
be displayed on ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page. The ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page format can be modified in
several ways; and the MFD Split Screen feature can provide different display configurations of the flight plan,
navigation map and charts. For flight plan profile information see the Flight Management, Vertical Situation
Display section.
FLIGHT PLAN PROGRESS INSET
Active flight plan progress can be displayed on the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
NOTE: ETE can be displayed as either HH+MM (ETE greater than 60 minutes) or MM:SS (ETE less than 60
minutes).
Displaying/removing the active flight plan progress on the navigation map:
1) Select the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the FPL PROG Softkey to display the active flight plan progress.
5) To remove the active flight plan progress from the navigation map, press the Off Softkey.
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
The ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page can be configured to show cumulative distance over the length of the
flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan; and it can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In
the wide view, additional information is displayed: Fuel Remaining (‘Fuel REM’), Estimated Time Enroute
(‘ETE’), Estimated Time of Arrival (‘ETA’), and Bearing to the waypoint (‘BRG’).
Changing the flight plan view:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the View Softkey to display the Wide, Narrow, Leg-Leg, and CUM Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the Leg-Leg Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
4) Press the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or press the Narrow Softkey to display the narrow view.
5) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
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SPLIT SCREEN
Charts may be viewed alongside the active flight plan in split screen mode. Pressing the Charts Softkey
from the ‘FPL-Active Flight Plan’ Page will remove the active flight plan map to display a Charts Pane alongside
the Active Flight Plan Pane. The display title will change to ‘FPL – Chart + Active Flight Plan’. The active
flight plan map can be re-displayed. However, displaying the map in split screen on the Active Flight Plan
Pane limits the flight plan content which can be displayed. For example, displaying the flight plan map while
in split screen narrow view removes the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box. See the following figures depicting the
different split screen displays with the active flight plan.
For more information on Charts, see the Additional Features Section.
Display title shows ‘Chart + Active Flight Plan’
Split Screen Narrow View
Split Screen Wide View
Figure 5-44 Split Screen Mode Narrow and Wide View
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Split Screen Narrow View with Flight Plan Map
Split Screen Wide View with Flight Plan Map
Figure 5-45 Split Screen Mode with Flight Plan Map
Viewing the ‘FPL – Chart + Active Flight Plan’ Page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. If necessary, push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor. Split screen mode is now
enabled showing the ‘FPL – Chart + Active Flight Plan’ Page. The Chart Pane is highlighted by a dark purple
box indicating it is the active pane. If the Charts full screen mode was enabled previously, it must be disabled
by pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey and the Full SCN Softkey.
3) To quickly view the chart corresponding to the active flight plan leg, press the Sync Softkey.
Displaying the flight plan map in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. If necessary, push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor. Split screen mode is now
enabled showing the ‘FPL – Chart + Active Flight Plan’ Page. The Chart Pane is highlighted by a dark purple
box indicating it is the active pane. If the Charts full screen mode was enabled previously, it must be disabled
by pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey and the Full SCN Softkey.
3) Move the Joystick to select the Active Flight Plan Pane as the active display pane.
4) Press the MENU Key. Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Flight Plan Map’. Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the Flight Plan Map, press the MENU Key and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide Flight Plan Map’.
Press the ENT Key.
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CREATING A FLIGHT PLAN
The active flight plan is listed on the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, and in the ‘Flight Plan’
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is shown on
the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
Auto-designation will determine the most likely airport of origin and auto-populate the Active Flight Plan.
Once determined, the airfield identifier automatically appears in the ‘Origin’ Field and the line immediately
below ‘Origin’ while keeping the runway (‘RW’) Field empty. The line below the Origin line serves as the first
point in the flight plan.
Auto-designation occurs between 15 and 60 seconds after display power-up under the following conditions:
• Aircraft position is known
• Aircraft is on the ground
• Nearest airport is within 200NM
• Flight plan is empty
If the pilot manually enters the origin, or any other leg of the flight plan before auto-designation occurs,
nothing gets inserted automatically. The automatic insertion logic only runs once, so the pilot can edit the
origin if the nearest airport is not the desired origin.
If the pilot enters a different airport into the first point of the flight plan, the Origin will change to this entry,
and the pilot will be prompted to enter the departure runway.
Both the Origin airport/runway and the first point of the flight plan will be the same unless a departure is
entered and a manual leg is inserted at the beginning of the loaded departure. Loading a departure locks in the
origin information.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD ‘Flight Plan’ or
‘Recent’ submenu or the MFD ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into the
flight plan.
The following procedure is intended to provide an overview of basic flight plan creation. It will create a flight
plan from the origin runway to the destination runway, and includes enroute waypoint selection. The following
procedure does not include airways or terminal procedures. For instructions on how to add airways to a flight
plan, see the Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications discussion later in this Flight Planning Section.
For information on departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches see the Procedures Section.
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Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key. If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select
Box, and not required on PFD).
2) If the system correctly auto-designated (populated) the Origin, proceed to Step 3.
Or:
Select the origin airport and runway as follows:
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knobs or the
alphanumeric keypad.
b) Use the FMS Knob, alphanumeric keypad, or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
name of the origin waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
3) Select the destination airport and runway by highlighting the field below the Destination header and completing
Steps 2b through 2e.
4) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Use either the Quick Select Box or the cursor to select the insertion point of the waypoint (If the enroute
header is selected, the new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes
are selected, the new waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item).
b) Use the FMS Knobs, alphanumeric keypad, or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
name of the waypoint. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
5) Repeat Step 4 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, push the FMS Knob to remove to deactivate the cursor, if necessary.
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field highlighted.
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d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway.
e) Press the ENT Key to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
5) Select the destination airport and runway by highlighting the field below the Destination header and completing
steps 4b through 4e.
6) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item.)
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The stored flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
8) When all waypoints have been entered, push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINT AND AIRWAY MODIFICATIONS
Active and stored flight plans can be edited at any time. Waypoints and airways can be added, modified, or
removed from any flight plan. Edits made to an active flight plan affect navigation as soon as they are entered.
Modifications to flight planned departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches are discussed later in
the Procedures portion of Flight Management.
FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINTS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select
the desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight
plans are limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of
waypoints in the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.”
appears and the new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
Adding Waypoints
NOTE: Manually adding waypoints to a flight plan after a MANSEQ leg creates a lateral gap in the flight
plan. Time, fuel, and distance values for legs beyond the gap do not include the distance across the gap.
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window has duplicates, a ‘Duplicate Waypoint’
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
NOTE: If the flight plan is successfully edited in the ‘Flight Plan’ Window from PFD while the MFD ‘FPL – Active
Flight Plan’ Page is in the process of being edited, the ‘Flight Plan Modified By Other User’ Window will appear
on the MFD. Press the ENT key to return to the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page with the accepted changes.
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Origin Header
Enroute Header
Enroute Waypoints
Destination Header
Figure 5-46 Active Flight Plan Waypoints
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan using the map pointer:
1) Press the FPL Key
2) Push the FMS Knob for the MFD to activate the cursor.
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint.
4) Push the Joystick for the MFD to activate the panning function on the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page and pan
to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
5) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user waypoint
is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the active flight plan.
Adding a waypoint to an existing stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
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3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL – Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
Removing Waypoints
Individual waypoints can be removed from a flight plan. Some waypoints in the final approach segment
(such as the FAF or MAP) can not be removed individually. Attempting to remove a waypoint that is not
allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification’.
NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the end waypoint of
the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and activated.
Removing an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select Box, and not
required on PFD).
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor, if necessary.
Removing an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL – Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Fly-Over Waypoint Designation
Waypoints entered in the enroute segment of the flight plan may be treated as either fly-by or fly-over
waypoints. A fly-by waypoint is a waypoint that marks the intersection of two straight paths, with the
transition from one path to another being made by the aircraft using a precisely calculated turn that “flies
by” but does not vertically cross the waypoint.
A fly-over waypoint is a waypoint that must be crossed vertically by the aircraft. If the system determines
that the flight plan leg geometry cannot support fly-by navigation for a waypoint sequence in the current
flight plan, it will change a fly-by waypoint to a fly-over waypoint automatically. A roll steering path or
future roll steering path may be displayed after the fly-over waypoint until the roll steering path aligns with
the course leg connecting the fly-over waypoint and the following waypoint in the flight plan. This system
generated fly-over waypoint will not display the fly-over symbol.
Fly-Over Waypoint
- No fly-over symbol
Roll Steering to next leg
- Roll Steering until path aligns
with course leg (PNH to ILOZA)
Figure 5-47 PNH Fly-Over Waypoint
Active Leg to PNH
- Geometry cannot support fly-by
to the following leg (PNH to ILOZA)
A fly-over waypoint may also be manually designated by the pilot, in which case, the fly-over waypoint
symbol is displayed.
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Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-By Waypoint
Figure 5-48 TOP Fly-By Waypoint
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-Over Waypoint
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Figure 5-49 TOP Fly-Over Waypoint
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Designating a fly-over waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan, press the FPL Key and push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
Or:
For a stored flight plan, highlight the desired flight plan on the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page and press the
Edit Softkey.
2) Highlight the desired waypoint.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-Over Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a
fly-over waypoint?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) To change the waypoint back to a fly-by waypoint, highlight the desired waypoint. Press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Set Fly-By Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a fly-by waypoint?’ Window
is displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT PLAN AIRWAYS
Within flight plans, airways can be added, removed and collapsed/expanded.
Adding Airways
Airways can be added to any flight plan. An airway can only be added if there is an existing entry
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach
procedure. The system anticipates the desired airway based on the selected waypoint and the flight plan.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
Preview of
Selected Airway
Figure 5-50 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
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Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
Airway Exit Points
Available
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Figure 5-51 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
Adding an airway to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor below the airway entry waypoint for the insertion point. If there
is no valid airway entry waypoint in the flight plan, one must be entered first.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob for the MFD one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press the MENU
Key for the MFD and select “Load Airway”(PFD or MFD). The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu
item is available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has already been entered in the flight plan.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways
are shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
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Adding an airway to a stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight “EDIT” and press
the ENT Key. The ‘FPL – Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor below the airway entry waypoint for the insertion point. If there
is no valid airway entry waypoint in the flight plan, one must be entered first.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey (MFD only), or press the MENU
Key and select “Load Airway”. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu item is available only when
a valid airway entry waypoint has already been entered in the flight plan.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways
are shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
7) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a
directional restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction.
For example, airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the
list of airway waypoints. That is, each waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to another
waypoint.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the
flight plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
Removing Airways
Removing an entire airway from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select Box, and not
required on PFD) and highlight the header of the airway to be removed.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor, if necessary.
Removing an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
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3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL – Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Collapsing Airways
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded. When airways have
been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value
is inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The active flight plan will always keep the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a
collapsed airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is
automatically expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight
plan review.
V4.SLN
Airway
Expanded
View
V4.SLN
Airway
Collapsed
View
Figure 5-52 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
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FLIGHT PLAN OPERATIONS
This section will discuss activating a flight plan leg and conducting enroute operations such as creating an
along track offset, parallel track, closest point from a reference point and user defined holding. For information
on departures, arrivals, and approaches refer to the Procedures portion later in the Flight Management Section.
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The flight plan leg which is currently being used for navigation guidance is referred to as the ‘active leg’.
The system automatically sequences from one active leg to the next as defined by the active flight plan.
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select Box, and not
required on PFD) and highlight the end waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor, if necessary.
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight
plan. Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the
system reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances
can be entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along
track offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results
in an along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an
along track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at
or after the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be removed and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
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Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-53 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select Box, and not
required on PFD) and highlight the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/ – 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor, if necessary.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the altitude field (‘VNV’ or ‘ALT’).
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
5) The cursor is now flashing in offset distance field.
6) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to activate.
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CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The system displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user waypoint
at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference waypoint.
PARALLEL TRACK
The Parallel Track feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the current
flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier. Activation of parallel track will
apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that does not meet the criteria for parallel
track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track at the beginning of that leg.
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled.
The following will inhibit activation of a parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to the selected waypoint.
• If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with
the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’.
• If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp turn of
more than 120 degrees), the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because
of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’).
• If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status indicates that
the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the active leg type
(‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’).
If there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. The following
will cancel the parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to a waypoint.
• Initiating a hold at the present position.
• If a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
• No legs are remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. Initiating a hold at
a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is required to fly to the hold
waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the parallel track will be resumed.
Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be resumed upon exiting the hold.
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NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Parallel Track Waypoints
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Parallel Track
Original Track
Figure 5-54 Parallel Track Active
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with the ‘Direction’ Field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘Distance’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Parallel Track’ is
highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-55 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To Waypoint Selection
Figure 5-56 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select Box, and not
required on PFD) and highlight the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a ¯ Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, then select ‘Hold?’ when finished.
2) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
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6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined at
the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the active flight plan, ‘HOLD’ is inserted into the active
flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is created.)
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select Box, and not
required on PFD) and highlight ‘HOLD’ in the flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
MANAGING FLIGHT PLANS
The pilot can manage flight plans by importing/exporting via SD Card or mobile device, and by storing,
copying, inverting, and deleting. Also, the comment field (name) of each flight plan can be changed to
something that is useful for identification and sorting.
IMPORTING AND EXPORTING FLIGHT PLANS
Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Wireless Transceiver (Flight Stream 510).
Transfer of a flight plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device. When a mobile device is
attempting to transfer a flight plan to the system, the pending flight plan may be ignored, previewed, stored,
or activated by the pilot.
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Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
Ignore Softkey
Preview Softkey
Figure 5-57 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
Store? or Activate?
Selection
Delete Softkey
Activate Softkey
Store Softkey
Figure 5-58 Preview Flight Plan Page
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Ignoring a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a ‘PENDING FLIGHT PLAN’ pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page title.
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan will
still be available on the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Or:
Press the Ignore Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan
will still be available on the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Previewing a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a ‘PENDING FLIGHT PLAN’ pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page title.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL – Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
Press the Preview Softkey to display the ‘FPL – Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Preview Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL – Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Storing a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL – Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
6) Press the Store Softkey to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store?’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
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Activating a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL – Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
4) Press the Activate Softkey. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
5) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to activate the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan becomes
the active flight plan and is removed from the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
5) Press the Delete Softkey. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
Press the CLR Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan is removed
from the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
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Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All Pending’.
5) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
6)
With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Alternatively, flight plans may be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the ‘FPL –
Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear when a flight plan is imported or exported.
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No
stored flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
‘User waypoint database full. Not all
loaded.’
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight plan export failed.’
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight
plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
These waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans
stored in the system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however
others had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in
the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
One or more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can
support. The flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system
cannot find in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but
must be edited within the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored
user waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints
on the SD card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not
imported are locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the
system before it can be activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to
naming conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card
may not have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed
prematurely.
Table 5-9 Flight Plan Import/Export Messages
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NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or Cancel” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “Cancel” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Exporting a flight plan to an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
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INVERTING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
A flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point. Inverting and
activating stored flight plans is discussed within the Stored Flight Plan Functions portion of this section.
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Highlight ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key.
DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
The active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. Additionally, the system allows
the pilot to delete the active flight plan, which suspends navigation by the system.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
STORED FLIGHT PLAN FUNCTIONS
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. Details about each stored flight plan
can be viewed on the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page and on the ‘FPL – Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
A stored flight plan may be viewed or edited. The system also allows copying a flight plan into a new
flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to
duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Lastly, individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
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Stored Flight Plan Selected
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Distance of flight plan
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Softkeys
Figure 5-59 Stored Flight Plan Page
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) Information is displayed in the ‘Flight Plan Info’ Box showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute
safe altitude information for the selected flight plan.
5) Press the Edit Softkey to open the ‘FPL – Stored Flight Plan’ Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Push the FMS Knob to exit the ‘FPL – Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
Storing an active flight plan from the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
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3) Press the Activate Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
Copying a stored flight plan to another flight plan memory slot, on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Copy Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Delete Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan #?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
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CHANGING A FLIGHT PLAN COMMENT (NAME)
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL – Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF, CD, CF,
CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
The system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and terminal
phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a direct-to
waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a linear
deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
Vertical navigation is available for flight control operations when valid VNV data is entered in flight plan, and
the ENBL VNV Softkey is pressed (softkey label changes to ‘Cncl VNV’ once enabled) on the ‘FPL – Active Flight
Plan’ Page. Refer to the AFCS Section for more information on utilizing vertical navigation for aircraft control.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight plan
waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent (TOD)
point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and
time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TOD items
displayed in the Active VNV Profile box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually enabled. Vertical
guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
NOTE: Inhibiting VNV prevents automatic waypoint sequencing and FPA calculations. Subsequently
enabling VNV after it had been inhibited, may result in a steep FPA and inaccurate VSD profile depiction.
Enabling and Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., FALUR)).
3) To Disable VNV guidance, press the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and
press the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is disabled.
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Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Disabled (fields dashed)
ENBL VNV Softkey
Enabled (valid data)
Cncl VNV Softkey
Figure 5-60 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
CONSTRAINTS
NOTE: Initiating the VNV direct-to function to the FAF, manually specifying an FPA to the FAF, or manually
creating an altitude constraint at the FAF will disrupt the VNV function from creating a lateral offset. Thus,
the VNV path may not intersect the approach descent path.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database.
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Altitude Constraint
Examples
System Calculated
Advisory Altitude (White Text)
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Modified Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text with Pencil Icon)
Designated Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text)
Cross AT 2,300 ft
Altitude Retrieved from the
Navigation Database
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
Temperature
Compensated
Figure 5-61 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
Advisory altitude calculated by the system estimating the
altitude of the aircraft as it passes over the navigation point.
5OOOFT
Altitude is designated for vertical guidance. A pencil icon
indicates manual designation or manually modified data entry.
Altitude retrieved from the navigation database. White line
above or below indicates the type of constraint.
These altitudes are provided as a reference, and are not
designated for vertical guidance.
The system cannot use this altitude in determining vertical
guidance because of an invalid constraint condition.
Table 5-10 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
When a procedure is loaded, the system will auto-designate (automatically enter and enable) altitude
constraints to be used for vertical guidance. An altitude constraint which has been auto-designated by the
system will be displayed as cyan text.
An altitude constraint may be manually designated if it is available for vertical guidance (altitude is selectable
via the cursor or Quick Select Box). Altitudes that are not available for vertical guidance are shown in white
text and can not be selected by the cursor.
NOTE: If the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is available for vertical guidance, the FAF altitude constraint may be
modified and set above or below the published FAF altitude.
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For all designated altitudes, the system will automatically calculate advisory altitudes prior to the designated
altitude constraint. These advisory altitudes are not auto-designated and are displayed as white text.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated”. Pressing the CLR
Key with the altitude constraint highlighted on the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Page removes the altitude constraint
designation. The altitude will not be used for vertical guidance and the text displayed will be shown in
white. The system will recalculate advisory altitudes (white text) when any altitude constraint is designated,
modified, or un-designated.
An altitude constraint may be entered as a flight level (FL), height above mean sea level (MSL), or height
above ground level (AGL). AGL format is only available for airport waypoints.
NOTE: All designated altitudes (cyan text) will be displayed in the active flight plan without restriction bars
regardless of what is shown on the published procedure.
A designated altitude constraint may be rendered invalid if any of the following are true:
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• The descent constraints are not sequentially descending.
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. If an altitude
constraint is removed and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral waypoint, the
system will display that altitude restriction in white text. The system also provides a way to revert a published
altitude constraint that has been modified.
Entering/designating or modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Select the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs or the alphanumeric keypad. To enter altitudes as a
flight level, turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and
the system automatically changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight
the first zero and enter the three digit flight level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport without a runway
selected, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the
ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Removing/undesignating an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Select the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
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Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Select the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘Revert’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
QFE CONSTRAINTS
Baro QFE settings may be enabled so that the altimeter will read zero at the selected reference point (Origin
or Destination airfield), and terminal altitude constraints in the flight plan are displayed as the height above
the reference point. When Baro QFE is enabled, altitude constraints based on Baro QFE may be entered or
modified in the flight plan and will be displayed in parenthesis. See the Flight Instruments Section for more
information on how to enable Baro QFE.
Entering or modifying a Baro QFE altitude constraint:
1) With Baro QFE enabled, press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Select the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Use the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to begin entry of the altitude constraint, and enter the constraint
in reference to Baro QFE. If modifying an existing Baro QFE altitude constraint, turning the small FMS Knob
displays the existing constraint in MSL in the entry field. If adding a new altitude constraint, turning the small
FMS Knob displays ‘00000FT’ in the entry field.
4) Press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘QFE’ and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude
constraint. The constraint is shown in parenthesis indicating it is based on the Baro QFE setting.
System Calculated Advisory Altitude
Baro QFE Altitude
Designated Altitude Constraint
Baro QFE Altitude
Figure 5-62 Baro QFE Altitude Constraints
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VERTICAL SPEED AND FLIGHT PATH ANGLE CONSTRAINTS
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (‘VS TGT’) and/or
flight path angle (‘FPA’) in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs or use the alphanumeric keypad as needed to edit the values.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD)
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. The terrain,
obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active flight plan information
consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNV profile, TOD/BOD, and destination runway)
can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode. See the Hazard Avoidance section for information
about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on the VSD.
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track mode.
When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation map indicated
range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD altitude range automatically
changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant ratio of altitude range to horizontal
range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been met. At ranges above the maximum, the
altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on the vertical
scale is close to the top for a descent phase and in the middle for a cruise phase or if the phase is unknown.
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure any text,
one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint is displayed as
darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO waypoint, (2) waypoint
with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough for the
terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown in gray if the terrain is selected Off on the Navigation Map).
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for symbol information and display of point obstacles on the Navigation Map.
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon the
highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution, within a
predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft present position and the end of the map range
or active flight plan. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase.
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The numeric constraint values are displayed below the waypoint label, using the same color and format as on
the Active Flight Plan Page. Database derived altitude restrictions are shown in white. Any altitude constraint
that has been designated for use in vertical navigation is shown in cyan. The following table shows the numeric
representation and the graphical representation of the constraints. The tip of each constraint symbol triangle is
placed at the corresponding constraint barometric altitude.
Constraint Type
Numeric Representation
AT
(Designated Altitude Constraint)
3OOOFT
AT or ABOVE
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
AT or BELOW
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
Altitude Constraint Icon
5OOOFT
3OOOFT
Table 5-11 Altitude Constraint Icons
NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNV descents because the lateral distance of
those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNV profile for any legs that have no vertical path guidance.
NOTE: Changes to the vertical flight plan path, when waypoint sequencing is occurring within one minute,
may result in the inaccurate depiction of VSD artifacts, such as TOD. Though the location of the artifact on
the VSD may be displayed incorrectly, VNV guidance and autopilot coupling will not be affected.
FPL Waypoints
VSD Mode (FPL)
Selected Alt. (10000ft)
Altitude Constraints
Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
Destination Runway
Obstacle
Current VNAV Profile
VSD Mode Buttons
- FPL
- TRK
- Auto
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VSD Mode Displayed
Button
Mode
FPL Criteria
Items available on VSD
Available active FPL & aircraft
within FPL swath
(1) Active FPL available &
aircraft not within FPL swath,
or (2) Active FPL not available
AUTO FPL
Auto
AUTO TRK
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information*
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
selected altitude
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Flight Plan
FPL
Active FPL not available
Only shows message ‘Flight Plan Not Available’
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
Track
TRK
NA
selected altitude
*Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNV profile, TOD/BOD, and
destination runway
Active FPL available
Table 5-12 VSD Modes
VSD MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Message
‘Loading…’
‘Flight Plan Not Available’
‘Flight Plan mode unavailable because aircraft off
course and active leg over 200 NM’
‘Aircraft Beyond Active Leg’
‘VSD Not Available’
‘VSD Data is old, disable and enable VSD’
Description
VSD is loading data due to a range change, full/half switch, or first being
selected for display.
Flight Plan mode is selected and there is not a flight plan loaded with at
least one leg.
All of the following are true:
– Flight Plan mode is selected
– The active leg is greater than 200 nm
– The aircraft is outside the swath
Flight Plan mode is selected and the aircraft’s position, as projected on
the flight plan, is past the end of the active leg.
At least one of the following is true:
– Valid terrain database not available
– GPS MSL altitude not available
– Current barometric altitude not available
– Neither current track nor current heading available
– GPS position not available
– Map range setting is less than 1 nm
The system has encountered a delay and VSD data has failed to update
for 2 seconds or more. This message may be momentarily displayed and
then removed as the delay is overcome.
Table 5-13 VSD System Messages
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Flight Phase
Approach, Departure
Terminal
En Route, Oceanic
Width of Swath
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 5-14 Flight Phase, VSD Width of Swath
Enabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable the Vertical Situation Display.
5) Press the VSD mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the Map Opt Softkey
5) Press the Inset Softkey
6) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Disabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey
4) Press the Off Softkey.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map – Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
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VERTICAL NAVIGATION DIRECT-TO
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the Active Flight Plan Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight
plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent
(TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
All VNV altitudes prior to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful
activation of a direct-to destination that is part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the directto waypoint are retained.
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Select the desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
3) Press the VNV ¯ Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key. An
‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
Removing a VNV direct-to altitude constraint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APRs) are stored within the navigation database and can be loaded
using any Procedures (PROC Key).
NOTE: The charts database may contain Special Procedures. Prior to flying these procedures, pilots must
have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the corresponding current, and legitimatelysourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special Procedure in the charts database DOES NOT
imply specific authorization to fly the procedure.
NOTE: Some airports may have published instrument approach procedures not contained within the navigation
database. These procedures may be available for preview from the charts database, but are not available for
navigation guidance. See the Additional Features Section for more information on previewing Charts.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and destination airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the Procedure Loading Page. Furthermore, only one procedure for each type of procedure (DP, STAR,
APPR) can be loaded at a time in a flight plan.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually initiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Figure 5-64 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group):
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT – Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page.
Or
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT – Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page.
Or
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT – Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. To select another airport, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired procedure. The procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through the available procedures. Press the ENT Key to select the procedure.
The cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs, as required, to highlight a runway or transition. Press the ENT Key to select the runway
or transition. The cursor moves to the next box. The procedure is previewed on the map.
6) Repeat Step 5, until desired information has been viewed for the chosen procedure.
7) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
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DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Departure Preview
Figure 5-65 Departure Selection
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Selected Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Loaded Departure
Figure 5-66 Departure Loading
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC – Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) The cursor is activated in the ‘Departure’ Field. If desired, the airport may be changed by pushing the FMS
Knob, turning the large FMS Knob to highlight the airport identifier, facility, or city, and using the FMS Knobs
or alphanumeric keypad to select the desired airport. When finished, press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT – Departure Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group), press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT –
Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT – Airport information’ Page.
2) If desired, the airport may be changed by pushing the FMS Knob, turning the large FMS Knob to highlight the
airport identifier, facility, or city, and using the FMS Knobs or alphanumeric keypad to select the desired airport.
When finished, press the ENT Key.
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3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL –
Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
– Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select Box, and not
required on PFD) and highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor, if necessary.
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Removing a departure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL –
Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the departure:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the departure.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Departure’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ARRIVALS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active flight
plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition
waypoints, and a runway.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Figure 5-67 Arrival Selection
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Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
Figure 5-68 Arrival Loading
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC – Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) The cursor is activated in the ‘Arrival’ Field. If desired, the airport may be changed by pushing the FMS
Knob, turning the large FMS Knob to highlight the airport identifier/facility/city, and using the FMS Knobs or
alphanumeric keypad to select the desired airport. When finished, press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure
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Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT – Arrival Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group), press the STAR Softkey.
The ‘WPT – Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT – Airport
Information’ Page.
2) To select another airport, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The
cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL –
Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
– Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select Box, and not
required on PFD) and highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
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3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor, if necessary.
Removing an arrival from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL –
Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the arrival:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the arrival.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Arrival’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPROACHES
INSTRUMENT APPROACH
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
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The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels
according to the published chart. LNAV+V is an LNAV with advisory vertical guidance provided for assistance
in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is
displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. In all cases
where LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV minima are used.
The active approach service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
Approach
Service Level
(as shown on HSI)
LNAV
LNAV+V
L/VNAV
Description
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV minima
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV minima.
Advisory vertical guidance
is provided
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV/VNAV
minima
LP
RNAV GPS approach using
(available only if
published LP minima
SBAS available)
RNAV GPS approach using
LP+V
published LP minima.
(available only if
Advisory vertical guidance
SBAS available)
is provided
LPV
RNAV GPS approach using
(available only if
published LPV minima
SBAS available)
LNAV/VNAV or
LNAV Database
Minima Available?
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one
minute to FAF, at one minute to FAF will
initiate a switch/downgrade to:
LNAV
N/A
LNAV
LNAV+V (Baro VNAV) 
LNAV/VNAV
LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV) 
LNAV
LNAV 
No LNAV
Approach Aborted 
LNAV
LNAV 
No LNAV
Approach Aborted 
LNAV/VNAV
LNAV Only
Neither
LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV) 
LNAV
Approach Aborted 
Approach Service Level - LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV




APR ADVISORY system message generated. Acknowledgement is required to complete the switch.
APR DWNGRADE system message generated. Downgrade will not complete until message is acknowledged.
Approach is aborted. ABORT APR system message generated.
If APR ADVISORY system message not acknowledged prior to the FAF, downgrades to LNAV. No additional message generated.
Table 5-15 Effects of SBAS Unavailability on Approaches
LNAV/VNAV Downgrade
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LNAV/VNAV approach, L/
VNAV will be shown in amber, the system will switch to LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV) service level (L/VNAV
shown in magenta), and an APR ADVISORY system message will be generated (the VDI will be flagged
NO GP until the APR ADVISORY system message has been acknowledged). If the APR ADVISORY system
message is not acknowledged prior to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service level (LNAV
shown in magenta), the VDI will remain flagged ‘NO GP’, and no additional downgrade system message
will be generated.
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If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service
level, with no downgrade system message generated. If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the
FAF, and there is no LNAV minima, the approach will abort when past the FAF waypoint.
LNAV+V Switching
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LNAV+V approach, LNAV+V
will be shown in amber, the system will switch to LNAV+V (Baro VNAV) service level (LNAV+V shown in
magenta), and an APR ADVISORY system message will be generated (the vertical deviation will be flagged
NO GP until the APR ADVISORY system message has been acknowledged).
If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service
level, with no downgrade system message generated.
LP Downgrade
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LP approach, LP will be shown
in amber, but the CDI will be continue to be shown. At one minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to
LNAV service level (LNAV shown in magenta), and an APR DWNGRADE system message will be generated
(the CDI will be removed until the APR DWNGRADE system message has been acknowledged).
If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the approach will abort.
LP+V Downgrade
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LP+V approach, LP+V will be
shown in amber and the VDI will be flagged NO GP, but the CDI will be continue to be shown. At one
minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service level (LNAV shown in magenta), and an
APR DWNGRADE system message will be generated (the CDI will be removed until the APR DWNGRADE
system message has been acknowledged).
If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the approach will abort.
LPV Downgrade
If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an RNAV LPV approach, LPV will be
shown in amber, but the VDI will be continue to be shown. At one minute to the FAF, the system will
downgrade to:
1) LNAV/VNAV service level (Baro VNAV) (L/VNAV shown in magenta), and an APR DWNGRADE system
message will be generated (the VDI will be flagged ‘NO GP’ until the APR DWNGRADE system message
has been acknowledged);
or
2) LNAV service level (LNAV shown in magenta), the VDI will be flagged ‘NO GP’, and an APR
DWNGRADE system message will be generated.
If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the system will downgrade to LNAV service
level when past the FAF, with no downgrade system message generated.
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VISUAL APPROACH
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches are not
defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the system calculates
the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach waypoints based on runway
position and course as specified in the navigation database.
NOTE: The charts database may contain Charted Visual Flight Procedures (CVFPs) for certain airports. CVFPs
follow a precise prescribed path and are classified as Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs). See the Additional
Features Section for more information on Charts.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRAIGHT) and the Vectors-toFinal transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial fix (STRGHT), the
final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree glide path is calculated from
the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended straight-in path.
NOTE: The glidepath cannot be captured by the Autopilot outside the STRGHT waypoint if the chosen transition is
the STRAIGHT transition.
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore, when
a visual approach is selected, the message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches” is
displayed on the approach selection page and must be acknowledged before the visual approach is loaded
into the flight plan.
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Figure 5-69 Loading Visual Approach
APPROACH SELECTION AND REMOVAL
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either ‘Load’ or ‘Activate’ is given. ‘Load’ adds the approach
to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows continued
navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure available for
quick activation when needed. ‘Activate’ also adds the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately
begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to load the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps below to select ‘Activate Vector-To – Final’ —
which makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘ – NOT APPROVED
FOR GPS – ’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
NOTE: When there is no arrival procedure in the flight plan, loading an approach after a destination airport
has already been entered will result in a duplicate destination airport waypoint being added to the end of
the enroute segment.
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Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Approach Preview
Approach Choices
Figure 5-70 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-71 Approach Loading
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Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC – Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach channel number. The
airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set approach minimums, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT
Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, select ‘OFF’ and press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘ – NOT APPROVED FOR GPS –
GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airport’ Page:
1) Select the ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘PROC – Approach Loading’ Page is displayed with the ‘Transition’ Field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, or ‘TEMP COMP’, and press the ENT Key.
Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
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b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘Load?’ field is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate?’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘ – NOT APPROVED FOR GPS –
GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL –
Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
– Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the ‘Procedures’ Window.
2) Highlight ‘Activate Vector-to-Final’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’ and press the ENT Key.
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3) From the ‘PROC – Approach Loading’ Page, press the MENU Key for the MFD. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is
displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘ – NOT APPROVED FOR GPS –
GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required if using the Quick Select Box, and not
required on PFD) and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor, if necessary.
Removing an approach from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL – Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL –
Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the approach:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the approach.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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MISSED APPROACH
The system is capable of providing guidance for the approach as well as the missed approach. Once the
missed approach is activated, MAPR will be displayed on the HSI next to the CDI. If the missed approach is
activated prior to the Missed Approach Point (MAP), waypoint sequencing will continue along the approach
to the missed approach. If the missed approach is not activated prior to the MAP, the system will enter SUSP
Mode once the aircraft crosses the MAP until the missed approach is activated or SUSP Mode is disabled. See
the Flight Instruments, Course Deviation Indicator section for more information on SUSP Mode.
See the Using Map Displays, Map Symbols discussion previously given in this section for information on
displaying the missed approach preview on the navigation map.
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6600ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,600 feet is reached. After reaching 6,600 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
ADANE). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (ADANE) to begin the missed approach procedure.
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-72 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if
the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
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Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
Press the Go-Around Button.
Or:
Fly past the MAP, and press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD.
Or:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Prior to the MAP, the lateral navigation is provided to the MAP before executing the missed approach.
Otherwise, the aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a manual temperature input
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of – 40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly, and the snowflake icon ( ) is displayed next to those altitudes.
Manually inputting the temperature for compensation is explained in the following procedures. However,
the system already automatically accounts for temperatures warmer and colder than ISA by adjusting the
lateral position of the FAF altitude constraint (calculated by the Transition to Approach VNV Feature). Once
the flight plan waypoint prior to the FAF becomes the active VNV waypoint (or the FAF becomes the active
VNV waypoint in the case that the previous waypoint does not contain a valid altitude constraint), a lateral
offset distance is calculated for the FAF altitude constraint. Once calculated, the VNV function seamlessly
applies the offset such that a smooth vertical transition onto the approach descent path occurs.
NOTE: Manually specifying temperature compensation for an approach will disrupt the system from
automatically creating a lateral offset of the VNV function in use.
Manually setting temperature compensation for altitudes loaded into approaches:
1) From the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed with the temperature highlighted.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to change the ‘Temperature at <airport>’ Field. The compensated altitude is computed
as the temperature is selected.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window
on the MFD, or in the ‘References’ Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for
the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the
minimums. Refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
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Cancelling temperature compensation setting for altitudes loaded into approaches:
1) From the ‘FPL – Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
deselect temperature compensated minimums, nor does selecting/deselecting temperature compensated
minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-73 Temperature Compensation
Compensated
Altitudes
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Figure 5-74 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
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5.9 WEIGHT AND FUEL PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for weight and fuel calculations is done on the ‘Aux – Weight Planning’ Page.
NOTE: All weight planning page data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds or 5 kilograms.
Fuel Weight Calculator
A/C Payload Calculator
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Weight Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
Empty WT Softkey
(selects Basic Empty
Weight)
Figure 5-75 Weight Planning Page
Entering basic empty weight:
1) Press the EMPTY WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘Basic Empty Weight’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or use the alphanumeric keypad to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Pilot & Stores’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or use the alphanumeric keypad to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
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Entering the number of passengers:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Passengers #’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or use the alphanumeric keypad to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or use the alphanumeric keypad to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight.
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Cargo’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or use the alphanumeric keypad to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Zero Fuel Weight is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo weights.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel on Board’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or use the alphanumeric keypad to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel Reserves’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or use the alphanumeric keypad to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor
Synchronizing the fuel on board with the actual measured fuel on board:
Press the FOB SYNC Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Synchronize Fuel on Board’, and press the ENT
Key. The actual measured fuel on board is displayed in the ‘Fuel on Board’ Field.
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When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can be
completed.
• Estimated landing weight = zero fuel weight + estimated landing fuel weight.
• Estimated landing fuel weight = fuel on board weight – (fuel flow x ETE)
• Excess fuel weight = estimated landing fuel weight – fuel reserves weight
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields display
invalid values consisting of six dashes:
• Estimated landing weight
• Estimated landing fuel weight
• Excess fuel weight
WEIGHT CAUTION AND WARNING CONDITIONS
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel weight is
displayed in amber.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is displayed
in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the following
values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in red:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
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5.10 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on manually entered fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining
fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the ‘Aux – Trip Planning’.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
Figure 5-76 Trip Planning Page
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
• Departure time – This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are from the
aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
• Calibrated airspeed – The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of information
is GPS ground speed.
• Indicated altitude – The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of information
is GPS altitude.
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TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) – DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints. It
is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance – The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) – ETE is shown as hours+minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown
as minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) – ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure
time all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected,
then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current
leg being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to
and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the
last leg of the flight plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) – The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
• Destination sunrise and sunset times – These times are shown as hours:minutes and are the local time at
the destination.
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FUEL STATISTICS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency – This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance – This time is shown as hours+minutes. This value is obtained by dividing the
amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg – This value is calculated by taking the amount of fuel
onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg – This value is calculated by taking the time of fuel
endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel required for trip – This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow – This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel endurance by the
ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density altitude
• True airspeed
The pilot may select Auto or Manual mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs) mode. In Auto
Mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTs selection).
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-77 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Figure 5-78 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
Press the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Press the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
1) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
1) Press the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the ‘FPL’ Field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) Press the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the ‘Departure Time’ Field and enter the desired value. Press the
ENT Key. The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat
until all desired values have been entered.
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5.11 ABNORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the system
stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the
system uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when
available) to calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the system through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the ‘own
aircraft’ symbol. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber slightly below and to the left of the aircraft
symbol on the HSI. The CDI deviation bar remains, but is removed from the display after 20 minutes in DR
Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled in DR mode as long as the deviation info is available (20 min.). Lastly,
but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD. Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS
source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in the
following figure. If the VSD Inset is selected for the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be displayed.
NOTE: GPS derived information will remain displayed in magenta (not amber) on the Flight Plan Progress
inset when operating in Dead Reckoning mode. However, this information shall still be considered as
degraded navigation source information.
While the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the accuracy of all
nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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Distance &
Bearing
Ground
Speed
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Course
Deviation
Indicator
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Nav Data Bar
All GPS derived
data displayed
in amber
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Figure 5-79 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard avoidance features available for the system are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• Garmin GDL 69/69A SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
• Garmin Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather (Optional)
• Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVS (included with the Garmin SVT option)
• TAWS-B (Terrain Awareness and Warning System - Class B) (Optional)
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
• KTA 870 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
• TIS-B Traffic (Optional)
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6.1 DATALINK WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be significantly older than the indicated weather product age.
NOTE: To check the availability of Garmin Connext weather products offered in a particular region, visit
http://www.flygarmin.com.
The Data Link Weather feature enables the system to receive weather information from a variety of weather
sources, depending on the equipment installed in the aircraft. These sources may include SiriusXM Weather,
Garmin Connext Weather, and Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B). For each source, a ground-based
system processes the weather information collected from a network of sensors and weather data providers.
The SiriusXM Weather service, available with the Garmin 69A SXM data link receiver and an active service
subscription, updates its weather data periodically and automatically, and transmits this information to the
aircraft’s receiver via satellite on the S-Band frequency. This service provides continuous reception capabilities at
any altitude throughout North America.
The FIS-B Weather service, available when equipped with a capable transponder or data link receiver which
can receive 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data, delivers subscription-free weather information
periodically and automatically to the aircraft. FIS-B uses a network of FAA-operated Ground-Based Transceivers
(GBTs) to transmit the information to the aircraft’s receiver. Reception is limited to line-of-sight, and is available
below 24,000 feet MSL in the United States. FIS-B broadcasts provide weather data in a repeating cycle which
may take approximately ten minutes to transmit all available weather data. Therefore, not all weather data may
be present immediately upon initial FIS-B signal acquisition. FIS-B is a component of the Automatic Dependent
Surveillance (ADS-B) system, which offers both weather and traffic data; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later
in this section for a more detailed discussion of the ADS-B system and its capabilities.
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ACTIVATING DATA LINK WEATHER SERVICES
NOTE: Service activation is not applicable to the FIS-B Weather service.
ACTIVATING THE SIRIUSXM WEATHER SERVICE
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s customer
service the coded IDs unique to the installed GDL 69/69A. The SiriusXM Weather service has a coded Data
Radio ID. The Data Radio ID must be provided to activate the weather service. This ID is in the following
locations:
• The AUX - XM Information Page on the MFD
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
Contact the installer if the Audio and Data Radio IDs cannot be located.
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display weather data and/
or provide audio entertainment programming through the GDL 69/69A.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Radio Page in the Aux Page Group.
2) Select the Info Softkey to display the ‘AUX - XM Information’ Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and desired weather product subscription package.
Activating the SiriusXM Weather service:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
3) Observe the list of Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather product; a
green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several minutes
for weather products in the selected subscription package to become available.
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Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Satellite Radio)
Data Radio
ID (for XM
Weather)
Weather
Products
(Available
Products for
Service Class
Indicated in
Green)
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
USING SIRIUSXM WEATHER PRODUCTS
The principal map page for viewing SiriusXM Weather data is the Weather Data Link (XM) Page in the Map
Page Group. This is the only map display capable of showing information for all available SiriusXM Weather
products.
Viewing the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link Page.
3) If the page title contains ‘FIS-B’, it will be necessary to change the data link weather source from FIS-B to
SiriusXM Weather. Refer to the next procedure to change the source.
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NEXRAD
Weather
Product Icon
and Age
(U.S. and
Canada)
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Changing the weather data link source (SiriusXM or FIS-B):
1) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B Page).
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’ or ‘Display FIS-B Weather’ and press
the ENT Key. Weather Data Link Page title and softkeys change to correspond to selected data link weather
source (including weather data overlay softkeys on the navigation maps).
WEATHER PRODUCT AGE
Unlike real-time weather information collected directly from weather sensors on-board an aircraft, such as an
airborne weather radar or a lightning detection system, data link weather in contrast relies on external service
providers to collect, process, and transmit weather information to the aircraft. This information can come from
a variety of sources such as government agencies. Due to the time it takes to collect, process, and distribute
data link weather information, it is imperative for pilots to understand that data link weather information is not
real-time information and may not accurately depict the current conditions.
For each data link weather product which can be displayed as a map overlay, such as radar precipitation,
the system can also show a weather product age. This age represents the elapsed time, in minutes, since the
weather service provider compiled the weather product and the current time. It does not represent the age of the
information contained within the weather product itself. For example, a single mosaic of radar precipitation is
comprised data from multiple radar sites providing data at differing scan rates or intervals. The weather service
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provider periodically compiles this data to create a single composite image, and assigns one time to this image
which becomes the basis of the product age. The service provider then makes this weather product available for
data link transmission at the next scheduled update time. The actual age of the weather data contained within
the mosaic is therefore older than its weather product age and should never be considered current.
SiriusXM and FIS-B weather products are broadcast automatically on a repeating cycle without pilot
intervention.
Each data link weather product age has an expiration time. The weather product age is shown in white if it
is less than half of this expiration time, otherwise it is shown in amber until reaching its expiration time. After
a weather product has expired, the system removes the expired weather product from the displays, and shows
white dashes instead of the age. If the data link receiver has not yet received a weather product ‘N/A’ appears
instead of the age to show the product is currently not available for display. This may occur, for example, after
powering on the system but before the data link receiver has received a complete weather data transmission. It
could also indicate a possible outage of a weather product.
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For PFD
maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
Enabling/disabling the weather product age for PFD Maps:
1) With the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND to show/remove the weather product age information for PFD maps.
Tables 6-1 and 6-2 show the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates for
SiriusXM Weather and FIS-B Weather, respectively. The broadcast rate represents the interval at which the
service provider transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated weather product information. It
does not represent the rate at which the weather information is updated or when the Data Link Receiver receives
new data. The service provider and its weather data suppliers define and control the data update intervals,
which are subject to change.
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SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
NEXRAD
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
30
Cell Movement
30
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
METARs
90
City Forecast
90
Surface Analysis
60
Freezing Levels
120
Winds Aloft
90
County Warnings
60
Cyclone Warnings
60
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
Air Report(AIREP)
90
Turbulence
180
Radar Coverage Not Available
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
No product image
No product image
30
60
60
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
METARs
90
5
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
10
Winds Aloft
90
10
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
5
FIS-B Weather Product
Symbol
No Radar Coverage
no product image
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
(TAF)
no product image
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
10
Table 6-2 FIS-B Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE SOFTKEYS
NOTE: Only softkeys pertaining to data link weather features are shown in the following tables.
Level 1
NEXRAD
Level 2
Echo Top
CLD Top
XM LTNG
Cell MOV
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
Cyclone
266
Level 3
Description
Enables/disables the NEXRAD weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Echo Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cloud Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Lightning weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cell Movement weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level SiriusXM Weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the Cyclone weather product overlay.
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Level 1
Level 2
SFC
FRZ LVL
Wind
ICNG
Level 3
Off
Current
12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, These softkeys display a Surface Analysis and City Forecast overlay for the
selected future time period.
48 HR
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the Freezing Level weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Displays altitude softkeys for the Icing weather product overlay.
Shows the previous level of Icing altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Icing weather product.
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting winds from
the Icing altitude from
to 1,000 to 30,000 feet
Next
Legend
TURB
PREV
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting Turbulence
altitude from 21,000
feet to 45,000 feet
Next
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Description
Displays third level softkey for enabling/disabling the Surface Analysis and
City Forecast weather product and selecting a forecast period.
Disables the Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather product overlay.
Displays the Surface Analysis for the current time period overlay.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 1,000 feet to
30,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays softkeys for enabling/disabling the Turbulence weather product
overlay.
Shows the previous level of Turbulence altitude softkeys.
Disables the Turbulence weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 21,000 feet to
45,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Legend
Back
AIREPS
PIREPS
County
Back
Description
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the AIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the County Warnings weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B) PAGE SOFTKEYS)
Level 1
NEXRAD
or
US
or
RGNL
or
US/RGNL
IR SAT
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
Level 2
Level 3
NEXRAD (with annunciator disabled): No NEXRAD is shown.
US: Displays NEXRAD data for the Continental US (CONUS).
RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data.
US/RGNL: Displays regional NEXRAD data where available, and CONUS
NEXRAD data in other coverage areas.
Wind
PREV
268
Description
Cycles through NEXRAD display modes with each press:
Enables/disables the Infrared Satellite weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Weather Legends Window.
Displays second-level weather product softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
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Level 1
Level 2
PIREPs
Back
Level 3
Description
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the Weather Legends Window.
Legend
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
The Weather Data Link Page can display a legend for each enabled weather product.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the XM Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the
FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following weather products can be displayed by panning the Map Pointer
over the following products on the Weather Data Link Page:
• Echo Tops
• METARs
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
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Activated pointer,
moved with
joystick.
Figure 6-3 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Certain weather products, such as METARs or TFRs have full text associated with a graphic shown on the
map. When a weather product is selected with the Map Pointer, press the ENT Key. The system displays the
full text for the selected weather product in a window. To remove the window, press the FMS Knob or the CLR
Key.
The Weather Data Link Page also has a page menu that can be accessed by pressing the MENU Key. It has
controls for enabling/disabling the weather products as an alternative to using the softkeys.
CUSTOMIZING THE WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
The Weather Data Link Page includes controls for selecting the maximum map range to display each weather
product on the page. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the system
removes the weather product from the map. If more than one data link weather source has been installed, the
system uses the same maximum map range for the comparable weather product of another source.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the changed settings.
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NOTE: ‘Product Group 2’ is only applicable to SiriusXM
The pilot can select a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page, or choose to synchronize the map
orientation to the same orientation used on the Navigation Map Page.
Selecting a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Group options.
5) If SiriusXM is the selected data link weather source, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map’ Group and
press the ENT Key.
Or:
If FIS-B is the selected data link weather source, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Orientation ‘ field at
the bottom of the Product Group 1 list.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired map orientation: North up, Track up, HDG up, or SYNC, then
press the ENT Key.
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
If multiple data link weather services are installed, customizing the display settings for the corresponding
weather products shown in the following table will result in identical settings for all services.
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SiriusXM Weather Product
and Softkey
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar
Coverage
Cloud Top
(CLD TOP)
SiriusXM Lightning
(XM LTNG)
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
FIS-B Weather Product
Next-generation Radar
(NEXRAD) and No Radar Coverage
Not Available
Not Available
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
(SIG/AIR)
Meteorological Aerodrome Report
(METARs)
Winds Aloft
(WIND)
Pilot Weather Report
(PIREPs)
Table 6-3 Weather Data Link Map Settings Shared for Multiple
Weather Data Link Sources
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WEATHER PRODUCT MAP OVERLAYS
Cloud Top
+
Echo Top
+
Infrared Satellite
+
Data Link Lightning
+
Cell Movement
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
METARs
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page Group
+
Aux - Trip Planning Page
+
Weather Information Page
Weather Data Link Page
NEXRAD/Radar Precipitation
Navigation Map Page
Data Link Weather Product
PFD Maps
Other PFD and MFD maps and pages can display a smaller set of data link weather products. The following
table shows which data link weather products can be displayed on specific maps, indicated with a ‘+’ symbol.
+
+
+
+
Surface Analysis & City Forecast
+
Freezing Levels
+
Winds Aloft
+*
+
+
County Warnings
+
Cyclone Warnings
+
Icing Potential
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-4 Weather Product Display Maps
Displaying Data Link Weather Products on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the softkey to enable/disable the desired weather product.
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The Navigation Map Page also can display legends for weather products enabled on this map with the Legend
Softkey. This softkey is subdued if no weather products are enabled.
Showing/removing the weather legend on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Legend Softkey to show the weather legends window.
4) When finished, press the Legend Softkey again, or press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the window.
The Navigation Map Page also allows the pilot to select the maximum map range to display weather products.
If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the system removes the weather
product from the map. The system uses this setting for all navigation maps, including those displayed on the
PFD.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
The system can also display data link weather information on the PFD navigation maps.
Displaying Data Link Weather products on the PFD:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of data link products on the PFD map.
3) To enable/disable a data link lightning weather product on a PFD, press the Lightning Softkey.
a) Press the Datalink Softkey to enable data link lightning or press the LTNG Off Softkey.
b) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level PFD Softkeys.
NOTE: Data link lightning is not applicable to the FIS-B Weather service.
On the MFD maps, the weather product icon and age appear automatically when a weather is enabled and
the range is within the maximum display limits. On PFD maps, this information is available using the PFD
softkeys.
Enabling/disabling the weather product icon and age display (PFD maps):
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the WX LGND Softkey to enable/disable the weather product age, source, and icon box display on PFD
Maps.
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The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the map range settings
above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the weather
product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map. The page menus
also provide an alternative to using the softkeys to enable/disable data link weather product overlays on maps.
WEATHER PRODUCT OVERVIEW
The following is an overview of data link weather products the system can display.
NEXRAD (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Datalink weather radar information cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain, echo tops, icing,
or turbulence data.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
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NEXRAD
Weather
Product Icon
and Age
(U.S. and
Canada)
Figure 6-4 NEXRAD data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity image.
This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various altitudes. For radar
sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from the lowest antenna tilt angle,
known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes
and the type of precipitation, if known.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown for the selected region (US or Canada).
The pilot can change the region on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
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Changing the NEXRAD coverage region:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Region datafield.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ (Canada) and press the ENT Key.
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in gray shade of purple.
The system can animate a loop of NEXRAD information. The animated view is available on the Weather
Data Link (XM) Page, and on navigation maps with the exception of the HSI Map. Animation begins after
the system has received at least two recent NEXRAD images since the avionics power cycle. When NEXRAD
animation is enabled, a timeline appears in the upper-right corner of the map, except for the PFD Inset Map.
A pointer on the timeline indicates the relative position of the displayed frame of animation, from oldest to
newest. The NEXRAD weather product age corresponds to the displayed frame. The system can show up
to six frames of NEXRAD animation when the USA coverage option is selected, and up to three frames of
animation when Canada is selected.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’, then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The pilot enables/disables the NEXRAD animation feature for navigation maps from the Navigation Map
Page.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’ and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
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Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-5 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
• An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
• Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar beam
overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site, the radar beam
is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any precipitation occurring
below the beam at this distance and altitude.
• At smaller map ranges, the smallest square block on the display represents an area of approximately
four square kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of radar
reflectivity sampled within the area.
• Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
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Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-6 NEXRAD Weather Product at a 10 NM Map Range
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless of
actual precipitation type.
• If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of actual
precipitation type.
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No Coverage
Above 55°N
Precipitation Above
52°N Displays as
Mixed
Figure 6-7 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
NEXRAD (FIS-B)
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to FIS-B compiles
the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time
to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual
images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD
weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar synopsis and may not
depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for maneuvering
in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
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Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
Figure 6-8 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher resolution,
updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution, updated less
frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display on the same map.
When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display precedence where data is available,
and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional NEXRAD coverage area.
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey. Each selection cycles though a coverage option as the softkey name changes (US,
REG, or All.)
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) To enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD On/
Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of NEXRAD or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
4) To change the region of NEXRAD information, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the Region field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight (CONUS, Regional, or Combined)
b) Press the ENT Key.
5) When finished, push the FMS Knob.
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Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
No radar coverage
Figure 6-9 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather
Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
NOTE: When both NEXRAD options are enabled on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page, a combined version
is displayed.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey. Options will switch from (US, REG, All, or Off)
Or.
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to change to On or Off.
6) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
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The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received from
ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white spiked boundary
encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being displayed. The
system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this boundary area.
If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey enabled),
the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the
information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed
on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page. For the NEXRAD legend, select the Legend Softkey when the
NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
No radar coverage
Boundary of radar
coverage area
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar data
is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple.
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during initial FIS-B signal
acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system may display areas of no radar
coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is received. It may take up to approximately ten
minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when adequate reception is available.
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Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional version
of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm tall. For the
continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5 nm wide by 5 nm
wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected within that area.
• The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of latitude.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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ECHO TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is displayed.
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar echo. The
highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the highest altitude at
which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Altitude for
selected Echo Top
Figure 6-11 Echo Tops Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are removed.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-12 Echo Tops Legend
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CLOUD TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
NOTE: The broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30 minutes. As with all SiriusXM Weather products, the product
age becomes amber when it reaches half of the expiration time, which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops.
Therefore, this weather product age may be amber during routine operation.
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
Altitude for selected
Cloud Top
Figure 6-13 Cloud Tops Weather Product
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the CLD Top Softkey.
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Figure 6-14 Cloud Tops Legend
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DATA LINK LIGHTNING (SIRIUSXM,)
NOTE: Lightning from a data link source cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as information
from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
The Data Link Light weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes.
A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact location of the
lightning strike is not displayed.
Lightning
Strikes
Figure 6-15 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG Softkey.
To display the Lightning legend on the ‘Map -Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page, select the Legend Softkey
when SiriusXM Lightning is selected for display.
Figure 6-16 SiriusXM Lightning Legend
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Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the XM LTNG Softkey.
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the Datalink Softkey.
4) Press the LTNG off Softkey to disable it.
5) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
NOTE: The source of the data link lightning weather product for the PFD Maps is determined by which
source is selected on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
CELL MOVEMENT (SIRIUSXM)
The Cell Movement weather product shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the
ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement indicated with
short, orange arrows.
Storm Cells
Figure 6-17 Cell Movement Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated CEL MOV
softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
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NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69 SXM or 69A SXM data link receiver is installed.
In this case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
Displaying Cell Movement information on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the Cell MOV Softkey.
Figure 6-18 Cell Movement Legend
For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the NEXRAD
Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map Settings menu
of the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation maps:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When set to ‘On’, Cell Movement
is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement
is not displayed on navigation maps.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to remove the menu.
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling the
NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the NEXRAD
Softkey.
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SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition
occurring at a localized geographical position.
NOTE: If SiriusXM Weather is the active data link weather source and a GDL 69A SXM receiver installed, the
SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET has been
received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
SIGMET
Figure 6-19 SIGMET/AIRMET Weather Product
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the ‘Map- Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows sample SIGMET text.
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Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-20 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Figure 6-21 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR data is displayed first in a
decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information not
found in the decoded version. TAF information is displayed only in its original form when TAFs are available.
Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B)’ Page, press the METAR Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the ‘WPT - Weather Information’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
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Decoded
METAR
Text
Original
METAR Text
Original
TAF Text
Figure 6-22 METAR and TAF Information on the Weather Information Page
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the Legend Softkey when METARs
are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the information available.
Figure 6-23 METAR Legend
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MF.D.
The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
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Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated with a METAR flag next
to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan Page.
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map pointer
is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
4) Push the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on the map.
5) When finished, push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST (SIRIUSXM)
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Figure 6-24 Surface Analysis Data - 24-Hour
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Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the SFC Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey
label changes to show the forecast time selected.
Or:
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
Figure 6-25 Surface Analysis Legend
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FREEZING LEVEL (SIRIUSXM)
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at
which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude
has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears when it
becomes available.
Figure 6-26 Freezing Levels Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
Figure 6-27 Freezing Levels Legend
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WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up to 42,000 feet MSL.
If the FIS-B option is installed and FIS-B is the active data link weather source, the Winds Aloft weather
product also displays temperatures aloft next to the winds aloft arrows on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page.
Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Wind Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Press the Next or Prev Softkey
to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Figure 6-28 Winds Aloft Weather Product with 9,000 Feet Selected
Figure 6-29 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on the
Navigation Map Page. The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not
to aircraft speed.
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Winds Aloft
information
Figure 6-30 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data in the VSD
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in the following table.
Headwind Symbol
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
10 knots
50 knots
Table 6-5 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
NOTE: VSD Winds Aloft is not available when FIS-B is the selected data link weather source.
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Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the VSD is enabled by default when the VSD is displayed on the Navigation Map
Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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COUNTY WARNINGS (SIRIUSXM)
The County warning weather product provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings
from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes, severe thunderstorms,
and flood conditions.
Thunderstorm Warning
Tornado Warning
Flood Warning
Figure 6-31 County Flood and Severe Weather Warnings
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the County Softkey.
Figure 6-32 County Warnings Legend
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CYCLONE (SIRIUSXM)
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms,
and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of
DD/HH:MM.
Cyclone
Figure 6-33 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Cyclone Softkey.
Figure 6-34 Cyclone Legend
NOTE: The Cyclone weather product is not available unless at least one cyclone or tropical storm has been
received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
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ICING (CIP & SLD) (SIRIUSXM)
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the current icing environment.
Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft
type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the
analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to
cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selected.
Extreme Icing
Potential
Light Icing
Potential
Supercooled
Large Droplet
Threat
Figure 6-35 Icing Weather Product, 12,000 Feet Selected
Figure 6-36 Icing Potential Legend
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TURBULENCE (SIRIUSXM)
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs, SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selection.
Moderate Turbulence
Light Turbulence
Figure 6-37 Turbulence Weather Product with 27,000 Feet Selected
Figure 6-38 Turbulence Legend
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PIREPS AND AIREPS
NOTE: AIREPs are only available with the SiriusXM Weather service.
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots. When significant
weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit PIREPs.
A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear,
and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
Urgent PIREP
PIREP selected with
Map Pointer
AIREP
Figure 6-39 AIREPs and PIREPs on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS or AIREPS Softkey. (Note the AIREPS Softkey is only available with the SiriusXM Weather
service.)
4) Push the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not present in the decoded version.
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6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Decoded PIREP Text
Decoded PIREP Text
Figure 6-40 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
Figure 6-41 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
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TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) data from Garmin Connext is only available in the United States (not
including any U.S. territories.) Refer to http://sites.garmin.com/connext for product coverage information.
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where flight is
restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement,
natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on the
system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS),
and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
Information for
selected TFR
Figure 6-42 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B)’ Page or Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
Figure 6-43 Full Text for Selected TFR
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data is
decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the
TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range settings.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the Aux - ADS-B Status
Page.
Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature, which includes
all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B Weather’, and press the ENT Key.
Figure 6-44 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page Item
FIS-B Weather Status:
FIS-B Processing
Weather Products:
AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD
METAR
METAR GRAPHICAL
NOTAM/TFR
PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD
SIGMET
TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
Status
Message
ENABLED
DISABLED
---------------AVAILABLE
Description
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process and display FIS-B weather
products.
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled.
No FIS-B weather data received from the transponder.
FIS-B weather data is available for display for the weather product.
NOT AVAILABLE FIS-B weather data is not available for the weather product, and/or the system is
not receiving the FIS-B weather service.
AWAITING DATA The system is receiving the FIS-B weather service, and is waiting to receive the
weather product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
Table 6-6 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
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6.2 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a color digital pulsed radar. It combines excellent
range and adjustable scanning profiles with a high-definition target display. The GWX 68’s pulse width is four
microseconds (µs) on all ranges except the 2.5 nm range. At this range, the GWX 68 uses a one µs pulse width
to reduce the targets smearing together on the display for better target definition at close range.
The Cessna Citation Mustang uses a 12-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º
of pitch and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. The radar also provides a vertical scanning function to help analyze storm tops, gradients,
and cell buildup activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
• WATCH® (Weather Attenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range cell
activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation (or
large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges are not
being monitored.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving. The returned signal is then processed and displayed on the G1000 MFD.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel out
and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round trip
if a target is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar information should be used to avoid severe weather, not to as a basis to enter areas of
severe weather. The decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity, spacing between the
targets, aircraft capabilities, and pilot experience. The weather radar system, as installed in this aircraft, displays
only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence. The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but
this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly between them.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
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NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not interchangeable.
Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should not be confused with
NEXRAD radar values.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it becomes.
The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The following figure depicts
a radar beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar beam, although the
same holds true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide as it is tall. Note that
it is possible to miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the antenna tilt setting. With the
antenna tilt set to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
18,000 ft.
8°
0
0
15
Half Power at
s
Beam Sidelobe
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
30
45
60
75
90
Range (nautical miles)
Figure 6-45 Radar Beam from a 12 inch Antenna
The curvature of the earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range settings
of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320 nautical miles.
320 nm
Figure 6-46 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
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RRADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills
the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear
to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within
the system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing
it from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the
heavy precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy
cell. The WATCH® feature of the system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas in question
appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help detect
radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the Earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often are not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog
or drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
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Figure 6-47 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
Figure 6-48 Precipitation Reflectivity by Altitude
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Ground Returns
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well-defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
Figure 6-49 Angle of Incidence
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
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SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
The recommended minimum safe distance between personnel and an operating weather radar antenna is 12
feet from the 12-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. With a scanning or rotating
beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced. This recommendation
slightly exceeds the calculation methods defined in Advisory Circular 20-68B.
MPEL
Boundary
12’ for 12” antenna
Figure 6-50 MPEL Boundary
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BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to have the antenna tilted so that
the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the ground. The following example explains
one way of achieving this.
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that equals
the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000 feet, adjust the
tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this antenna tilt angle setting.
Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the radar beam is now angled down 4º
from parallel with the ground.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION USING THE BASIC TILT SETUP
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized when
flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed target advances on the screen to
within five nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground returns that are 2,000
feet or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt four degrees can help separate ground returns from
weather returns in relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the radar beam parallel with the ground.
Return the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical miles.
This is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more helpful.
Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be monitored for
possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is one degree of tilt equals
100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
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4000
3000
Change in Antenna Tilt
2000
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
10 nm
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
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Figure 6-51 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel with
the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm, 8,000 feet;
at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a mountain peak) being
displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of 4,000 feet. When that ground
target return moves to five nm, the maximum distance below the aircraft is 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the weather radar. There are many other
factors to consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all situations.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
Weather Mode Color
Intensity
Black
Green
Yellow
Red
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
Approximate
Precipitation Rate (in/hr.)
< .01.
.01 - 0.1.
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2
Magenta
50 dBZ and greater
>2
Table 6-7 Precipitation Intensity Levels
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A precipitation intensity scale appears on the Weather Radar Page (Figure 6-60). The colors shown on the
scale correspond to the colors shown in Table 6-4.
Figure 6-52 Precipitation Intensity Scale on the
Weather Radar Page
Thunderstorms
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy precipitation. Vertical
scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas of maximum intensity.
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
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Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-53 Cell Irregularities
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
Figure 6-54 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-55 The Blind Alley
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Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (9 in the southern hemisphere), especially
if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern hemisphere) of
a major thunderstorm.
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
Hail
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target return can
give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm cell as detected by
radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm cell is seen with the eyes
in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top does not indicate the top of the
hazardous area.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of water on
its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet. Because of this film of
water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms with large amounts
of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards
or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid
coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Begin transmitting only when it is safe to do so. When transmitting while the aircraft is on the
ground, no personnel or objects should be within 11 feet of the antenna.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
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When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically switches
to Standby mode on landing.
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically switches to Standby mode. The system
remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system
cannot be controlled.
Radar Mode
Scan Line
Figure 6-56 Horizontal Scan Display
Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Select the Weather Radar Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the Mode Softkey.
3) Press the Weather Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
Figure 6-57 Confirming Activating Radar
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b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed. If desired, press the Vertical Softkey to change to vertical scanning.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, press the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the BEARING field and
displays the Bearing Line.
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
Bearing Line
Figure 6-58 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
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4) Press the Vertical Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is now displayed.
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the Horizontal Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan
view and repeat the previous steps.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
Figure 6-59 Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the Tilt field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
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Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Press the Tilt Softkey to activate the cursor in the Tilt field and display the Tilt Line.
If the Tilt Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press
the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
Tilt Line
Figure 6-60 Adjusting Tilt on Vertical Scan Display
Adjusting Gain
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
1) Press the CAL Gain Softkey to activate the cursor in the Gain field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the GAIN field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) Press the CAL Gain Softkey again to recalibrate the gain. Calibrated is displayed in the Gain field.
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Manual Gain Set Above Calibrated
Calibrated Gain
Figure 6-61 Gain Calibration
Sector Scan
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
Bearing field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Sector Scan field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired scan. Selecting ‘Full’ enables a 90º scan.
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
7) Press the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
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Figure 6-62 40˚ Sector Scan
Antenna Stabilization
The radar tilt is corrected for pitch and roll, and therefore is kept steady with respect to an earth fixed
reference. The commanded tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the earth. The Weather Radar will
compensate for pitch and roll up to the mechanical limits of the radar.
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH™)
While in horizontal scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies
in displayed intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The
radar energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation,
and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy
of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions
with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the
extent of attenuation in a shaded area. Gray WATCH areas may be drawn at large distances (beyond about
100 NM) regardless of the presence of weather returns between the aircraft and the WATCH Area.
Activating the WATCH feature.
1) Press the Features Softkey.
2) Press the WATCH Softkey.
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Displayed intensity is questionable.
Potentially stronger than displayed.
Horizontal Scan Without WATCH™
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
Horizontal Scan With WATCH™
Figure 6-63 Horizontal Scan Without and With WATCH™
Weather Alert Target Bands and Alerts Window Message
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is enabled
on the Weather Radar Page, the system also displays ‘WX ALERT - Possible severe weather ahead.’ on the
PFD in the Alerts Window.
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey..
Activating the WX ALRT feature.
1) Press the Features Softkey.
2) Press the WX ALRT Softkey.
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Weather Alert Target
Figure 6-64 Weather Alert Targets on the Weather
Radar Page
To enable or disable the Weather Alerts which appear in the Alerts Window on the PFD, select the WX
ALRT Softkey. The system continues to display weather alert target bands on the Weather Radar Page even
if the PFD alert message is disabled.
Figure 6-65 Weather Alert on PFD
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GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the Navigation Map.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of the
GAIN and TILT controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Map
Mode Color
Black
Cyan
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
0 dB
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 18 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
Table 6-8 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operation in Ground Map Mode:
1) Press the Mode Softkey.
2) Press the Ground Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Press the Back Softkey.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Tilt field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
7) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
ADDITIONAL WEATHER RADAR DISPLAYS
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Airborne weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled on a navigation map, a weather radar information box
appears on the map. It indicates the selected radar mode, radar range, antenna tilt angle, and gain setting.
The navigation map overlay uses a horizontal scan. For the GWX 68 othe weather radar must be in horizontal
scan mode on the Weather Radar Page in order for the weather radar to display data on the Navigation Map
Page, otherwise the system indicates ‘N/A’ in the information box until horizontal scan mode is selected on the
Weather Radar Page.
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Scan Line
Figure 6-66 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the WX Radar Softkey.
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the ‘Weather Radar’ overlay
selection (‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range, bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges between 1.5
and 500 nautical miles. At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the weather radar information
from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously adjusts the range of the weather
radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated in the weather radar information box that appears when
the overlay is enabled. When the radar range is adjusted on the Navigation Map Page, system synchronizes the
same range to the Weather Radar Page.
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the Navigation Map Page using the Joystick
when the overlay is enabled. The bearing line appears on the Navigation Map Page as a white dashed line, and
is displayed during and momentarily after adjustment.
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Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page using the
Joystick. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna tilt
angle.
Adjusting the bearing and antenna tilt angle on the Navigation Map Page:
1) With the weather radar overlay enabled, push the Joystick twice. The bearing and tilt legend is displayed.
2) Move the Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick up to adjust the
antenna tilt angle upward.
3) Move the Joystick left or right to adjust the bearing line in the desired direction. The bearing line is displayed
during and momentarily after adjustment.
SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page. Additional
information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a center banner annunciation. Refer to
the following tables for a list of annunciations and their locations for airborne weather radar.
Radar Mode
Annunciation
Center Banner
Annunciation
Figure 6-67 Radar System Status Indications on Weather Radar Page
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Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
Off
Radar Failed*
GROUND
OFF
FAIL
None
OFF
RADAR FAIL
* See Table 6-12 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-9 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
The system displays the status of the weather radar features in the upper-right corner of the Weather Radar
Page.
Radar Feature Status
STAB INOP
Description
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The antenna
stabilization feature is inoperative.
Table 6-10 Radar Feature Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
If the weather radar unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center
of the Weather Radar Page.
Weather Radar
Page Center Banner
Description
Annunciation
BAD CONFIG
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system
RADAR FAIL
should be serviced.
Table 6-11 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
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6.3 TERRAIN DISPLAYS
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
area.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process
the data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting requires the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B option. No terrain or obstacle
alerting occurs for the Terrain Proximity feature.
The terrain system increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and
obstacles.
One of the following terrain systems is installed on this aircraft:
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option when the Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B
(TAWS-B) is not installed; refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information about Garmin SVT.)
• TAWS-B (optional)
The installed terrain system provides color indications on map displays when terrain or obstacles are within
a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B furthermore provide advisory visual
annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence of threatening terrain or obstacles relevant to the projected
flight path. This alerting capability is not present in the Terrain Proximity feature. Compared to Terrain-SVT
alerting, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles. The
TAWS-B system includes more alerting capabilities than the Terrain-SVT system.
The terrain system requires the following for proper operation:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
• Valid terrain and obstacle databases
The terrain system uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government and other sources. Terrain
information is based on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual
obstructions, such as towers may be shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm
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accuracy of the content. However, the displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive
and data may still contain inaccuracies.
The terrain system uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and
altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above
geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. The system
uses GSL altitude to determine alerts for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems. GSL altitude accuracy is affected
by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure
altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widelyused MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to
calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by the terrain system are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position
and GSL altitude, terrain system displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the
position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, for the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, the system uses the
GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding
terrain and obstacles. In this manner, the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems can provide advanced alerts of predicted
dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
The terrain system uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and point obstacles (with heights greater than
200 feet above ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically
adjusts these colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the OnGround Legend. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain information using red,
yellow, green, and black, as shown on the In-Air Legend. As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or
from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. For
Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, if an alert occurs, the relative terrain colors transition to the In-Air Legend if
the On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the pilot with the most information possible.
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Figure 6-68 Relative Terrain Legend
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The following figure shows the relative terrain coloring for the Terrain Proximity system.
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
100 ft Threshold
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-69 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
The following figure shows relative terrain coloring for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-70 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Systems
NOTE: The Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset Window shows terrain at least 2000 feet below the aircraft
altitude as gray.
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The following tables show the relative obstacle coloring used by the terrain systems.
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the
aircraft altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-12 Relative Point Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft
altitude
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-13 Relative Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
The Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems show potential impacts areas for terrain and obstacles using yellow and
red as shown in the following table.
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Example Annunciation
TAWS-B Warning
Warning
Terrain-SVT Warning
or
Caution
or
Table 6-14 Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
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The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’ or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is the principal map page for
viewing terrain information. Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following maps and
pages:
• PFD Maps
• Trip Planning Page
• ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page’
• Flight Plan Page
• Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page
Displaying relative terrain information (MFD maps other than the terrain page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the Map/HSI Softkey).
2) Press the TER Softkey as needed to cycle through the terrain options, with the current selection displayed in
cyan on the softkey (‘Off’, ‘Topo’ or ‘REL’). ‘REL’ indicates relative terrain is selected.
When relative terrain is shown on maps other than the terrain page, a relative terrain icon appears on the
map. A relative terrain legend appears with the icon on the Navigation Map Page. The legend appears by itself
on the terrain page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/disabling the
display of relative terrain, and point obstacles (such as towers). The setup menu also controls the map range
settings above which terrain and obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the
map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function
applies only to the MFD, while the maximum range setting also affects the PFD maps.
The pilot can display relative terrain information independently of point obstacle information; however,
obstacles for which Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B warnings and cautions are issued are shown when terrain is selected
for display and the map range is within the setting limit.
Maps besides the terrain page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The maximum
display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation Map.
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• Terrain Display – Enables the display of relative (‘REL’) terrain data or select ‘Off’ to disable; also sets maximum
map range at which terrain is shown.
• Point Obstacle – Enables/disables the display of point obstacle data and sets maximum range at which point
obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
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Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the Joystick. If the
map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Lighted Obstacle
Selected with Map
Pointer
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-71 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
TERRAIN PAGE
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’, or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’, or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is specialized to show terrain,
and obstacle in relation to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. This page is the
principal page for viewing terrain information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be
enabled for reference.
For Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems only, this page also shows potential impact areas. If terrain or obstacles
and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically adjusts to a map range if necessary
to emphasize the display of the potential impact area.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading, in which case the
orientation is track up. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 250 feet to 1000 nm, which is indicated
on the map range arc.
Displaying the terrain page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the terrain page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Orientation
Green Terrain
(Between 1000’
and 2000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-72 TAWS-B Page
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles in an
inset window on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. Although the VSD does not display Terrain-SVT or
TAWS-B alerts and potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors and symbols as these
systems to depict relative terrain and obstacles within the VSD.
Enabling/Disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable or disable the VSD.
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the Navigation Map
Page also control the display of this information in the VSD.
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VSD DISPLAY
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low
enough or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain will be shown
in gray if the TER Softkey is selected off on the Navigation Map Page).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon
the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution,
within a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present position and the end of the
map range. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as annunciated on the HSI, and is widest
during enroute or oceanic phases.
Flight Phase
Approach
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Total VSD Width
0.6 nm
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
4.0 nm
Table 6-15 VSD Terrain Width Varies with Phase of Flight
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the top-left corner
of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan, and if no active
flight plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In Track Mode, the contour
is based on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based on the active flight plan, when
available, otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
Selecting a VSD Mode:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey displaying the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey cycles through a mode
selection: FPL (flight plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the VSD is adjusted
to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the Navigation Map range is
adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical mile. When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the VSD; only an outline of the terrain will be
displayed in black in the VSD Inset Window.
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Terrain Legend
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Altitude Scale
VSD Range
Figure 6-73 Relative Terrain Information on the VSD
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale (which is the top of the depcited light rays for lighted towers)
represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL is higher than can be represented by the
obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for especially tall obstacles), a vertical line appears below the obstacle symbol in
order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 6-74 VSD with Tall Obstacles
TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The boundary is
shown as a white rectangle on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and is only available when the VSD is enabled
in Track Mode. White range markers on both edges of the Track Mode Boundary rectangle match the range
markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window whenever the profile range is at least four
nautical miles.
The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
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Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘VSD’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• TRK Mode BNDRY – Enables/disables the display of the Track Mode Boundary and sets maximum range at
which Track Mode Boundary is shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS-B ALERTING DISPLAYS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B software
algorithms. Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B alerts typically employ a caution or a warning alert severity level, or both.
When an alert is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are simultaneously issued.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The terrain alert annunciation appears
to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and bottom on the MFD. If the terrain page is not displayed
at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page)
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-75 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
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Potential Impact
Area
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-76 TAWS-B Page with Terrain Annunciation
The following table lists the possible Terrain-SVT alerts.
PFD/TerrainSVT Page
Alert
Annunciation
MFD
Pop-Up Alert (except
Terrain-SVT Page)
Voice Alert
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
TERRAIN
WARNING - TERRAIN
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
TERRAIN
WARNING - TERRAIN
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
TERRAIN
WARNING - OBSTACLE
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
TERRAIN
WARNING - OBSTACLE
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - TERRAIN
Imminent Line Impact Caution (ILI)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - WIRE
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - TERRAIN
Reduced Required Line Clearance
Caution (RLC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - WIRE
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
Alert Type
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Table 6-16 Terrain-SVT Alerts Summary
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The following table lists the TAWS-B alerts.
PFD/TAWS-B
Page Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
PULL UP
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
PULL UP
Imminent Line Impact
Warning (ILI)
Reduced Required LIne
Clearance Warning (RLC)
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
PULL UP
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
PULL UP
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
Required Reduced Line
Clearance Impact Caution
(RLC)
Imminent Line Clearance
Impact Caution (ILI)
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Voice Callout
(VCO) “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
PULL UP
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
PULL UP
PULL UP
TERRAIN
TERRAIN
MFD Pop-Up Alert (except
TAWS-B Page)
Voice Alert
PULL-UP
“Pull Up”
TERRAIN - PULL-UP
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
WIRE AHEAD - PULL-UP
“Wire Ahead; Pull Up, Pull Up”
WARNING - WIRE
“Wire, Wire; Pull Up, Pull Up”
TERRAIN AHEAD - PULL-UP
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain
Ahead, Pull Up”
OBSTACLE - PULL-UP
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull
Up”
OBSTACLE AHEAD - PULL-UP
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle
Ahead, Pull Up”
CAUTION - TERRAIN
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
TERRAIN AHEAD
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
CAUTION - WIRE
“Caution, Wire; Caution, Wire”
WIRE AHEAD
“Wire Ahead; Wire Ahead”
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution,
Obstacle”
OBSTACLE AHEAD
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
“Five-Hundred”
SINK RATE
“Sink Rate”
DONT SINK
“Don’t Sink”
TERRAIN
TERRAIN
TERRAIN
TERRAIN
TERRAIN
None
TERRAIN
TERRAIN
Table 6-17 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B compares the projected
flight path as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and obstacle databases.
The system issues FLTA alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of the
projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the ground
speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest runway
along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes narrower until
the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle/Line Clearance (RTC /ROC/RLC
respectively) and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle/Line Impact (ITI/IOI/ILI respectively).
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-77 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination
runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
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ADDITIONAL TAWS-B ALERTING
In addition to the FLTA alerting discussed previously, TAWS-B provides the following additional types of
alerts.
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide notification when the aircraft is
determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain a rate that is calculated to be excessive relative to height
above terrain. The following figure shows the parameters for the alert.
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
ion:
Caut
3500
ATE”
KR
“SIN
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
500
Figure 6-78 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
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800
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
600
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-79 PDA Alerting Threshold
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual annunciations. NCR alerting is
only active when departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-80 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
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1000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-81 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
FIVE-HUNDRED VOICE ALERT
The purpose of the TAWS-B “Five-hundred” voice alert is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft
descends to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of an
airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft
is more than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain
(as determined by the GPS altitude and Terrain Database).
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alert.
INHIBITING ALERTING
The pilot can manually inhibit FLTA alerts. If TAWS-B is installed, PDA alerts are also inhibited with FLTA
alerts.
Terrain-SVT System
TAWS-B System
Figure 6-82 Alerting is Inhibited when Annunciation is displayed
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B or Terrain-SVT Alerting:
1) Select the terrain page.
2) Press the Inhibit Softkey. Alerting is inhibited when softkey annunciator is green.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired inhibit or enable option and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM STATUS
TERRAIN-SVT
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice
alert is issued at test completion.
Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain
System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums.
Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the
annunciation ‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ Page. The
voice alert “Terrain System Not Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the
aircraft is within the database coverage area, the voice alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
PFD/TerrainSVT Page Alert
Annunciation
Terrain-SVT Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
TER TEST
TERRAIN TEST
None
None
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
TER INH
None
None
No GPS position
TER N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TER N/A
None
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TER FAIL
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
Alert Type
System Test in Progress
System Test Pass
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid, and
Terrain-SVT operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle databases
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-18 Terrain-SVT System Status Annunciations
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TAWS-B
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice alert
is issued at test completion. The pilot can also manually select a TAWS-B system test. The system test option
is unavailable when the ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is
generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the system
displays the ‘TAWS N/A’ annunciation, and issues the “TAWS Not Available” voice alert. When the GPS
signal integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the system issues the voice alert,
“TAWS Available” .
PFD/TAWS-B
Page Alert
Annunciation
TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Voice Alert
TAWS TEST
TAWS TEST
None
None
None
“TAWS System Test OK”
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
TAWS INH
None
None
No GPS position
TAWS N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS N/A
None
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS FAIL
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
Alert Type
System Test in progress
System Test pass
Excessively degraded GPS signal;
or Out of database coverage
area
TAWS-B System Test Fail; Terrain
or Obstacle database unavailable
or invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System audio
fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-19 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
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6.4 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS), Traffic Alert
and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) and TIS. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown
without altitude separation data or climb descent indication.
NOTE: TIS is disabled if another traffic system is installed.
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses the
Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and is updated
every 5 seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000 feet below to
3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. Traffic is displayed using the symbols shown in the table below.
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-20 TIS Traffic Symbols
A Traffic Advisory (TA) indicates that the current track of the intruder could result in a collision. When traffic
meets the advisory criteria for the TA, a solid yellow circle symbol is generated. A TA which is detected, but is
outside the range of the map, is indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map and a half TA symbol
at the relative bearing of the intruder.
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic Map Page on which traffic
can be displayed.
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The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the target symbol. Traffic
symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or climb/descent
information.
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is the principal page for viewing traffic information. Additional displays of traffic
information are available as map overlays while TIS is operating, and serve as additional reference to the Traffic
Map Page. Traffic information can be displayed on the following maps and pages:
• PFD Inset Map
• Trip Planning Page
• Navigation Map Page
• Nearest Pages
• Traffic Map Page
• Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option is
installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Displaying traffic information (maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to display traffic data.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the feature is
enabled for display.
Proximity
Advisory
Non-Threat
Traffic
Traffic
Advisory
Traffic
Display
Enabled
Figure 6-83 TIS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
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Displaying traffic information (PFD Maps):
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to display traffic on the selected map (HSI or Inset). If a PFD Map is not enabled, the
softkey will be grayed out.
3) Press the softkey again to remove traffic data.
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data (symbols
and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those selected for the
Navigation Map Page.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up
unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2 to 12 nm, as indicated by
the map range rings.
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby to
Operating Mode and the system begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion for
more information.
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Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Select the OPERATE Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
Traffic Advisory, 500’
Below, Climbing
“Non-Bearing” Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
1100’ Above,
Descending
Range
Marking
Rings
Non-Threat
Traffic, 1200’
Above,
Descending
Select
to Mute
“TIS Not
Available”
Voice Alert
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-84 Traffic Map Page
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds
and remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
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TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-85 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of
range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the TNA Mute Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM STATUS
The system performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby
Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an annunciation is shown
in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the transponder*
Data is being received from the transponder, but
a failure is detected in the data stream*
The transponder has failed*
UNAVAILABLE
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-21 TIS Failure Annunciations
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while Standby
Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed). Once
the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode can be
changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
Mode
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TIS Operating
OPERATING
TIS Standby
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TIS Failed*
FAIL
Traffic Display Enabled Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-37 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-22 TIS Modes
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Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the Standby or Operate Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is displayed in the upper left corner
of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
AGE MM:SS
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
TRFC COAST
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
TRFC RMVD
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
TRFC UNAVAIL
Traffic data has failed
Traffic has not been detected
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-23 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.5 TAS TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of traffic system limitations. Traffic systems require transponders of other
aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due
to phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed
intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude
separation data or climb descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
NOTE: Refer to the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic discussion for more
information about ADS-B traffic displays.
NOTE: TIS is disabled when Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is installed.
NOTE: Refer to the Honeywell® KTA 870 Pilot’s Guide for a detailed discussion of the KTA 870 TAS.
The optional Honeywell® KTA 870 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). It enhances flight crew situational
awareness by displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual
annunciations and voice alerts to help the pilot visually acquire traffic.
No TAS surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating transponders.
TAS THEORY OF OPERATION
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system directly interrogates the transponders of other
aircraft in the vicinity. The traffic system uses this information to derive the distance, relative bearing, and if
reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The traffic system then
calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the closure
rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual annunciations and
voice alerts.
TAS SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
The TAS surveillance system actively scans the airspace within ±10,000 feet of its altitude. Under ideal
conditions, the system scans transponder traffic up to 40 nm in the forward direction. The range is somewhat
reduced to the sides and aft of the aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In areas
of greater transponder traffic density the on-board traffic system automatically reduces its interrogation
transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to limit potential interference from other signals.
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NOTE: The TAS system does not display Mode S transponder equipped traffic determined to be on the
ground. The TAS system also does not display Mode C transponder equipped aircraft determined to be on
the ground if own aircraft has a radar altimeter displaying 1700’ AGL or lower. However, if own aircraft is
receiving traffic information from an ADS-B source (including ADS-R, ADS-B, TIS-B), the system does display
ground traffic while operating in SURF Mode. Refer to the ADS-B Traffic Section for more information.
The symbols in the following table depict traffic, and include Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
(ADS-B) traffic symbols. ADS-B symbols only appear when the GTX 345R is installed Refer to the ADS-B
Traffic discussion later in this section for more information.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information is beyond the selected display range. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing.
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with ADS-B directional information. Arrow points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground
traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or
own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic with ADS-B directional information. Pointed end indicates direction of travel. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic without ADS-B directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface
(SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-24 Traffic Symbols with TAS and ADS-B
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A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a solid amber circle or circle enclosing an arrow, alerts the crew to a
potentially hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria.
A TA that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the
screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or arrow, indicates the intruding aircraft is
within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
Other, non-threat traffic, shown as an open white diamond or arrow, is displayed for traffic beyond six
nautical miles that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet. When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus sign ‘-’
indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in
either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol.
Relative Altitude
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-86 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting when the aircraft is more likely to be near an airport. The system uses Level A (less) sensitivity
when the height above terrain is at or below 2,000’ AGL. If the height above terrain is unavailable, Level A
sensitivity applies when the ground speed is less than 120 knots. In all other conditions, Level B (higher)
sensitivity applies.
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Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
A
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.2 NM.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of separation or intruder range is
within 0.55 NM.
Table 6-25 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
NOTE: The TAS system issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using TAS alerting criteria. The ADS-B system
issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using the Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting (CSA) criteria. See
the ADS-B Traffic section for more information about CSA.
TAS ALERTS
When the TAS detects a new TA, the following occur:
The system issues a “Traffic! Traffic!” voice alert.
• With the optional GTX 345R installed, the system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional
voice information about the bearing, relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that
triggered the TA. For example, the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate
the traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
Table 6-26 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
NOTE: The TAS system mutes TA voice alerts when own aircraft is below 500 feet AGL.
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• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the right of the airspeed tape on the PFDs, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected.
• A PFD map is automatically displayed with TA traffic. If no PFD map was shown prior to the TA, a Traffic
Map appears on the PFDs. If a navigation map was already shown prior to the TA, the system enables the
Traffic overlay, if necessary, on the PFD maps in order to display the traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Maps and in the lower-left corner of navigation maps with traffic enabled instead of TA symbol. The
text will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if
known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
Figure 6-87 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
SYSTEM TEST
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes about ten seconds
to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on any displayed traffic
maps. The test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading.
The system announces, “TAS System Test OK”. When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters
Standby Mode. If the optional GTX 345R is installed, the message will then say “Traffic System Test Passed”.
NOTE: When using the traffic ‘test’ pattern, the intruder relative bearing locations are relative to aircraft
heading.
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Testing the traffic system:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern to be displayed during test.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to place the TAS system into Standby Mode.
5) If the ADS-B Softkey is enabled, press the ADS-B Softkey to disable ADS-B traffic.
6) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
1) With the Traffic system in Standby mode and the ADS-B softkey disabled, press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
TAS Test Mode
Figure 6-88 System Test in Progress with Example Test Pattern
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OPERATION
NOTE: The TAS automatically changes from Standby to Operating mode after takeoff. The system also
automatically changes from Operating to Standby after landing.
When the avionics system initially receives power on the ground, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The
system must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Changing traffic system modes on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Press the Normal or TAS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘TAS: OPERATING’ is displayed in the Traffic
mode field.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘TAS: STANDBY’ is displayed
in the Traffic mode field.
Or:
1) With the Traffic Map Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2)
Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired mode.
3) Press the ENT Key.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Map - Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. The pilot can adjust the map range with
the Joystick. A range indication appears on each range ring.
The system annunciates the traffic mode and altitude display mode in the upper right corner of the Traffic
Map Page.
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TAS Operating Mode
Annunciation
Non-threat traffic
4000’ above
Flight ID
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
2.0 nm away,
600’ above,
descending
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Traffic Advisory,
500’ feet above,
climbing
Figure 6-89 Traffic Map Page
Altitude Display Mode
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic is
displayed. If traffic meets the criteria for a TA, it is also displayed even if it is outside of the selected volume
of airspace.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
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3) To return to the Traffic Page, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in the previous step 2):
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The pilot can adjust the range of traffic displayed on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. Range indications
appear on rings shown on the page. The minimum map range is 750 feet. A maximum map range of 40
nautical miles is available.
Selecting the Traffic Map Display Range:
1) Select the Map - Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick as needed to select the desired map range.
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic unit
is operating:
• Map - Navigation Map Page
• FPL - Active Flight Plan Page
• Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page
• FPL - Flight Plan Catalog Page
• Map - Traffic Map Page
• Aux - Trip Planning Page
• Nearest (NRST) Pages
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, the system shows a traffic status icon
to indicate traffic is enabled for display as well as the altitude display mode (Above, Below, Normal, Unres).
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Non-Threat
Traffic
Traffic
Advisory
Traffic
Display
Enabled
Figure 6-90 TAS Traffic on the Navigation Map Page
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays only Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels (relative altitude, vertical trend) are
shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
A traffic-only inset map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map appears on
the PFD. This map resembles the Traffic Map Page, and presents a heading up format. Traffic information
can also be overlaid on PFD navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling traffic overlay on PFD maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information.
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
Traffic System Test
Initiated
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
TEST
(‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page)
OPERATING
Operating
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
Standby
Traffic System Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-30 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-27 Traffic Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center
Description
Annunciation
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-28 TAS Failure Annunciations
NOTE: If the GTX 345R transponder has failed, the KTA 870 enters failure mode, and the system will not
display traffic information.
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The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-29 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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6.6 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Mode S TIS is disabled when ADS-B traffic is available.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic
control system. It offers improved surveillance services, both air-to-air and air-to-ground, especially in areas
where radar coverage is ineffective due to terrain, or where it is impractical or cost prohibitive. ADS-B is
comprised of three segments for the purposes of providing traffic information: ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R
(Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).
ADS-B includes the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on
fixed objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail
Number, ICAO registration number, etc.), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status.
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Figure 6-91 ADS-B System
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For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
The ADS-B system operates on two frequencies: 1090 MHz and 978 MHz. Both frequencies provide the same
traffic information. An aircraft may be ADS-B In, Out, or participating on one or both frequencies, depending
on the installed equipment. The 1090 MHz frequency portion of ADS-B is known as 1090 Extended Squitter
(1090 ES). The 978 MHz portion of ADS-B is known as Universal Access Transceiver (UAT).
The Garmin GTX 345R transponder provides ADS-B Out functions using the 1090 ES data link. It also
performs ADS-B In functions using the UAT data link. This includes the reception of Flight Information ServicesBroadcast (FIS-B) data link weather service, provided when the aircraft is receiving data from a participating
ground station; refer to the Data Link Weather section for more information about FIS-B Weather.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking traffic data from one
link and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, if two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground
station, and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other is transmitting on 978 MHz, the ground station
retransmits the data from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each other as
traffic.
If another aircraft can only receive 978 MHz UAT information, it cannot directly ‘see’ another aircraft
sending only 1090 ES information aircraft unless an ADS-R ground station in the vicinity rebroadcasts the
1090 ES data over the 978 MHz UAT frequency. This is also true for an aircraft when can only receive 1090
ES data; it would need an ADS-R ground station to ‘see’ another aircraft operating on the UAT frequency.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
TIS-B provides a link between the secondary surveillance radar (SSR)-based system ATC uses and the ADSB-based system. When an ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B
ground station, the ground station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is
then included in the list of aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in SSR coverage, and the
other aircraft is also in SSR coverage, and is transmitting its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTX 345R-equipped aircraft according to
the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
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Other Aircraft Equipment
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped Aircraft
1090ES Out Equipped
Yes
UAT Receive Only Capable
No
UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S Transponder
Yes*
* Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar coverage, or own
aircraft is equipped with a TAS system and traffic is within the TAS surveillance range.
Table 6-30 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
ADS-B WITH TAS
When the system is receiving ADS-B In traffic and with a TAS system in Operating Mode, the system
attempts to match (or “correlate”) data the two traffic sources. When a correlation is made, the system
displays the traffic information for the tracked aircraft determined to be the most accurate. Any traffic that is
not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the other) is also displayed for the flight crew. This
may occur, for example, if another aircraft is beyond the surveillance range of the TAS, but own aircraft is
receiving information via ADS-B for the other aircraft. The traffic correlation feature improves the accuracy
of the traffic displayed, while reducing the occurrence of displaying the same traffic for a given aircraft twice.
NOTE: In certain situations, a single aircraft may be depicted as two aircraft on the display if the system
is unable to correlate the traffic. This may occur, for example, when operating on the edges of ATC radar
coverage, target transponder is not reporting altitude, or when using an optional active traffic system
providing intermittent data. This may also occur if TIS-B traffic data does not closely match the traffic data
from other sources, especially while the traffic tracked by ATC radar is turning.
NOTE: The TAS system issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using TAS alerting criteria. The ADS-B system
issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using the Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting (CSA) criteria.
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CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TAS system discussed previously.
When a TA occurs with is equipment, the displays a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation and provides a voice alert. This
annunciation and voice alert is the same as the alerts issued by the Garmin GTS 825 TAS discussed previously.
NOTE: The system mutes TA voice alerts from ADS-B sources when own aircraft is below 400 feet AGL.
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to adjust the sensitivity of the CSA
algorithm in accordance with the following table:
Sensitivity
Level
Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
4
4
4
5
5
Any
Any
Unavailable
Any
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
5
6
7
Unavailable or
>2350
8
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
Vertical
Protected
Own Altitude Look-ahead
GPS Phase of Flight
Threshold for Volume
(Feet)
time (sec)
Alert (feet)
(NM)
Any
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
Any
20
850
0.20
Approach
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
Any
25
850
0.20
Terminal
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Any
<=5000
25
30
850
850
0.20
0.35
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
Table 6-31 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
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AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
ADS-B traffic can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two ADS-B
applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness (SURF). The
system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five NM and 1,500 feet above the nearest airport.
When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five NM and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation.
When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map
Page range of one nm or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to
traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for
more information about SafeTaxi displays.
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially
when runways are in close proximity to each other.
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic symbols
may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic to be displayed
in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Availability for
AIRB and SURF is depicted on the Aux - ADS-B Status Page, discussed later in this section.
SURF Application On
Ground-based
vehicle
Aircraft on the
ground
Figure 6-92 Traffic Map Page with SURF Mode On
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NOTE: Refer to the TAS Traffic section for a table of ADS-B and TAS traffic symbols the system can display.
OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The Traffic Map Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and altitude,
without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map
range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper right corner of the page.
Non-threat traffic
4000’ above
Flight ID
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
2.0 nm away,
600’ above,
descending
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Traffic Advisory,
500’ feet above,
climbing
Figure 6-93 Traffic Map Page
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
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Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test pattern display.
3) Ensure the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
4) If the optional TAS is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
5) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
A test pattern of traffic symbols appears during the test, and a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears on the PFD.
At the conclusion of the test, the system issues the voice alert “Traffic System Test Passed”. If the test pattern
is displayed and the voice alert is heard, the system has passed the test.
ADS-B Test Mode
Figure 6-94 System Test in Progress with Example Test Pattern
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is displayed.
TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
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Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Press one of the following softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9000 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Map Page, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options (see softkey description in the previous step
2:
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
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DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future. If the system does not have
sufficient information to calculate motion vectors, they are not shown.
Absolute
Motion Vectors
Absolute Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-95 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
Relative Motion
Vectors
Relative Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-96 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
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Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press one of the following softkeys:
•
Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
Off: Disables the display of the motion vector.
Or:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion Vector Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press the Duration Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, press the Back Softkey to return to the Traffic Map Page.
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Displaying Additional Traffic Information
The Traffic Map Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may include
the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service vehicle,
unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV), course, track, groundspeed), and other information.
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob. A cyan border appears on the first selected traffic symbol. Additional information appears
in a window in the lower-left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob to move the cyan border until another symol is selected.
4) When finished, push the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The pilot can adjust the range of traffic displayed on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. Range indications
appear on rings shown on the page. The minimum map range is 750 feet. A maximum map range of 40
nautical miles is available.
Selecting the Traffic Map Display Range:
1) Select the Map - Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick as needed to select the desired map range.
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous TAS discussion
for information about these additional traffic displays.
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ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B: AIRB
None
ADS-B: SURF
None
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
ADS-B TRFC N/A
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
ADS-B Mode
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-35 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-32 ADS-B Modes
NOTE: If the optional TAS fails, the display of ADS-B traffic continues if the optional GTX 345R transponder
is installed.
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
Table 6-33 Traffic Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
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Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and altitude trend
arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-34 Traffic Status Annunciations
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the Aux - ADS-B Status Page.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
Figure 6-97 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
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ADS-B Status Page
Item
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface (SURF),
Airborne Alerts (CSA)
Status Message
Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does
not meet performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the
application has failed.
Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this
annunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
The system is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The system is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink from a ground station
occurred. If no uplink has been received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear
instead of the number of minutes.
Available to Run
Not Available
Fault
Not Configured
TIS-B/ADS-R Coverage
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Ground Uplink Status:
Last Uplink
---------------Available
Not Available
--------------External #1
External #2
--------Number of minutes, or
‘------’
Table 6-35 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
NOTE: The approved current pertinent flight manual always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
The Garmin Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is fully integrated within the System avionics architecture.
The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description. Garmin AFCS
functionality in the Cessna Citation Mustang is distributed across the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GDU 1050A Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) (2)
• GSA 80 AFCS Servos (2)
• GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
• GSA 81 AFCS Servos (2)
• GIA 63W Integrated Avionics Units (IAUs) (2)
• GSM 85A Servo Gearboxes (4)
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
• Flight Director (FD) — The Cessna Citation Mustang has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU
and referred to as pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both
PFDs.
The flight director provides:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
– Autopilot communication
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos. It also provides
servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering commands, Attitude and
Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
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7.1 AFCS CONTROLS
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
1
2
3
4
HDG Key
APR Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
NAV Key
FD Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral
modes. Pressing again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command
Bars. If the autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
Transfers between the active flight director and standby flight director
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1° increments on
the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding PFD
Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return course pointer
directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
Toggles Airspeed Reference between IAS and Mach for Flight Level Change Mode
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes
(see Table 7-1 for change increments in each mode)
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10 feet is
available under approach conditions)
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
Engages/disengages the autopilot
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both PFDs)
Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on the pilot-side PFD
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
XFR Key
6 ALT Key
7 VS Key
8 FLC Key
17 CRS Knobs
5
9
SPD Key
11 NOSE UP/DN
Wheel
12 VNV Key
13 ALT SEL Knob
10
14
15
16
18
19
YD Key
AP Key
BANK Key
BC Key
HDG Knob
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
15
14
6
7
13
12
8 Annunciator Light
11
10
9
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
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The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
AP DISC Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
CWS Button
(Control Wheel
Steering)
Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director and interrupts pitch trim
operation
An AP DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Mode)
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
GA Switch
(Go Around)
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Disengages the autopilot and selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around
(in air) Mode
If an approach procedures is loaded this switch also activates the missed approach
when the selected navigation source is GPS or when the navigation source is VOR/
LOC and a valid frequency has been tuned.
The GA Switch is located on the throttle.
Used to command manual electric pitch trim
MEPT Switch
(Manual Electric An MEPT Switch is located on each control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
This composite switch is split into left and right sides. The left switch is the ARM
contact and the right switch controls the DN (forward) and UP (rearward) contacts.
Pushing the MEPT ARM Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged, but
does not affect yaw damper operation. The MEPT ARM Switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
Manual trim commands are generated only when both sides of the switch are operated
simultaneously. If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three
seconds, MEPT function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ is displayed as the AFCS Status
Annunciation on the PFDs. The function remains disabled until both sides of the
switch are inactivated.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (±20°) and roll (30°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to values
established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side flight
director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from the
displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Modes Selected
ALT Key
VS Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
NAV Key
Navigation**
BC Key
Backcourse***
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
GA Switch
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
GPS
VOR
LOC
BC
GPS
VOR
LOC
HDG
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Takeoff (on ground)
TO
Go Around (in air)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box.
Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Lateral Modes
Armed
Active
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status Status
Flight Director
Indicator Arrow
Vertical Modes
Active
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Command
Bars
Selected
Course
Selected
Heading
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes(s). Mode keys on the AFCS controller are
accompanied by annunciator lights which are illuminated when their respective modes are armed or active.
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the control for the active flight director mode is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s)
for the axis(es). Automatic transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode
annunciation moving to the green active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
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If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing amber mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Figure 7-3 Loss of GPS Signal
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
SWITCHING FLIGHT DIRECTORS
The Garmin AFCS in the Cessna Citation Mustang has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU.
Only one flight director is active (selected) at a time. Flight directors may be switched by pressing the XFR
Key. Both PFDs display the selected flight director, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either the pilot or
copilot side, in the center of the AFCS Status Box. The annunciator light arrow for the selected flight director
is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are switched, the vertical and lateral modes
revert to default.
Pilot-side Flight Director Selected
Copilot-side Flight Director Selected
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
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COMMAND BARS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as single cues
or cross pointers. The Aircraft Symbol (in amber) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format; the
Command Bars do not override the Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars (see following figure) move
together vertically to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands. Command
Bars displayed as a cross pointer (see following figure) move independently to indicate pitch (horizontal bar)
and roll (vertical bar) commands. Both PFDs show the same Command Bar format.
NOTE: The cross pointer command bars are not available when pathways are enabled.
Command Bars
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-6 Single-cue Command Bars
Figure 7-5 Cross-pointer Command Bars
Changing Command Bar format:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX - System Setup’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Active’ in the ‘Flight Director’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
’SNGL CUE’ to display Command Bars as a single cue (Aircraft Symbol in the previous figure).
Or:
’X-POINTER’ to display Command Bars as a cross pointer (Aircraft Symbol in the previous figure).
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
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7.3 VERTICAL MODES
Table 7-2 lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode reference is
displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes.
The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold,
Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode. Increments of change and acceptable ranges of values for each of
these references using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel are also listed in the table.
Vertical Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
Holds the current aircraft pitch
-20° to
attitude; may be used to climb/ (default)
PIT
+20°
descend to the Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude Capture
Captures the Selected Altitude
*
ALTS
Altitude Hold
Holds the current Altitude Reference ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
-5000 to
Vertical Speed
speed; may be used to climb/descend VS Key VS nnnn fpm
+5000 fpm
to the Selected Altitude
80 to
Flight Level Change, IAS Hold Maintains the current aircraft
FLC nnn kt
250 kt
airspeed (in IAS or Mach) while the
FLC Key
aircraft is climbing/descending to the
M 0.40 to
Flight Level Change, Mach Hold Selected Altitude
FLC M .nnn
0.63
Captures and tracks descent legs of VNV
Vertical Path Tracking
VPTH
an active vertical profile
Key
Captures the Vertical Navigation
VNV Target Altitude Capture
**
ALTV
(VNV) Target Altitude
Captures and tracks the SBAS
Glidepath
GP
glidepath on approach
APR
Key
Captures and tracks the ILS glideslope
Glideslope
GS
on approach
Commands a constant pitch angle
Takeoff
and wings level on the ground in
TO
10°
preparation for takeoff
GA
Switch
Disengages the autopilot and
Go Around
commands a constant pitch angle
GA
8°
and wings level in the air
Pitch Hold
0.5°
100 fpm
1 kt
M 0.01
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, TO, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured
instead of VNV Target Altitude
** ALTV armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
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PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed), Pitch Hold
Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’ annunciation.
This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter), since
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to the
nose-up/down limit.
CHANGING THE PITCH REFERENCE
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-7 Pitch Hold Mode
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SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Go Around
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude is to
be captured instead of the VNV Target Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see previous figure). The
ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected Altitude Capture
Mode becomes active.
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed (see following figure). This automatic transition is indicated by
the green ‘ALTS’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation.
The Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-8 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
CHANGING THE SELECTED ALTITUDE
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture Mode is active
causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the
new Selected Altitude.
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ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current aircraft
altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference, shown in the
AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter. Altitude Hold Mode
active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode.
Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when the altitude error is less
than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude Reference.
CHANGING THE ALTITUDE REFERENCE
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude Reference. When the
CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is established as the Altitude Reference.
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-9 Altitude Hold Mode
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VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current aircraft
vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical Speed
Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is selected.
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS Status
Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on
the indicator.
CHANGING THE VERTICAL SPEED REFERENCE
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
To adjust the altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
altitude is reached.
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Figure 7-10 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
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FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference (in IAS or Mach) while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter). When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected
Altitude, airspeed, Mach, and altitude.
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the Airspeed
Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
Selected
Altitude
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-11 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
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CHANGING THE AIRSPEED REFERENCE
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Airspeed Reference is not changed.
To adjust the Airspeed Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
altitude is reached.
During climb, the Airspeed Reference units automatically change from IAS to Mach when either the altitude
or the airspeed listed in Table 7-3 are attained. For descent, the units switch back at the specified altitude
or airspeed. The system determines aircraft climb or descent by the relationship between the current and
Selected altitudes.
Airspeed Reference Units
Default Units Change To:
Climb
IAS
Mach
Descent
Mach
IAS
Unit Type Changes At:
Altitude
Airspeed
> 31,500 ft > M 0.48
< 27,000 ft < 249 kt
Table 7-3 FLC Mode Unit Changes
Airspeed Reference units can be manually toggled between IAS and Mach units using the SPD Key. When
the FLC Airspeed Reference is displayed in Mach, the Airspeed Reference Bug is displayed on the Airspeed
Indicator at the IAS corresponding to the selected Mach target speed and the current Mach number is shown
below the Airspeed Indicator.
VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations any
time that VNV flight planning is available. Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on
VNV flight plans. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
• The selected navigation source is GPS.
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or direct-to (with vertical constraint) is
active.
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD).
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• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude.
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or direct-to (with vertical constraint). The appropriate
VNV flight control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile.
Upon reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode
and cancels any armed VNV modes.
VERTICAL PATH TRACKING MODE (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope Mode
is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable, the
appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected
Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-12 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciation
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude
by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within one minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
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In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation Status
Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation, and
vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta (see following figure).
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed, (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required)
Selected
Altitude Below
VNV Target
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute Phase
of Flight
Figure 7-13 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile (see following figure). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is
armed as appropriate.
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Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
VNV Target
Altitude
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Required
Vertical
Speed
Indication
(RVSI)
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-14 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path (without
commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical
deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to reestablish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude,
the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director to
revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in the
vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by flight plan
changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active direct-to with vertical constraint).
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
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Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode to
allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-15 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected Altitude.
The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target Altitudes are
shown in the active flight plan or direct-to (with vertical constraint), and can be entered manually or loaded
from a database (see the Flight Management Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute”
is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical
Speed Indicator.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The
VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains displayed
above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) is removed once VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active, the
white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate
the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing upcoming
descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
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Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-16 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the VNV Target Altitude
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes the
flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude capture
mode are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending
on which altitude is to be intercepted first.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the Flight Management
Section for details).
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting Glidepath Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight plan.
The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
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NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V are considered Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) and
are flown to an MDA even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Figure 7-17 Glidepath Mode Armed
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
FMS Approach
Mode Active
Glidepath
Mode Active
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
LPV Approach
Active
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 7-18 Glidepath Mode
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GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When Glideslope
Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral flight director
mode.
Selecting Glideslope Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-19 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the glideslope,
the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
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Active ILS
Frequency
Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Approach
Mode Active
Glideslope
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Descent
on Localizer/Glideslope Path
Figure 7-20 Glideslope Mode
Glideslope
Indicator
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
Go Around and Takeoff modes are coupled pitch and roll modes and are annunciated as both the vertical and
lateral modes when active. In these modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude and keeps
the wings level. The GA Switch is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends
on whether the aircraft is on the ground.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the GA Switch. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude.
Pressing the GA Switch while in the air activates the flight director in a wings-level, pitch-up attitude,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Go Around Mode disengages the autopilot and
arms Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically. Subsequent autopilot engagement is allowed. Attempts
to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e., with the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or CWS Button) result in reversion to Pitch
and Roll Hold modes.
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Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Figure 7-21 Go Around Modes
Takeoff Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb for Takeoff
Figure 7-22 Takeoff Mode
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7.4 LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer to
the vertical modes section for information regarding Go Around and Takeoff modes.
Lateral Mode
Description
Control Annunciation
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Limits the maximum commanded BANK
roll angle
Key
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
Roll Hold
Low Bank
Heading Select**
Navigation, GPS**
Navigation, VOR Enroute Capture/Track**
Navigation, LOC Capture/Track
(No Glideslope)
Backcourse Arm/Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR,
LOC)
NAV
Key
Approach, GPS
Approach, LOC Capture/Track
(Glideslope Mode automatically armed)
Go Around
30°
*
18°
HDG
30°
GPS
30°
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
VOR
BC
GPS
Approach, VOR Capture/Track
Takeoff
ROL
LOC
Captures and tracks a
localizer signal for backcourse BC Key
approaches
Captures and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, APR Key
LOC)
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level on the
ground in preparation for
takeoff
Disengages the autopilot and
commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level in the air
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
VAPP
LOC
25° Capture
10° Track
30°
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
TO
Wings Level
GA
Wings Level
GA
Switch
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in green along the Roll
Scale of the Attitude Indicator.
** The Heading, Navigation GPS and Navigation VOR mode maximum roll command limit will be limited to the Low Bank
mode value if it is engaged.
The Garmin AFCS limits turn rate to 3 degrees per second (standard rate turn).
Table 7-4 Flight Director Lateral Modes
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
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ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls the wings level.
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank angle
condition.
Figure 7-23 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 30°
> 30°
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 30°
Table 7-5 Roll Hold Mode Responses
CHANGING THE ROLL REFERENCE
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
LOW BANK MODE
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 18°. Low bank
arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale.
Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select or
Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR). Low Bank Mode is automatically activated when the current roll attitude is
less than 6 degrees and baro altitude is at or above 29,850 feet. Low Bank Mode will automatically deactivate
if any the required modes are not coupled or armed, or if roll attitude is less than 6 degrees and baro altitude
is at or below 29,650 feet. The annunciator light next to the BANK Key illuminates while Low Bank Mode is
selected.
Figure 7-24 Low Bank Mode Limits
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HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains
the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in the box to the
upper left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob on either PFD. Pressing the CWS Button and
hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the
Selected Heading upon release of the CWS Button.
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading
changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Figure 7-25 Heading Select Mode
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NAVIGATION MODES (GPS, VOR, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when GPS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering commands
from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision GPS and LOC
approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the selected
mode is armed. If the CDI shows less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when the NAV
Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active lateral mode.
Figure 7-26 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed prior
to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic navigation
source switch from GPS to LOC
CHANGING THE SELECTED COURSE
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the
CWS Button is released.
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GPS Navigation
Mode Active
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected
Course
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track GPS Course
Figure 7-27 Navigation Mode
APPROACH MODES (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS course for the
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected navigation
receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when the CDI is greater
than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the active lateral mode). If
the CDI is less than one dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
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Selecting GPS Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Figure 7-28 GPS Approach Mode Armed
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC Approach
Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the difference
between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or:
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
• During a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
CHANGING THE SELECTED COURSE
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or GPS flight plan) when the
CWS Button is released.
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BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the mode
is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the BC Key is
pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation when in
Backcourse Mode.
Backcourse
Mode Active
LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
Figure 7-29 Backcourse Mode
CHANGING THE SELECTED COURSE
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using GPS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot
side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data while in Backcourse
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course when the CWS Button is released.
INTERCEPTING AND FLYING A DME ARC
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that GPS
Navigation Mode is engaged, GPS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is
the active flight plan leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS.
Thus, even if the APR key is pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
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If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides vectors
to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically
intercept or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms GPS Navigation
Mode. The AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of the
arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects GPS Navigation
Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
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7.5 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for specific instructions regarding emergency
procedures.
The Cessna Citation Mustang’s autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide
automatic flight control. The autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received
from the flight director. Pitch autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any sustained
effort required by the pitch servo. Autopilot operation is not independent of the yaw damper for the Cessna
Citation Mustang.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
FLIGHT CONTROL
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during upsets and flight
director maneuvers. Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch
damper control, and sent to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and
provides this signal to the pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average
pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during upsets and flight director
maneuvers. The flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper
control, and sent to the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response.
It also uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns. Yaw damper operation is independent of autopilot
engagement.
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ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
NOTE: The autopilot cannot be engaged if the yaw damper has failed.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are activated
and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are illuminated. The flight
director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw
Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-30 Autopilot And Yaw Damper Engaged
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot and the yaw
damper annunciator light is illuminated.
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-31 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
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DISENGAGEMENT
The autopilot is manually disengaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit, the GA Switch, or
the MEPT ARM Switch. Manual autopilot disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing amber ‘AP’
annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert.
Figure 7-32 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
Pushing the AP DISC Switch or YD Key disengages both the yaw damper and the autopilot. When the yaw
damper and autopilot are manually disengaged, both the ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciation turn amber and flash for 5
seconds and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert is generated.
Figure 7-33 Yaw Damper Disengagement
After manual disengagement, the autopilot disconnect aural alert may be cancelled by pushing the MEPT ARM
or AP DISC Switch (AP DISC Switch also cancels the flashing ‘AP’ annunciation).
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or MEPT ARM
Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Stall warning (YD also disengages)
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes
(FD also disengages automatically)
• Yaw damper failure while both are engaged
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing amber ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
Figure 7-34 Automatic Autopilot and
Yaw Damper Disengagement
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7.6 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS STATUS ALERTS
The annunciations in Table 7-6 (listed in order of increasing priority) can appear on the PFDs above the
Airspeed and Attitude indicators. Only one annunciation may occur at a time, and messages are prioritized by
criticality.
AFCS Status
Annunciation
Figure 7-35 AFCS Status Annunciation
Alert Condition
Annunciation
Rudder Mistrim Right
Yaw servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Rudder Mistrim Left
Aileron Mistrim Right
Roll servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Aileron Mistrim Left
Elevator Mistrim Down
Pitch servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Elevator Mistrim Up
Emergency Descent
Mode
Pitch Trim Failure
(or stuck MEPT Switch)
Description
EDM
PTRM
AP engaged when aircraft altitude above 30,000 ft and cabin pressurization is lost
Selected Heading set 90° left of current heading; Selected Altitude set to 15000 ft
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT switches separately to unstick
Yaw Damper Failure
YAW
YD control failure; AP also inoperative
Roll Failure
ROLL
Roll axis control failure; AP inoperative
Pitch Failure
PTCH
Pitch axis control failure; AP inoperative
System Failure
AFCS
AP, YD, and MEPT are unavailable; FD may still be available
Preflight Test
PFT
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and preflight system tests
as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos fail
their power-up tests). Power must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
PFT
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
Table 7-6 AFCS Status Alerts
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OVERSPEED PROTECTION
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director and pitch commands are limited for overspeed protection.
Overspeed protection is provided in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain the mode
reference for the selected vertical mode without exceeding the certified maximum autopilot airspeed.
When an autopilot overspeed condition occurs, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed
Indicator, flashing a amber ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference
adjusted to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
Figure 7-36 Overspeed Annunciation
EMERGENCY DESCENT MODE (EDM)
The Cessna Citation Mustang is equipped with an Emergency Descent Mode (EDM), available during highaltitude flight while the autopilot is engaged. EDM is automatically activated when cabin pressurization is lost
at altitudes above 30,000 feet MSL. Throttles should be reduced to idle and speed brakes extended to achieve
a maximum rate of decent. EDM is annunciated as the AFCS Status Annunciation and the following AFCS
modes are selected:
• Flight Level Change Mode with the Selected Altitude set to 15,000 feet
• Heading Select Mode with the Selected Heading set to 90° left of the current heading
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Heading Select Autopilot Flight Level Change
Mode Active Engaged
Mode Active
Selected
Altitude
Set to
15000 ft
Selected Heading Set 90°
Left of Current Heading
Emergency Decent
Mode Annunciation
Figure 7-37 Emergency Descent Mode
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
• SurfaceWatch™
• ChartView and FliteCharts® electronic charts
• Flight Data Logging
• SiriusXM® Satellite Radio entertainment
• Connext®
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information. Both Chartview and Flitecharts can be loaded
to the system at the same time. Either ChartView or FliteCharts may be displayed in the system based on system
menu settings.
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides voice and visual annunciations to aid in maintaining situational awareness
and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport environment.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the data link receiver handles more than
170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment choices and longer
range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
Connext allows for setting up the installed optional Bluetooth Transceiver device for a Bluetooth connection
between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SAFETAXI
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Data Link Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
• NDB Information Page
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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Taxiway
Identification
Aircraft
Position
Airport Hot
Spot Outline
Airport
Features
Figure 8-1 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
DCLTR Softkey
Removes Taxiway
Markings
The DCLTR Softkey (declutter) label advances to DCLTR-1, DCLTR -2, and DCLTR-3 each time the softkey is
pressed for easy recognition of decluttering level. Pressing the DCLTR Softkey removes the taxiway markings and
airport feature labels. Pressing the DCLTR-1 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol, and intersection
names if within the airport plan view. Pressing the DCLTR-2 Softkey removes the airport runway layout, unless
the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Pressing the DCLTR-3 Softkey cycles back to the original
map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key to display the PAGE MENU.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Map Settings Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-2 Navigation Map PAGE MENU, Map Setup Option
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Aviation Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Aviation Group options to SAFETAXI.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Push the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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8.2 CHARTS
The preferred charts source can be selected within the system. The active chart source for a particular procedure
is shown on the information pane under Source.
Selecting Preferred Charts Source:
1) While viewing a chart press the MENU Softkey to display the Page Menu options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup menu option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the Preferred Charts Source option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the available options (FliteCharts, ChartView).
Preferred Charts Source Option
Chart Setup Option
Figure 8-3 Preferred Charts Source
Chart Source
Figure 8-4 Chart Source
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CHARTVIEW
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed
in full color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the
planview of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes are not considered within the chart boundaries.
Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol is removed
from the display.
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading
is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale
areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of
this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview,
not to the off-scale area.
Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-5 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
• Approaches
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, press the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Options Menu to Show Approach Chart.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Figure 8-6 Option Menus
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner ‘No Available Charts’ appears on the screen.
The ‘No Available Charts’ banner does not refer to the ChartView subscription, but rather the availability of a
particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-7 No Available Charts Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
‘Unable to Display Chart’ is then displayed.
Figure 8-8 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by selecting the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
The chart shown is one associated with the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, press the Charts Softkey.
The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Press the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Figure 8-9 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
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Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Figure 8-10 ‘Map - Navigation’ Page, Chart Selection
Once the desired chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using
the Joystick. Pressing the Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the
boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If
the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not
Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Pressing the Chart Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map page. In the
example shown, the Chart Softkey switches between the Airport Diagram and the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page. Another source for additional airport information is from the Charts field above the chart for certain
airports. This information source is not related to the Info Softkey.
In the example shown in following figure, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Atlanta Class B Airspace Chart.
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Figure 8-11 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from Info View
- Pushing the SYNC Softkey displays the database linked chart associated with the current phase of flight.
- Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
- Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
- Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
- Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available
only when a SiriusXM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
- Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Pressing
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When
NOTAMS are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM
Softkey may appear on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections. Pressing the
NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
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Figure 8-12 Charts Softkeys
CHART OPTIONS
- Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
- Pressing the All Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
- Pressing the ROT CCW Softkey rotates the displayed chart counter clockwise in 90 degree increments.
- Pressing the ROT CW Softkey rotates the displayed chart clockwise in 90 degree increments.
- Pressing the Header Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
- Pressing the Plan Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
- Pressing the Profile Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
- Pressing the Minimums Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
- Pressing the Fit WDTH Softkey changes the chart size to fit the available screen width if the chart scale has
been adjusted to view a small area of the chart,
- Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page, press the Chart Softkey to display the chart with
information windows (Airport, Info).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Airport, Info, Runways, or Frequencies Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
5) Push the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
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Figure 8-13 WPT - Airport Chart, Additional Information
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Nearest Airport Page, or Flight Plan Page, press the Charts Softkey.
2) Press the CHRT Opt Softkey and then select the Full SCN Softkey .
Or:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
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Figure 8-14 Full Screen On
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-15 Page Menu Chart Setup
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the Color Scheme Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
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The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Push the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
Figure 8-16 Chart Day View
Figure 8-17 Chart Night View
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FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. These charts will display an
Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas are
indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of
this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview,
not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• Airport Diagrams
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, pressing the Charts Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT Opt, SYNC, Info, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and Go
Back. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
- Pressing the Go Back Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
- Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: Fit WDTH, Full SCN, and Go Back.
While viewing the CHRT Opt Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts:
While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page, ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’
Page, or ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page, press the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Options Menu to Show Departure Chart, Show Arrival Charts or
Show Approach Chart.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
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On the Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner ‘No Available Charts’ appears on the screen.
The ‘No Available Charts’ banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability of a
particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the banner
‘Unable to Display Chart’ is then displayed.
When a chart is not available by selecting the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing the
Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the Navigation Map Page, Flight Plan Page, or Nearest Airports Page, press the Charts Softkey.
The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the Airport Information Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the Approach Box. (Press the APR Softkey
if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Approach Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
While the Approach Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the system softkeys are blank. Once the desired
chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, and
the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen.
- Pressing the Chart Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the Chart Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ page.
- Pressing the Info Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart. If the displayed
chart is the airport diagram, the Info Softkey has no effect.
Another source for additional airport information is from the Info Box above the chart or to the right of the chart
for certain airports. This information source is not related to the Info Softkey. When the Info Box is selected using
the FMS Knob, the system softkeys are blank.
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- Pressing the SYNC Softkey displays the database linked chart associated with the current phase of flight.
- Pressing the ENT Key displays the IFR Alternate Minimums Chart.
- Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
- Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
- Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
- Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data such as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver. Weather information is available
only when a SiriusXM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
Selecting Additional Information:
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, press the WX Softkey to display the information windows (Airport,
METAR).
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Info Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. When the Info Box is selected the system softkeys are
blank. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT
Key to complete the selection.
5) Push the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
- Pressing the Go Back Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
CHART OPTIONS
- Pressing the ROT CCW Softkey rotates the displayed chart counter clockwise in 90 degree increments.
- Pressing the ROT CW Softkey rotates the displayed chart clockwise in 90 degree increments.
- Pressing the Fit WDTH Softkey changes the chart size to fit the available screen width if the chart scale has
been adjusted to view a small area of the chart,
- Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the Full Screen and Color Scheme Options.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the On and Off Full Screen Options.
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
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Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the Color Scheme Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between Day, Auto, and Night Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
6) Push the FMS Knob when finished to remove the Chart Setup Menu.
IFR/VFR CHARTS
The system can display GPS navigation information on a VFR chart, a low altitude IFR chart, or a high altitude
IFR chart, if installed. The information overlaid on the IFR/VFR Charts is selected and setup on the Navigation
Map, but the IFR/VFR charts will not display some of the selected items. Only the following items will be
overlaid on the chart:
• Map Pointer (distance and bearing to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other pertinent information)
• Map Range (17 range choices from 1 nm to 150 nm)
• Map Orientation (always North Up for IFR/VFR Charts)
• Aircraft Icon (representing present position)
• Wind Direction and Speed
• Icons for enabled map features (Traffic only)
• Flight Plan Legs
• Track Vector
• Runway Extension
• Missed Approach Preview
• Intersections (only as part of active flight plan)
• Visual Reporting Points
• VNAV Constraints
• Selected Altitude Intercept Arc
Map panning on the IFR/VFR Charts works the same as on the Navigation Map. Map range selected on either
the Navigation Map or the IFR/VFR Charts applies to both. However, if the range selected on the Navigation
Map it is not a valid chart range, the chart is shown with a range of 2.5 nm.
When different VFR charts exist for the same area the chart type will automatically display according to the
range chosen. For example, in an area where both a Sectional and a Terminal Area Chart (TAC) are available, a
range of 6 nm or more will show the Sectional chart. Once the range is decreased below 6 nm, the system will
automatically change the displayed chart from the Sectional to the TAC.
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Due to the potential error involved with the electronic depiction of maps, charts will display a ‘gray circle of
uncertainty’ centered upon the aircraft icon. The aircraft’s actual position can be anywhere within the range of
the gray circle. The range of the circle will change based on the chart displayed and current zoom range.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. IFR/VFR charts may be viewed
by selecting the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
Map Orientation
Map Range
VFR Chart
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Gray Circle of
Uncertainty
Figure 8-18 GPS Navigation Information on the VFR Chart
Selecting IFR Low, IFR High, VFR Charts:
1) Select the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
2) Push the VFR, IFR Low, or IFR High Softkey to display the desired chart.
Or:
1) Push the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Select ‘Display VFR’, ‘Display IFR Low’ or ‘Display IFR High’ to display the desired chart.
3) Push the ENT Key.
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Map Orientation
IFR Low Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Gray Circle of
Uncertainty
Figure 8-19 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR Low Altitude Chart
Map Orientation
IFR High Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Gray Circle of
Uncertainty
Figure 8-20 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR High Altitude Chart
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8.3 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISIONS
CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation, ChartView,
SafeTaxi, Airport Directory. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable during a period that
extends from the cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page
displays the current status of the databases. As an example, see the table below for the various FliteCharts
Power-up Page displays and the definition of each. The expiration date and disables date varies for each database.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Table 8-1 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current. Yellow text,
such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no longer viewable and
have expired.
Database time critical information can also be found on the ‘Aux - System Status’ page. The database Region,
Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue or yellow text.
Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not within the current
subscription period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
From the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page, push the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the Database window.
Scroll through the listed information by turning the FMS Knob or pushing the ENT Key until the applicable
database information is shown.
Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
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YYTI
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
YYII
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Database Cycle Number Format
YYII
Revision Cycle
28 days
YYMI
Not Applicable
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
28 days
Table 8-2 Database Startup, Format and Cycle
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8.4 SURFACEWATCH
NOTE: The SafeTaxi database must be available to provide information regarding taxiways, aprons and
other objects in the airport environment.
NOTE: When the flight plan is modified, data manually entered on the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page will
be cleared.
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides visual annunciations to help the flight crew maintain situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport
environment.
Data entered into SurfaceWatch is cleared during power cycling (rebooting the system).
The SurfaceWatch feature is comprised of the following key components:
• Alert Annunciations
Taxiway Takeoff
Runway Too Short (during takeoff or landing)
Check Runway (during takeoff or landing)
Taxiway Landing
• Runway distance remaining
• Provides information on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) that contains runway and taxiway information that
changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment.
The SurfaceWatch feature is not available in Reversionary Mode.
Inhibiting/uninhibiting SurfaceWatch:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor..
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the SurfaceWatch field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to toggle the SurfaceWatch alerts on or off.
INFORMATION BOX
The SurfaceWatch™ Information Box is displayed on the PFD. It contains runway and taxiway information
that dynamically changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment. The information that is
displayed in the Information Box is the aircraft’s relative position to nearby aprons, taxiways, and runways.
There are three components to the SurfaceWatch™ Information Box. These components are Currently
Occupied, Approaching, and Crossing Runways.
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Crossing Runways
Currently Occupied
Approaching
Figure 8-21 Information Types Displayed in the Information Box
CURRENTLY OCCUPIED
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘ON’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. The aircraft is
currently ‘ON’ runway 04 right (RWY 04R). The remaining runway distance is also shown when the aircraft
is situated on and aligned with a runway.
If the aircraft is airborne and approaching an airport, ‘AIRBORNE TO’ and the destination airport identifier
will be displayed.
Information regarding non-manuevering areas not labeled on the SafeTaxi diagram will not be displayed.
APPROACHING COMPONENT
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘APPROACHING’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway.
When the aircraft is taxiing and approaching an intersection of multiple taxiways, the taxiway identifiers
will be listed in order of proximity and the distance to the nearest is displayed.
When the aircraft is taxiing and crossing an intersection of multiple taxiways, ‘CROSSING’ will be displayed
and no distance will be shown.
CROSSING RUNWAYS
This component lists the runways, from closest to furthest, that are ‘CROSSING’ the runway the aircraft
currently occupies. The distance to each runway is also shown in order of closest distance. Runways behind
the aircraft are not depicted.
The Crossing Runways component is shown in conjunction with the Currently Occupied component of
the Information Box.
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ALERTS
The SurfaceWatch alert annunciations are displayed in the central portion of the PFD. The alert annunciations
are accompanied by a corresponding voice alert.
SurfaceWatch Alert
Annunciation
Associated Voice
Alert
Description
TWY TAKEOFF
“Taxiway”
RWY TOO SHORT
“Runway too short”
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a runway with a length less than needed as
calculated by the PERF function.
CHECK RUNWAY
“Check runway”
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a runway different than that entered in PERF.
TWY LANDING
“Taxiway”
RWY TOO SHORT
“Runway too short”
CHECK RUNWAY
“Check runway”
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a runway with a length less than needed as calculated
by the PERF function.
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a runway different than that entered in PERF.
Table 8-3 SurfaceWatch Alert Annunciations
TAKEOFF ALERTS
The Takeoff phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Takeoff Alerts.
Taxiway Takeoff
The Taxiway Takeoff alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway) or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alerts, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied taxiway (or other maneuvering area) and potentially the next area (apron or maneuvering area) to
be occupied (based on aircraft heading and the airport geometry) and the distance to that area.
Figure 8-22 Typical Taxiway Information Displayed in the Information Box
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Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short (during takeoff) alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway
and the remaining runway length is less than the required length. The insufficient runway length condition
is determined based on aircraft current position during the takeoff roll and the required takeoff distance
information entered on the Takeoff Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway from which the aircraft is
taking off, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in the Takeoff
Data.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will contain a textual description of the
currently occupied runway and the remaining runway length.
Figure 8-23 Typical Runway Information Displayed in the Information Box
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway that does not
match the departure runway entered in the Takeoff Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied runway.
LANDING ALERTS
The On-Final phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Landing Alerts.
Taxiway Landing
The Taxiway Landing alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway)
or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING TWY” to indicate a non-runway landing is being attempted.
Figure 8-24 Typical Information Displayed During a Taxiway Landing Alert
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Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway where the remaining
runway length is less than the required landing runway length entered in the Landing Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway with which aircraft is aligned,
the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in entered in the Landing
Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING REMAINING” to indicate a the remaining runway length.
Figure 8-25 Typical Information Displayed During a Runway Too Short Alert
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway that does not match the
arrival runway specified in the Landing Data.
Additionally, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier, the runway with which
the aircraft is aligned, and the distance to the runway.
Figure 8-26 Typical Information Displayed During a Check Runway Alert
SURFACEWATCH SETUP
Origin/destination airport, runway and distance data entered integrates with SurfaceWatch technology to
alert the flight crew to a runway too short for takeoff/landing, or to advise of a potential taxiway takeoff/landing.
The runway selected in SurfaceWatch Setup appears on the airport diagram in cyan, and appears outlined in
cyan on the synthetic vision representation of the runway on the PFD.
Entering origin/destination airport:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Origin or Destination Airport field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to input the desired Origin or Destination Airport.
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Selecting origin/destination runway:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Runway or Landing Runway field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired available Runway or Landing Runway. As the small FMS Knob is
turned, the preview of the selected runway or landing runway is also displayed.
Selecting required takeoff/landing distance:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the REQD Takeoff DIS or REQD Landing DIS field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the required takeoff or landing distance. Upon pressing the FMS Knob and
committing the required takeoff or landing distance, the Runway Length field will turn amber if an insufficient
runway length exists.
Figure 8-27 SurfaceWatch Setup Page (MFD)
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Figure 8-28 SurfaceWatch Info and Cyan Runway Outline (PFD)
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8.5 CONNEXT SETUP
The Connext Setup Page allows for setting up the installed optional wireless transceiver for a Bluetooth
connection between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the system in order to use the various functions. Pairing is accomplished
by first placing the system in pairing mode by displaying the Connext Setup Page. The system is ‘discoverable’
whenever this page is displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the mobile device and the Garmin Pilot
application. See the device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the connection instructions in the Garmin Pilot
application.
Viewing the Connext Setup Page
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Connext Setup page.
Figure 8-29 Select the Connext Setup Page
Changing the Bluetooth Name
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Bluetooth Name’ field.
3) Enter the desired name by using the large FMS Knob to select the character field, and the small FMS Knob
select the desired alphanumeric character for that field.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is removed and the new name is displayed.
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Figure 8-30 Changing the Bluetooth Name
Enabling/Disabling Flight Plan Importing from Garmin Pilot
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Flight Plan Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 8-31 Flight Plan Import Enabled
Enabling/Disabling WiFi Database Importing from Garmin Pilot
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘WiFi Database Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 8-32 WiFi Database Disabled
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Enabling/Disabling Automatic Reconnection of a Specific Paired Device
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’. Selecting ‘Enabled’ allows the system to automatically
connect to a previously paired device when detected.
4) Push the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 8-33 Disabled Auto Connect
Removing a Specific Paired Device from the List of Paired Devices:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Press the Remove Softkey. A confirmation screen is displayed.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Yes’.
5) Press the ENT Key to remove the device from the list of paired devices.
Figure 8-34 Removing Paired Device
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8.6 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the SXM Data Link Receiver is available for
the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The SiriusXM Data Link Receiver can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio
entertainment services at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S. Entertainment audio is available only on
the data link receiver..
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the data link
receiver. Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded
IDs to send an activation signal that, when received by the data link receiver, allows it to play entertainment
programming.
These IDs are located:
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ page.
4) Press the Info Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
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Audio
Radio ID
Data
Radio ID
Weather
Products
Window
Figure 8-35 XM Information Page
If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are blank on the XM
Information Page and an amber Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather Data
Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for
subscription.
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Press the Radio Softkey to show the XM Radio Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category.
Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
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Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, press the Channel Softkey.
2) Press the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the Channel Box, or move down the list with the CH – Softkey.
Or:
1) Push the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
1) While on the XM Radio Page, press the Channel Softkey.
2) Press the Direct CH Softkey. The channel number in the Active Channel Box is highlighted.
3) Press the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
CATEGORY
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is Presets to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Press the Category Softkey on the XM Radio Page.
2) Press the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
selecting the Presets and More Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to the
channel list for the Presets category.
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the XM Radio Page, while listening to an Active Channel that is wanted for a preset, press the Presets
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (Preset 1 - Preset 5).
2) Press the More Softkey to access the next five channels (Preset 6 – Preset 10), and again to access the
last five channels (Preset 11 – Preset 15). Pressing the More Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset
channels.
3) Press any one of the (Preset 1 - Preset 15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
4) Press the Set Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
Pressing the Back Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top level softkeys.
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VOLUME
Radio volume is shown as a percentage. Volume level is controlled by pressing the Volume Softkey, which
brings up the Mute Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the XM Radio Page displayed, press the Volume Softkey.
2) Press the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or press the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is pressed, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.)
SiriusXM Radio volume may also be adjusted on all passenger headsets.
Muting SiriusXM audio:
1) Select the XM Radio Page or XM Information Page.
2) Press the Mute Softkey to mute the audio. Press the Mute Softkey again to unmute the audio.
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8.7 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport identifier. The
file is created automatically each time the system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the ‘AUX-Utility’ Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the system is capable of logging for the Citation Mustang aircraft.
• Date
• Lateral and Vertical G Force (g)
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
• Time
• Ground Speed (kts)
• GPS altitude (MSL)
• Ground Track (degrees
magnetic)
• Bearing to next waypoint
(degrees)
• GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
• Latitude (degrees; geodetic;
+North)
• Autopilot Engagement Status
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
• GPS horizontal alert limit
• Vertical speed (fpm)
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• GPS vertical speed (fpm)
• HSI source
• OAT (degrees C)
• Selected course
• N1/N2
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• SBAS GPS vertical protection
level
• ITT
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• Fuel Qty (right & left)(gals)
• Battery voltage
• CDI deflection
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• Battery current
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• True airspeed (knots)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• GPS fix
• GPS vertical alert limit
• SBAS GPS horizontal protection
level
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in the following figure. This file can be
imported into most computer spreadsheet applications.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_180210_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-36 Log File Format
Data logging status can be monitored on the ‘AUX-Utility’ Page.
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8.8 ABNORMAL OPERATION
DATA LINK RECEIVER TROUBLESHOOTING
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
• Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed/activated
to SiriusXM services
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the ‘AUX - System Status’ Page for Data
Link Receiver status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the data link
receiver, the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the AUX Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Status Page (the last page in the AUX Page Group).
Figure 8-37 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
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If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
CHECK ANTENNA
UPDATING
NO SIGNAL
LOADING
OFF AIR
---
Message Location
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Weather Data Link Page - center of page
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
XM Radio Page - active channel field
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
Loss of signal; signal strength too low for receiver
Acquiring channel audio or information
Channel not in service
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILED Weather Data Link Page - center of page
within last 5 minutes
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
Weather Data Link Page - center of page SiriusXM subscription is not activated
Table 8-4 Data Link Receiver Error Messages
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APPENDIX A
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
NOTE: The current version of the pertinent flight manual supersedes information found in this document.
The Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
• CAS Annunciation Window: The CAS Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text
color is based on alert levels described later in the Alert Levels Definitions section. When Crew Alerting System
(CAS) messages are generated, the CAS messages appear on the MFD in normal mode and a window is opened
on the PFD when in revisionary mode. Up to 15 messages can be displayed; when more than 15 messages
accumulate, the CAS Up Softkey and the CAS Dn Softkey become available. Press the CAS scrolling softkeys to
scroll up and down through the messages in the CAS Window. A white horizontal line separates annunciations
that are acknowledged from annunciations that are not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are
displayed towards the top of the window. Lower priority annunciations are displayed towards the bottom of
the window.
• Messages Window: The Messages Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized alert messages.
Pressing the Messages Softkey displays the Messages Window. Pressing the Messages Softkey a second time
removes the Messages Window from the display. When the Messages Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can
be used to scroll through the alert message list.
• Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the Messages Softkey may appear as a flashing annunciation to
accompany a message. By selecting the softkey when flashing an annunciation, the message is acknowledged.
If alerts are still present, the Messages label is displayed in white with black text. Selecting the Messages
Softkey a second time views the message texts.
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red X appears over instruments whose information is supplied by a
failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the System Annunciations Section for more information.
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
CAS
Window
CAS
Window
Messages
Window
CAS
Softkey
Softkey
Annunciation
PFD Revisionary Mode
MFD Normal Mode
Figure A-1 Alerting System
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APPENDIX A
• Audio Alerting System: The system issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met. See
the Alert Level Definitions Section for more information. The annunciation tone may be tested from the Aux System Status Page.
Testing the system annunciation tone:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Status Page.
2) Press the ANN Test Softkey.
CAS MESSAGE PRIORITIZATION
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Any CAS messages that are generated when the system is first powered on are considered already
acknowledged. They do not flash or trigger the Master Warning or Master Caution.
The Alerting System uses four alert levels. Messages are grouped by criticality (warning, caution, advisory,
message advisory alerts) and sorted by order of appearance (most recent messages on top). The color of the
message is based on its urgency and on required action:
CAS messages listed in the Appendices are shown in the acknowledged state (text corresponding to criticality
on a black background). Since red and amber CAS messages indicate the immediate or future need for corrective
action, two momentary switches are located above each PFD for CAS message acknowledgment: Master Warning
and Master Caution.
When a new red CAS warning message appears, it flashes in conjunction with the Master Warning Indicator.
Pressing a Master Warning Indicator acknowledges all flashing red messages, extinguishes the master warning
lights, and stops the message flashing. Messages are displayed until the issue is corrected and a Master Warning
Indicator has been pressed.
When a new amber caution message appears on the CAS display, it flashes and triggers the Master Caution
Indicator to come on, but not to flash. Pressing a Master Caution Indicator acknowledges all flashing amber
messages, extinguishes the master caution lights, and stops the message flashing. Messages are displayed until
the issue is corrected.
A CAS message does not appear more than once at a given time (unless the CAS is being tested). If signals are
received that justify multiple priorities for a certain message, the message is displayed for the higher priority
condition. When graduating to a higher priority, the message flashes and requires new acknowledgment. When
degrading to a lower priority condition, the message moves to the top of the appropriate grouping, but does
not require new acknowledgment. Red warning messages cannot be scrolled through and remain at the top of
the CAS display. The scroll bar changes color to amber if more caution messages exist than can be displayed at
once or if caution messages have been scrolled off the display. The scroll bar remains in the selected position
for 45 seconds or until a new caution message is generated, at which point the scroll bar returns to the top of
the display.
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APPENDIX A
ALERT LEVEL DEFINITIONS
The Alerting System uses four alert levels.
• Warning: This level of alert requires immediate pilot attention. A warning alert is annunciated in the CAS
Window. Text appearing in the CAS Window is red.
• Caution: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may require
pilot intervention. A caution alert is annunciated in the CAS Window. Text appearing in the CAS Window is
amber.
• Advisory: This level of alert provides general information to the pilot. A message advisory alert does not
always issue annunciations in the CAS Window.
• Message Advisory Alerts: This level of alert also provides general information but does not issue
annunciations in the CAS Window. Instead, message advisory alerts only issue a flashing ‘Message’ Softkey
annunciation. Selecting the Message Softkey acknowledges the presence of the message advisory alert and
displays the alert text message in the ‘Messages’ Window.
Figure A-2 Message Softkey
Annunciation
CAS MESSAGES
Red annunciation window text signifies warnings; amber, cautions; and white, annunciation advisories. See
the current version of the pertinent flight manual for recommended pilot actions.
WARNING ANNUNCIATION
Annunciation Text
BATTERY O’TEMP
CABIN ALT
ENGINE FAIL L
ENGINE FAIL R
GEN OFF L
GEN OFF R
OIL PRESS LO L
OIL PRESS LO R
TAIL CONE BLD LK
Description
Overheated NiCad battery (optional)
Cabin altitude is high
Left engine has failed
Right engine has failed
Left generator is offline
Right generator is offline
Left engine oil pressure low
Right engine oil pressure low
Tail cone temp high, possible bleed air leak
CAUTION ANNUNCIATION
Annunciation Text
ADS-B FAIL
ADS-B 1 FAIL
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Description
ADS-B has failed
Transponder unable to transmit ADS-B messages
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APPENDIX A
Annunciation Text
ADS-B 2 FAIL
AFT DOOR
AFT JBOX CB L
AFT JBOX CB R
AFT JBOX LMT L
AFT JBOX LMT R
ANTISKID FAIL
BATTERY O’TEMP
BATT TEMP FAIL
CABIN ALT
CABIN DOOR
CHECK DOORS
DUCT O’HEAT L
DUCT O’HEAT R
ENG A/I COLD L
ENG A/I COLD R
ENG CTRL SYS L
ENG CTRL SYS R
F/W SHUTOFF L
F/W SHUTOFF R
FLAPS FAIL
FUEL BOOST L
FUEL BOOST R
FUEL FILTER BP R
FUEL FILTER BP L
FUEL LVL LO L
FUEL LVL LO R
FUEL PRES LO L
FUEL PRES LO R
GEN OFF L
GEN OFF R
HYD PRESS LO
HYD PUMP ON
LRG MAG VAR
NOSE DOOR L
NOSE DOOR R
OXYGEN OFF
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Description
Transponder unable to transmit ADS-B messages
Tailcone baggage door not fully secured
Start control circuit breaker (located in aft j-box) tripped
Start control circuit breaker (located in aft j-box) tripped
Current limiter blown (located in aft j-box)
Current limiter blown (located in aft j-box)
Antiskid Control Unit cannot perform anti-skid functions
Overheated NiCad battery (optional)
Battery temperature sensor failure
Cabin altitude potentially unsafe
Cabin door not fully secured
A door monitor has not been properly tested or has failed
Duct temperature too high or sensor disconnected
Duct temperature too high or sensor disconnected
Engine anti-ice system ON and inlet temperature is cold
Engine anti-ice system ON and inlet temperature is cold
FADEC has a fault that requires maintenance
FADEC has a fault that requires maintenance
Fuel firewall shutoff valve fully closed
Fuel firewall shutoff valve fully closed
A flap system failure has occurred
Electric fuel boost pump ON. Caution condition is displayed when the boost pump is
operating in abnormal conditions
Electric fuel boost pump ON. Caution condition is displayed when the boost pump is
operating in abnormal conditions
Engine fuel filter impending bypass switch closed
Engine fuel filter impending bypass switch closed
Fuel level in tank is too low
Fuel level in tank is too low
Fuel pressure too low
Fuel pressure too low
Left electrical generator is offline
Right electrical generator is offline
Hydraulic system pressure too low
Hydraulic pump running too long
Verify all course angles
Left nose baggage door not fully secured
Right nose baggage door not fully secured
Oxygen supply off
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APPENDIX A
Annunciation Text
P/S HTR L
P/S HTR R
PRESS CTRL
SLCT MAG
SLCT NON-MAG
STALL WARN FAIL
STALL WARN HTR
T2 HTR FAIL L
T2 HTR FAIL R
TAIL DE-ICE FAIL
W/S A/I FAIL L
W/S A/I FAIL R
W/S O’HEAT L
W/S O’HEAT R
WING DE-ICE FAIL
WOW MISCOMPARE
XPDR 1 FAIL
XPDR 2 FAIL
XPDR STBY
Description
No current detected to pitot static heater
No current detected to pitot static heater
Pressure controller loss of integrity
Select MAGNETIC NAV ANGLE display units
Select alternate NAV ANGLE display units
Failure detected in stall warning system
No power delivered to stall warning vane heater
T2 probe heater failure
T2 probe heater failure
De-ice system not operating normally
Loss of power to windshield heater
Loss of power to windshield heater
Windshield anti-ice power ON; temperature too high
Windshield anti-ice power ON; temperature too high
De-ice system operating abnormally
Gear on-ground inputs do not agree
Transponder 1 has failed
Transponder 2 has failed
Transponder is in Standby Mode.
ADVISORY ANNUNCIATION
Annunciation Text
CABIN ALT
ENG A/I COLD L
ENG A/I COLD R
FDR FAIL
FUEL BOOST L
FUEL BOOST R
FUEL LO INOP L
FUEL LO INOP R
FUEL TRANSFER
MFD COLD
NO TIRE SPINDOWN
P/S HTR L
P/S HTR R
PRESS CTRL
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Description
Cabin altitude potentially unsafe
Engine anti-ice system ON and inlet temperature is cold
Engine anti-ice system ON and inlet temperature is cold
Flight Data Recorder is not recording data.
Electric fuel boost pump ON. Caution condition is displayed when the boost pump is
operating in abnormal conditions.
Electric fuel boost pump ON. Caution condition is displayed when the boost pump is
operating in abnormal conditions.
Fuel low level function failure
Fuel low level function failure
Fuel transfer valve open
MFD temperature is below -20° C
Antiskid control spindown function not working
No current detected to pitot static heater
No current detected to pitot static heater
Pressure controller loss of integrity
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APPENDIX A
Annunciation Text
PRESS OFF
SPD BRK EXTEND
STALL WARN HI
SURFACE DE-ICE
TLD FAULT L
TLD FAULT R
W/S A/I FAIL L
W/S A/I FAIL R
W/S O’HEAT L
W/S O’HEAT R
Description
Air Source Selector switch in OFF or fresh air position
Speed brakes extended
Stall warning system on ice-contaminated schedule
De-ice boots inflating/deflating as designed
A time limit dispatch fault has been detected
A time limit dispatch fault has been detected
Loss of power to windshield heater
Loss of power to windshield heater
Windshield anti-ice power ON; temperature too high
Windshield anti-ice power ON; temperature too high
VOICE ALERTS
Aural Alert
“Minimums, minimums”
“Vertical track”
“Traffic”
“Traffic, Traffic”
“TIS Not Available”
“Traffic System Test Passed”
“Traffic System Test Fail”
“TAS System Test OK”
“TAS System Test Fail”
Description
The aircraft has descended below the preset minimum descent altitude or decision
altitude.
The aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent. Issued only when vertical navigation is
enabled.
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued with the TIS system. See the Hazard
Avoidance section for additional details.
Played when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued with the optional KTA 870 TAS without
GTX 345R system.
The aircraft is outside the Traffic Information Service (TIS) coverage area.
Played when the optional GTX 345R system passes a pilot-initiated self test.
Played when the GTX 345R system fails a pilot-initiated self test.
Played when the optional KTA 870 TAS without GTX 345R system passes a pilotinitiated self test.
Played when the KTA 870 TAS without GTX 345R system fails a pilot-initiated self test.
AUDIO ALERTS
Audio Alert
Altitude Alert Chime
Description
When aircraft altitude reaches the reference altitude threshold.
When aircraft altitude reaches or goes beyond the reference altitude deviation limit
NOTE: Voice and aural alerts are provided by the GIA. Should this unit fail, audio and voice alerts will no longer
be available.
Some aural alerts are configured for ‘Male’ or ‘Female’ gender by using the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ page on the MFD.
468
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to initialize. All windows
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, the
system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
When a new message is issued, the Message Softkey flashes to alert the flight crew. It continues to flash
until acknowledged by pressing the softkey. Active messages are displayed in the Messages window in white
text. Messages that have become inactive change to gray text. The Message Softkey flashes again if the state
of a displayed message changes or a new message is displayed. Inactive messages can be removed from the
Messages Window by pressing the Messages Softkey.
System Messages convey messages to the flight crew regarding problems with the system. Typically, a large
red ‘X’ appears in a window when a related LRU fails or detects invalid data.
The following section describes various system annunciations. Refer to the current version of the pertinent
flight manual for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
SYSTEM MESSAGES
This section describes various system message advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU or an
LRU function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation as
shown previously in the System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This Section provides information regarding message advisories that may be displayed by the
system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities must
be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The current version of the
pertinent flight manual takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
Alerts Window Message
ABORT APR – Loss of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
ADC1 ALT EC – ADC1 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 AS EC – ADC1 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 ALT EC – ADC2 altitude error
correction is unavailable.
ADC2 AS EC – ADC2 airspeed error
correction is unavailable.
ADC1 SERVICE – ADC1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
Comments
Abort approach due to loss of GPS navigation.
ADC2 SERVICE – ADC2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
The GDC2 should be serviced.
GDC1 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable.
GDC1 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable.
GDC2 is reporting that the altitude error correction is unavailable.
GDC2 is reporting that the airspeed error correction is unavailable.
The GDC1 should be serviced.
AHRS MAG DB – AHRS magnetic model
The #1 AHRS and #2 AHRS magnetic model database versions do not match.
database version mismatch.
AHRS1 CAL – AHRS1 calibration version The #1 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
error. Srvc req’d.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
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APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
AHRS1 CONFIG – AHRS1 config error.
Config service req’d.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving any
GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 SERVICE – AHRS1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
AHRS1 SRVC – AHRS1 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving valid
airspeed.
AHRS2 CAL – AHRS2 calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS2 CONFIG – AHRS2 config error.
Config service req’d.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving any
GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS2 SERVICE – AHRS2 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
AHRS2 SRVC – AHRS2 Magnetic-field
model needs update.
AHRS2 TAS – AHRS2 not receiving valid
airspeed.
AHRS2 TAS – AHRS2 not receiving valid
airspeed.
APR ADVISORY – SBAS VNAV not
available. Using Baro VNAV.
APR DWNGRADE – Approach
downgraded.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less
than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
470
Comments
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check the current
version of the pertinent flight manual limitations. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
A failure has been detected in the #1 AHRS or #2 AHRS. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #1 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS relies on
GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check the current
version of the pertinent flight manual limitations. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
A failure has been detected in the #2 AHRS. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS relies on
GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS relies on
GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be serviced.
SBAS not available. The system is calculating the VNAV profile using Baro VNAV.
Vertical guidance generated by SBAS is unavailable, use LNAV-only minimums.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the special use
airspace within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
than 2 nm.
AUDIO MANIFEST - Audio software
mismatch, communication halted.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC1 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
COM1 CONFIG – COM1 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM1 MANIFEST – COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
Comments
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
The GMA 1347 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
Selected course for LOC1 differs from published localizer course by more than 10 degrees.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10 degrees.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
COM1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
COM1 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
The COM1 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
COM1 RMT XFR – COM1 remote
The COM1 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer key is stuck.
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
COM1 SERVICE – COM1 needs service. The system has detected a failure in COM1. COM1 may still be usable. The system should
Return unit for repair.
be serviced when possible.
COM1 TEMP – COM1 over temp.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM1. The transmitter
Reducing transmitter power.
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
COM2 CONFIG – COM2 config error.
COM2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
Config service req’d.
should be serviced.
COM2 MANIFEST – COM2 software
COM2 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
COM2 PTT – COM2 push-to-talk key
The COM2 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
is stuck.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
COM2 RMT XFR – COM2 remote
The COM2 transfer switch is stuck in the enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
transfer key is stuck.
transfer switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
COM2 SERVICE – COM2 needs service. The system has detected a failure in COM2. COM2 may still be usable. The system should
Return unit for repair.
be serviced when possible.
COM2 TEMP – COM2 over temp.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM2. The transmitter
Reducing transmitter power.
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
DATA LOST – Pilot stored data was lost. The pilot profile data was lost. System reverts to default pilot profile and settings. The
Recheck settings.
pilot may reconfigure the MFD & PFD with preferred settings, if desired.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains a procedure that is no longer consistent
Verify user modified procedures.
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after a navigation database
update. Verify that the user-modified procedures in stored flight plans are correct and up
to date.
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APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
Verify stored airways.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation database
mismatch. Xtalk is off.
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database
mismatch.
DB MISMATCH – Standby Navigation
database mismatch.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
mismatch.
FAILED PATH – A data path has failed.
FPL TRUNC – Flight plan has been
truncated.
FPL WPT LOCK – Flight plan waypoint
is locked.
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is inoperative.
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is inoperative.
G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
G/S2 SERVICE – G/S2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GCU CNFG – GCU Config error. Config
service req’d.
GCU FAIL – GCU is inoperative.
GCU MANIFEST – GCU software
mismatch, ommunication halted.
GCU KEYSTK – GCU [keyname] Key is
stuck
GDC1 MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GDC2 MANIFEST – GDC2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
472
Comments
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent with
the navigation database. This alert is issued only after a navigation database update.
Verify use of airways in stored flight plans and reload airways as needed.
The PFDs and MFD have different navigation database versions or regions installed. Crossfill
is off. Check the Aux-System Status Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check
the Aux-System Status Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
The PFDs and MFD have different obstacle database versions or regions installed. Check
the Aux-System Status Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the Aux-System
Status Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After synchronization
is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
The PFDs and MFD have different standby navigation database versions or regions installed.
Check the Aux-System Status Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the
Aux-System Status Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
The PFDs and MFD have different terrain database versions or regions installed. Check
the Aux-System Status Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the Aux-System
Status Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After synchronization
is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
A data path connected to the GDU or the GIA has failed.
This occurs when a newly installed navigation database eliminates an obsolete approach
or arrival used by a stored flight plan. The obsolete procedure is removed from the flight
plan. Update flight plan with current arrival or approach.
Upon power-up, the system detects that a stored flight plan waypoint is locked. This
occurs when an navigation database update eliminates an obsolete waypoint. The flight
plan cannot find the specified waypoint and flags this message. This can also occur with
user waypoints in a flight plan that is deleted.
Remove the waypoint from the flight plan if it no longer exists in any database,
Or - update the waypoint name/identifier to reflect the new information.
A fault has been detected in glideslope receiver 1 and/or receiver 2. The system should be
serviced.
A fault has been detected in glideslope receiver 1 and/or receiver 2. The receiver may still
be available. The system should be serviced when possible.
GCU 475 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GCU 475. The GCU 475 is unavailable.
The GCU 475 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
A key is stuck on the GCU 475 bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The GDC1 or GDC 2 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
GDL69 CONFIG – GDL 69 config error.
Config service req’d.
GDL69 FAIL – GDL 69 has failed.
GDL69 MANIFEST – GDL software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEA1 CONFIG – GEA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GEA1 MANIFEST – GEA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEA2 CONFIG – GEA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GEA2 MANIFEST – GEA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS1 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS2 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
GFC MANIFEST – GFC software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA1 CONFIG – GIA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 over
temperature.
GIA1 COOLING – GIA1 temperature
too low.
GIA1 MANIFEST – GIA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA1 SERVICE – GIA1 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 audio config
error. Config service req’d.
GIA2 CONFIG – GIA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 over
temperature.
GIA2 COOLING – GIA2 temperature
too low.
GIA2 MANIFEST – GIA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA2 SERVICE – GIA2 needs service.
Return the unit for repair.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Comments
GDL 69A SXM configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 69A SXM. The receiver is unavailable. The system
should be serviced
The GDL 69A SXM has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GEA1 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The #1 GEA has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GEA2 configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory.
The system should be serviced.
The #2 GEA has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
Incorrect servo software is installed, or gain settings are incorrect.
The GIA1 have an error in the audio configuration. The system should be serviced.
The GIA1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
The GIA1 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to warm
up to operating temperature.
The GIA1 1 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GIA1 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 have an error in the audio configuration. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
The GIA2 temperature is too high. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The GIA2 temperature is too low to operate correctly. Allow units to warm up to
operating temperature.
The GIA 2 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GIA2 self-test has detected a problem in the unit. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
473
APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
GMA1 AUX MANIFEST – GMA 1 AUX
software mismatch, communication
halted.
GMA1 CONFIG – GMA1 config error.
Config service req’d.
GMA1 FAIL – GMA1 is inoperative.
GMA1 MANIFEST – GMA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMA1 SERVICE – GMA1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GMA2 AUX MANIFEST – GMA 2 AUX
software mismatch, communication
halted.
GMA2 CONFIG – GMA2 config error.
Config service req’d.
GMA2 FAIL – GMA2 is inoperative.
GMA2 MANIFEST – GMA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GMA2 SERVICE – GMA2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
Comments
The GMA 1360D digital audio controller has incorrect software installed. The system
should be serviced.
The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure or the audio panel is off-line. The audio
panel is unavailable. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may still
be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be serviced when
possible.
The GMA 1360D digital audio controller has incorrect software installed. The system
should be serviced.
The audio panel configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a failure or the audio panel is off-line. The audio
panel is unavailable. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions may still
be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be serviced when
possible.
GMA XTALK – GMA crosstalk error has An error has occurred in transferring data between the two GMA 1360D’s. The system
occurred.
should be serviced.
GMC CNFG – GMC Config error.
Error in the configuration of the GMC.
Config service req’d.
GMC FAIL – GMC is inoperative.
A failure has been detected in the GMC. The GMC is unavailable.
GMC KEYSTK – GMC [keyname] Key
A key is stuck on the GMC bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
is stuck
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
GMC MANIFEST – GMC software
The GMC has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
mismatch, communication halted.
GMU1 MANIFEST – GMU1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
The GMU has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GMU2 MANIFEST – GMU2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient satellites.
navigation. Insufficient satellites.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
Loss of GPS navigation due to position error.
navigation. Position error.
GPS NAV LOST – Loss of GPS
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS fault.
navigation. GPS fail.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
GPS1 SERVICE – GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GPS2 SERVICE – GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GRS1 MANIFEST – GRS1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GRS2 MANIFEST – GRS2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GTX1 MANIFEST – GTX1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GTX2 MANIFEST – GTX2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX CONFIG – GWX config error.
Config service req’d.
GWX FAIL – GWX is inoperative.
GWX MANIFEST – GWX software
mismatch, communication halted.
GWX SERVICE – Needs service. Return
unit for repair.
HDG FAULT – AHRS1 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HDG FAULT – AHRS2 magnetometer
fault has occurred.
HOLD EXPIRED – Holding EFC time
expired.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1 communication halted.
HW MISMATCH – GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2 communication halted.
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
LOCKED FPL – Cannot navigate locked
flight plan.
LOI – GPS integrity lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
LRG MAG VAR – Verify all course
angles.
MFD SOFTWARE – MFD mismatch,
communication halted.
MFD TERRAIN DSP – MFD Terrain
awareness display unavailable.
MFD1 BACKLIGHT CALIBRATION –
MFD1 calibration. Return for repair.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Comments
A fault has been detected in the GPS1 and/or GPS2 receiver. The receiver may still be
available. The system should be serviced.
The #1 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GWX configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The system
should be serviced.
The GDU is not recieving status packet from the GWX is reporting a fault. The GWX radar
system should be serviced.
The GWX has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GWX. The GWX may still be usable.
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses GPS
for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
A fault has occurred in the #2 GMU. Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS uses GPS
for backup mode operation. The system should be serviced.
Expect Further Clearance (EFC) time has expired for the User Defined Hold.
A GIA mismatch has been detected, where only one is SBAS capable. The system should
be serviced.
The aircraft is inside the special use airspace.
This occurs when the pilot attempts to activate a stored flight plan that contains locked
waypoint. Remove locked waypoint from flight plan. Update flight plan with current
waypoint.
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current phase of flight.
The GDU’s internal model cannot determine the exact magnetic variance for geographic
locations near the magnetic poles. Displayed magnetic course angles may differ from the
actual magnetic heading by more than 2°.
The specified GDU has different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
One of the terrain or obstacle databases required for TAWS in the specified GDU is
missing or invalid.
The specified GDU’s backlight calibration cannot be found or is invalid. The system should
be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
475
APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
MFD1 CONFIG – MFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
MFD1 COOLING – MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Airport
Directory database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 basemap
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Chartview
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 FliteCharts
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 multiple
database errors exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 navigation
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database error exists.
MFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain
database missing.
MFD1 INSPECT RQRD – BTM SD Bottom SD Card Unstable - Install new
card.
MFD1 INSPECT RQRD – TOP SD - Top
SD Card Unstable - Install new card.
MFD1 KEYSTK – MFD1 [key name] is
stuck.
MFD1 SERVICE – MFD1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
MFD1 VOLTAGE – MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
NAV1 MANIFEST– NAV1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
NAV1 SERVICE– NAV1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NAV2 MANIFEST– NAV2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
476
Comments
The MFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
The MFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display. If
problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure the data card is
properly programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The MFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure the data
card is properly programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the FliteCharts database (optional feature). Ensure the data
card is properly programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the navigation
database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure that the data card is properly
inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The obstacle database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The MFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is
properly inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The bottom SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
The top SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
A key is stuck on the MFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The MFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
The MFD voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
NAV1 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the NAV1 receiver. The receiver may still be available. The
system should be serviced.
NAV2 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
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APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
NAV2 SERVICE– NAV2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
NO NAV CAPTURE – Intercept angle
too large for LOC/BC capture.
NON WGS84 WPT – Non WGS 84
waypoint for navigation -[xxxx]
PFD POSITIONS DIFFERENT – PFD
positions mismatch. Check position
sensors.
PFD1 BACKLIGHT CALIBRATION–
PFD1 bklt cal lost or mismatch. Return
for repair.
PFD1 CARD 1 ERR– PFD1 card 1 is
invalid.
PFD1 CARD 1 REM– PFD1 card 1
was removed. Reinsert card.
PFD1 CARD 2 ERR– PFD1 card 2 is
invalid.
PFD1 CARD 2 REM– PFD1 card 2
was removed. Reinsert card.
PFD1 CONFIG– PFD1 config error.
Config service req’d.
PFD1 COOLING– PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing power usage.
PFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Airport Directory
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 basemap
database error exists.
PFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Chartview
database error exists.
Comments
A failure has been detected in the NAV2 receiver. The receiver may still be available. The
system should be serviced.
The maximum intercept angle for LOC/BC capture is 105 degrees. This message informs
the pilots that the capture will not occur if the limit is exceeded.
The position of the selected waypoint [xxxx] is not calculated based on the WGS84 map
reference datum and may be positioned in error as displayed. Do not use GPS to navigate
to the selected non-WGS84 waypoint.
There is a mismatch in the position sensed by the PFDs. Check position sensor settings. If
message persists the system should be serviced.
The specified GDU’s backlight calibration cannot be found or found or is invalid. The
system should be serviced.
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD contains invalid data.
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD. The SD card needs
to be reinserted.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD contains invalid data.
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
should be serviced.
The PFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display. If
problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure the data card is
properly programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
The PFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure that the
data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 FliteCharts
The PFD detected a failure in the FliteCharts database (optional feature). Ensure the data
database error exists.
card is properly programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 multiple
The PFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the system
database errors exists.
should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 navigation
The PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the navigation
database error exists.
database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 obstacle
The PFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure the data card is properly
database error exists.
programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 Safe Taxi
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure the data card is properly
database error exists.
programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR – MFD1 terrain database The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure the data card is properly
error exists.
programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain database
error exists.
Comments
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure that the terrain card is properly
inserted in display. Replace terrain card. If problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR – PFD1 terrain database The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
missing.
PFD1 INSPECT RQRD – BTM SD Bottom SD Card Unstable - Install new The bottom SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
card.
PFD1 INSPECT RQRD – TOP SD - Top
The top SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
SD Card Unstable - Install new card.
PFD1 SERVICE– PFD1 needs service. The PFD a self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
Return unit for repair.
PFD1 SOFTWARE– PFD1 mismatch, The specified GDU has different software versions installed. The system should be
communication halted.
serviced.
PFD1 TERRAIN DSP – PFD1 Terrain
One of the terrain or obstacle databases required for TAWS in PFD1 is missing or invalid.
awareness display unavailable.
PFD1 VOLTAGE – PFD1 has low
The PFD1 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
voltage. Reducing power usage
PFD1 BACKLIGHT CALIBRATION–
The specified GDU’s backlight calibration cannot be found or found or is invalid. The
PFD2 bklt cal lost or mismatch. Return system should be serviced.
for repair.
PFD2 CARD 1 ERR– PFD2 card 1 is
The SD card in the top card slot of the specified PFD contains invalid data.
invalid.
PFD2 CARD 1 REM– PFD2 card 1
The SD card was removed from the top card slot of the specified PFD. The SD card needs
was removed. Reinsert card.
to be reinserted.
PFD2 CARD 2 ERR– PFD2 card 2 is
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the specified PFD contains invalid data.
invalid.
PFD2 CARD 2 REM– PFD2 card 2
The SD card was removed from the bottom card slot of the specified PFD. The SD card
was removed. Reinsert card.
needs to be reinserted.
PFD2 CONFIG– PFD2 config error.
The PFD configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The system
Config service req’d.
should be serviced.
PFD2 COOLING– PFD2 has poor
The PFD is overheating and is reducing power consumption by dimming the display. If
cooling. Reducing power usage.
problem persists, the system should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 Airport Directory The PFD detected a failure in the Airport Directory database. Ensure the data card is
database error exists.
properly programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 basemap
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap database.
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 Chartview
The PFD detected a failure in the ChartView database (optional feature). Ensure that the
database error exists.
data card is properly inserted. Replace data card. If problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 FliteCharts
The PFD detected a failure in the FliteCharts database (optional feature). Ensure the data
database error exists.
card is properly programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 multiple
The PFD detected a failure in more than one database. If problem persists, the system
database errors exists.
should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 navigation
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 obstacle
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 Safe Taxi
database error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain database
error exists.
PFD2 DB ERR – PFD2 terrain database
missing.
PFD2 INSPECT RQRD – BTM SD Bottom SD Card Unstable - Install new
card.
PFD2 INSPECT RQRD – TOP SD - Top
SD Card Unstable - Install new card.
PFD2 KEYSTK– PFD2 [key name] Key
is stuck.
PFD2 MANIFEST– PFD2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
PFD2 SERVICE– PFD2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
PFD2 SOFTWARE– PFD2 mismatch,
communication halted.
PFD2 TERRAIN DSP – PFD2 Terrain
awareness display unavailable.
PFD2 VOLTAGE – PFD2 has low
voltage. Reducing power usage
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
bad geometry.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
PTK FAIL – Parallel track unavailable:
past IAF.
SCHEDULER [#] – <message>.
SLCT FREQ – Select appropriate
frequency for approach.
SLCT MAG– Select MAGNETIC NAV
ANGLE display units.
SLCT NAV – Select NAV on CDI for
approach.
SLCT NON-MAG– Select alternate
NAV ANGLE display units.
STEEP TURN – Steep turn ahead.
SVT DISABLED – Out of available
terrain region.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Comments
The PFD detected a failure in the navigation database. Attempt to reload the navigation
database. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the obstacle database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If p roblem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The terrain database is present on another LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
The bottom SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
The top SD card is unstable and should be replaced.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt to free the stuck key by pressing it several times.
The system should be serviced if the problem persists.
The PFD has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The PFD self-test has detected a problem. The system should be serviced.
The specified GDU has different software versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
One of the terrain, or obstacle databases required for TAWS in PFD2 is missing or invalid.
The PFD2 voltage is low. The system should be serviced.
Bad parallel track geometry.
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been passed.
Message criteria entered by the user.
The system notifies the pilot to load the approach frequency for the appropriate NAV
receiver. Select the correct frequency for the approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avioncs Settings Screen to
Magnetic.
The system notifies the pilot to set the CDI to the correct NAV receiver. Set the CDI to the
correct NAV receiver.
The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav Angle units on the Avioncs Settings Screen to
True.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare to turn.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because the aircraft is not within the boundaries of the
installed terrain database.
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APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
SVT DISABLED – Terrain DB resolution
too low.
TCAS FAIL – Traffic: TAS/TCAS inop or
connection lost.
TERRAIN AUD CFG – Trn Awareness
audio config error. Service req’d.
TERRAIN DISABLED – Terrain
Awareness DB resolution too low.
TERRAIN DSP – [PFD1, PFD2 or MFD1]
Terrain awareness display unavailable.
TIMER EXPIRD – Timer has expired.
TRAFFIC FAIL – Traffic device has failed.
TRN AUD FAIL – Trn Awareness audio
source unavailable.
TRUE APR – True north approach.
Change HDG reference to TRUE.
UNABLE V WPT – Can’t reach current
vertical waypoint.
VNV UNAVAILABLE – Excessive
crosstrack error.
VNV UNAVAILABLE – Excessive track
angle error.
VNV UNAVAILABLE – Parallel course
selected.
VNV UNAVAILABLE – Unsupported
leg type in flight plan.
WPT ARRIVAL – Arriving at waypoint
-[xxxx]
WX ALERT – Possible severe weather
ahead.
XPDR1 CONFIG – XPDR1 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR1 FAIL – XPDR1 is inoperative.
XPDR1 SERVICE – XPDR1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
XPDR2 CONFIG – XPDR2 config error.
Config service req’d.
XPDR2 CSA FAIL - Traffic: ADS-B In
traffic alerting has failed.
XPDR2 FAIL – XPDR2 is inoperative.
XPDR2 FAULT – Datalink: ADSB-B in
has failed.
480
Comments
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (0.9 arcsecond or better) is not currently installed.
The TCAS system has failed. The system should be serviced.
Terrain audio alerts are not configured properly. The system should be serviced
TAWS is disabled because a terrain database of sufficient resolution (0.9 arc-second or
better) is not currently installed.
One of the terrain or obstacle databases required for TAWS in the specified PFD or MFD is
missing or invalid.
The system notifies the pilot that the timer has expired.
The system is no longer receiving data from the traffic system. The traffic device should be
serviced.
The audio source for terrain awareness is offline. Check GIA1 or GIA 2.
Displayed after passing the first waypoint of the true north approach when the nav angle
is set to ‘AUTO’.
The current vertical waypoint can not be reached within the maximum flight path angle
and vertical speed constraints. The system automatically transitions to the next vertical
waypoint.
The current crosstrack exceeds the limit, causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
The current track angle error exceeds the limit, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
A parallel course has been selected, causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
The lateral flight plan contains a procedure turn, vector, or other unsupported leg type
prior to the active vertical waypoint. This prevents vertical guidance to the active vertical
waypoint.
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is the waypoint name.
The GWX 68 indicates severe weather within ±10 degrees of the aircraft heading at a
range of 80 to 320 nm.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
There is no communication with the #1 transponder.
The #1 transponder should be serviced when possible.
The transponder configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
ADS-B Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is unavailable.
There is no communication with the #2 transponder.
The transponder is unable to receive ADS-B information.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
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APPENDIX A
Alerts Window Message
XPDR2 FIS-B WX – Datalink: FIS-B
Weather has failed.
XPDR2 OVER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder over temp.
XPDR2 PRES ALT –Transponder: ADS-B
no pressure altitude.
XPDR2 SRVC – XPDR2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
XPDR2 UNDER TEMP - Transponder:
Transponder under temp.
XTALK ERROR – A flight display
crosstalk error has occurred.
Comments
The transponder is unable to receive FIS-B weather information.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in XPDR2. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
Unable to provide pressure altitude information.
The #2 transponder should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an under temperature condition in XPDR2. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The MFD and PFD are not communicating with each other. The system should be serviced.
FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
Description
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight plan.
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No stored flight
plan data was modified.’
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. These waypoints
have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans stored in the system have been
modified.
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
‘Flight plan import failed.’
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however others had errors
and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in the system.
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints. One or more of
these waypoints did not import successfully.
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can support. The flight plan
was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints locked.’
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system cannot find in the
navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but must be edited within the system
before it can be activated for use.
‘User waypoint database full. Not all loaded.’
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored user waypoints
has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints on the SD card have been
imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not imported are locked in the flight plan. The
flight plan must be edited within the system before it can be activated for use.
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to naming conflicts with
waypoints already existing in the system.
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
‘Flight plan export failed.’
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card may not have
sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed prematurely.
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APPENDIX A
Blank Page
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APPENDIX B
DATABASE MANAGEMENT
Database information is obtained from third party sources. Inaccuracies in the data may be discovered from
time to time. Garmin communicates this information by issuing a Database Alert. These notifications are available
on flygarmin.com.
Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information. These
discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground.
Go to flygarmin.com and select Aviation Data Error Report.
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interruption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load various types of data. For basic flight operations, SD cards
are required for database updates. Not all SD cards are compatible with the system.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ message will be displayed until database
synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can be
monitored on the ‘Aux – Databases’ Page.
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration date on the
power-up screen and the effective date on the ‘Aux – Databases’ Page being displayed in amber.
LOADING UPDATED DATABASES
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power interruption during the
database loading process could result in maintenance being required to reboot the system.
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ message will be displayed until database
synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off, then on. Synchronization can be
monitored on the ‘Aux-Database’ Page.
Databases may be loaded through Garmin Pilot and Wireless Transceiver. When loading databases through
Garmin Pilot and the Wireless Transceiver, the Wireless Transceiver must be enabled on the system and the
multimedia card inserted in the bottom SD slot of the MFD.
The cycles and dates for both standby and active databases are displayed on the “Aux – Databases” page on
the MFD. Any active databases with expiration dates in the past will be highlighted with amber text. When
an expired active database has a standby database that is ready to become effective, a cyan double-sided arrow
will be displayed between the database cycles. When this arrow is visible, it indicates that the standby and
active databases in that row will be switched on the next power cycle, activating the current standby database.
Databases can also be manually selected (or deselected) by highlighting a list item and pressing the ENT Key,
provided a valid, verified standby database is present.
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APPENDIX B
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the database
product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin authorized service
facility in order to use some database features.
The navigation database contains the aeronautical data used by the system for the flight management and
flight planning functions. Included is detailed data for waypoints, procedures (arrivals, departures, approaches),
and airways. The navigation database is updated every 28 days.
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and towns.
It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. These databases are updated periodically and have
no expiration date.
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to aircraft.
Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to note that not all
obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle database. This database is
updated on a 56-day cycle.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government agencies. Garmin
accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee the accuracy and completeness of
the data.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory provides data on airports and heliports throughout the U.S. or
worldwide, respectively. The AOPA Directory offers detailed information for over 5,300 U. S. airports, along
with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. These databases are updated every 56 days. The
AC-U-KWIK Directory offers detailed information for more than 8,000 airports with runways longer than 3,000
feet worldwide.
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in following
ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in relation to taxiways,
ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts. This database is updated on a 28-day cycle. If not
updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no longer function.
The ChartView database is updated on a 14-day cycle. If the ChartView database is not updated within 70
days of the expiration date, ChartView will no longer function. The ChartView database must be purchased
directly from Jeppesen, but can be updated at jeppesen.com or flygarmin.com.
The IFR/VFR charts database contains VFR and IFR raster charts. The VFR Charts are digital representations
of the Sectional Aeronautical Charts and Terminal Area Charts. The IFR Charts include both IFR High (designed
for navigation at or above 18,000 ft) and IFR Low (designed for navigation below 18,000 ft). IFR/VFR Charts
are updated every 28 days except for Canadian IFR/VFR Charts which are updated every 56 days.
UPDATING DATABASES USING A SUPPLEMENTAL DATA CARD
All databases are updated through a single SD card in the bottom slot of the MFD. When the card is
inserted, the databases on the card will be copied to standby and synchronized across all powered, configured
units. After update, the card is removed and the databases are stored on the system. When in standby,
databases are not immediately available for use, but stored to be activated at a later time.
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APPENDIX B
Database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation Databases’ section
of the Garmin website (flygarmin.com). Once the updated files have been downloaded from the website, a
PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and program the new databases onto an
existing Supplemental Data Card. Equipment required to perform the update is as follows:
• Windows-compatible PC computer
• SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
• Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
• Supplemental SD Cards
Updating Databases:
1) With the system OFF, remove an SD Card from the bottom SD card slot of the MFD.
2) Download and install the databases on an SD card.
3) Put the SD Card in the bottom SD card slot of the MFD.
4) Turn the system ON.
5) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
8) Monitor the Sync Status on the ‘Aux-Databases’ Page. Wait for all databases to complete syncing, indicated by
‘Sync Complete’ being displayed. A cyan double-arrow will appear between the Standby and Active columns to
show which Standby databases will be transferred to Active at the next power cycle.
Figure B-1 ‘Aux - Databases’ Page before Activation of Standby Databases
9) Verify the correct database cycle information is shown in the Standby column.
10) Remove the SD card from the bottom slot of the MFD if desired.
11) Remove and reapply power to the system.
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APPENDIX B
12) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
13) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
14) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Databases.
15) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
Figure B-2 ‘Aux - Databases’ Page - Updated Databases
16) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will become active.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Swap Stby/Actv’ using the small FMS Knob. Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will become active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
f) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
g) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
h) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
17) For additional information on each database, press and then turn the FMS Knob to select the database, and
then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Details’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
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APPENDIX B
18) To view database information for an individual display:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob and select System Status.
c) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB) to show database information for each
display. Use the small FMS Knob to scroll through the database information. Press the ENT Key or the
FMS Knob to exit.
UPDATING DATABASES USING WIRELESS TRANSCEIVER
In order to load databases through Garmin Pilot and the Wireless Transceiver (also known as Flight Stream
510 or FS510), the Wireless Transceiver must be enabled on the system and inserted in the bottom SD slot
of the MFD. A mobile device with Garmin Pilot must be paired with the Wireless Transceiver over Wireless
(refer to the Additional Features section). When there is at least one paired device available to connect, the
Wireless Transceiver will automatically connect to the system’s preferred mobile device. The preferred device
can be selected on the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page from a menu list of paired devices.
Once a connection to the paired mobile device is made, Garmin Pilot makes available databases that
can be transferred to the Wireless Transceiver. If any of these databases is more recent than the respective
standby database on the system, (or if there is no standby database on the system) those databases will be
automatically selected to load. The database updates may be initiated from the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page, or
from other pages on the MFD.
NOTE: The system will only provide a WiFi connection if new databases have been detected for download
on Garmin Pilot via a valid Wireless connection. If there are no database updates required the system will
not provide a WiFi signal.
NOTE: If the mobile device has previously connected to the Wireless Transceiver, and is not connected to
another WiFi source, the mobile device should connect automatically to the Wireless Transceiver. If the
mobile device is connected to another WiFi source (i.e. hangar wifi), then the Wireless Transceiver will not
connect automatically.
Updating Databases from any MFD page (except the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page):
1) Insert the Wireless Transceiver SD Card in the bottom slot of the MFD if not already inserted.
2) Turn the system ON.
3) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
4) On the mobile device, start Garmin Pilot and touch Home > Connext > Database Concierge.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Connext Setup.
7) Ensure that Wifi Database Import is enabled in the ‘Device’ Window (refer to Additional Features section for
instructions to enable Wifi Database Import).
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APPENDIX B
WiFi Enabled
Wireless
Status
WiFi Status
WiFi Password
Figure B-3 ‘Connext Setup’ Page
8) Verify that the mobile device is enabled via Wireless in the Bluetooth settings on the mobile device.
9) In the ‘Paired Devices’ Window on the ‘Connext Setup’ Page, ensure the system is paired with the mobile device
in use. (refer to Additional Features for instructions on connection to a preferred device).
NOTE: The database updates may now be continued from any MFD page, however, the update windows
shown in these instructions will not be shown on the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page. Use the proceeding instructions
in this section to update databases from the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page.
10) Press the Update Softkey when the following window appears. (Pressing the View Softkey will allow database
updates to be viewed from the ‘Aux Databases’ Page, however, the windows shown below will not appear on
the ‘Aux Databases’ Page. Pressing the Ignore Softkey will postpone the updates until further action is taken.)
Figure B-4 Database Update Available
11) If using a device that has not been previously paired with the system, a password prompt will appear on the
mobile device. Enter the password shown in the ‘Password’ Field of the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page.
12) The following window will appear. Database update progress may be monitored on the mobile device.
Figure B-5 Starting Database Transfer
13) When the transfer is complete, the following screen will appear.
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APPENDIX B
Figure B-6 Database Transfer Complete
14) Press the Close Softkey.
15) Remove and reapply power to the system.
16) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
17) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
18) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
19) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
Figure B-7 ‘Aux Databases’ Page with Updated Databases
20) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will
become active.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Swap Stby/Actv’ using the small FMS Knob. Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will become active.
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APPENDIX B
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
f) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
g) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
h) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
21) For additional information on each database, press and then turn the FMS Knob to select the database, and
then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Details’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
22) To view database information for an individual display:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob and select System Status.
c) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB) to show database information for each
display. Use the small FMS Knob to scroll through the database information. Press the ENT Key or the
FMS Knob to exit.
Updating Databases from the ‘Aux - Databases’ Page:
NOTE: The system will only provide a WiFi connection if new databases have been detected for download
on Garmin Pilot via a valid Wireless connection. If there are no database updates required the system will
not provide a WiFi signal.
NOTE: If the mobile device has previously connected to the Wireless Transceiver, and is not connected to
another WiFi source, the mobile device should connect automatically to the Wireless Transceiver. If the
mobile device is connected to another WiFi source (i.e. hangar wifi), then the Wireless Transceiver will not
connect automatically.
1) Insert the Wireless Transceiver SD Card in the bottom slot of the MFD if not already inserted.
2) Turn the system ON.
3) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
4) On the mobile device, start Garmin Pilot and tap Home > Connext > Database Concierge.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Connext Setup.
7) Ensure that Wifi Database Import is enabled in the ‘Device’ Window (refer to Additional Features section for
instructions to enable Wifi Database Import).
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APPENDIX B
WiFi Enabled
Wireless
Status
WiFi Status
WiFi Password
Figure B-8 ‘Connext Setup’ Page
8) Verify that the mobile device is enabled via Wireless in the Bluetooth settings on the mobile device.
9) In the ‘Paired Devices’ Window on the ‘Connext Setup’ Page, ensure the system is paired with the mobile device
in use. (refer to Additional Features for instructions on connection to a preferred device).
10) Press the Device Softkey to view databases that are ready to be loaded from the mobile device (pressing the
Stby/Actv Softkey will again display the current Standby and Active databases).
11) The ‘Aux - Databases’ Page will show the databases connected to the mobile device in place of the active
databases on the system. Databases selected to load to the system will be indicated by a single cyan arrow.
12) Press the Update Softkey.
13) If using a device that has not been previously paired with the system, a password prompt will appear on the
mobile device. Enter the password shown in the ‘Password’ Field of the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page.
14) Database Update status will appear in the ‘Status’ Window at the top of the page. Monitor update progress in
the ‘Status’ Window, or on the mobile device.
Figure B-9 Device Database Transfer
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APPENDIX B
15) When all databases have been successfully transferred from the mobile device and appear in the Standby
column, remove and reapply power to the system.
16) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
17) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
18) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
19) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
Figure B-10 ‘Aux - Databases’ Page with Updated Databases
20) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
c) Verify the correct database cycle information is shown for each database for each display.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Swap Stby/Actv’ using the small FMS Knob. Press the ENT Key. A cyan doublesided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will become active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Press the ENT Key or the right-most softkey on MFD display to acknowledge the startup screen.
f) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
g) Turn the small FMS Knob and select Databases.
h) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the Active column.
21) For additional information on each database, press and then turn the FMS Knob to select the database, and
then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or the FMS Knob to exit.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and select ‘Details’ using the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
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APPENDIX B
22) To view database information for an individual display:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob and select Aux.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob and select System Status.
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the standby database will
become active.
d) Press the Display Database Selection Softkey (MFD1 DB, PFD1 DB) to show database information for each
display. Use the small FMS Knob to scroll through the database information. Press the ENT Key or the FMS
Knob to exit.
MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION DATABASE UPDATE
A copy of the current magnetic field variation database (MV DB) is included with the navigation database.
At startup, the system compares this version of the MV DB with that presently being used by each AHRS
(GRS1). If the system determines the MV DB needs to be updated, a prompt is displayed on the MFD, as
shown in Figure B-11.
Figure B-11 GRS1 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
Loading the magnetic field variation database update:
1) With ‘OK’ highlighted, as seen in Figure B-11, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed
as shown in Figure B-12.
Figure B-12 Uploading Database to GRS1
2) When the upload is complete, the prompt for the next GRS upload is displayed, as seen in Figure B-13.
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APPENDIX B
Figure B-13 GRS2 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A progress monitor is displayed as shown in Figure B-14.
When the upload is complete, the system is ready for use.
Figure B-14 Uploading Database to GRS2
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APPENDIX C
AVIATION TERMS AND ACRONYMS
A
AC
ACARS
ACC
ACK
ACT, ACTV
ADAHRS
ADC
ADF
ADI
ADIZ
ADM
ADS-B
ADS-R
AEA
AF
AFCS
AFM
AFMS
AFN
AFRM
AFTN
AGL
AHRS
AIM
AIRB
AIRMET
AIRREP
ALRT
ALT
ALT, ALTN
ALTS
ALTV
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Amps
Advisory Circular, Alternating Current
Airborne Communications Addressing and
Reporting System
Accuracy
Acknowledge
Active, Activate, Altitude Compensated Tilt
Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference
System
Air Data Computer
Automatic Direction Finder
Attitude Direction Indicator
Air Defense Identification Zone
Administrative Domain
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast
Automatic Dependent SurveillanceRebroadcast
Aircraft Electronic Association
Arc to Fix Leg
Automatic Flight Control System
Airplane Flight Manual
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
ATS Facilities Notification
Airframe
Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication
Network
Above Ground Level
Attitude and Heading Reference System
Aeronautical Information Manual
Airborne
Airman’s Meteorological Information
Air Reports
Alert
Altitude
Alternator, Alternate
Altitude Select, Selected Altitude Capture
Mode
VNAV Altitude Capture Mode
AM
AMPS
ANNUNC/ANN
ANT
AOA
AOC
AOG
AOPA
AP
AP DISC
APPR, APR
APT
APTSIGNS
APU
APV
ARINC
ARSPC
ARTCC
ARV
AS
ASB
ASOS
AT
ATC
ATCRBS
ATIS
ATK
ATN
ATS
ATT
AUD
AUTO
AUTOSEQ
AUX
AVAIL
AVG
AVLC
Amplitude Modulation
Amperes
Annunciation/Annunciator
Antenna
Angle of Attack, ACARS Over AVLC
Aeronautical Operational Control
Aircraft On Ground
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
Autopilot
Autopilot Disconnect
Approach
Airport, Aerodrome, Automatic Pitch Trim
Airport Signs
Auxiliary Power Unit
Approaches with Vertical Guidance
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
Airspace
Air Route Traffic Control Center
Arrival
Airspeed
Aviation Support Branch
Automated Surface Observing System
Auto Throttle
Air Traffic Control
ATC Radar Beacon System
Automatic Terminal Information Service
Along Track
Aeronautical Telecommunications
Network
Air Traffic Services
Attitude
Audio
Automatic
Automatic Sequence
Auxiliary
Available
Average
Aviation VHF Link Control
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APPENDIX C
AWOS
B
B ALT
B/C, BC
BARO
BATT
Bearing
BFO
BKLT
BKSP
Bluetooth
BOC
BOD
BRG
BTM
°C
C
CA
CAL
CALC
Calibrated
Airspeed
CAS
CCG
CD
CDA
CDI
CDU
CF
CFG
CFIT
CG
CH, CHNL
CHKLIST
CHT
CI
CIP
496
Automated Weather Observing System
Both Runways
Barometric Altitude
Back Course
Barometer, Barometric
Battery
The compass direction from the present
position to a destination waypoint.
Beat Frequency Oscillator
Backlight
Backspace
Wireless standard for data exchange over
short distances
Bottom of Climb
Bottom of Descent
see also Bearing
Bottom
Degrees Celsius
Center Runway
Course to Altitude Leg
Calibrated
Calculator
Indicated airspeed corrected for
installation and instrument errors.
Crew Alerting System
Current Climb Gradient
Course to DME Distance Leg
Current Data Authority
Course Deviation Indicator
Control Display Unit
Course to Fix Leg
Configuration
Controlled Flight into Terrain
Center of Gravity
Channel
Checklist
Cylinder Head Temperature
Course to Intercept Leg
Current Icing Potential
CL
CLB
CLD
CLR
CLTR
CM
CMC
CN
CNS
CO
COM
COMP
CONFIG
CONUS
COOL
COPLT
Course
Course to
Steer
CPDLC
CPL
CR
CRG
CRNT
Crosstrack
Error
CRS
CRSR
CRU, CRZ
CSA
CSC
CTA
CTR
CTRL
Cumulative,
CUM
Class
Climb
Cloud
Clear
Clutter
Centimeter
Central Maintenance Computer
Canada
Communication, Navigation, &
Surveillance
Carbon Monoxide
Communication Radio
Compensated, Compensation
Configuration
Continental United States
Coolant
Copilot
The line between two points to be
followed by the aircraft.
The recommended direction to steer
in order to reduce course error or stay
on course. Provides the most efficient
heading to get back to the desired course
and proceed along the flight plan.
Controller Pilot Datalink Communications
Couple
Course to Radial Leg
Cockpit Reference Guide
Current
The distance the aircraft is off a desired
course in either direction, left or right.
see also Course, Course to Steer
Cursor
Cruise
Conflict Situational Awareness
Current Speed Control
Control Area
Center
Control
The total of all legs in a flight plan.
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APPENDIX C
CVDR
CVFP
CVR
CVRG
CWS
CYC CTR
CYL
D ALT
D-ATIS
DB, DBASE
dBZ
DCL
DCLTR, DECLTR
DEC FUEL
DEG
DEIC, DEICE
DEP
DESC
Desired Track
DEST, DES
DEV
DF
DFLT
DG
DGRD
DH
DIFF
Dilution of
Precision
DIR
DIS
Distance
DL LTNG
DLS
DME
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Cockpit Voice Data Recorder
Charted Visual Flight Procedure
Cockpit Voice Recorder
Coverage
Control Wheel Steering
Cyclic Centering
Cylinder
Density Altitude
Digital Automatic Terminal Info Service
Database
Decibels ‘Z’ (Radar Return)
Departure Clearance
Declutter
Decrease Fuel
Degree
De-icing
Departure
Descent
The desired course between the active
“from” and “to” waypoints.
Destination, Destination Airport Identifier
Deviation
Direct to Fix Leg
Default
Directional Gyro
Degrade
Decision Height
Differential
A measure of GPS satellite geometry
quality on a scale of one to ten (lower
numbers equal better geometry, where
higher numbers equal poorer geometry).
Direction
Distance
The ‘great circle’ distance from the
present position to a destination
waypoint.
Datalink Lightning
Data Link System
Distance Measuring Equipment
DN
DNALT
DOD
DOP
DP
DPRT
DQR
DR
DSBL
DSP
Down
Density Altitude
Department of Defense
see also Dilution of Precision
Departure Procedure
Departure
Data Quality Requirements
Dead Reckoning
Disabled
Display, Datalink Service Provider, Digital
Signal Processor
DTG
Distance To Go, Remaining distance to
last active FPL waypoint
DTK
see also Desired Track
DWNGRADE
Downgrade
E
Empty, East
EAS
Engine and Airframe Systems
EC
Error Correction
ECC
Error Correcting Code
ECR
Excessive Closure Rate
ECS
Environmental Control System
ECU
Engine Control Unit
EDM
Emergency Descent Mode
EDR
Excessive Descent Rate
EFC
Expected Further Clearance
Efficiency
A measure of fuel consumption,
expressed in distance per unit of fuel.
EGNOS
European Geostationary Navigation
Overlay Service
EGT
Exhaust Gas Temperature
EICAS
Engine Indication and Crew Alerting
System
EIS
Engine Indication System
ELEC
Electrical
ELEV
Elevation, Elevator
ELT
Emergency Locator Transmitter
EMER, EMERG, Emergency
EMERGCY
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
END, ENDUR
Endurance
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APPENDIX C
Endurance
Flight endurance, or total possible flight
time based on available fuel on board.
ENG
Engine
ENGD
Engaged
ENR
Enroute; ETE to Final Destination
Enroute Safe Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe
Altitude (ESA) altitude within ten miles left or right of
the desired course on an active flight plan
or direct-to.
ENT
Enter
EPE
see also Estimated Position Error
EPU
Estimated Position Uncertainty
ERR
Error
ES
Extended Squitter
ESA
see also Enroute Safe Altitude
ESP
Electronic Stability and Protection
Estimated
A measure of horizontal GPS position
Position Error error derived by satellite geometry
(EPE)
conditions and other factors.
Estimated
The estimated time it takes to reach
Time Enroute the destination waypoint from the
(ETE)
present position, based upon current
groundspeed.
Estimated
The estimated time at which the aircraft
Time of Arrival should reach the destination waypoint,
(ETA)
based upon current speed and track.
ETA
see also Estimated Time of Arrival
ETE
see also Estimated Time Enroute
EVS
Enhanced Vision System
EXPIRD
Expired
EXT
External
°F
Degrees Fahrenheit
FA
Course From Fix to Altitude Leg
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
FADEC
Full Authority Digital Engine Control
FAF
Final Approach Fix
FAIL
Failure
FANS
Future Air Navigation System
FAR
Federal Aviation Regulations
FBO
Fixed Base Operator
FC
Course From Fix to Distance Leg
FCC
Federal Communication Commission
FCST
Forecast
498
FD
Flight Director, Course From Fix to DME
Distance Leg
FDE
Fault Detection and Exclusion
FDR
Flight Data Recorder
FF, FFLOW
see also Fuel Flow
FIS-B
Flight Information Services-Broadcast
FISDL
Flight Information Service Data Link
FIT
Flight Into Terrain
FL
Flight Level
FLC
Flight Level Change
FLT
Flight, Flight Timer
FLTA
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
FM
Course From Fix to Manual Termination
Leg
FMS
Flight Management System
FOB
see also Fuel On Board
FOD
see also Fuel Over Destination
FPA
Flight Path Angle
FPL
Flight Plan
FPM
Feet Per Minute, Flight Path Marker
FREQ
Frequency
FRMT
Format
FRZ
Freezing
FSM
Flight System Messages
FSS
Flight Service Station
FT
Foot/Feet
Fuel Flow
The fuel flow rate, expressed in units of
fuel per hour.
Fuel On Board The total amount of usable fuel on board
the aircraft.
Fuel Over
The estimated fuel remaining when the
Destination
aircraft reaches the destination waypoint,
based upon current fuel flow.
FWD
Forward
G/S
Glideslope
GA
Go-Around
GAGAN
GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation
GAGL
GPS AGL Altitude
GAL, GL
Gallon(s)
GBAS
Ground Based Augmentation System
GBOX
Gearbox
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APPENDIX C
GBT
GCS
GCU
GDC
GDL
GDR
GDU
GEA
GEN
GEO
GFC
GHz
GIA
GLONASS
GLS
GMA
GMC
GMT
GMU
GND
GOLD
GP
GPH
GPN
GPS
GPWS
Grid MORA
(Minimum
Off-Route
Altitude)
Ground Track
Groundspeed
GRS
GS
GSA
GSD
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Ground Based Transceiver
Ground Clutter Suppression
Garmin Control Unit
Garmin Air Data Computer
Garmin Satellite Data Link
Garmin Data Radio
Garmin Display Unit
Garmin Engine/Airframe Unit
Generator
Geographic
Garmin Flight Control
Gigahertz
Garmin Integrated Avionics Unit
Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite
Landing System
Global Navigation Satellite Landing
System
Garmin Audio Panel System
Garmin Mode Controller
Greenwich Mean Time
Garmin Magnetometer Unit
Ground
Global Operational Data Link
Glidepath
Gallons per Hour
Garmin Part Number
Global Positioning System
Ground Proximity Warning System
One degree latitude by one degree
longitude in size and clears the highest
elevation reference point in the grid by:
a) 1,000 feet where the highest elevation
is <5001MSL or b) 2,000 feet where the
highest elevation is >5000MSL
See Track
The velocity that the aircraft is travelling
relative to a ground position.
Garmin Reference System
Ground Speed, Glideslope
Garmin Servo Adapter
Glideslope/Glidepath Deviation, Garmin
Data Concentrator
GSL
GSR
GSU
GTC
GTS
GTX
GW
GWX
HA
HDG
HDOP
Heading
HF
HFOM
Hg
HI
HI SENS
HM
HNS
Horizontal
Figure of
Merit
HOV
HOV-P
hPa
HPI
HPL
HR
HRZN HDG
HSDB
HSI
HT
HTR
HUL
HYD
Hz
I
IAF
Geodetic Sea Level
Garmin Satellite Radio
Garmin Sensor Unit
Garmin Touchscreen Controller
Garmin Traffic System
Garmin Transponder
Gross Weight
Garmin Weather Radar
Hold Terminating at Altitude Leg
see also Heading
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
The direction an aircraft is pointed,
based upon indications from a magnetic
compass or a properly set directional gyro.
High Frequency, Hold Terminating at Fix
Leg
see also Horizontal Figure of Merit
Mercury
High
High Sensitivity
Hold with Manual Termination Leg
Hybrid Navigation System
A measure of the uncertainty in the
aircraft’s horizontal position.
Hover
Hover Prediction
Hectopascal
Hover Power Indicator
Horizontal Protection Level
Hour
Horizon Heading
High-Speed Data Bus
Horizontal Situation Indicator
Heat
Heater
Horizontal Uncertainty Level
Hydraulic
Hertz (cycles per second)
Inner Marker
Initial Approach Fix
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APPENDIX C
IAP
IAS
IAT
IATA
IAU
IBD, INBD
ICAO
ICS
ID
IDENT, IDNT
IEEE
Instrument Approach Procedure
Indicated Air Speed
Indicated Air Temperature
International Air Transport Association
Integrated Avionics Unit
Inboard
International Civil Aviation Organization
Intercom System
Identification/Morse Code Identifier
Identification
Institute of Electrical & Electronics
Engineers
IF
Initial Fix
IFR
Instrument Flight Rules
IG
Imperial Gallon
IGE
In Ground Effect
ILI
Imminent Line Impact
ILS
Instrument Landing System
IMC
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
IN
Inch
IN Hg
Inches of Mercury
INACTV
Inactive
INC FUEL
Increase Fuel
IND
Indicator, Indicated
Indicated
Information provided by properly
calibrated and set instrumentation on the
aircraft panel.
INFO
Information
INH
Inhibit
INOP
Inoperative
INS
Inertial Navigation System
INT
Intersection(s)
INTEG
Integrity (RAIM unavailable)
INTERN, INTRL Internal
INV
Invalid
IOI
Imminent Obstacle Impact
IR
Infrared
IrDA, IRDA
Infrared Data Association
ISA
International Standard Atmosphere; ISA
Relative Temperature
500
ISO
ITI
ITT
International Standards Organization
Imminent Terrain Impact
Inter-Turbine Temperature, Interstage
Turbine Temperature
KEYSTK
Key Stuck
KG
Kilogram
kHz
Kilohertz
KM
Kilometer
KT
Knot
L
Left, Left Runway
LAT
Latitude, Lateral
LB
Pound
LBL
Label
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
LCL
Local
LDA
Landing Distance Available
LDG
ETA at Final Destination
LED
Light Emitting Diode
Left Over Fuel The amount of fuel remaining on board
On Board
after the completion of one or more legs
of a flight plan or direct-to.
Left Over Fuel The amount of flight time remaining,
Reserve
based on the amount of fuel on board
after the completion of one or more legs
of a flight plan or direct-to, and a known
consumption rate.
Leg
The portion of a flight plan between two
waypoints.
LGND
Legend
LIFR
Low Instrument Flight Rules
LI-ION
Lithium Ion
LIM
Limit
LMM
Location Middle Marker
LNAV
Lateral Navigation
LO
Low
LOA
Letter of Authorization
LOC
Localizer
LOI
Loss of Integrity (GPS)
LOM
Location Outer Marker
LON
Longitude, Longitudinal
LP
Localizer Performance
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APPENDIX C
LPV
Localizer Performance with Vertical
Guidance
LRU
Line Replaceable Unit
LSB V
Lower Sideband Voice
LT
Left
LTNG
Lightning
LVL
Level
M
Meter, Middle Marker, Mach
Mach Number Mach number is the ratio of the true
airspeed to the speed of sound.
MAG
Magnetic
MAG VAR
Magnetic Variation
MAHP
Missed Approach Hold Point
MAN
Manual
MAN IN
Manifold Pressure (inches Hg)
MAN SQ
Manual Squelch
MANSEQ
Manual Sequence
MAP
Missed Approach Point
MASQ
Master Avionics Squelch
MAX
Maximum
MAXSPD
Maximum Speed (overspeed)
MB
Marker Beacon
MCP
Maximum Continuous Power
MDA
Barometric Minimum Descent Altitude
MEM
Memory
MEPT
Manual Electric Pitch Trim
MET
Manual Electric Trim
METAR
Aviation Routine Weather Report
METRO
Metropolitan
MFD
Multi Function Display
MGRS
Military Grid Reference System
MGT
Measured Gas Temperature
MHz
Megahertz
MIC
Microphone
MID
Middle
MIN
Minimum
Minimum Safe Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe
Altitude (MSA) altitude within ten miles of the aircraft
present position.
MKR
Marker Beacon
190-02522-00 Rev. A
MMO (VMO)
MOA
MON
MORA
MOV
MPEL
MPM
MSA
MSAS
MSG
MSL
MT, M
MTN
mV
MVFR
N
NATS
NAV
NAVAID
NCR
NDA
NDB
NEXRAD
NG
NM
NoPT
NOTAM
NP
NR
NRST
NWS
O
OAT
OBD, OUTBD
OBS
OBSCR
OCL
Maximum Speed
Military Operations Area
Monitor
Minimum Off-Route Altitude
Movement
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level
Meters per Minute
see also Minimum Safe Altitude
Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation
System
Message
Mean Sea Level
Meter
Mountain
Millivolt(s)
Marginal Visual Flight Rules
North
North Atlantic Tracks System
Navigation
Navigation Aid
Negative Climb Rate
Next Data Authority
Non-Directional Beacon
Next Generation Radar
Gas Producer Rotation Speed
Nautical Mile(s)
No Procedure Turn Required (procedure
shall not be executed without ATC
clearance)
Notice To Airman
Power Turbine Speed
Rotor Speed
Nearest
National Weather Service
Outer Marker
Outside Air Temperature
Outboard
Omni Bearing Selector
Obscuratiion
Oceanic Clearance
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
501
APPENDIX C
OEM
OFST
OGE
OOOI
OVR
OXY
P ALT
P. POS
PA
PASS
PC
PDA
PDC
PED
PERF
PFD
PG
PI
PIREP
PIT, PTCH
POA
POF
POH
POHS
POS, POSN
PPH
PPM
PRES, PRESS
PREV
PRN
PROC
PROP
PROX
PSI
PT
PTK
PTT
PWR
502
Original Equipment Manufacturer
Offset
Out of Ground Effect
Out of the gate, Off the ground, On the
ground, and In the gate
Override
Oxygen
Pressure Altitude
Present Position
Passenger Address, Proximity Advisory
Passenger(s)
Personal Computer
Premature Descent Alerting
Pre-Departure Clearance
Personal Electronic Device
Performance
Primary Flight Display
Pilot’s Guide
Procedure Turn to Course Intercept Leg
Pilot Report
Pitch
Plain Old ACARS
Phase of Flight
Pilot’s Operating Handbook
Pilot’s Operating Handbook Supplement
Position
Pounds per Hour
Parts per Million
Pressure
Previous
Pseudo Random Noise
Procedure(s), Procedure Turn
Propeller
Proximity
Pounds per Square Inch, Power Situation
Indicator
Procedure Turn
Parallel Track
Push-to-Talk
Power
Q
QFE
QNH
QTY
R
RA
RAD
RAD ALT
RAIM
RAM
RAT
RCVR
RDR
RECIRC
REF
REM
REQ
RES
REV
RF
RFM
RLC
RMI
RMT
RNAV
RNG
RNP
RNWY, RWY
ROC
ROL
ROM
RPM
RQRD
RST FUEL
RSV
RT
RTC
RTR
Engine Torque
Field Elevation Pressure
Sea Level Pressure
Quantity
Right, Right Runway
Resolution Advisory, Radio Altimeter
Radial
Radio Altimeter
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
Random Access Memory
Ram Air Temperature
Receiver
Radar
Recirculate/Recirculating
Reference
Remaining (fuel remaining), Reminder,
Removed
Required
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
Reverse, Revision, Revise
Radio Frequency, Constant Radius Turn to
Fix Leg
Rotorcraft Flight Manual
Required Line Clearance
Radio Magnetic Indicator
Remote
Area Navigation
Range
Required Navigation Performance
Runway
Required Obstacle Clearance
Roll
Read Only Memory
Revolutions Per Minute
Required
Reset Fuel
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
Right
Required Terrain Clearance
Router
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
RUDICS
RVRSNRY
RVSI
RVSM
RX
S
SA
SAIB
SAR
SAT
SATCOM
SBAS
SCIT
SD
SEC
SEL, SLCT
SELCAL
SENS
SFC
SIAP
SID
SIG/AIR
SIGM
SIGMET
SIM
SITA
SLD
SLP/SKD
SMBL
SMS
SNGL
SPC
SPD
SPI
SPKR
SQ, SQL
SRVC, SVC
SSEC
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Router-Based Unrestricted Digital
Interworking Connectivity Solution
Reversionary
Required Vertical Speed Indicator
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums
Receive
South
Selective Availability
Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin
Search and Rescue
Static Air Temperature
Satellite Communication
Satellite-Based Augmentation System
Storm Cell Identification and Tracking
Secure Digital
Second(s)
Select
Selective Calling
Sense
Surface
Standard Instrument Approach Procedures
Standard Instrument Departure
SIGMET/AIRMET
SIGMET
Significant Meteorological Information
Simulator
Societe Internationale de
Telecommunications
Supercooled Large Droplet
Slip/Skid
Symbol
Short Message System
Single
Space
Speed
Special Position Identification
Speaker
Squelch
Service
Static Source Error Correction
SSID
STAB
STAL
STAR
STATS
STBY
STC
STD
STR
STRMSCP
SUA
SUPPRESS
SURF
SUSP
SVT
SW
SYN TERR
SYN VIS
SYNC
SYNTH
SYS
T
T HDG
T/R
TA
TACAN
TAF
TAS
TAT
TAWS
TCA
TCAS
TEL
TEMP
TERM
TF
TFR
TGT
THR
Wireless Service Set Identifier
Stabilization
Stall
Standard Terminal Arrival Route
Statistics
Standby
Sensitivity Time Constant, Supplemental
Type Certificate
Standard
Strip
Stormscope
Special Use Airspace
Suppression
Surface
Suspend
Synthetic Vision Technology
Software
Synthetic Terrain
Synthetic Vision
Synchronize
Synthesizer
System
True
True Heading
Thrust Reverser
Traffic Advisory
Tactical Air Navigation System
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
True Airspeed, Traffic Advisory System
Total Air Temperature
Terrain Awareness and Warning System
Terminal Control Area
Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System
Telephone
Temperature
Terminal
Track Between Two Fixes Leg
Temporary Flight Restriction
Target
Thrust
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
503
APPENDIX C
TIS
TIS-B
TIT
TKE
TLA
TMA
TMR/REF
TO
TOC
TOD
TOGA, TO/GA
TOLD
TOPO
TORA
TOT
TPA
Track
Track Angle
Error
TRFC
TRK
TRN
TRSA
TRUNC
TSO
TTL
TURB
TURN
TWIP
TX
UA
UAT
UHF
UNAVAIL
US
USB V
USR
UTC
504
Traffic Information Service
Traffic Information Service-Broadcast
Turbine Inlet Temperature
see also Track Angle Error
Throttle Lever Angle, Thrust Lever Angle
Terminal Maneuvering Area
Timer/Reference
Takeoff
Top of Climb
Top of Descent, Time to TOD
Take-Off, Go-Around
Takeoff and Landing Data
Topographic
Takeoff Run Available
Total
Traffic Pattern Altitude
Direction of aircraft movement relative to
a ground position; also ‘Ground Track’.
The angle difference between the desired
track and the current track.
Traffic
see also Track
Terrain
Terminal Radar Service Area
Truncated
Technical Standard Order
Total
Turbulence
Procedure Turn
Terminal Weather Information for Pilots
Transmit
Routine PIREP
Universal Access Transceiver
Ultra-High Frequency
Unavailable
United States
Upper Sideband Voice
User
Coordinated Universal Time
UTM/UPS
Universal Transverse Mercator/ Universal
Polar Stereographic Grid
UUA
Urgent PIREP
V
Volts, Vertical
V DEV
Vertical Deviation
V, Vspeed
Velocity (airspeed)
V1
Takeoff Decision Speed
V2
Takeoff Safety Speed
VA
Maneuvering Speed
VA
Heading Vector to Altitude Leg
VAC
Volts Alternating Current
VAPP
VOR Approach Mode
VAPP , VAC
Approach Climb Speed
VAR
Variation
VCO
Voice Call Out
VD
Heading Vector to DME Distance Leg
VDC
Volts Direct Current
VDI
Vertical Deviation Indicator
VDL
VHF Datalink
VECT
Vector
VERT
Vertical
Vertical Figure A measure of the uncertainty in the
of Merit
aircraft’s vertical position.
Vertical Speed The vertical speed necessary to descend/
Required
climb from a current position and altitude
to a defined target position and altitude,
based upon current groundspeed.
VFE
Maximum Flap Extended Speed
VFOM
see also Vertical Figure of Merit
VFR
Visual Flight Rules
VHF
Very High Frequency
VI
Heading Vector to Intercept Leg
VLE
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed
VLNDx
Approach Speed (Flaps at x°)
VLO
Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed
VLOC
VOR/Localizer Receiver
VM
Heading Vector to Manual Termination
Leg
VMC
Minimum Control Speed
VMC
Visual Meteorological Conditions
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
VMO (MMO)
VNAV, VNV
VNE
VOL
VOR
VORTAC
VPATH, VPTH
VPL
VPROF
VR
VR
VREF
VRP
VS
VSB
VSD
VSI
VSR
VSR, VS REQ
VT
VTF
VTIRE
VX
VY
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Maximum Operating Speed
Vertical Navigation
Never-Exceed Speed
Volume
VHF Omnidirectional Range
VHF Omnidirectional Range Station and
Tactical Air Navigation
Vertical Path
Vertical Protection Level
VNAV Profile, Vertical Profile
Takeoff Rotate Speed
Heading Vector to Radial Leg
Landing Approach Speed, Reference
Landing Speed
Visual Reporting Point
Vertical Speed
Maximum Speedbrake Speed
Vertical Situation Display
Vertical Speed Indicator
Stall Speed
see also Vertical Speed Required
Takeoff Flap Retraction Speed
Vector to Final
Maximum Tire Speed
Best Angle of Climb Speed
Best Rate of Climb Speed
VYSE
W
WAAS
WARN
WATCH
WGS-84
WI-FI, WIFI
WILCO
WOG
WOW
WPT
WT
WW
WX
XFER, XFR
XFLOW
XM LTNG
XMIT
XMSN
XPDR
XTALK
XTK
YD
Z
Best Single-Engine Rate of Climb Speed
Watt(s), West
Wide Area Augmentation System
Warning
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight
World Geodetic System - 1984
Wireless Local Area Network based on
IEEE 802.11
Will Comply
Weight on Gear
Weight on Wheels
Waypoint(s)
Weight
World Wide
Weather
Transfer
Crossflow
SiriusXM Lightning
Transmit
Transmission
Transponder
Cross-Talk
Cross-Track, Crosstrack Error
Yaw Damper
Reflectivity Factor
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
505
APPENDIX C
Blank Page
506
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX D
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
If a particular aspect of system operational capability is not addressed by these commonly asked questions or in
the index, contact Garmin (see the copyright page or back cover for contact information) or a Garmin-authorized
dealer. Garmin is dedicated to supporting its products and customers.
What is SBAS?
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) uses a system of ground stations to correct any GPS signal
errors. These ground stations correct for errors caused by ionospheric disturbances, timing, and satellite
orbit errors. It also provides vital integrity information regarding the health of each GPS satellite. The signal
correction is then broadcast through geostationary satellites. This correction information can then be received
by any SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.
SBAS is designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary to enable users to rely
on GPS for all phases of flight.
There are several SBAS systems serving different parts of the world. The Wide Area Augmentation System
(WAAS) is currently available in the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The European Geostationary
Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) offers coverage of Europe, parts of the middle east and northern Africa. The
Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) covers mainly Japan. The GPS aided GEO augmented
navigation (GAGAN) offers covers mainly India.
How does SBAS affect approach operations?
Both LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches use the accuracy of SBAS to include vertical (glide path) guidance
capability. The additional accuracy and vertical guidance capability allows improved instrument approaches to
an expanded number of airports throughout the U.S.
The implementation of LPV approaches further improves precision approach capabilities. LPV approaches
are designed to make full use of the improved GPS signal from the SBAS. This approach combines the LNAV/
VNAV vertical accuracy with lateral guidance similar to the typical Instrument Landing System (ILS). LPV
approaches allow lower approach minimums.
What is RAIM and how does it affect approach operations?
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring. RAIM is a GPS receiver function that
performs the following functions:
• Monitors and verifies integrity and geometry of tracked GPS satellites
• Notifies the pilot when satellite conditions do not provide the necessary coverage to support a certain phase
of flight
• Predicts satellite coverage of a destination area to determine whether the number of available satellites is
sufficient to satisfy requirements
NOTE: If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become
active, as indicated by the “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP” message and the LOI annunciation
flagging on the HSI.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
507
APPENDIX D
For RAIM to work correctly, the GPS receiver must track at least five satellites. A minimum of six satellites is
required to allow RAIM to eliminate a single corrupt satellite from the navigation solution.
RAIM ensures that satellite geometry allows for a navigation solution calculation within a specified protection
limit (2.0 nm for oceanic and en route, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). The
system monitors RAIM and issues an alert message when RAIM is not available (see Appendix A). Without
RAIM, GPS position accuracy cannot be monitored. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the pilot
must fly the missed approach procedure.
What is GSL altitude?
GSL (Geodetic Sea Level) altitude is the height above Mean Sea Level (MSL), as calculated geometrically,
generally using a global positioning system (GPS) as the primary data source. The calculated result may or may
not include a barometric component, but the primary source is geometric.
Why are there not any approaches available for a flight plan?
Approaches are available for the final destination airport in a flight plan or as a direct-to (keep in mind
that some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If a destination airport does not have a
published approach, the system indicates “NONE” for the available procedures.
What happens when an approach is selected? Can a flight plan with an approach, a departure, or an
arrival be stored?
When an approach, departure, or arrival is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach, departure,
or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan, along with a header line showing the title of the selected
instrument procedure. The original en route portion of the flight plan remains active, unless the instrument
procedure is activated. This may be done either when the procedure is loaded or at a later time.
Flight plans can also be stored with an approach, a departure, or an arrival. Note that the active flight plan
is erased when the system is turned off. Also, the active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is
activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, a departure, or an arrival, the system uses the waypoint
information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the
system automatically updates the information, provided the procedure has not been modified. Should an
approach, departure, or arrival procedure no longer be available, the flight plan becomes locked until the
procedure is deleted from the flight plan.
Can “slant Golf” (“/G”) be filed using the G1000 NXi System?
“/G” may be filed for a flight plan. The system meets the requirements of TSO-C145a Class 3 and ETSO C145
Class 3 installations. GPS approaches are not to be flown with an expired database. See the current version of
the pertinent flight manual as well as the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) for more information.
What does the OBS Softkey do?
The OBS Softkey is used to select manual sequencing of waypoints. Activating OBS mode sets the current
active-to waypoint as the primary navigation reference and prevents the system from sequencing to the next
waypoint in a flight plan. When OBS mode is cancelled, automatic waypoint sequencing is continued, and
the system automatically activates the next waypoint in the flight plan once the aircraft has crossed the present
active waypoint.
508
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX D
•
•
•
•
Normal (OBS not activated)
Automatic sequencing of waypoints
Manual course change on HSI not possible
Always navigates ‘TO’ the active waypoint
Must be in this mode for final approach course
•
•
•
•
OBS
Manual sequencing - ‘holds’ on selected waypoint
Manually select course to waypoint from HSI
Indicates ‘TO’ or ‘FROM’ waypoint
Cannot be set for final approach course or published holding patterns
When OBS mode is active, the system allows the pilot to set a desired course to/from a waypoint using the
CRS/BARO Knob and HSI (much like a VOR).
The most common application for using the OBS Softkey is the missed approach. The system suspends
automatic waypoint sequencing (indicated by a ‘SUSP’ annunciation placed on the HSI) when the missed
approach point (MAP) is crossed. This prevents the system from automatically sequencing to the missed
approach holding point (MAHP). During this time, the OBS Softkey designation changes to SUSP. Pressing
the SUSP Softkey reactivates automatic waypoint sequencing. The OBS Softkey then resumes its normal
functionality.
Why might the system not automatically sequence to the next waypoint?
The system only sequences flight plan waypoints when automatic sequencing is enabled (i.e., no ‘OBS’ or
‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI). For automatic sequencing to occur, the aircraft must also cross the bisector of
the turn being navigated. The bisector is a line passing through the waypoint common to two flight plan legs
at an equal angle from each leg.
How can a waypoint be skipped in an approach, a departure, or an arrival?
The system allows the pilot to manually select any approach, departure, or arrival leg as the active leg of
the flight plan. This procedure is performed on the MFD from the Active Flight Plan Page by highlighting the
desired waypoint and pressing the ACT Leg Softkey then the ENT Key to approve the selection. The GPS then
provides navigation along the selected flight plan leg.
When does turn anticipation begin?
The system smooths adjacent leg transitions based on a normal 15° bank angle (with the ability to roll up to
30°) and provides three pilot cues for turn anticipation:
• A waypoint alert (‘Next DTK ###° in # seconds’ or ‘Next HDG ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10
seconds before the turn point and flashes as it counts down to zero.
• A flashing turn advisory (‘Turn [right/left] to ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10 seconds before the
turn and flashes as it counts down to zero. ‘Turn [right/left] to ###° now’ or ‘Next [DTK/HDG] to ###° now’
is displayed when the pilot is to begin the turn and the HSI (GPS mode) automatically sequences to the next
DTK or HDG value.
• The To/From indicator on the HSI flips momentarily to indicate that the midpoint of the turn has been
crossed.
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
509
APPENDIX D
When does the CDI scale change?
Once a departure is activated, the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) full scale deflection is set to 0.3 nm. The
CDI scale changes to 1.0 nm (terminal mode) then ramps up to 2.0 nm (enroute mode) at 30 nm from the
departure airport. When 31 nm from the destination, the CDI scale smoothly transition from 2.0 nm back
to 1.0 nm (terminal mode). At 2.0 nm before the FAF during an active approach, the CDI scale transitions
down further based on the type of approach activated (LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, LPV). When a missed approach is
activated, the CDI is set to 0.3 nm. See the Flight Instruments Section for more details on CDI scaling.
Why does the HSI not respond like a VOR when OBS mode is active?
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS equipment is based on the crosstrack distance to the desired
course, not on the angular relationship to the destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on the GPS is constant
regardless of the distance to the destination and does not become less sensitive when further away from the
destination.
What is the correct missed approach procedure? How is the missed approach holding point selected?
To comply with TSO specifications, the system does not automatically sequence past the MAP. The first
waypoint in the missed approach procedure becomes the active waypoint when the SUSP Softkey is selected
after crossing the MAP. All published missed approach procedures must be followed, as indicated on the
approach plate.
To execute the missed approach procedure prior to the MAP (not recommended), select the Active Flight Plan
Page and use the ACT Leg Softkey to activate the missed approach portion of the procedure.
After a missed approach, how can the same approach be re-selected? How can a new approach be
activated?
NOTE: Do not attempt to reactivate the current approach prior to crossing the missed approach point
(MAP). If an attempt to do so is made, an alert message “Are you sure you want to discontinue the current
approach?” appears. The system directs the pilot back to the transition waypoint and does not take into
consideration any missed approach procedures, if the current approach is reactivated.
After flying the missed approach procedure, the pilot may reactivate the same approach for another attempt by
pressing the PROC Key. Once the clearance is given for another attempt, activate the approach by highlighting
‘Activate Approach’ using the large FMS Knob and pressing the ENT Key. The system provides navigation along
the desired course to the waypoint and rejoins the approach in sequence from that point.
To activate a new approach for the same airport, select the new procedure by pressing the PROC Key. Choose
‘Select Approach’, select the desired approach from the list shown, and press the ENT Key. Select the desired
transition, then activate the approach using the ENT Key.
To activate a new approach to a different airport, press the Direct-to Key and select the desired airport using
the FMS Knobs. Press the ENT Key to accept the selected airport, then follow the steps in the preceding
paragraph to select an approach for the new airport.
510
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX E
MISCELLANEOUS MAP SYMBOLS
Item
Symbol
ARTCC Frequency or FSS Frequency
Map Pointer (when panning)
Measuring Pointer
User Waypoint
Vertical Navigation Along Track Waypoint
Parallel Track Waypoint
Unanchored Flight Path Waypoint
Displayed when aircraft GPS location is
valid, but heading is invalid.
Top of Descent (TOD)
Bottom of Descent (BOD)
Navigating using Dead Reckoning
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
511
APPENDIX E
Blank Page
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190-02522-00 Rev. A
INDEX
A
Active Frequency------------------------------- 106, 111, 112
ADF
Active frequency------------------------------------------116
ADF/BFO---------------------------------------------------117
ADF/DME Tuning-----------------------------------------116
ADF Mode------------------------------------------ 116, 117
ANT/BFO--------------------------------------------------117
ANT Mode-------------------------------------------------117
Toggling Frequencies------------------------------------117
Volume---------------------------------------------- 116, 118
Volume level--------------------------------------- 116, 118
ADF Audio-------------------------------------------- 103, 112
ADF/DME tuning--------------------------------------------119
ADS-R---------------------------------------------------------371
AFCS Status Box--------------------------------------------389
AHRS---------------------------------------469, 470, 473, 475
AHRS2--------------------------------------------------------470
Aileron Trim--------------------------------------------------- 96
AIRB----------------------------------------------------------374
Airborne Color Weather Radar----------------------------310
Aircraft Symbol----------------------------------------------391
Airport
Auto-designation-----------------------------------------191
Information---------------------------------------- 160, 166
Nearest----------------------------------------------------163
Airport Directory--------------------------------------------162
Airspace------------------------------------------------------175
Alerts-------------------------------------------------------176
Altitude Buffer--------------------------------------------176
Nearest----------------------------------------------------177
Smart Airspace--------------------------------------------178
Symbols----------------------------------------------------151
Airspace Altitude Label------------------------------------176
Airspeed Indicator-------------------------------------- 44–45
Airspeed Trend Vector------------------------------------ 44
Airspeed Reference----------------------- 45, 386, 397–398
Airways-------------------------------------------------------154
Collapsing/Expanding-----------------------------------201
Displaying on the Map----------------------------------155
In a Flight Plan-------------------------------------------198
Alerting System---------------------------------------------463
Alert Levels--------------------------------------------------465
Alerts
Audio------------------------------------------------------- 34
Along Track Offset----------------------------------- 202, 203
Altimeter---------------------------------------------42, 48–49
Altitude Selection (Bug)---------------------------------- 49
Altitude Trend Vector------------------------------------- 49
Barometric Setting---------------------------------------- 49
STD Baro--------------------------------------------------- 49
Synchronization------------------------------------------- 50
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Altitude Constraint---------------------------------- 220–223
Enabling VNV Guidance---------------------------------219
Altitude Hold Mode----------------------------------------395
Altitude Reference----------------------------- 394, 395, 402
Ambient Noise Compensation----------------------------125
Annunciations
Altitude Alerting------------------------------------------- 85
BARO QFE Indications------------------------------------ 87
Baro Transition Alert-------------------------------------- 52
Comparator------------------------------------------------ 89
Dead Reckoning (DR)------------------------------------- 88
Low Altitude----------------------------------------------- 86
Marker Beacon-------------------------------------------- 85
Minimums Altitude---------------------------------------- 87
Reversionary Sensor-------------------------------------- 90
System------------------------------------------------ 12, 469
Test tone---------------------------------------------------- 13
Approaches
Activating------------------------------------------ 241, 244
Loading--------------------------------------- 241, 243, 244
Missed Approach-----------------------------------------246
Removing--------------------------------------------------245
Approach Mode, AFCS-------------------------------------412
Approach Service Levels-----------------------------------238
Arrivals
Loading----------------------------------------------------235
Removing--------------------------------------------------236
Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)
Operation--------------------------------------------------- 14
Attitude Indicator-----------------------------------42, 47–48
Audio
3D Audio--------------------------------------------------130
Audio Alerting System--------------------------------------464
Audio Alerts--------------------------------------------------468
Audio Panel Controls-------------------------------- 102–105
Speaker----------------------------------------------------125
Telephone/Entertainment-------------------------------131
Audio Panel Power-Up-------------------------------------125
Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)------------------------- 60
Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)--------- 385–401
Alerts and Annunciations------------------------ 419–420
Status Annunciations------------------------------------419
Status Box-------------------------------------------------389
Automatic Squelch-----------------------101, 106, 107, 133
Auto North Up--------------------------------------- 139, 141
Autopilot (AP)----------------------------------385, 416–418
Autopilot Disconnect-------------------------------- 387, 418
Auto-Tuning-------------------------------------------------114
COM-------------------------------------------------------107
NAV--------------------------------------------------------113
Auto Zoom-------------------------------------------- 141, 142
Aviation Symbols--------------------------------------------151
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
I-1
INDEX
B
Backcourse Mode-------------------------------------------414
Baro QFE------------------------------------------------ 51, 223
Baro Transition Alert----------------------------------------- 52
Baro VNAV-------------------------------------------- 238, 239
Basic Empty Weight----------------------------------------249
Basic Operating Weight------------------------------------249
Battery--------------------------------------------------------- 95
Bearing/distance, measuring------------------------------145
Bearing Information Window--------------------------43, 60
Bearing Pointer----------------------------------------------- 59
Blue-Select Mode-------------------------------------------131
Bluetooth---------------------------------------- 132, 454, 487
Pairing-----------------------------------------------------132
Bluetooth Transceiver---------------------------------------487
C
Cabin Pressure Altitude------------------------------------- 95
Cabin Pressure Rate of Change--------------------------- 95
Cargo---------------------------------------------------------250
CAS------------------------------------------------------ 95, 465
CDI------------------------------------------------------------479
Charted Visual Flight Procedure (CVFP)-----------------240
Chart Options---------------------------------------- 433, 439
CHART SETUP Box----------------------------------- 435, 439
ChartView--------------------------------------------- 423, 428
Circle of Uncertainty----------------------------------------441
Clearance Recorder-----------------------------------------128
Closest Point of FPL----------------------------------------204
COM Channel Spacing------------------------ 110, 130, 131
Command Bars----------------------------------------------391
COM Tuning Box--------------------------------------------106
COM Tuning Failure-----------------------------------------134
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA)--------------------373
Control Wheel Steering (CWS)--------------------- 387, 417
Correlation---------------------------------------------------372
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)--------------------- 61–63
Crosstrack Error (XTK)------------------------------------ 61
Navigation Source---------------------------------------- 61
Synchronization------------------------------------------- 62
Course Pointer------------------------------------------------ 56
Course Selection--------------------------------------------- 57
Crew Alerting System (CAS)
Messages------------------------------------------- 464–465
D
Data Logging------------------------------------------------460
Day/Night Views------------------------------------- 435, 440
DB Mismatch------------------------------------------------483
Dead Reckoning (DR)--------------------------------------256
Departures
Loading--------------------------------------------- 231, 232
Removing--------------------------------------------------233
I-2
Destination Elevation---------------------------------------- 96
Differential Cabin Pressure--------------------------------- 96
Direct Current Electrical------------------------------------- 95
Direct-to----------------------------------------------- 179–183
Vertical Navigation Direct-to---------------------------228
Display and Key Backlighting (Brightness)--------------- 39
Display Backup----------------------------------------------- 11
Display Backup Button-------------------------------------104
Display Units (Units of Measure)-------------------------- 32
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
DME Tuning-----------------------------------------------115
Information Window-------------------------------------- 59
DME
HOLD mode-----------------------------------------------119
NAV1 mode-----------------------------------------------119
NAV2 mode-----------------------------------------------119
Tuning mode--------------------------------------- 116, 119
E
Emergency Descent Mode (EDM)------------------------420
Emergency Frequency--------------------------------------134
Engine Indication System (EIS)------------------------ 94–98
Entering Flight ID-------------------------------------------124
Entertainment Inputs---------------------------------------128
Estimated Landing Fuel------------------------------------251
Excess Fuel Weight-----------------------------------------251
F
Failure
COM/NAV-------------------------------------------------134
Field of View-------------------------------------------------158
Flap Position-------------------------------------------------- 96
Flight Data Logging----------------------------------------423
Flight Director (FD)----------------------------385, 388–389
Modes, Lateral------------------------------------- 408–421
Modes, Vertical----------------------- 391–405, 392–406
Switching--------------------------------------------------390
Flight Director Format--------------------------------------- 48
Flight ID------------------------------------------------------124
Flight Level Change Mode---------------------------------397
Flight Path Angle (FPA)------------------------------------224
Flight Plan
Activating a Leg------------------------------------------202
Adding Airways-------------------------------------------198
Adding Waypoints----------------------------------------193
Changing Comment-------------------------------------218
Creating---------------------------------------------------192
Deleting--------------------------------------------- 215, 217
Flight Plan View------------------------------------------188
Importing/Exporting------------------------ 209, 213, 214
Inverting a Flight Plan---------------------------- 215, 217
Leg Type---------------------------------------------------184
Origin------------------------------------------------------191
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
INDEX
Origin Auto-designation--------------------------------191
Parallel Track----------------------------------------------204
Retention after Shut Down-----------------------------184
Split Screen----------------------------------------- 189, 190
Waypoint/Airway Modifications------------------------193
Flight Plan Catalog---------------------------------- 192, 215
Flight Plan Progress----------------------------------------188
Flight Stream 510--------------------------------- 2, 209, 452
FliteCharts-------------------------------------------- 423, 437
Functions--------------------------------------------------437
Fly-by Waypoint-------------------------------------- 196, 198
Fly-over Waypoint------------------------------------ 196, 198
Frequency Loading---------------- 108, 109, 113, 114, 115
Frequency Spacing------------------------------------------110
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)-----------------------507
Fuel
Flow--------------------------------------------------------- 95
on Board-------------------------------------------- 250, 251
Quantity---------------------------------------------------- 95
Temperature----------------------------------------------- 95
Fuel Statistics------------------------------------------------254
G
Garmin AFCS------------------------------------------------385
Garmin Pilot-------------------------------------------------452
GCU-----------------------------------------------------------472
Geodetic Sea Level (GSL)----------------------------------334
Glidepath Indicator------------------------------------------ 55
Glidepath Mode (GP)-------------------------------- 403, 412
Glideslope Indicator----------------------------------------- 54
Glideslope Mode (GS)--------------------------------------405
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Receiver----------------------------------------------------- 15
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM)
Prediction--------------------------------------------------- 17
Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS)-------- 19
Satellite Constellation Diagram------------------------- 17
Satellite Signal Strength---------------------------------- 19
Satellite Status--------------------------------------------- 17
Go Around Mode-------------------------------------------406
GPS CDI Scaling---------------------------------------------- 64
Groundspeed------------------------------------------------- 37
H
Heading
Indicator---------------------------------------------------- 56
Selection (Bug)-------------------------------------------- 57
Heading Select Mode--------------------------------------410
HI SENS-------------------------------------------------------115
Holding
User Defined--------------------------------------- 206–209
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)----------------------- 55
HSI Map-----------------------------------135, 136, 148, 153
Hurricane (See Cyclone)
190-02522-00 Rev. A
I
IDENT Function----------------------------------------------124
ID Indicator--------------------------------------------------111
Imminent Obstacle Impact (IOI)------------------- 343, 344
Importing and Exporting Flight Plans------------- 209–214
Insertion Point Indicator-----------------------------------187
Inset Map---------------------------------135, 136, 148, 153
Intercom System (ICS)------------------------------- 125, 126
Inverting a Flight Plan------------------------------- 215, 217
ITT-------------------------------------------------------------- 95
L
Land Symbols------------------------------------------------150
Lateral Deviation Scale-------------------------------------- 61
Lateral Modes, Flight Director---------------------- 408–421
Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)------------------------------- 1
LO SENS------------------------------------------------------115
M
Mach Number------------------------------------------------ 44
Map-----------------------------------------------------------139
Declutter---------------------------------------------------152
Orientation------------------------------------------------139
Panning----------------------------------------------------143
Pointer---------------------------------------------- 144, 145
Range------------------------------------------------------141
Map Symbols----------------------------------- 150, 151, 152
Marker Beacon----------------------------------------------115
Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ)-------------------------- 99
Menus--------------------------------------------------------- 25
Messages----------------------------------------------------463
Messages Window------------------------------------------- 84
METAR (See SiriusXM Weather; Garmin
Connext Weather)
MFD Data Bar-----------------------------------------------137
Minimum Altitude Alerting--------------------------------- 86
Minimums----------------------------------------------------468
Missed Approach------------------------------------ 246, 247
MKR/MUTE--------------------------------------------------115
Mode S-------------------------------------------------------120
Mode Selection Softkeys---------------------------- 120, 121
Mono Headset-----------------------------------------------125
Morse Code Identifier------------------------------- 111, 112
Motion Vectors----------------------------------------------378
Multifunction Display (MFD)
Controller----------------------------------------------------- 6
Page Groups----------------------------------------------- 26
N
N2-------------------------------------------------------------- 95
National Weather Service (NWS)-------------------------300
Navigation Database---------------------------------------481
Navigation Mode------------------------------------ 411–412
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
I-3
INDEX
Navigation Mode Selection
NAV Frequency-------------------------------------------112
Radio Source----------------------------------------------112
Navigation Status Box-------------------------------------137
NAV Tuning Boxes------------------------------------------111
Nearest
Airport----------------------------------------163–165, 166
Airport Minimum Runway Length---------------------166
Airport Surface Matching-------------------------------166
Intersection-----------------------------------------------170
NDB------------------------------------------------- 169, 170
User Waypoint------------------------------------- 169, 170
VOR------------------------------------------------- 169, 170
VRP-------------------------------------------------- 169, 170
Nearest Airports, Frequency Tuning----------------------107
NEXRAD------------------------------------------------------285
NextGen------------------------------------------------------370
Non-Path Descent------------------------------------------402
O
OBS Mode----------------------------------------------- 67–68
Obstacles-----------------------------------------------------472
Oil Pressure--------------------------------------------------- 95
Oil Temperature---------------------------------------------- 95
Omni Bearing Selector (OBS)----------------------- 508–509
Orientation-------------------------------------------- 139, 140
Overspeed Protection, Autopilot------------------- 391, 392
P
Pairing------------------------------------------------- 132, 452
Parallel Track------------------------------------------ 204, 205
Passenger(s)-------------------------------------------------250
Pending Flight Plan from a Mobile Device--------------212
PFD Map----------------------------------135, 136, 148, 153
HSI Map--------------------------------135, 136, 148, 153
Inset Map------------------------------------ 135, 148, 153
Pilot and Stores Weight------------------------------------249
Pitch Hold Mode--------------------------------------------393
Primary Flight Display (PFD)
Controls---------------------------------------------------4–5
Q
Quick Select Box--------------------------------------4, 7, 187
R
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM)---507
Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC)-------------- 343, 344
Reversionary Mode------------------------------------ 11, 134
Roll Hold Mode---------------------------------------------409
Rudder Trim--------------------------------------------------- 96
Runway Minimum Length---------------------------------166
Runway Surface---------------------------------------------166
RX Indicator-------------------------------------------------107
I-4
S
SafeTaxi------------------------------------------------ 423, 424
SBAS--------------------------------------------------- 475, 507
Scheduler------------------------------------------------- 37–38
Secure Digital (SD) Card-----------------------------------483
Secure Digital (SD) Cards------------------------------------- 8
Selected Altitude------------------ 393, 394, 396–398, 402
Selected Altitude Capture Mode------ 393–396, 399, 406
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc----------------------------157
Selected Course-------------------------------- 411, 413, 414
Selected Heading------------------------------------ 386, 410
Sequencing Waypoints
Automatic-------------------------------------------------509
Servos, AFCS-------------------------------------------------385
SIGMET-------------------------------------------------------290
Simultaneous COM Operation----------------------------127
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment----------------------------129
SiriusXM Radio Volume------------------------------------458
SiriusXM Weather
AIREPs-----------------------------------------------------304
AIRMETs---------------------------------------------------290
Cell Movement-------------------------------------------288
Cloud Tops------------------------------------------------286
County Warnings-----------------------------------------300
Cyclones & Hurricanes----------------------------------301
Echo Tops--------------------------------------------------285
Freezing Level---------------------------------------------296
Icing--------------------------------------------------------302
Lightning--------------------------------------------------287
PIREPs-----------------------------------------------------304
SIGMETs---------------------------------------------------290
Surface Analysis------------------------------------------294
Turbulence-------------------------------------------------303
Winds Aloft------------------------------------------------297
Slip/Skid Indicator----------------------------------------42, 47
Smart Airspace----------------------------------------------178
Softkeys
MFD--------------------------------------------------------- 23
PFD---------------------------------------------------------- 20
Speaker-------------------------------------------------------125
Split Screen--------------------------------------------------190
Flight Plan Views-----------------------------------------189
Split Screen Mode Operation------------------------------ 28
SQ Annunciation--------------------------------------------125
Standby Frequency-----------------------106, 107, 111, 112
ADF---------------------------------------------------------116
Standby Navigation Database----------------------------485
Stereo Headsets---------------------------------------------125
Stuck Microphone------------------------------------------134
SURF----------------------------------------------------------374
Surface Analysis---------------------------------------------294
Symbols, Map------------------------------------------------511
SYNC----------------------------------------------------------- 94
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
INDEX
Synthetic Vision (SVT)------------------------------- 479, 480
Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT)------------------------- 72
Airport Signs----------------------------------------------- 80
Field of View----------------------------------------------- 83
Flight Path Marker (FPM)-------------------------------- 78
Horizon Heading------------------------------------------ 79
Pathways--------------------------------------------------- 75
Runways---------------------------------------------------- 81
Terrain and Obstacle Alerting--------------------------- 82
Traffic------------------------------------------------------- 79
Troubleshooting------------------------------------------- 91
Zero Pitch Line--------------------------------------------- 79
System
Block Diagram----------------------------------------------- 3
Power-Up--------------------------------------------------125
Time--------------------------------------------------------- 31
System Annunciations------------------------------- 463, 469
System Message Advisories-------------------------------469
System Status Page------------------------------------------ 13
T
TA-------------------------------------------------------------468
Takeoff Mode------------------------------------------------406
TAS------------------------------------------------------------470
Telephone----------------------------------------------------128
Temperature Compensated Altitude---------------------247
Temperatures
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)------------- 69
Ram Air Temperature (RAT)------------------------------ 69
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)----------------------292
Terminal Procedures Charts------------------ 427, 429, 437
Terrain--------------------------------------------------------472
Terrain Display (TOPO Data)-------------------------------149
Terrain Proximity--------------------------------------------333
TFR (See Temporary Flight Restriction)
Timer----------------------------------------------------------- 35
Departure--------------------------------------------------- 36
Flight-------------------------------------------------------- 36
Generic-------------------------------------------------35, 46
TIS (Traffic Information Service)---------------------------351
System Status---------------------------------------------356
Traffic Map Page-----------------------------------------353
Topograchic Scale-------------------------------------------149
Track Indicator------------------------------------------------ 56
Track Vector--------------------------------------------------156
Traffic Advisory (TA)----------------------------------------468
Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B)-----------372
Traffic Information Service (TIS)
TIS Alerts--------------------------------------------------354
Transition to Approach VNV-------------------------------247
Transponder Altitude Mode-------------------------------122
Transponder Code Entry-----------------------------------123
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Transponder Manual ON Mode---------------------------122
Transponder Standby Mode-------------------------------121
Trend Vector
Airspeed---------------------------------------------------- 44
Altitude----------------------------------------------------- 49
Turn Rate--------------------------------------------------- 59
Trip Planning------------------------------------ 252, 253, 254
Trip statistics------------------------------------------ 253, 254
Trip Statistics-------------------------------------------------- 37
Odometer--------------------------------------------------- 37
True Airspeed (TAS)--------------------------------------42, 44
Turn Anticipation--------------------------------------------509
Turn Rate Indicator------------------------------------------ 59
TX Indicator--------------------------------------------------107
U
Unusual Attitudes-------------------------------------------- 92
User-Defined Holding Pattern---------------- 206, 208, 209
User Waypoints
Creating-------------------------------------------- 172, 173
Deleting----------------------------------------------------174
Editing-----------------------------------------------------173
Information-----------------------------------------------166
Nearest----------------------------------------------------170
V
Vertical Deviation-------------------------------------------401
Vertical Navigation Flight Control----------------- 398–402
Vertical Navigation (VNV)-------------------------- 219, 220
Enabling---------------------------------------------------219
Guidance--------------------------------------------------221
Transition to Approach----------------------------------247
Vertical Navigation Direct-to-------------- 203, 219, 228
Vertical Path Tracking Mode------------------------ 399–400
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)-------------- 224, 226, 227
Vertical Speed
Mode-------------------------------------------------------396
Reference--------------------------------------------------396
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)------------------------------ 53
Vertical Speed Target (VS TGT)----------------------------224
Vertical Track-------------------------------------------------468
VFR Code----------------------------------------------------123
Visual Approach-------------------------------------- 240, 241
VNAV---------------------------------------------------------480
Target Altitude------------------------------------- 399–402
Capture Mode--------------------------------------------402
VNV Indications---------------------------------------------- 71
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI)-------------- 54
Target Altitude--------------------------------------------- 54
Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI)----------------------- 54
Voice Alerts--------------------------------------------------468
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
I-5
INDEX
Voice Alerts, TIS Traffic--------------------------------------354
VOL Annunciation-------------------------------------------125
Volume-------------------------------------------------------458
VOR-----------------------------------------------------------168
Information-----------------------------------------------166
Nearest--------------------------------------------- 169, 170
VOR Selection for NAV Radio-----------------------------112
VRP---------------------------------------------------- 168, 171
Information-----------------------------------------------166
Nearest--------------------------------------------- 169, 170
W
WAAS---------------------------------------------------------507
Waypoint
Automatic Sequencing----------------------------------509
Skipping---------------------------------------------------509
Waypoints
Airports----------------------------------------------------160
Creating---------------------------------------------------172
Duplicates-------------------------------------------------159
Information-----------------------------------------------166
Nearest Airports------------------------------------------163
Nearest (non-airport)------------------------------------169
User-Waypoints-------------------------------------------167
Waypoint Selection Submenu---------------------- 180, 181
Weather Radar Gain----------------------------------------324
Weather Radar Ground Mapping------------------------329
Weather Radar Hail-----------------------------------------320
I-6
Weather Radar Mode--------------------------------------320
Weather Radar Sector Scan-------------------------------325
Weather Radar Squall Lines-------------------------------318
Weather Radar Thunderstorms---------------------------318
Weather Radar Tilt------------------------------------------323
Weather Radar Vertical Scan----------------------- 319, 322
Weather Radar Weather Alert-----------------------------327
Weather Radar Weather Attenuated
Color Highlight (WATCH)-------------------------------326
Wind Data------------------------------------------------43, 70
Wind Vector on the MFD----------------------------------157
X
XM Radio--------------------------------------------- 455, 456
XM Radio Active Channel---------------------------------456
XM Radio Presets-------------------------------------------457
XM Radio Service Class------------------------------------456
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Cessna Citation Mustang
190-02522-00 Rev. A
Garmin International, Inc. Garmin AT, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
2345 Turner Road SE
Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A. Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR U.K.
Contact Garmin Product Support at www.flygarmin.com.
For warranty information refer to www.flygarmin.com.
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Zhangshu 2nd Road
Xizhi District,
New Taipei City, Taiwan
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