Garmin | G1000 NXi: Piper PA-28-181 Archer | Garmin G1000 NXi: Piper PA-28-181 Archer G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Piper PA-28-181 Archer

Garmin G1000 NXi: Piper PA-28-181 Archer G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Piper PA-28-181 Archer
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Copyright © 2017 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2698.04 or later for the G1000 NXi
Piper PA-28-181 Archer. Some differences in operation may be observed when comparing the
information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
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Garmin AT, Inc.
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Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Garmin Corporation
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New Taipei City, Taiwan
Contact Garmin Product Support at www.flygarmin.com.
For warranty information refer to www.flygarmin.com.
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contain the complete text of this copyright notice and provided further that any unauthorized
commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin®, G1000® NXi, FliteCharts®, and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin
International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. Garmin ESP™, Garmin SVT™, and Connext™ are trademarks of
Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries. These trademarks may not be used without the express
permission of Garmin.
AC-U-KWIK® is a registered trademark of Penton Business Media Inc. NavData® is a registered
trademark of Jeppesen, Inc. Wi-Fi® is a registered trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. SiriusXM Weather
and SiriusXM Satellite Radio are provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio, Inc. The Bluetooth® word mark
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AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”)
expressly disclaim all warranties, with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or
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representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including
negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any incidental, special or consequential damages that result from
the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if AOPA or an AOPA authorized
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and,
to the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action,
claims or losses related to any actual or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do
not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential
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AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly
disclaim all warranties with respect to the AC-U-KWIK information included in this data, express or
implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
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or make any representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Licensee agrees not to sue
AC-U-KWIK Organizations and, to the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless
AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related to any actual or alleged
inaccuracies in the information arising out of Garmin’s use of the information in the datasets. Some
jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or
consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for
maintaining separation from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data
from third party sources and cannot independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of
displayed aeronautical information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the
latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude
requirements. The primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air
traffic control altitude regulations, requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of
navigation. Basemap data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data
sources and should be considered only an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all
of the traffic within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception,
and/or inaccurate information from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is
not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around
areas of hazardous weather. Information contained within data link weather products may
not accurately depict current weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of
the weather information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays
inherent in gathering and processing weather data for data link transmission, the weather
information shown by the data link weather product may be older than the indicated
weather product age.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and
should not be relied upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information.
Always refer to current aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Always obtain qualified instruction prior to operational use of this equipment.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84
WPT’ by a system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown
map reference datum that may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS
(known as WGS84) and may be positioned in error as displayed.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
i
WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: When using the autopilot to fly an approach with vertical guidance, the
autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the altitude
preselect.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, do not rely on the accuracy of
attitude and heading indications in the following geographic areas: North of 72° North
latitude at all longitudes; South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North
latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North
latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North
latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South latitude
between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and
traffic avoidance. Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may
not provide either the accuracy or reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan
maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT
display or may appear as a partial symbol.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining
the proximity of the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path
angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is
intended only to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not
operate properly with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height
above mean sea level, or the standard pressure setting, as applicable.
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing
ammonia. They will harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Repairs should only be made by an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and affect the
airworthiness of the aircraft.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
information. Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service
Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the
system panel and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system
and aviation databases. Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual
equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely
responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which
could affect the accuracy and performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system
utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all
NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or misinterpreted and,
therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this
device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an
intermittent loss of attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving
the aircraft more than 100 yards away from the source of the interference should alleviate
the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the
State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being
provided in accordance with California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would
like additional information, please refer to our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or
electromagnetic fields can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare
annunciations during start up, shut down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed
values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no comparison is possible.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that
procedure in the Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed
among similar types of procedures due to differences in the Navigation Database coding
specific to each procedure.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
iii
WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent
avionics of the following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory
guidance and information related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or
Jeppesen. Databases obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of
Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured compliance with all data quality
requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable database
and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for
compliance with established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute
authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures that may be presented by the system. It
is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established AFM(S) and regulatory
guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list
as discussed in SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database
exclusion list can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and
consider their impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed
at www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product
Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database
information. These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure;
incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles and fixes; or any other displayed item used for
navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go to FlyGarmin.com and select
‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: The system supports approval of AC 120-76C Hardware Class 3, Software Type B
Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) electronic aeronautical chart applications. Possible additional
requirements may make a secondary source (traditional paper or additional electronic display)
necessary onboard the aircraft. If the secondary source is a Portable Electronic Device (PED),
its use must be consistent with guidance in AC 120-76C.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to
nearby thunderstorms that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode.
However, clusters of two or more discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate
thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after the screen has been cleared.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Operate G1000NXi system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days
of continuous operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
NOTE: The navigation databases used in Garmin navigation systems contain Special
Procedures. Prior to flying these procedures, pilots must have specific FAA authorization,
training, and possession of the corresponding current, and legitimately-sourced chart
(approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special Procedure in the navigation database DOES
NOT imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
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190-02130-02 Rev. A
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
BY USING THE DEVICE, COMPONENT OR SYSTEM MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY GARMIN
(“THE GARMIN PRODUCT”), YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF
THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT
CAREFULLY. Garmin Ltd. and its subsidiaries (“Garmin”) grants you a limited license to use the
software embedded in the Garmin Product (the “Software”) in binary executable form in the normal
operation of the Garmin Product. Title, ownership rights, and intellectual property rights in and to the
Software remain with Garmin and/or its third-party providers. You acknowledge that the Software is
the property of Garmin and/or its third-party providers and is protected under the United States of
America copyright laws and international copyright treaties. You further acknowledge that the
structure, organization, and code of the Software are valuable trade secrets of Garmin and/or its thirdparty providers and that the Software in source code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin
and/or its third-party providers. You agree not to reproduce, decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse
assemble, reverse engineer, or reduce to human readable form the Software or any part thereof or
create any derivative works based on the Software. You agree not to export or re-export the Software to
any country in violation of the export control laws of the United States of America.
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
BLANK PAGE
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RECORD OF REVISIONS
Record of Revisions
Part Number
Revision
Date
Page
Range
190–02130-00
A
B
C
10/11/16
10/12/16
10/31/16
All
All
All
Description
Initial Release for GDU 20.02
Updated to fix clerical errors
Updated:
•
Bluetooth information
•
Connext information
•
SiriusXM information
SiriusXM Weather symbology
Initial Release for GDU 20.10
Updated to fix clerical errors
Initial Release for GDU 20.80
•
190–02130–01
A
B
4/20/17
4/24/17
All
All
190–02130-02
A
12/13/17
All
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RECORD OF REVISIONS
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Wind Data................................................
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 System Description............................
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).....................
1.2 System Controls.................................
PFD/MFD Controls ...................................
Secure Digital Cards..................................
1.3 System Operation..............................
System Power-up......................................
Normal Operation.....................................
Reversionary Mode...................................
System Annunciations...............................
System Status...........................................
ADAHRS Operation...................................
GPS Receiver Operation............................
1
1
4
5
7
9
9
10
10
11
13
13
15
1.4 Accessing System Functionality........ 21
Softkey Function.......................................
Menus......................................................
MFD Page Groups.....................................
Split Screen Functionality..........................
System Settings........................................
System Utilities.........................................
21
28
29
32
34
44
1.5 Display Backlighting.......................... 49
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Overview............................................ 51
2.2 Flight Instruments.............................. 54
Attitude Indicator.....................................
Airspeed Indicator.....................................
Altimeter..................................................
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI).....................
Vertical Deviation......................................
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications.........
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)...............
Turn Rate Indicator ..................................
GPS CDI Scaling (FMS Navigation Source).
OBS Mode................................................
Bearing Pointers and Information
Windows..................................................
DME Information Window........................
54
56
57
61
61
64
66
69
70
72
74
75
77
2.3 Supplemental Flight Data.................. 78
Generic Timer...........................................
Temperature Displays................................
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78
78
79
2.4 PFD Annunciations and Alerting
Functions............................................ 80
Altitude Alerting.......................................
Low Altitude Annunciation.......................
Marker Beacon Annunciations..................
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision
Height Alerting.........................................
80
80
80
81
2.5 Garmin Synthetic Vision Technology
(SVT).................................................... 83
Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology).
SVT Operation..........................................
SVT Features.............................................
83
84
86
2.6 Abnormal Operations........................ 96
Abnormal GPS Conditions........................
SVT Troubleshooting.................................
SVT in Reversionary Mode.........................
Unusual Attitudes.....................................
SVT Unusual Attitudes..............................
96
97
97
97
98
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 Engine Display....................................100
3.2 Engine Page........................................102
Fuel Calculations....................................... 103
Carbon Monoxide Detector (Optional)...... 104
3.3 EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)......105
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 Overview............................................107
Overview.................................................. 107
4.2 COM Operation..................................113
COM Tuning Boxes...................................
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning...............
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency..............
Auto-tuning from the MFD.......................
Frequency Spacing....................................
113
114
114
115
118
4.3 NAV Operation...................................120
NAV Tuning Boxes.....................................
NAV Radio Selection and Activation..........
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning....................
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the
MFD.........................................................
Auto-Tuning NAV Frequencies on
Approach Activation.................................
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121
121
122
124
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Marker Beacon Receiver (Optional)...........
ADF/DME Tuning......................................
ADF Tuning...............................................
Selecting ADF Receiver Mode....................
DME Tuning..............................................
125
125
126
127
128
4.4 Mode S Transponder..........................130
Transponder Controls................................
Transponder Mode Selection.....................
Entering a Transponder Code....................
Ident Function..........................................
130
131
133
134
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions....135
Power-Up.................................................
Mono/Stereo Headsets..............................
Speaker....................................................
Intercom...................................................
Clearance Recorder and Player..................
Split-COM Operation................................
3D Audio..................................................
Entertainment Inputs................................
Bluetooth®...............................................
135
135
135
135
140
140
140
142
143
4.6 Audio Panel Preflight Procedure.......144
4.7 Abnormal Operation..........................145
Stuck Microphone....................................
COM Tuning Failure..................................
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation................
Reversionary Mode...................................
145
145
145
145
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Navigation Status Box and Data Bar.......... 149
5.2 Using Map Displays............................151
151
153
155
158
159
161
166
168
5.3 Waypoints...........................................172
Airports.................................................... 173
Intersections............................................. 180
NDB.......................................................... 182
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5.4 Airspaces.............................................195
5.5 Direct-To-Navigation..........................200
5.6 Flight Planning...................................206
Flight Plan Creation..................................
Flight Plan Import/Export...........................
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan................
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan.
Active Flight Plan......................................
Along Track Offsets...................................
Parallel Track.............................................
Flight Plan Views.......................................
Closest Point of FPL..................................
User-Defined Holding Patterns..................
207
211
221
223
233
236
237
240
243
243
5.7 Vertical Navigation............................249
Altitude Constraints.................................. 251
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)................. 254
5.8 Procedures..........................................259
Departures................................................ 261
Arrivals .................................................... 263
Approaches.............................................. 265
5.9 Weight Planning.................................277
Weight Warning Conditions...................... 277
5.10 Trip Planning.......................................280
Trip Planning............................................. 280
5.1 Introduction........................................147
Map Orientation.......................................
Map Range...............................................
Map Panning............................................
Measuring Bearing and Distance...............
Topography..............................................
Map Symbols............................................
Airways....................................................
Additional Navigation Map Items..............
VOR.......................................................... 184
VRP.......................................................... 187
User Waypoints......................................... 188
5.11 Abnormal Operation..........................284
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 Overview............................................287
6.2 Data Link Weather.............................288
Activating Data Link Weather Services.......
Weather Product Age...............................
Displaying Data Link Weather Products.....
Weather Data Link (XM) Page Softkeys.....
Weather Product Overview.......................
FIS-B Weather Status................................
288
290
292
294
303
338
6.3 Terrain Displays..................................340
Relative Terrain Symbology........................ 341
Terrain Page.............................................. 345
Wire Obstacle Information and Alerting.... 346
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain......
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Alerting Displays.
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance...........
Inhibiting FLTA Alerting.............................
Additional TAWS-B Alerting......................
System Status...........................................
347
350
352
353
354
357
6.4 Traffic Information Service (TIS)........360
Traffic Information Service (TIS).................
Displaying Traffic Data..............................
Traffic Map Page.......................................
TIS Alerts..................................................
System Status...........................................
360
361
363
364
366
6.5 TAS Traffic...........................................369
Theory of Operation.................................
Traffic Map Page.......................................
System Test...............................................
Operation.................................................
System Status...........................................
369
373
374
376
380
6.6 ADS-B Traffic.......................................382
ADS-B System Overview............................
ADS-B with TAS/TCAS I.............................
Conflict Situational Awareness and
Alerting....................................................
Airborne and Surface Applications............
Traffic Description.....................................
Operation.................................................
ADS-B System Status................................
382
384
384
387
388
389
394
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL
SYSTEM
7.1 Overview............................................399
AFCS Control Unit.................................... 399
Additional AFCS Controls......................... 400
Basic Autopilot Operation......................... 401
7.2 Flight Director Operation..................402
AFCS Status Box....................................... 402
Flight Director Modes............................... 403
Command Bars......................................... 403
7.3 AFCS Modes........................................405
Vertical Modes..........................................
Pitch Hold Mode.......................................
Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS).....
Altitude Hold Mode (ALT)..........................
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405
406
407
408
Vertical Speed Mode (VS)..........................
Flight Level Change Mode (FLC)................
Lateral Modes...........................................
Roll Hold Mode (ROL)...............................
Heading Select Mode (HDG).....................
Navigation Modes (FMS, VOR, LOC)..........
Combination Modes (VNV, APR, NAV, GA)
Vertical Navigation Modes (VPTH, ALTV)....
Vertical Path Tracking Mode......................
VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode (ALTV)
Glidepath Mode (GP)................................
Glideslope Mode (GS)...............................
Approach Modes (FMS, VAPP, LOC)..........
Backcourse Mode (BC)..............................
Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes..
409
411
412
413
414
415
416
418
419
422
423
425
427
428
429
7.4 Autopilot and Yaw Damper
Operation...........................................431
Pitch Axis and Trim....................................
Roll Axis....................................................
Flight Control...........................................
Engagement.............................................
Control Wheel Steering............................
Disengagement........................................
431
431
431
431
432
432
7.5 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts........433
AFCS Alerts..............................................
Overspeed Protection................................
Altitude Critical Modes (ALT, GS, GP, TO,
GA, FLC)...................................................
Non Altitude Critical Modes (VS, VNAV,
IAS)..........................................................
433
434
434
435
7.6 Abnormal Operation..........................437
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 Overview............................................439
8.2 SafeTaxi...............................................441
8.3 Charts..................................................443
Charts......................................................
ChartView................................................
Chart Options...........................................
FliteCharts................................................
Airport Directory.......................................
IFR/VFR Charts..........................................
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444
451
456
457
458
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8.4 Database Cycle Number and
Revisions.............................................460
8.5 SiriusXM Radio Entertainment..........462
Using SiriusXM Radio................................
Active Channel and Channel List...............
Category..................................................
Presets......................................................
463
463
464
464
8.6 Flight Data Logging...........................466
8.7 Connext Setup....................................469
8.8 WiFi Connections................................471
8.9 Electronic Checklists...........................476
8.10 Electronic Stability and Protection
(ESP)....................................................478
Roll Engagement......................................
Pitch Engagement.....................................
Angle of Attack Protection........................
High Airspeed Protection..........................
479
480
481
482
8.11 Abnormal Operation..........................483
Unusual Attitudes..................................... 483
GDL 69A / GDL 69A SiriusXM Data Link
Receiver Troubleshooting.......................... 483
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts........................ 485
CAS Message Prioritization.......................
CAS Messages..........................................
System Message Annunciations................
System Messages......................................
486
487
489
490
Database Management............................ 513
Loading Updated Databases..................... 513
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update 519
Aviation Terms and Acronyms................. 521
Frequently Asked Questions....................541
Map Symbols............................................ 545
INDEX
Index......................................................... I-1
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The system consists of the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
GEA 71B (1) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit
communicates with both GIAs using an RS-485 digital interface.
•
GMU 44 (1) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GSU for processing to determine
aircraft magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GSU and communicates with
the GSU using an RS-485 digital interface.
•
GMA 1360 (1) – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and marker beacon controls.
This unit also enables the manual control of the display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP
button) and communicates with both GIAs, using an RS-232 digital interface.
•
GTX 335R (Standard)/ GTX 345R (Alternate) (1) – The GTX 335R solid-state transponder provides
Modes A, C, S and ADS-B Out capability. As an alternative, the GTX 345R provides the same
capabilities, plus an ADS-B Out capability. The transponder can be controlled from the PFD, and it
communicates with the both GIAs through an RS-232 digital interface.
•
Flight Stream 510 (1) (Optional) – Provides wireless Bluetooth® connectivity between a compatible
tablet/mobile device and the avionics system.
•
GDL 69A SXM (1) (Optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides data link weather
information to the MFD and PFD map as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A SXM
communicates with the MFD via an HSDB connection. Subscriptions to the SiriusXM Weather or
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are required to enable the GDL 69A SXM capability.
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1
Index
•
Appendices
GSU 75 (1) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe to provide
pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system. This unit also
provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to the PFD, MFD, and GIAs. The
GSU contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the
GMU to obtain magnetic field information, and with the GIA to obtain GPS information. ADAHRS
modes of operation are discussed later in this document.
Additional Features
•
AFCS
GIA 64W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking LRUs to the PFD and MFD.
Each GIA contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and
system integration microprocessors. Each GIA is paired with the PFD and MFD via an HSDB
connection. The GIAs are not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
GDU 1050 (2) – The GDUs are configured as a Primary Flight Display (PFD) and a Multi Function
Display (MFD). Both feature 10.4-inch backlit LED screens with 1024 x 768 high resolution. The
displays communicate with each other through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) Ethernet connection.
Each display is also paired with an Ethernet connection to an IAU.
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
Flight Instruments
This section provides an overview of the G1000 NXi Integrated Avionics System as installed in the
Piper PA-28-181 Archer. The system presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation,
communication, and identification information to the pilot through large-format displays.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
•
GDL 59 (1) (Optional) – A data link transceiver that provides WiFi capability. GDL 59 operation is
performed with the PFD through an HSDB connection.
•
GTS 800 (1) (Optional) – The GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations of
Mode S and Mode C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of the air
traffic control system.
•
RA 3504 (Standard)/ KR 87 (Alternate) (1) – Manufactured by Becker Avionics International®, the
RA 3504 provides non-directional beacon reception. As an alternative, the Honeywell® KR 87
model may be installed.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
The following Figure shows interactions between the LRUs and optional equipment. The system is
capable of interfacing with the following optional equipment:
•
CO Guardian Carbon Monoxide Detection
•
Flight Stream 510 Wireless Bluetooth® Gateway
•
GDL 59 WiFi Data Link
•
GDL 69A SXM Data Link Receiver
•
GFC 700 Automated Flight Control System
•
GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System
•
KN 63 Honeywell® DME
•
KR 87 Honeywell® ADF
NOTE: For information on the additional equipment shown in Figure 1-1, consult the
applicable optional interface user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is already
familiar with the operation of this additional equipment.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment, consult the applicable optional interface
user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of
this additional equipment.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GDL 59
(WiFi Data Link)
(MFD)
FlightStream
510
(Wireless
Bluetooth
Gateway)
#2 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
GSU 75
(ADAHRS)
Audio Panel and CNS
#1 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
(1054 when
GFC 700
installed)
Engine Indication System
GMA 1360
(Audio
Panel)
#2
GDU 1050
Flight Instruments
GDL 69A SXM
(XM Weather/
Audio Datalink)
System Overview
GTS 800
(Traffic Advisory
System)
#1
GDU 1050
(PFD)
GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
G/S
Flight
Director
VHF COM
GTX 335R
(Transponder)
GPS/SBAS
GEA 71B (Engine &
Airframe I/F)
G/S
GFC 700
(AFCS)
AFCS Mode
Logic
Hazard Avoidance
VOR/LOC
Flight Management
GTX 345R
Or
VOR/LOC
Flight
Director
AFCS
CO Guardian
(Carbon Monoxide
Detection)
Additional Features
KN 63
(DME)
RA 3504
Or
KR 87
(ADF)
Non-Garmin Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Appendices
Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1
System (LRU Configuration)
Figure 1-1 System (LRU Configuration)
Index
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3
1.2 SYSTEM CONTROLS
NOTE: The Audio Panel and AFCS controls are described in the Audio & CNS and AFCS
sections respectively.
The system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels and audio panel. The controls for the
PFD and MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
1
2
3
5
4
6
7
8
9
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
18
24
20
25
21
26
22
27
23
28
13
11
14
12
15
AFCS
19
10
Hazard Avoidance
17
16
Additional Features
*18-28 : Appe ar on MFD
when AFCS is equipped
Figure 1-2 PFD/MFD Controls
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
kHz) Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2.
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Index
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as
a percentage). Press to toggle the Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF.
Appendices
1
5
4
Heading Knob Turn to manually select a heading. When operating in Heading Select mode,
this knob provides the heading reference to the flight director. Press to display a digital
heading momentarily to the left of the HSI and synchronize the Selected Heading to the
current heading.
5
Joystick Turn to change map range. Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning.
6
CRS/BARO Knob Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting Turn the small
knob to set the pilot-selected course on the HSI when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP mode is
selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The pilot-selected
course provides course reference to the pilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation
and Approach modes. Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO
bearing of active waypoint/station.
7
COM Knob Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz;
small knob for kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between COM1 and COM2.
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the MIC Key (Audio Panel).
8
COM Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies.
Press and hold two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into
the active frequency field.
9
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the
COM Frequency Box). Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF.
10
Direct-to Key Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination
waypoint and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route).
11
FPL Key Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan.
12
CLR Key Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus. Press and hold to display the
MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
13
MENU Key Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or
making setting changes.
14
PROC Key Gives access to IFR Departure Procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and
Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport.
15
ENT Key Validates/confirms a menu selection or data entry.
16
FMS Knob Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large knob moves
cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor location).
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar appears,
indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a page
group; small knob selects a specific page from the group).
17
ALT Knob Sets the selected altitude in the Selected Altitude Box (the large knob selects the
thousands, the small knob selects the hundreds). In addition to providing the standard system
altitude alerter function, selected altitude provides an altitude setting for the Altitude
Capture/Hold mode of the AFCS.
18*
AP Key Engages/disengages the Autopilot and Flight Director in the default vertical and
lateral modes.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
20*
NAV Key Selects/deselects the Navigation mode.
21*
ALT Key Selects/deselects the Altitude Hold mode.
22*
VS Key Selects/deselects the Vertical Speed mode.
23*
FLC Key Selects/deselects the Flight Level Change mode.
24*
HDG Key Selects/deselects the Heading Select mode.
25*
APR Key Selects/deselects the Approach mode.
26*
VNV Key Selects/deselects Vertical Navigation mode.
27*
NOSE UP Key Controls the active pitch reference for the Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and
Flight Level Change modes.
28*
NOSE DN Key Controls the active pitch reference for the Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and
Flight Level Change modes.
Flight Instruments
FD Key Activates/deactivates the Flight Director only. Pressing the FD key turns on the Flight
Director in the default vertical and lateral modes. Pressing the FD key again deactivates the
Flight Director and removes the command bars, unless the Autopilot is engaged. If the
Autopilot is engaged, the FD key is disabled.
System Overview
19*
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
*Key appears on MFD when optional AFCS is equipped
SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
The GDU data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right portion of the
display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used system software
updates. Also, flight plans may be imported or exported from an SD card in the MFD.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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7
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Audio Panel and CNS
SD Card Slots
Figure 1-3 PFD/MFD Display Bezel SD Card Slots
Flight Management
Figure 1-3 PFD/MFD Display Bezel SD Card Slots
Inserting and Removing an SD card:
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch
engages. The front of the card should remain flush with the face of the display bezel.
To remove, gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch and eject the card.
8
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM POWER-UP
for
additional
information
regarding
system-specific
NOTE: See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for specific procedures concerning avionics
power application and emergency power supply operation.
Land database name and version
•
Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
•
Terrain database name and version
•
Obstacle database name and effective dates
•
Navigation database name and effective dates
•
Airport Directory name and effective dates
•
FliteCharts/ChartView database information
•
IFR/VFR charts database information (optional)
•
Crew Profile
•
Copyright
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type.
When this information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the
pilot is prompted to continue.
Appendices
•
Additional Features
Checklist File
AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
System version
Flight Management
•
Audio Panel and CNS
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The PFD, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in
test features that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, and external inputs and outputs to provide safe
operation.
When powering up the system, test annunciations are displayed and key annunciator lights also
become momentarily illuminated on the audio panel and the display bezels. On the PFD, the ADAHRS
begins to initialize and an alignment message is displayed. All system annunciations should disappear
typically within one minute of power-up.
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
Engine Indication System
NOTE: See the Appendices
annunciations and alerts.
Flight Instruments
This section discusses powering up the system, normal and reversionary display operation,
annunciations, system status, air data and attitude heading reference system (ADAHRS) modes of
operation, and GPS receiver operation.
System Overview
1.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
Index
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9
NORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD (see
Section 1.5). In reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display.
In normal operating mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading,
airspeed, altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster (see the Flight
Instruments Section for more information). The MFD normally displays a full-color moving map with
navigation information (see the Flight Management Section), while the left portion of the MFD is
dedicated to the Engine Indication System (see the EIS Section). Both displays offer control for COM
and NAV frequency selection.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-4 Normal Operation
REVERSIONARY MODE
In the event of a display failure, the system can be manually switched to reversionary (backup) mode
(all remaining displays enter reversionary mode). In reversionary mode, all important flight information
is presented on the remaining display(s) in the same format as in normal operating mode.
If a display fails, the appropriate IAU-display Ethernet interface is cut off. Thus, the IAU can no longer
communicate with the remaining display (refer to the figure below), and the NAV and COM functions
provided to the failed display by the IAU are flagged as invalid on the remaining display. The system
reverts to backup paths for the ADAHRS, Engine/Airframe Unit, and Transponder, as required. The
change to backup paths is completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot action is required.
Reversionary mode may be manually activated by pressing the Audio Panel’s red DISPLAY BACKUP
Button. Pressing this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the
Appendices for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Figure 1-5 Reversionary Mode
System Annunciation
AFCS
NOTE: Refer to the POH for additional information regarding pilot responses to these
annunciations.
Hazard Avoidance
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red or amber “X” is typically displayed on windows
associated with the failed data. Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for additional
information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page. Active LRUs are
indicated by green check marks; failed by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or
Garmin-authorized dealer informed.
Flight Management
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to
initialize. All windows should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window
continues to remain flagged, the system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair
facility.
Audio Panel and CNS
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
Comment
Additional Features
Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference System is aligning.
Note, display reads “AHRS” for an ADAHRS system.
Appendices
Display system is not receiving attitude information from the
ADAHRS.
Index
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11
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Annunciation
Comment
Flight Instruments
AHRS calibration incomplete or configuration module failure.
Note, display reads “AHRS” for an ADAHRS system.
Engine Indication System
GPS information is either not present or is invalid for navigation
use. Note that ADAHRS utilizes GPS inputs during normal
operation. ADAHRS operation may be degraded if GPS signals are
not present (see POH).
Audio Panel and CNS
Display system is not receiving airspeed input from the ADAHRS.
Flight Management
Display system is not receiving vertical speed input from the
ADAHRS.
Display system is not receiving valid heading input from the
ADAHRS or magnetometer.
Hazard Avoidance
Display system is not receiving altitude input from the ADAHRS.
Display system is not receiving valid OAT information from the
ADAHRS.
Other Various Amber/Red X
Indications
A red or amber ‘X’ through any other display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields) indicates that the field is not receiving
valid data.
Table 1-1 System Annunciations
Additional Features
AFCS
Display system is not receiving valid transponder information.
Viewing LRU Information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
Appendices
Press the LRU Softkey.
Index
Or:
12
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU’ Window highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
Engine Indication System
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system
LRUs. Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by
green check marks and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a
service center or Garmin dealer informed.
Flight Instruments
SYSTEM STATUS
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Figure 1-6 Example System Status Page
Figure 1-6 Example System Status Page
Additional Features
Appendices
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (‘LRU
Information’ or ‘Airframe’ Window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information
within the selected window.
Pressing the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected)
places the cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information
for the MFD. Pressing the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database
information is now displayed in the database window. Pressing the softkey a third time will change the
softkey label back to MFD1 DB. MFD database information is displayed again in the database window.
The ANN Test Softkey, when selected, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
ADAHRS OPERATION
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13
Index
In addition to using internal sensors, the GSU ADAHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data
and air data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the ADAHRS relies upon GPS
and magnetic field measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid,
the ADAHRS uses air data information for attitude determination. Eight ADAHRS modes of operation
are available (see Table below) and depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of
air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated to the pilot by system messages.
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific ADAHRS system message information.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while the ADAHRS is not operating normally can degrade
ADAHRS accuracy.
ADAHRS
Mode
GPS Data
Available
Magnetometer
Data Available
Air Data
Available
ADAHRS
Normal
Yes
Yes
Yes
ADAHRS no-Air
Data
Yes
Yes
No
ADAHRS noGPS
No
Yes
Yes
ADAHRS noGPS/no-Mag
No
No
Yes
ADAHRS noMag Data
Yes
No
Yes
ADAHRS noMag/no-Air
Data
Yes
No
No
ADAHRS coaston-gyros until
invalid
No
Yes
No
ADAHRS noMag/coast-ongyros until
invalid
No
Condition
Attitude
Indicator
Valid Pitch/Roll/
Heading.
Valid Pitch/Roll.
Heading will
coast-on-gyros
until it becomes
invalid.
Valid Pitch/Roll.
Invalid Heading.
Invalid Pitch/Roll/
Heading.
No
No
Index
Appendices
Table 1-2 ADAHRS Operation
14
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
GPS INPUT FAILURE
NOTE: In-flight initialization of ADAHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS
data and at true air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed.
Under these rare conditions, it is possible for in-flight ADAHRS initialization to take an
indefinite amount of time which would result in an extended period of time where valid
ADAHRS outputs are unavailable.
Flight Instruments
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the
information provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the ADAHRS seamlessly transitions
to using the other GPS receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS
path. If both GPS inputs fail, the ADAHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so
long as the air data and magnetometer inputs are available and valid.
Engine Indication System
A failure of the air data input has no effect on ADAHRS output while operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the ADAHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in
invalid attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
If the magnetometer input fails, the ADAHRS transitions to one of the reversionary NoMagnetometer modes and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is
airborne, the heading output on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Each GIA Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the
specified receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the ‘Aux - GPS
Status’ Page.
GPS1 provides information to the MFD and GPS2 provides data to the PFD. Internal system
checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the GDUs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing
a better GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better
solution will be automatically coupled to both GDUs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” will
then be displayed in the Reversionary Sensor Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver
is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning properly, but one receiver is performing better
than the other at that particular time.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver
has acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS
receiver to have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result
in one of the GPS receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the ‘Messages’ Window on
the PFD. If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for
GPS1 and GPS2. Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Hazard Avoidance
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Flight Management
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
Audio Panel and CNS
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
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15
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.4 for
information on navigating MFD page groups).
Flight Instruments
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Engine Indication System
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
Audio Panel and CNS
a) Press the MENU Key
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT
Key.
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
AFCS
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
Appendices
Additional Features
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection RAIM Softkey
Softkeys
Selected
SBAS Softkey Selected
Index
Figure 1-7 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
16
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
This box provides information regarding signal status. The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is
calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution of Precision (DOP), and horizontal
and vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a circle centered on an
estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying. EPU is a
statistical error indication and not an actual error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are
relative to each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy.
HFOM and VFOM, measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95%
confidence horizontal and vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are
displayed below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
Engine Indication System
SATELLITE STATUS
Flight Instruments
The GPS Status Page displays satellites currently in view at their respective positions on a sky view
diagram. The sky view is always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the
horizon, the inner circle representing 45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the
position directly overhead.
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e.,
satellite identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by
solid ovals.
System Overview
SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM
GPS STATUS
Additional Features
Appendices
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected
approach may be outside the SBAS coverage area, and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM
prediction for the intended approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a
consistency check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows
the receiver to calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for
oceanic and enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During
oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
AFCS
RAIM PREDICTION
Hazard Avoidance
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the
active GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the
receiver is in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses
satellite orbital data (collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine
the satellites that should be in view. “Acquiring” is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number
of satellites have been acquired for computing a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is
indicated as the solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based
Augmentation System) indicates “Inactive”. When acquisition is complete, the solution status
indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS indicates “Active”.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
17
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and
time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and
time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. The system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not
available. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does
not become active, as indicated by the messages, “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available
from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure
must be flown.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: The system RAIM prediction capability does not meet all RAIM prediction
requirements. Reference the RAIM/Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) Prediction Tool at
flygarmin.com as required.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
Flight Management
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
Hazard Avoidance
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and
press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint selection
submenu.
AFCS
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or
User Waypoints, if required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system
Additional Features
automatically fills in the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Field with the information for the
selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
Appendices
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM
Index
availability is computed, one of the following is displayed:
18
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
•
‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
•
‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and
date
•
‘RAIM Not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint,
time, and date
Flight Instruments
‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date
combination
System Overview
•
Engine Indication System
Predicting RAIM availability at present position:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM
‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date
combination
•
‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
•
‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and
date
•
‘RAIM Not Available’ is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and
date
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage
area, it may be desirable to disable EGNOS, WAAS or MSAS (although it is not recommended).
When disabled, the ‘SBAS’ Field in the ‘GPS Status’ Box indicates Disabled. There may be a small
delay for the ‘GPS Status’ Box to be updated upon WAAS and MSAS enabling/disabling.
Additional Features
SBAS SELECTION
AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
availability is computed, one of the following is displayed:
Appendices
Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
19
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or
‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
Flight Instruments
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
GPS SATELLITE SIGNAL STRENGTHS
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor
satellite coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength
bar is displayed for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or
120-138 for WAAS) below each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as
indicated by signal bar appearance:
•
No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
•
Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
•
Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
•
Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
•
Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
•
“D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is
hollow) before the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
20
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
1.4 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
Figure 1-8 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
Audio Panel and CNS
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (press)
Softkey Names
(displayed)
Engine Indication System
Softkey On Softkey Subdued
Flight Instruments
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the
softkey level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to select the
appropriate softkey. There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an
annunciator on the softkey label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects
among several options, indicated by the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range
keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option. The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another
set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also, these softkeys revert to the previous level after
45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled, the softkey label is subdued (dimmed).
Figure 1-8 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
CAS
Description
Displays the scroll keys. Only
displayed when the number of CAS
messages exceeds the capacity of
the display window.
Scroll up CAS messages (Accessible
only when the CAS Softkey is
displayed).
CAS Dn
Scroll down CAS messages
(Accessible only when the CAS
Softkey is displayed).
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
CAS Up
Appendices
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Lvl 3
Additional Features
Lvl 2
AFCS
Lvl 1
Hazard Avoidance
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions,
including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back
Softkey which can be pressed to return to the previous level. If new messages remain after
acknowledgement, the Messages Softkey will show “Message” in black text with a white
background. The Messages Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the
transponder (XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
The following table describes PFD Softkey functions. Softkeys which display another set of
softkeys are indicated in the table by showing the given set as an increased level. For example, the
Map/HSI Softkey is shown in the Level 1 column. When pressed, the Map/HSI Softkey will display
another set of softkeys and these softkeys are explained in the Level 2 column. If a softkey on Level 2
provides yet another set of softkey functions, those new available softkeys are then explained in the
Level 3 column, etc.
Flight Management
PFD SOFTKEYS
21
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Map/HSI
Displays the PFD Map display
settings softkeys.
Flight Instruments
Layout
Displays the PFD Map selection
softkeys.
Map Off
Engine Indication System
Inset Map
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Detail
Removes the PFD map from display
(Inset or Traffic).
Displays the Inset Map.
HSI Map
Displays the HSI Map.
Inset Trfc
Replaces the Inset Map with a
dedicated traffic display.
HSI Trfc
Hazard Avoidance
Description
Replaces the HSI Map with a
dedicated traffic display.
Selects desired amount of map
detail:
•
All (No Declutter): All map features
visible.
•
Detail 1: Removes everything
except for the active flight plan.
•
Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA
data.
Detail 3: Declutters land data.
Displays traffic information on PFD
Map.
•
Traffic
•
Topo: Displays topographical data
(e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers,
lakes) and elevation scale on PFD
Map.
•
REL: Displays relative terrain
information on the PFD Map.
Additional Features
AFCS
TER
Off: Removes terrain
Displays/removes the name of the
selected data link weather provider
(SiriusXM) and the weather product
icon and age box (for enabled
weather products).
•
Index
Appendices
WX LGND
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Description
Displays Connext weather and
coverage on PFD Map.
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and
coverage on PFD Map (subscription
optional).
METAR
Displays METAR information on PFD
Map (subscription optional).
Adds/removes the display of
SiriusXM lightning information on
PFD Map (optional).
Disables lightning function on PFD
Map. The softkey annunciator is
green when the lightning function is
off.
Datalink
Selects the data link weather source
for the PFD Map.
Replaces the PFD Map with a
dedicated traffic display. The default
display is the Inset Map.
PFD Opt
Displays second-level softkeys for
additional PFD options.
SVT
Pathways
Displays Pathway Boxes on the
Synthetic Vision Display.
HDG LBL
Displays compass heading along the
Zero-Pitch line.
APT Sign
Displays position markers for airports
within approximately 15 nm of the
current aircraft position. Airport
identifiers are displayed when the
airport is within approximately 9 nm.
Wind
Displays power lines on the
Synthetic Vision Display.
Wind information not displayed.
Option 1
Wind direction arrow and speed.
Option 2
Headwind/Tailwind and crosswind
components and wind direction
arrow.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
Off
Appendices
Displays the wind option softkeys.
Additional Features
Enables synthetic terrain depiction.
AFCS
Terrain
Wire
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Hazard Avoidance
Displays additional SVT overlay
softkeys. (optional)
Flight Management
TFC Map
Audio Panel and CNS
LTNG Off
Engine Indication System
Lightning
Flight Instruments
PRECIP
or
NEXRAD
System Overview
Lvl 1
23
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Description
Option 3
Wind direction arrow with direction
and speed.
DME
Displays DME Information (optional).
Bearing 1
Cycles the Bearing 1 Information
Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived
distance information, ADF/
frequency, and Off.
Bearing 2
Cycles the Bearing 2 Information
Window through NAV1, NAV2, GPS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived
distance information, ADF/
frequency, and Off.
ALT Units
Displays softkeys to select altitude
unit parameters.
Flight Management
Meters
Hazard Avoidance
STD Baro
Press to display the BARO setting as
inches of mercury.
HPA
Press to display the BARO setting as
hectopascals.
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in
Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are
selected) and returns to top-level
softkeys.
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when
navigating by GPS (only available
with active leg). When OBS is on,
the softkey annunciator is green.
CDI
Cycles through GPS, NAV1, and
NAV2 navigation modes on the CDI.
AFCS
Additional Features
IN
OBS
ADF/DME
Displays the ADF/DME Tuning
Window, allowing selection and
tuning of the ADF and DME
(optional).
XPDR
Appendices
When enabled, displays overlays
altimeter with meters.
Displays the transponder selection
softkeys.
Selects transponder Standby Mode
(transponder does not reply to any
interrogations).
Index
Standby
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190-02130-02 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Description
Alt
Altitude Reporting Mode
(transponder replies to identification
and altitude interrogations).
VFR
Automatically enters the VFR code
(1200 in the U.S.A. only).
Code
Displays transponder code selection
softkeys 0-7.
0–7
Activates the Special Position
Identification (SPI) pulse for 18
seconds, identifying the transponder
return on the ATC screen.
BKSP
Removes numbers entered, one at a
time.
Activates the Special Position
Identification (SPI) pulse for 18
seconds, identifying the transponder
return on the ATC screen.
Displays Timer ‘References’ Window.
Nearest
Displays ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
Messages or
Message
System generated messages cause
the Messages Softkey label to
change from Messages to a flashing
‘Message’ label. Pressing the
Message Softkey opens the
‘Messages’ Window, acknowledges
the message, and the softkey reverts
to the ‘Messages’ label.
Appendices
Table 1-3 PFD Softkeys
MFD SOFTKEYS
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
25
Index
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain,
traffic, and weather (optional). There are many softkey functions available on the MFD depending on
the page group and screen selected.
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Additional Features
TMR/REF
AFCS
Activates the Special Position
Identification (SPI) pulse for 18
seconds, identifying the transponder
return on the ATC screen.
Hazard Avoidance
Ident
Flight Management
Ident
Audio Panel and CNS
Ident
Use numbers to enter code.
Engine Indication System
Activates transponder (transponder
replies to identification
interrogations).
Flight Instruments
On
System Overview
Lvl 1
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Flight Instruments
The following table provides an example of the MFD Softkey functions accessed from the
Navigation Map screen. Further information concerning softkeys providing more navigation and
flight planning functions may be found in the Flight Management Section. Terrain, traffic, and
weather softkey descriptions may be found in the Hazard Avoidance section. Further description of
optional equipment and corresponding softkey functions may be found in the Additional Features
Section.
Lvl 1
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Engine
Displays EIS - Engine Page and secondlevel engine softkeys; press again to exit
page (see the EIS Section for more
information).
Engine
Returns to previously shown softkeys.
Tabs
Resets displayed fuel remaining to filler
tab level and fuel used to zero
DEC Fuel
Decreases calculated fuel remaining by
1 gallon for each softkey press.
INCFuel
Increases calculated fuel remaining by 1
gallon for each softkey press.
RSTFuel
Resets calculated fuel remaining to
default and resets fuel used to zero.
CO RST
Resets the CO Guardian
Hazard Avoidance
Map Opt
Displays second level Map Options
softkeys
Traffic
Displays traffic information on
Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
Inset
Displays inset window second level
softkeys.
Off
Removes VSD inset from Navigation
Map Page.
VSD
Displays VSD profile information of
terrain/obstacles along the current track,
vertical track vector, and selected
altitude.
•
Auto: Automatically displays either
VSD profile information for active
flight plan information or along
current track with no active flight plan.
•
FPL: Displays VSD profile information
for active flight plan.
•
TRK: Displays VSD profile information
along current track.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Description
26
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Lvl 2
TER
Lvl 3
System Overview
Lvl 1
Description
Displays terrain on the map; cycles
through the following:
•
Topo: Displays topographical data
(e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes)
and elevation scale on MFD Map.
REL:
Displays
relative
terrain
information on the MFD Map.
Displays airways on the map; cycles
through the following:
•
AWY
Off: No airways are displayed.
•
On: All airways are displayed.
•
LO: Only low altitude airways are
displayed.
NEXRAD
METAR
Detail
Detail All: All map features visible.
•
Detail-3: Declutters land data.
•
Detail-2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Detail-1: Removes everything except
for the active flight plan.
When available, displays optional airport
and terminal procedure charts
(optional).
Displays chart display settings softkeys
(if available).
Additional Features
•
AFCS
Legend
Hazard Avoidance
XM LTNG
Flight Management
HI: Only high altitude airways are
displayed.
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and
coverage on Navigation Map Page
(optional).
Displays XM lightning information on
Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays METAR information on PFD
Map (subscription optional).
Displays legends for the displayed XM
Weather products (optional).
Selects desired amount of map detail;
cycles through the following levels:
•
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
Off: No terrain information shown on
MFD Map.
Flight Instruments
•
•
CHRT Opt
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
27
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Appendices
Charts
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Lvl 2
Info
Pressing the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey
returns to the airport diagram when the
view is on a different chart.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Displays departure procedure chart.
STAR
Displays standard terminal arrival
procedure chart.
APR
Displays approach procedure chart.
WX
Displays weather information.
NOTAM
Flight Management
Description
Show Map displays the applicable
‘WPT — Airport Information’ Page upon
the map for the chart currently selected.
Chart displays the chart for the ‘WPT —
Airport Information’ Page that is
currently selected and returns to the
Charts Level 2 Softkeys.
DP
Checklist
Lvl 3
Show Map
or
Chart
Flight Instruments
Lvl 1
Displays NOTAM information for
selected airport, when available.
When available, displays optional
checklists.
MENUS
The system has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This
options list allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically
relate to the currently displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus
provide access to additional submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus
display ‘No Options’ when there are no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used
in association with all window/page group operations are described in Section 1.2. Softkey selection
does not display menus or submenus.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Table 1-4 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Flight Instruments
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on PFD
Engine Indication System
Options with
FPL Window
Displayed on MFD
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Figure 1-9 Page Menu Examples
Navigating the Page Menu Window:
Hazard Avoidance
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to
the right of the window when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
AFCS
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing
the FMS Knob also removes the displayed menu.
MFD PAGE GROUPS
Appendices
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The Display Title is
comprised of the page group and active page title and is displayed in the upper center of the screen
below the Navigation Data Bar. In the bottom right corner of the screen, a page group window is
displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are displayed along the bottom of the
window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs.
Additional Features
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
29
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Active Page Title
Page Group
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
MFD
Audio Panel and CNS
Pages in
Current
Group
Page Groups
Figure 1-10 Page Title and Page Groups
Flight Management
Figure 1-10 Page Title and Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary
depending on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
FMS Knob until the desired page group is selected.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
There are several pages which may be selected by pressing the appropriate softkey at the bottom of
the page (or from the page menu). In this case, the page title will change when a different page softkey
is pressed, but the page will remain the same, i.e. the Radio and Info Softkeys show different page
titles (“Aux - XM Radio” and “Aux - XM Information” respective) within the same page, “XM Radio”.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large
30
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190-02130-02 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Pages within Page Group
Map (Map Page Group)
Navigation Map
•
IFR/VFR Charts (optional)
•
Traffic Map
•
Weather Data Link (optional)
•
TAWS—B (optional)
•
Airport Information
•
Airport Directory Information (Info 2 Softkey)
•
Departure Information (DP Softkey)
•
Arrival Information (STAR Softkey)
•
Approach Information (APR Softkey)
•
Weather Information (optional) (WX Softkey)
•
NOTAM Information (NOTAM Softkey)
NDB Information
•
VOR Information
•
VRP Information
•
User WPT Information
•
Weight Planning
•
Trip Planning
•
Utility
•
GPS Status
•
System Setup 1/2
•
XM Radio (optional)
•
XM Radio (Radio Softkey)
•
XM Information (Info Softkey)
•
System Status
•
ADS-B Status
•
Connext Setup
•
Databases
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
Maintenance WiFi Setup
Appendices
•
Additional Features
•
AFCS
Intersection Information
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
Airport Information (Info 1 Softkey)
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
AUX (Auxiliary Page Group)
•
Flight Instruments
WPT (Waypoint Page Group)
190-02130-02 Rev. A
System Overview
Page Group
31
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Group
Pages within Page Group
Flight Instruments
FPL (Flight Plan Page Group)
•
Flight Plan Catalog
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
NRST (Nearest Page Group)
Flight Management
EIS (Engine Indication System)
Stored Flight Plan (New Softkey)
•
Nearest Airports
•
Nearest Intersection
•
Nearest NDB
•
Nearest VOR
•
Nearest VRP
•
Nearest User WPTS
•
Nearest Frequencies
•
Nearest Airspaces
•
Engine
Table 1-5 Page Group and Pages
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu
is initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure
Loading Page is opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages.
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Active Flight Plan
•
Approach Loading
•
Arrival Loading
•
Departure Loading
SPLIT SCREEN FUNCTIONALITY
Chart pages may be viewed in split screen mode with the Navigation Map Page and the Active Flight
Plan Page. When the system is powered-up on the ground, following acknowledgement of the MFD
Power-up Screen, the Navigation Map Page and Active Flight Plan Page will be displayed in normal
page view. To activate the split screen functionality, press the Charts Softkey. Two display panes are
displayed on the MFD. If split screen is activated from the Navigation Map Page, the page title will
show ‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’. If split screen is activated from the Active Flight Plan Page, the
page title will change to show ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’.
See the Additional Features section for more information on Charts, and how to enable Charts Full
Screen.
Index
Appendices
•
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Title shows
Map Chart + Navigation Map
System Overview
MFD in Split Screen Mode
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts
is the active
display pane
Flight Management
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Figure
SplitScreen
Screen
Mode
Figure1-11
1-15 Split
Mode
AFCS
Additional Features
In split screen mode, the active display pane is outlined by a cyan box called the pane selector.
Softkeys and menu options will automatically change depending on which display pane is active.
Display panes may be displayed vertically in Narrow View, or horizontally in Wide View. In Narrow
View, move the Joystick left or right to move the pane selector. In Wide View, move the Joystick up
and down to move the pane selector. To change between Wide View and Narrow View, push and
hold the Joystick.
For information on viewing Charts and the Active Flight Plan Page with the Flight Plan map, see
the Flight Management Section.
For more information on Charts and how to enable Charts Full Screen, see the Additional Features
section.
Hazard Avoidance
CONTROLLING DISPLAY PANES
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Flight Instruments
MFD in Split Screen Mode
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Pane Selector Box
- Move Joystick in
direction of cyan
arrows to move
display pane
- Push and hold
Joystick to change
Narrow/Wide view
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts
is the active
display pane
Flight Management
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Figure1-12
1-16 Split
Split Screen
in Wide
View View
Figure
Screen
in Wide
Hazard Avoidance
Enabling/disabling split screen mode:
1) From the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page press the
Charts Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode On’.
Key and select ‘Chart Mode Off’. The display returns to the base page, either the
Navigation Map Page or the Active Flight Plan Page.
SYSTEM SETTINGS
System settings and crew profiles are managed from the System Setup Pages. Fields shown in cyan
text may be edited. Managing crew profiles and editing the system time format, display units, arrival
alerts, and audio voice format settings are discussed in this section. For other system settings, see the
reference given to their respective sections.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
2) To disable the split screen mode, press the Charts Softkey again or press the MENU
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Configure System
Time
Fields shown in Cyan may
be edited
Engine Indication System
Change Display
Unit Settings
Configure settings
- GPS CDI
- Channel Spacing
- Flight Director Format
- Nearest Airport
Audio Panel and CNS
Configure Alert
Settings
Restore System Defaults
Flight Management
Crew Profile
Audio Settings
Hazard Avoidance
- Choose active profile
- Create new profile
- Edit, rename, and delete
existing profile (other than
default profile)
- Import / Export profile to
SD Card
Stability/Protection
Setting
Charts Settings
AFCS
Select System Setup Page
- Setup 1
- Setup 2
Additional Features
Figure 1-13 System Setup 1/2 Pages
If desired, the default system settings may be restored at any time.
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
and press the ENT Key. The message ‘Restore Setup (1 or 2) Page Defaults?’ is
displayed.
Appendices
2) Press the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’,
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Index
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System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
CREW PROFILES
Flight Instruments
System settings may be saved under a crew profile. When the system is powered on, the last
selected crew profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Screen. The system can store up to 25 profiles;
the currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are
shown at the top of the System Setup Page in the box labeled “Crew Profile”. From here, crew
profiles may be created, selected, renamed, or deleted. Crew profiles may also be exported from the
system to an SD card, or imported from an SD card into the system.
Engine Indication System
CREW PROFILE IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
Message
Description
‘No crew profile files found.’
Displayed if the SD card does not have one or
more valid pilot profile filenames.
‘Overwrite existing profile?’
Displayed if the profile name matches the name
of existing profile.
‘Profile name invalid. Enter a different profile
name.’
Displayed if the profile name is invalid.
‘All available crew profiles in use. Delete a
profile before importing another.’
Displayed if the maximum number for pilot
profiles has been reached.
‘Crew profile import failed.’
Displayed if the importing operation fails for any
other reason.
‘Crew profile import succeeded.’
Displayed if the importing operation succeeds.
‘Overwrite existing file?’
Displayed if the filename matches the name of an
existing file on the SD card.
‘Crew profile export failed.’
Displayed if the export operation fails.
‘Crew profile export succeeded.’
Displayed if the export operation succeeds.
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others:
Table 1-6 Crew Profile Import/Export Messages
Creating a profile:
Additional Features
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Create’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
Appendices
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ Window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT
Key. Crew profile names cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to
Index
base the new profile. Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default
profile settings (initially based on Garmin factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or
other previously created profile settings.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Create’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile.
Or:
9) To cancel the process, select ‘Cancel’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
Selecting an active profile:
Flight Instruments
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Create & Activate’ and press the ENT Key to activate
the new profile.
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the crew profile list and highlight the desired
profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The system loads and displays the system settings for the selected
Flight Management
profile.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Active’ profile Field in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
Renaming a Profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Rename’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the
ENT Key.
Additional Features
8) With ‘Rename’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
Deleting a profile:
Appendices
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
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Index
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
37
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘Delete’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Flight Instruments
Key.
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the crew profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
Engine Indication System
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
3) Press the Import Softkey.
Or:
Audio Panel and CNS
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Importing’ Window with ‘Import’ highlighted.
Flight Management
Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the desired
profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press
the ENT Key with ‘Import’ highlighted.
5) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system
Hazard Avoidance
displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to
replace profile on the system with the profile imported from the SD card, or turn the
FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the ‘Crew Profile
Importing’ Window.
6) If successful, the system displays ‘Crew profile import succeeded’ in the Window below.
Additional Features
AFCS
With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to
the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page. The imported profile becomes the active profile.
Appendices
Crew Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Crew Profiles Available for Import
from SD Card
Import Successful
Index
Figure 1-14 Crew Profile Import on the (Aux - System Setup Page)
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System Overview
Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Crew Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the Export Softkey. The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Exporting’ Window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
4) To export the crew profile using the current selected profile, press the ENT Key with
5) If the selected profile to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the
6) If successful, the window displays ‘Crew profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’
Hazard Avoidance
highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Aux System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
Flight Management
SD card, the system displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt.
Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the SD card with the profile to be exported,
or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
‘Crew Profile Exporting’ Window without exporting the profile.
Audio Panel and CNS
‘Export’ highlighted. To change the selected profile, turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the desired profile name with the large
and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘Export’
highlighted.
Engine Indication System
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
Export Successful
Additional Features
Crew Profile Exporting Window, Enter
a Name to Use for Exported Profile
Figure 1-15 Crew Profile Export on the (Aux - System Setup Page)
DATE/TIME
Appendices
The system obtains the current Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) date and time directly from the
GPS satellite signals (shown on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page). System time (displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local
time is set by adding/subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
Index
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Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Flight Management
Figure 1-16 System Time (UTC Format)
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 1-12 System Time (UTC Format)
Figure 1-13 Date/Time Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Additional Features
Figure 1-17 Date/Time Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Appendices
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ Field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection. If local time format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ Field is highlighted.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press
Index
the ENT Key to confirm selection.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system screens are listed on the System
Setup Page. The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set
from here.
Affected Quantities
Altitude and
Vertical Speed
Feet*
Meters
All altitudes on MFD
All elevations on MFD
††
Temperature
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
†††
Fuel and Fuel
Flow**
Gallons
Fuel Parameters (Trip Planning Page)
†††
Weight**
Pounds
N/A
Position**
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
Additional Features
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges (some)
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK Fields (Navigation Data Bar)
Most distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
†
AFCS
Metric
Nautical*
Hazard Avoidance
Distance and
Speed
Flight Management
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind Direction (Trip Planning Page)
Audio Panel and CNS
Navigation
Angle
Engine Indication System
Settings
Flight Instruments
Category
System Overview
DISPLAY UNITS
Appendices
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
† Excludes: airspeed indicator, altitude, true airspeed (PFD), wind speed vector, map
range (Traffic Map Page, Terrain Proximity/HTAWS Page), CDI scaling (System Setup),
and fuel range calculation (EIS)
†† Excludes: altimeter, Vertical Speed Indicator, and VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
††† Excludes: Engine Indication System (EIS)
Table 1-7 Display Unit Settings (System Setup Page)
Index
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System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Changing a display unit setting:
1) While on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate
the flashing cursor.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
Engine Indication System
BARO TRANSITION ALERT
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on setting the Baro Transition Alert.
AIRSPACE ALERTS
Audio Panel and CNS
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on Airspace Alerts settings.
ARRIVAL ALERTS
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
The ‘Arrival Alert’ Box on the System Setup 1 Page allows the ‘Messages’ Window arrival alerts to
be turned “On/Off” and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the ‘Messages’
Window and the PFD Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a
message upon reaching a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or
the last waypoint in a flight plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to “On”, and the set distance is reached,
an “Arrival at waypoint” message is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT
ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is displayed in the ‘Message’s Window. When Arrival
Alerts is set to “Off”, only the PFD Navigation Status Box message “Arriving at waypoint” is
displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is approximately ten seconds.
Figure 1-16 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Figure 1-18 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Appendices
Enabling/disabling the Arrival Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Index
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to
System Overview
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
turn the alert Off.
Flight Instruments
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
Engine Indication System
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Distance’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT DIRECTOR
Audio Panel and CNS
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion setting the Flight Director format.
MFD DATA BAR FIELDS
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on the MFD Data Bar Fields settings.
GPS CDI
COM CONFIGURATION
See the Audio Panel & CNS section for a discussion on the COM Configuration for channel
spacing.
Flight Management
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on setting the GPS CDI format.
Hazard Avoidance
NEAREST AIRPORT
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on the Nearest Airport settings.
STABILITY AND PROTECTION
AFCS
See the Additional Features Section for information on enabling and disabling the Stability and
Protection feature.
AUDIO SETTINGS
Additional Features
The ‘Audio’ Box on the System Setup 2 Page displays the audio alert voice setting (male only) and
allows the pilot and copilot to enable/disable the 3D Audio feature and swap left and right audio
within the respective headset earpieces. Refer to the Audio & CNS Section for more information
about 3D audio.
Appendices
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-15 Pilot Profile Export (Aux - System Setup Page)
Engine Indication System
Figure 1-19 Audio Settings
Enabling/Disabling 3D Audio:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Pilot 3D Audio’ or ‘Copilot 3D Audio’ ‘On/
Off’ Field in the Audio Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn 3D Audio On or counterclockwise to turn
Flight Management
Off.
Swapping left/right audio in a headset:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Pilot L-R Swap’ or ‘Copilot L-R Swap’ ‘On/
Off’ Field in the Audio Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the Swap On or counterclockwise to turn
Off.
AFCS
CHARTS
See the Additional Features Section for information on setting up auto taxi chart.
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the Aux Utility Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer,
and a record of the time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and
maximum groundspeeds—are displayed from the time of the last reset.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
SYSTEM UTILITIES
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 1-17 Utility Page
Flight Management
Figure 1-20 Utility Page
TIMERS
The system timers available on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page include:
Stopwatch-like generic timers
•
Total-time-in-flight timer
•
Time since departure
Hazard Avoidance
•
Additional Features
Appendices
Setting the generic timer:
AFCS
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the
countdown on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset
before reaching zero on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting
up when reset, the digits return to zero.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that
the aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the
time to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can
also be reset to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is
displayed is controlled from the System Setup Page.
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the
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Index
ENT Key.
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45
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS ‘Generic’ Field.
Flight Instruments
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer.
The field changes to ‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to
Engine Indication System
‘Reset?’.
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back
to ‘Start?’ and the digits are reset.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Flight’ timer Field.
Flight Management
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the
ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Departure Time’ Field.
Additional Features
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the
ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
Appendices
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
TRIP STATISTICS
Index
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these
odometers can be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip
groundspeed. Maximum groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
•
Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
•
Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
•
Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The
selected parameters are reset to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
SCHEDULER
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
The system’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Switch
fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”, etc.) in the Messages Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display
based on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default
setting), or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to
periodic alerting automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When
power is cycled, messages are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Scheduler messages appear in the “Messages” Window on the PFD and cause the Messages Softkey
label to change to a flashing “Message” label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the “Messages”
Window and acknowledges the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the “Messages” label.
Pressing the Messages Softkey again removes the “Messages” Window from the display and the
scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Engine Indication System
Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
Flight Instruments
•
AFCS
Additional Features
Figure 1-18 PFD Alerts Window
Appendices
Figure 1-21 PFD Alerts Window
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
Index
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty field within the ‘Scheduler’ Box.
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System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter text within the ‘Message’ Field to be displayed in the
‘Messages’ Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the ‘Type’
Flight Instruments
Field.
Engine Indication System
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
•
Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
•
One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
•
Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next
field.
Audio Panel and CNS
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value
(HHH:MM:SS) from which to countdown and press the ENT Key.
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT
Flight Management
Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next
field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the
next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Message’ Field of the scheduler message to
be deleted.
Additional Features
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the
message is restored.
Index
Appendices
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be
adjusted manually in one of two ways:
Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
•
The PFD Setup Menu and procedures below. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from a PFD. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from remaining displays.
Flight Instruments
•
System Overview
1.5 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Figure
1-19PFD
PFD Setup
Menu
Figure
1-22
Setup
Menu
Hazard Avoidance
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup Menu’. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted
next to ‘PFD1 Display’. If desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to
‘MFD Display’ or ‘PFD2 Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value
AFCS
is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Additional Features
Adjusting key backlighting:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup Menu’. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted
next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD1 Display’, ‘MFD Display’, or ‘PFD2 Display’,
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 Key’,
Appendices
as desired.
‘MFD Key’, or ‘PFD2 Key’.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Auto’.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
49
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value
is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 OVERVIEW
Airspeed Indicator, showing
Indicated airspeed
•
True speed
•
Airspeed awareness ranges
•
Vspeed Reference Bugs
•
Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
•
Altimeter, showing
Trend vector
•
Barometric setting
•
Selected altitude
Hazard Avoidance
•
•
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
•
Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
•
Outside air temperature (OAT)
•
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) temperature deviation
•
Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
Turn Rate Indicator
•
Bearing pointers and information windows
•
Navigation Source
•
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
•
DME Information Window (optional)
•
HSI Map
Appendices
•
Additional Features
Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath Indicators
AFCS
•
Index
•
Flight Management
•
ADF/DME Tuning Window (Optional)
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
The system increases pilot situational awareness by providing and easy-to-scan Primary Flight Display
(PFD) that features a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical speed, and course deviation
information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic, and
weather information are also presented on the PFD and explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on
selected flight instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts,
as they appear on the display during certain AFCS modes.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
51
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
•
•
Timer/References Window, Showing
•
Generic timer
•
Vspeed values
•
Barometric Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH)
Wind data
Engine Indication System
The PFD also displays various alerts and annunciations.
16
15
Audio Panel and CNS
14
13
Flight Management
1
12
11
2
Hazard Avoidance
10
3
9
4
8
5
AFCS
6
7
1
Airspeed Indicator
9
Turn Rate Indicator
2
True Airspeed
10
Barometric Altimeter Setting
3
Current Heading
11
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
4
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
12
Selected Altitude Bug
5
ISA Temperature Deviation
13
Altimeter
6
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
14
Selected Altitude
7
Softkeys
15
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Selected Heading Bug
16
Attitude Indicator
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
10
9
Flight Instruments
8
1
Engine Indication System
7
2
3
Audio Panel and CNS
6
4
Flight Management
5
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
6
Minimum Descent Altitude/ Decision
Height
2
Wind Data Box
7
Selected Course
3
HSI Map
8
Required Vertical Speed Indicator
4
DME Window
9
Vertical Deviation Indication
5
Bearing Information Windows
10
VNV Target Altitude
AFCS
Selected Heading
Hazard Avoidance
1
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
53
2.2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon
line. The Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
1
7
2
Audio Panel and CNS
6
3
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-3 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and
numeric labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚
increments, up to 25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the
horizon line, minor pitch marks occur every 2.5˚. When the Synthetic Vision System is activated, the
pitch scale is reduced to 10˚ up and 7.5˚ down; refer to the Additional Features section.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and
minor tick marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is
indicated by the position of the pointer on the roll scale. When the optional Electronic Stability and
Protection System (Garmin ESP™) system is installed and enabled, additional indications also appear
on the roll scale; refer to the Additional Features Section for more information about Garmin ESP.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll
pointer and moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the
turn) or skid (outside the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer. One bar
displacement is equal to one ball displacement on a traditional Slip/Skid Indicator.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
8
54
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Figure 2-4 Slip/Skid Indication
NOTE: Synthetic Vision System Pathways are disabled if the cross-pointer is displayed.
Flight Management
Single-cue
Audio Panel and CNS
The amber symbolic aircraft on the Attitude Indicator changes appearance based on selection of
AFCS Flight Director Command Bar format (see the AFCS Section for details). The Command Bar
format (single-cue or cross-pointer) may be selected from the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Cross-pointer
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 2-5 Flight Director Format
Changing the Command Bar format:
1) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the ‘Aux’ page group on the MFD.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux — System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
Additional Features
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Format Active’ setting in the ‘Flight Director’
’Single Cue’ to display the aircraft symbol and Command Bars as a single cue.
Appendices
Or:
’X Pointer’ to display the aircraft symbol and Command Bars as a cross-pointer.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
55
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed
is displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the
moving tape are marked at intervals of 10 knots. The minor tick marks on the moving tape are
indicated at intervals of 5 knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed
viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains
black until reaching never-exceed speed (VNE), then it becomes red.
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
Flight Management
Indicated
Airspeed
Speed
Ranges
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Low
Speed
Range
True
Airspeed
Figure 2-6 Airspeed Indicator Ranges
A color-coded (red, white, green, and amber) speed range strip is located on the moving tape. The
colors denote flaps operating range, normal operating range, caution range, and never-exceed speed
(VNE). A red range is also present for low speed awareness.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded
speed range strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is
anchored to the tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down
corresponding to the rate of acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or
deceleration, the moving end of the line shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will
be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VNE, the number in the indicated airspeed pointer
changes to amber. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains constant or if any data needed to
calculate airspeed is not available due to a system failure.
VSpeeds (VX and VY) cannot be changed, however the speed bugs can be enabled/disabled from the
References Window. When active (on), the speed bugs are displayed at their respective locations to the
right of the airspeed scale.
Index
Appendices
Red
Pointer
at VNE
Vspeed
References
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
References Window
References Menu
Figure 2-7 References Window and Menu
Enabling/disabling individual Vspeed Reference Bugs:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the On/Off field for the desired bug.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
Flight Management
4) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Enabling/disabling Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll as needed to highlight the desired selection.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the References Window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
AFCS
ALTIMETER
57
Index
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Appendices
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Additional Features
The Altimeter displays barometric altitude values on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The pilot
can choose display units format for the Altimeter as feet or meters.
If the altitude is displayed in feet, the Altimeter shows 600 feet of barometric altitude at a time, with
numeric labels and major tick marks displayed at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at
intervals of 20 feet.
If the altitude is displayed in meters, the Altimeter shows 180 meters of barometric altitude at a time,
with numeric labels and major tick market displayed at intervals of 50 meters. Minor tick marks are at
intervals of 10 meters.
The Indicated Altitude is displayed in the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug
symbol. A bug corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape; if the Selected Altitude exceeds the
range shown on the tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. See the AFCS Section
for more information about the Selected Altitude.
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Instruments
Reference
Altitude
Engine Indication System
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Indicated
Altitude
Altitude
Trend
Vector
Audio Panel and CNS
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting
Flight Management
Altimeter in Feet
Altimeter in Meters
Selected Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Selected Altitude in
Feet Overlay
Indicated Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Indicated Altitude in
Feet Overlay
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 2-8 Altimeter
Appendices
Altimeter in Feet with Metric
Overlays Enabled
Altimeter in Meters with Feet
Overlays Enabled
Index
Figure 2-9 Altimeter with Altitude Units Overlays
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
Selecting the altitude display units:
1) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Flight Instruments
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘ALT, VS’ datafield in the ‘Display Units’
Window.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Feet(FT,FPM)’ or ‘Meters(MT,MPS)’ and
Setting the Selected Altitude:
1) Turn the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude. If the Altimeter display units are set
for the Selected altitude.
The pilot can choose to display overlays for the indicated altitude and Selected Altitude using alternate
display units. For example, if the Altimeter is displaying feet, the system can show a metric overlay for
the indicated and selected altitudes without changing the scale or display units of the Altimeter.
Flight Management
2) If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available
Audio Panel and CNS
to feet, the Selected Altitude increments are 100 feet. If the Altimeter is set to Metric,
the Selected altitude increments are 50 meters. When the altitude units overlays are
enabled, the increments alternate between a rounded value of feet or meters while
turning the ALT SEL Knob. If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height
(MDA/DH) value is also available for the Selected Altitude.
Engine Indication System
press the ENT Key. This setting affects altitude displays system-wide, in addition to
those shown on the PFD.
Hazard Avoidance
Enabling altitude units overlays:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys..
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the Meters or Feet Softkeyto enable/disable the altitude overlays.
AFCS
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Appendices
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not
operate properly with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height
above mean sea level, or the standard pressure setting, as applicable.
Additional Features
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or
hectopascals (hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates
discontinuities in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take
several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a
waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to
meet the vertical constraint.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
59
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the STD Baro Softkey.
Engine Indication System
Figure 2-10 Standard Barometric Setting
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in
Hg).
Or:
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the
barometric pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition
Alert occurs when climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The
flight level Baro Transition Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at
200 feet above this flight level. The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the
barometric pressure setting. The pilot can enable/disable either Baro Transition Alert, and choose the
altitude or flight level used to trigger the alerts.
Setting the Baro Transition Alerts:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) To enable/disable the Baro Transition Alert based on altitude, turn the large FMS Knob
Additional Features
to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition Alert Altitude in the ‘BARO
Transition Alert’ Box.
4) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Altitude ‘On’ or
‘Off’.
Appendices
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude’ field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to change the altitude and press the ENT Key to accept or press the
CLR Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition
Index
Alert Level.
60
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
‘Off’.
System Overview
8) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Flight Level ‘On’ or
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Flight Level’ field.
Flight Instruments
10) Use the FMS Knobs to change the Flight Level for the alert and press the ENT Key to
accept or press the CLR Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
11) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical
guidance when SBAS is available.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape. The
current vertical speed is displayed in the pointer along the tape. The pilot can choose the display units
format for the VSI and altimeter as feet or meters.
If the VSI is displayed in feet, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 1000 and 2000 feet per
minute. Minor tick marks appear for every 500 fpm. If the current vertical speed is at least 100 fpm,
digits appear in the pointer. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 2000 fpm, the pointer appears at the
corresponding edge of the tape while displaying the current vertical speed numerically.
If the VSI is displayed in meters, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 5 and 10 meters per
second. Minor tick marks appear for every 2.5 meters per second. If the current vertical speed it least
0.5 meters per second, digits appear in the pointer. If the rate of ascent or descent exceeds 10 meters per
second, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape while displaying the current vertical
speed numerically.
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a
VNV Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the
Flight Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to the Supplemental Flight Data
discussion later in this section for more information about VNV indications on the PFDs.
Engine Indication System
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
AFCS
VERTICAL DEVIATION
Additional Features
Appendices
When Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used, the Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) appears to the
left of the altimeter and is displayed with a magenta ‘V’ at the top of the scale and a magenta chevron
indicating the baro-VNAV vertical deviation. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1
minute” alert. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to the Supplemental Flight Data discussion
later in this section for more information about VNV indications on the PFDs.
The Glideslope Indicator appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned in
the active NAV field and the selected course and heading are within 107°. A green diamond acts as the
Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is
tuned and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
61
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VNV Target
Altitude
Flight Instruments
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Additional Features
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 2-11 Vertical Speed and Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI) and Glideslope Indicator
The Glidepath Indicator is a vertical deviation scale for GPS approach service levels supporting SBAS
vertical guidance (LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LPV, LP+V) or advisory vertical guidance (LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual).
The Glidepath Indicator, a magenta diamond appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix
(FAF) becomes the active waypoint, and GPS is the selected navigation source. Full-scale deflection
(two dots) is angular with upper and lower limits. The upper limit is +/-492 feet (150 meters) and
lower limit depends on approach service level as follows:
•
LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
•
LPV is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
If the approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
diamond.
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF)
becomes the active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC
clearance, the aircraft may be centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath
Indicator appears.
While executing an SBAS approach with an LNAV/VNAV approach service level, and between the
FAF and MAP, the Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators appear as vertical white lines indicating the area
where deviation exceeds allowable limits for the glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator
provides a scaled representation of +/- 75 feet of the calculated glidepath. The “window” between the
lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The length of the lines change while progressing
through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator enters an excessive deviation area, the
Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators become amber.
Index
Appendices
Vertical
Speed
Pointer
Required
Vertical
Speed
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Glidepath
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
(excessive
deviation)
Flight Instruments
Glidepath
Indicator
System Overview
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
•
The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
•
SBAS is manually disabled on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
Baro-VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV procedure does not
support SBAS vertical guidance. Baro-VNAV is an RNAV system which uses barometric altitude
information from the aircraft’s pitot-static system and air data computer to compute vertical guidance
for the flight crew. This vertical path is typically computed between two waypoints or as an angle from
a single waypoint. While using baro-VNAV guidance, the flight crew should check for any temperature
limitations on the approach chart which may result in approach restrictions
While baro-VNAV is being used, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta pentagon. If the
approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
pentagon.
Flight Management
•
Audio Panel and CNS
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach and SBAS is unavailable or disabled, baro-VNAV
(barometric vertical navigation) is used for vertical guidance. This occurs due to any of the following
conditions:
Engine Indication System
Figure 2-12 Glidepath Indicator and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
63
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Instruments
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicator
(excessive
deviation)
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 2-13 Glidepath Indicator (Baro-VNAV) and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear
on the PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See
the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed
from the PFD according to the criteria listed in the table.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
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System Overview
Top of Descent Message
Flight Instruments
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Engine Indication System
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Audio Panel and CNS
Phase of
Flight
FMS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Flight Management
Figure 2-14 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
Hazard Avoidance
VNV Indication Removed
VNV Target
Altitude
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight
plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey selected on
MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed
due to unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight
Management Section)
X
X
X
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target
Altitude
X
X
X
Additional Features
Vertical
Deviation
(VDI)
AFCS
Required
Vertical
Speed
(RSVI)
Criteria
Appendices
Index
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65
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
VNV Indication Removed
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Vertical
Deviation
(VDI)
VNV Target
Altitude
Current crosstrack or track angle error has
exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be
reached within maximum allowed flight path
angle and vertical speed
X
X
Table 2-1 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up
orientation. Letters indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at
10˚ intervals and minor tick marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears
on top of the HSI. The HSI also presents turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and selected navigation
source information. The HSI is available in two formats: a 360˚ compass rose and a 210˚ HSI Map. The
HSI Map is mutually exclusive with the Inset Maps.
The HSI with the HSI map disabled presents a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) with a Course
Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a sliding deviation bar and scale. The Course Pointer is a single line
arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC) or a double line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction
of the set course. The To/From Indicator rotates with the Course Pointer and appears when the system
is receiving the active NAVAID.
15
14
13
1
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Required
Vertical
Speed
(RSVI)
Criteria
2
Additional Features
3
12
11
Appendices
4
5
10
6
9
7
8
Index
Figure 2-15 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
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To/From Indicator
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
Course Pointer
11
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
4
Navigation Source
12
Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Turn Rate and Heading Trend Vector
6
Lateral Deviation Scale
14
Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
15
Lubber Line
8
OBS Mode Active
Flight Management
Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation Source
Hazard Avoidance
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
Course Pointer
Audio Panel and CNS
The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay
capabilities such as topographical, weather, traffic, and land information. The HSI Map contains a
Course Pointer, a combined To/From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral
deviation scale. Upon passing a station, the To/From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft.
Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the HSI Map can appear either as an arrowhead
(GPS, VOR, OBS) as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight Management Section for information about
using HSI Map overlays.
Engine Indication System
9
Flight Instruments
Turn Rate Indicator
System Overview
1
AFCS
Additional Features
Figure 2-16 HSI Map
The following information appears above the Current Heading when the HSI Map is enabled:
OBS Mode/Suspend Mode Status
Deviation scale
Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode Annunciation
Navigation Source
Crosstrack Error (XTK)
Flight Phase
Back Course Annunciation (BC)
Appendices
A sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and deviation
indicators are combined)
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For the HSI Map, when a localizer is the active navigation source and the difference between the
selected course and current heading is greater than 107°, a ‘BC’ annunciation appears instead of the
Flight Phase above the selected course readout to indicate backcourse sensing is active. This
annunciation does not apply to the HSI when the HSI Map is disabled. In either case, when the system
detects LOC BC guidance is active, the localizer guidance behaves as if a front course were selected.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted.
Enabling/disabling the HSI Map on the PFD:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Map Softkey to enable the HSI Map.
Audio Panel and CNS
Or:
Press the Map Off Softkey to disable the HSI Map.
Adjusting the selected heading:
1) Turn the HDG Knob to set the selected heading.
Flight Management
2) Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
1) Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of
the active waypoint or navigation station (see OBS Mode for adjusting a GPS course).
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted.
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
AFCS
Selected Heading
Selected Course
Figure 2-17 Heading and Course Indications
The Current Track Indicator, represented by a magenta diamond on the HSI, is the current over the
ground track the aircraft is flying.
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation
(Mag Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the ‘AUX - System Setup 1’ Page. When an approach
referenced to true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change
the navigation angle setting to True at the appropriate time.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Selected Heading Bug
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Figure 2-18 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Engine Indication System
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX - System Setup 1‘ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Nav Angle’ in the ‘Display Units’ box.
Audio Panel and CNS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
•
True - References angles to true north (T)
•
Magnetic - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral
deviation scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not
valid, the CDI is not displayed.
Hazard Avoidance
Navigation
Source
Scale
Flight
Phase
AFCS
Crosstrack
Error
Flight Management
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
CDI
Appendices
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, FMS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current
navigation source, magenta for FMS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are
defined by an FMS-derived distance when coupled to the FMS. If the CDI exceeds the maximum
deviation on the scale (two dots) while navigating with FMS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed
below the white aircraft symbol. When navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the
same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI.
Additional Features
Figure 2-19 Course Deviation Indicator
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Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 2-20 Navigation Sources
Flight Management
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
FMS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Hazard Avoidance
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-21 Selecting a Navigation Source
Changing navigation sources:
AFCS
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from FMS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan
tuning box over the NAV1 standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
places the cyan tuning box over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to FMS.
TURN RATE INDICATOR
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left
and right of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend
Vector shows the current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6
seconds, based on the present turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend
vector stopping at the standard turn rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from
the current heading. At rates greater than 4 deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta
trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This
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Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
Flight Instruments
Half Standard
Turn Rate
System Overview
Standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-22 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
•
The final approach fix (FAF) is the active waypoint, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft
is moving toward the FAF
•
A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
•
The FMS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
The system automatically switches from FMS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
FMS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC
capture, up to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until FMS information becomes
invalid. Activating a Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source.
FMS steering guidance is not provided after this switch.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix
prior to the FAF, it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from FMS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
AFCS
Fix Prior to the FAF
Additional Features
Glideslope Intercept Point
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source
annunciation becomes amber on both displays if not synchronized. Once the CDIs are synchronized
(CDI Synchronization turned on), they remain synchronized until the selection is turned off.
Appendices
Figure 2-23 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
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GPS CDI SCALING (FMS NAVIGATION SOURCE)
(Oceanic if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
Terminal
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Terminal
Approach
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-24 Automatic CDI Scaling
•
Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
•
The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following
conditions:
The next leg in the procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
The next leg in the departure procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
(see Glossary for leg type definitions)
After any leg in the departure procedure that is not CA or FA
•
At 30 nm from the departure airport the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI
scaling changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure
airport) or the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is
activated.
•
If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the
aircraft and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0
nm).
•
Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from
2.0 nm to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
AFCS
Additional Features
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Enroute
Departure
Index
Appendices
0.3 nm
When FMS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown
in magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the
flight plan is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the AUX - System Setup Page and
the full-scale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page.
If the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is
scaled accordingly and the selected setting is be displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon
the current phase of flight (Figure 2-30, Table 2-3).
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
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FAF
FAF
0.3 nm
course width
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
350 ft
1.0 nm
0.3 nm
angle based
on database
information
2 nm
Audio Panel and CNS
angle set
by system
2 nm
Landing
Threshold
Flight Management
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-26 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LPV and LP
Approach CDI Scaling
When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
•
The system automatically switches back to terminal scaling under the following conditions:
The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or
TF
After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not CA or FA
Annunciation*
Automatic CDI Full-scale
Deflection
DPRT
0.3 nm
Terminal
TERM
1.0 nm
Enroute
ENR
2.0 nm
Oceanic
OCN
4.0 nm
Appendices
Departure
Additional Features
Flight Phase
AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 2-25 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V
Approach CDI Scaling
Engine Indication System
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
Flight Instruments
During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (see Figures Below). This transition
normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling
automatically once the approach procedure is activated or if Vector-to-Final (VTF) is selected.
If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of
the final approach segment course.
If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
CDI Full-scale Deflection
•
System Overview
Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination
airport, the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0
nm to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm.
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Phase
Flight Instruments
Approach (Nonprecision)
Approach (Nonprecision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
Automatic CDI Full-scale
Deflection
LNAV
LNAV+V
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet
depending on variables (Figure 2-22)
VISUAL
Approach (LNAV/
VNAV)
LNAV
Approach (LPV)
LPV
Approach (Nonprecision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
LP+V
Approach (LP)
Missed Approach
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified
course width, then 0.3 nm,
depending on variables (Figure 2-23)
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
LNAV+V
Annunciation*
Changing the selected FMS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Allowed’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
OBS MODE
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a
GPS flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to”
waypoint as the navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the
lower right of the aircraft symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving
map. If desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled,
the GPS flight plan returns to normal operation with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the
course set in OBS Mode. The flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
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System Overview
GPS
Selected
Flight Instruments
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Engine Indication System
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-27 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. ‘SUSP’ appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in the following figure. Selecting the SUSP
Softkey, deactivates the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
AFCS
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 2-28 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS
Additional Features
Knob to synchronize the Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
Appendices
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and FMS
sources by pressing the PFD Opt Softkey then either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey. The bearing
pointers are cyan and are single-line (BRG1) or double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the
information window to indicate the navigation source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI
and are visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing pointers may be selected but not
necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Bearing 2
Pointer
Flight Instruments
Distance
DME Information Window
Distance to
Bearing Source
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Bearing 1
Pointer
Pointer
Icon
Bearing
Source
Bearing
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
Station
Pointer
Identifier
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
Figure 2-29 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
When a bearing pointer is displayed, its associated information window is also displayed. The
Bearing Information windows are displayed to the lower sides of the HSI and display the following
information:
Bearing source (NAV, FMS, ADF)
GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double
line)
Frequency (NAV)
Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, FMS)
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is
removed from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced
by the station identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active
waypoint identifier is displayed in lieu of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and “NO DATA” is displayed in the information
window if the NAV radio is not receiving the tuned VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an
active waypoint is not selected.
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and
Appendices
information window with a NAV source.
3) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to change the bearing source to
Index
FMS.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
to ADF (note: ADF radio installation is optional).
System Overview
4) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey a third time to change the bearing source
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either Bearing 1 or
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
NOTE: DME installation is optional.
Audio Panel and CNS
Displaying the DME Information Window:
Engine Indication System
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window on the 360˚ HSI
and in a box above and along side the Arc HSI. It shows the DME label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or
HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance is replaced by –.– – NM Refer to
the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the DME.
Flight Instruments
Bearing 2 Softkey again.
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1
Information Window.
Flight Management
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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2.3 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information,
including temperatures, wind data, and Generic Timer.
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer can be accessed via softkeys on the PFD and allows for quick access for timing
functions (either counting up or down) for the pilot.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Setting the Generic Timer:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (HH:MM:SS).
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time.
4) Press the ENT Key. The Up/Dn field is now highlighted.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the UP/DOWN Window.
Flight Management
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Start?’ is now highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘Stop?’. If the timer is
counting DOWN, it will start counting UP after reaching zero.
Hazard Avoidance
9) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to
‘Reset?’.
10) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back
to ‘Start?’ and the digits are reset.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and deviation from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
temperature are displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD. Both temperatures are displayed in
degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F), depending on the selected temperature units on the ‘Aux System Setup 1’ Page.
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
11) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Index
Figure 2-30 Air Temperatures
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System Overview
Changing temperature display units:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Celsius’ or ‘Fahrenheit’ and press the ENT
Engine Indication System
Key to confirm the selection.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
WIND DATA
Option 3
No Data
Flight Management
Option 2
Audio Panel and CNS
Wind direction and speed (relative to the aircraft) in knots can be displayed in a window to the
upper left of the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or
unavailable, the window shows “NO WIND DATA”. Wind data can be displayed in three different
ways:
Option 1
Flight Instruments
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Temperature datafield in the ‘Display Units’
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Figure 2-31 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
Additional Features
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the Option Softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
Option 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
•
Option 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
•
Option 3: Wind direction arrow with headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
Appendices
•
To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
Index
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2.4 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to the Engine
Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) Section for information on the Crew Alerting System
(CAS) and to Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
ALTITUDE ALERTING
The Altitude Alerting function provides visual and audio alerts when approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, Altitude Alerting is reset. Altitude Alerting is
based on the altitude information shown on the PFD. Altitude Alerting is independent of the AFCS.
The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
•
Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude Box changes to black
text on a cyan background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
•
When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to
cyan text on a black background and flashes for 5 seconds.
•
After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the aircraft flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the
Selected Altitude), the Selected Altitude Box changes to amber text on a black background, flashes
for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-32 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available. This
annunciation is not shown unless HTAWS alerting is inhibited, has failed, or is unavailable.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical
guidance, a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet
below the prescribed altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation appears to the
top left of the Altimeter, flashing for several seconds then remaining displayed until the condition is
resolved.
Figure 2-33 Low Altitude Annunciation on PFD
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer
marker reception is indicated in blue, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel
and CNS Section for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Middle Marker
System Overview
Outer Marker
Inner Marker
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Altimeter
Figure 2-34 Marker Beacon Annunciations
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
•
When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn white.
•
Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text become amber and the voice alert, “Minimums.
Minimums”, is heard.
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Hazard Avoidance
When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, the BARO MIN, RA
MIN, or COMP MIN box appears with the altitude in cyan (or magenta for COMP MIN) text. The
bug appears on the altitude tape in cyan (or magenta for COMP MIN) once in range.
Flight Management
•
Audio Panel and CNS
For altitude awareness, a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH), based on
barometric altitude, radar altitude, or temperature compensated can be set. When active, the altitude
setting is displayed to the lower left of the altimeter, with a bug at the corresponding altitude along the
altimeter (once the altitude is within the visible range of the tape). The following visual annunciations
alert the pilot when approaching the MDA or DH:
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
AFCS
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Additional Features
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-35 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
Appendices
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above
the setting for the alert. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA/DH, once it
reaches 50 feet above the MDA/DH, alerting is disabled. The function is reset when the power is
cycled.
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Figure 2-36 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
Engine Indication System
Setting the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP.’ ‘OFF’ is selected by default.
Audio Panel and CNS
Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet).
5) If TEMP COMP was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to
Flight Management
highlight the next field and then enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
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System Overview
2.5 GARMIN SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY (SVT)
GARMIN SVT (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Flight Management
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is an optional visual enhancement to the system. SVT
depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The
field of view is 29 degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. In Reversionary Mode, the field of
view is 21.5 degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary
Flight Display (PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted
imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arcsecond database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution is 4.9 arcseconds, meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds
on each side, is required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including
temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled (although the softkeys will still appear
functional) until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical
map display), large water features, towers, wind turbines, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are
included in the obstacle database. Cultural features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad
tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even if those features are found on the MFD map.
The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with lines oriented with true north and
spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
Terrain-SVT, which is included with the Garmin-SVT option, or the optional Terrain Awareness and
Warning System (TAWS) provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and
obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow
shading on the PFD.
Garmin-SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If SVT is
enabled when switching to Reversionary Mode, it will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The
standard, non-SVT PFD display will be shown in the interim.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or
fidelity on which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must
not be predicated solely upon the use of the Garmin-SVT or TAWS-B terrain or obstacle data displays.
The following SVT enhancements appear on the PFD:
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Terrain alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability
to process the data representing the affected areas.
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Do not use the flight path marker as a flight director.
Flight Instruments
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and
traffic avoidance. SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not
provide either the accuracy or reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan
maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
Pathways
Runway Display
Flight Path Marker
Terrain Alerting
Horizon Heading Marks
Obstacle Alerting
Traffic Display
Wire Obstacles
Airport Signs
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SVT OPERATION
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and
traffic avoidance. SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not
provide either the accuracy or reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan
maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display.
Pressing the softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch attitude scale
is reduced from 20 degrees up and down to 10 degrees up to 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD
function Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature
softkeys. The softkeys are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire. The Back
Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT
feature may be activated.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 2-37 Synthetic Vision Imagery
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
•
Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
•
HDG LBL Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
•
APT Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
•
Wire Softkey enables aerial wire obstruction depiction.
Engine Indication System
Pathways Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
Flight Instruments
•
System Overview
Pathways, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire Softkeys are only available when the Terrain Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the Terrain Softkey, the Pathways, HDG LBL,
APT Sign, and Wire softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When
system power is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and
APT Sign softkeys is remembered by the system.
Activating and deactivating SVT:
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the Terrain Softkey.
Flight Management
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the
Pathways Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
AFCS
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the
HDG LBL Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
Additional Features
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APT
Sign Softkey.
Appendices
Activating and deactivating Wire Obstacles on SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
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System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the Terrain Softkey.
4) Press the Wire Softkey. Display of aerial wire obstruction will cycle on or off with the
SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Airport
Runway
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Wire Softkey.
Flight
Path
Marker
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Horizon
Heading
Marks
Audio Panel and CNS
Airplane
Symbol
Synthetic
Terrain
Flight Management
Pathways Color
Matches CDI
Indicating Nav
Source
SVT
Softkeys
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 2-38 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude
deviation information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic
terrain display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately
15 nm from an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the
identifier until the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are
not shown behind the airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by
pressing the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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System Overview
Engine Indication System
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Flight Instruments
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 2-39 Airport Signs
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at
groundspeeds above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft
accounting for wind speed and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM
represents the direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display,
while the airplane symbol represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired
altitudes and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is
aligned inside the pathway boxes as shown.
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant
terrain or obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the
FPM could indicate a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions
regarding terrain and/or obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Flight Management
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
Additional Features
Appendices
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System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Audio Panel and CNS
Wind
Vector
Flight Management
Figure 2-40 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
HORIZON HEADING
Hazard Avoidance
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of
compass heading in 30 degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and
digits appearing on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display.
Horizon Heading is used for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing
the HDG LBL Softkey.
PATHWAYS
Additional Features
AFCS
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as
colored rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan.
The box size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight
phases. During an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI,
whichever is less. The height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less.
The altitude at which the pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the
selected altitude or the VNV altitude programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
Appendices
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude
deviation information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
Index
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of
flight and navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by
magenta boxes that correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes
that correspond to a green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by
white[[ boxes corresponding to a white line drawn on the PFD maps or MFD map indicating an
inactive leg.
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System Overview
Selected
Altitude
Flight Instruments
Programmed
Altitudes
Engine Indication System
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Index
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Appendices
During an approach, Pathways be can shown for the programmed descent, level transition flight,
and at the Selected Altitude within the approach segments. When an approach providing vertical
guidance is activated, the corresponding approach glideslope or glidepath will be displayed using a
color corresponding to the selected navigation source and conditions.
White Pathways represent the next segment of the approach that is not yet active. Magenta
Pathways represent the active segment with GPS as the navigation source. Green Pathways indicate
the ILS/LOC navigation source. During the arrival/approach phases of flight, gray pathways
Additional Features
DESCENT AND APPROACH
AFCS
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with
pointers at each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not
displayed for the first leg of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first
segment displaying pathways is the first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg
of the flight plan route is outside the SVT field of view, pathways will not be visible until the
aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching the center of the active leg and prescribed
altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance.
Flight plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft
at the altitude selected or programmed.
Hazard Avoidance
DEPARTURE AND ENROUTE
Flight Management
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/
VNAV, and some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and
should not be used independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator.
They are removed from the display when the selected navigation information is not available.
Pathways are not displayed beyond the active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not
displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong
direction.
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 2-41 Programmed and Selected Altitude
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
indicate the anticipated preview glidepath/glideslope. The gray Approach Preview Pathways will be
displayed beginning at the start of the segment leading to the FAF waypoint. With active approach
vertical guidance, the selected altitude will be displayed as a level gray Pathway if the Selected
Altitude is lower than the glidepath/glideslope. The gray Selected Altitude Preview Pathways are
displayed until they converge with the green glideslope or magenta glidepath pathways. If
approach vertical guidance is not yet active, pathways at the Selected Altitude will be displayed in
magenta throughout the arrival/approach.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment
altitudes if GPS is the selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer
inbound with the LOC selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in
green along the localizer and glideslope. VOR, LOC, BC, and ADF approach segments that are
approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using
other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final approach courses are not displayed.
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Flight Management
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
Hazard Avoidance
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
AFCS
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Additional Features
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Figure 2-42 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
MISSED APPROACH
Index
Appendices
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point
(MAHP) and are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected
altitude, whichever is the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA)
leg, the pathways boxes will be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial
missed approach leg is defined by a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for
that segment. In this case, the pathways displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view
and will be visible when the aircraft has turned in the direction of that leg.
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System Overview
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals
that are part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a
MAHP unless a defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
Flight Instruments
FAF
Engine Indication System
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
by pathway
Audio Panel and CNS
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
Flight Management
MAHP
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Figure 2-43 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining
the proximity of the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path
angle during landing.
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Index
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding
terrain. All runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database.
In some situations, where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be
layered. As runways are displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in
Appendices
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these
runways are not displayed.
Additional Features
RUNWAYS
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
white. Other runways will be gray in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that
runway will appear brighter and be outlined with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation
as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer to the runway, more detail such as runway
numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Other
Runway
on Airport
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Airport
Runway
Figure 2-44 Airport Runways
Hazard Avoidance
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic
systems. Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting
closer, and smaller when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not
be displayed on the SVT display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic
displayed in the Inset map or MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not
be displayed on the SVT display. For more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard
Avoidance section.
Additional Features
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or
may appear as a partial symbol.
AFCS
TRAFFIC
TERRAIN ALERTING
Index
Appendices
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance
(FLTA) alerts, and corresponds to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading
for a warning alert on the navigation maps and ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Pages. For
more detailed information regarding Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B, refer to the Hazard Avoidance
Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on
the synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of
the aircraft.
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System Overview
Terrain
Annunciation
Terrain
Caution
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Potential
Impact
Area
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 2-45 Terrain Caution
Hazard Avoidance
PULL UP
Annunciation
Flight Management
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower or
wind turbine symbols found on map displays. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with
relative height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the map displays, which color
obstacles relative to the aircraft’s altitude, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change
colors to warm of potential conflict with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with
an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown.
Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
AFCS
Potential
Impact
Area
Additional Features
Potential
Impact
Point
Appendices
Figure 2-46 Terrain Warning
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System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
WIREAWARE POWER LINE OBSTACLES
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The WireAware obstacle database does not contain all known power lines. And as
such, obstacle avoidance is the sole responsibility of the flight crew.
Engine Indication System
To enhance safety, SVT incorporates Garmin’s WireAware wire obstacle technology. WireAware
database information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power lines which
are typically high voltage transmission lines depicted on the VFR Sectional charts, and are
considered of special interest to pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers, valleys,
canyons, or be in close proximity to airports/heliports. For wire obstacles present in the obstacle
database, the system shows these on the maps as well as the Synthetic Vision display; see Hazard
Avoidance section for more information about WireAware alerting.
ZERO PITCH LINE
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the
terrain horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the
terrain horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high
altitudes.
Additional Features
AFCS
Potential
Impact
Area
Cautions
Figure 2-47 Wire Caution
FIELD OF VIEW
Index
Appendices
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines
forming a VâÂÂÂÂshape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing
area shown on the PFD.
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and
Field of View turned on.
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System Overview
Engine Indication System
SVT View on the PFD
Flight Instruments
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
Field of View on the MFD
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 2-48 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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2.6 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in the following table can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS
conditions occur. Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning
Mode.
Annunciatio
n
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Description
Right of HSI
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–
GPS integrity is insufficient for
the current phase of flight
GPS
INTEG OK
Right of HSI
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has
been restored to within normal
limits (annunciation displayed
for 5 seconds)
DR
Lower left of
aircraft symbol if
HSI Map is
disabled, or on
aircraft icon if
HSI Map
enabled
Dead Reckoning–System is
using projected position rather
than GPS position to compute
navigation data and sequence
active flight plan waypoints
GPS LOI
Hazard Avoidance
Location
Additional Features
AFCS
Table 2-3 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
In Dead Reckoning Mode, the CDI is removed (when FMS is the selected navigation source), and the
following items on the PFD are then shown in amber:
•
Current Track Bug
•
Wind Data
Index
Appendices
Figure 2-49 Example HSI Annunciations
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Distances in the Bearing Information windows
•
FMS bearing pointers
System Overview
•
SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
Attitude data
•
Heading data
•
GPS position data
•
4.9 Arc-second Terrain data
•
Obstacle data
•
TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
•
The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
SVT is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs.
SVT is disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid
SVT data, the PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
Flight Instruments
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode and they become
increasingly inaccurate over time.
Flight Management
SVT IN REVERSIONARY MODE
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
Nose High
AFCS
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn
of extreme pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚
below the horizon line.
Hazard Avoidance
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled
when switching to Reversionary Mode, SVT will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard,
non-SVT PFD display will be shown in the interim.
Nose Low
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 2-50 Pitch Attitude Warnings
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Index
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed.
The Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on
the display and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during
such situations. The following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled
when the aircraft experiences unusual attitudes:
Traffic Annunciations
System Time
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
AFCS Annunciations
PFD Setup Menu
Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
Inset Map
Windows displayed in the lower Altimeter Barometric Setting
right corner of the PFD:
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
— References Window
Selected Altitude
ISA temperature deviation
— Nearest Airports
VNV Target Altitude
Wind data
— Flight Plan
Ground Speed
Selected Heading readout
— Messages
True Airspeed
Selected Course readout
— Procedures
Transponder Status Box
SVT UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
During extreme pitch attitudes, the display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain
gradient is great enough to completely fill the display. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the
horizon during extreme pitch attitudes.
Blue Band
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Appendices
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Index
Figure 2-51 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
System Overview
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for limitations.
Engine Indication System
EIS Display
Flight Instruments
The G1000 NXi offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically
monitoring critical system parameters and providing system alerts during all phases of flight. The Engine
Indication System (EIS) displays electrical, fuel, and engine information on the left side of the Multi
Function Display (MFD). EIS information can also be fully expanded to an entire page by pressing the
Engine Softkey or turning the large FMS Knob to select the EIS - Engine Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Figure 3-1 MFD with EIS display
Additional Features
Green bands on the instruments indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate
caution and warning, respectively. White or uncolored bands indicate areas outside of normal operation
not yet in the caution or warning ranges. When unsafe operating conditions occur, the corresponding
displays flash to indicate cautions and warnings. If sensory data to an instrument becomes invalid or
unavailable, a red or amber “X” is displayed across the instrument.
Appendices
Index
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3.1 ENGINE DISPLAY
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Engine Indication System
1
Audio Panel and CNS
2
3
4
Flight Management
5
6
7
Hazard Avoidance
8
Additional Features
AFCS
9
Engine Display - Normal
Engine Display when Engine Page is displayed
Index
Appendices
Figure 3-2 EIS Display
1
Tachometer
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm)
2
Exhaust Gas Temperature
Displays the exhaust gas temperature of the hottest
cylinder in degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
3
Fuel Flow Indicator
Displays fuel flow in gallons per hour (gph)
4
Oil Pressure Indicator
Displays oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
100
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
System Overview
Oil Temperature Indicator
Displays oil temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
6
Alternator Current
Displays each alternator current in amperes
7
Voltage
Displays bus voltage
8
Battery Current
Displays battery current in amperes
9
Fuel Quantity Indicator
Displays the amount of fuel in gallons (gal) for each side of
a standard fuel tank
Flight Instruments
5
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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3.2 ENGINE PAGE
The Engine Page displays all engine, fuel, electrical, and fuel calculation information. To access this
page, press the Engine Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob and select the ‘EIS - Engine Page.’
Level 1
Level 2
Engine
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Level 3
Displays EIS - Engine Page and second-level engine
softkeys; press again to exit page
Tabs
Resets displayed fuel remaining to tabs and fuel used to
zero
DEC Fuel
Decreases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
INC Fuel
Increases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
RST Fuel
Resets displayed fuel remaining to maximum fuel capacity
for aircraft and fuel used to zero
CO RST
Resets the CO Detector (optional)
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
11
10
1
2
3
AFCS
4
9
6
8
7
Appendices
Additional Features
5
Index
Figure 3-3 Engine Page
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Fuel Flow Indicator
Displays fuel flow in gallons per hour (gph)
4
Oil Pressure Indicator
Displays oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
5
Oil Temperature Indicator
Displays oil temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) or degrees
Celsius (°C)
6
Fuel Quantity Indicator
Displays the amount of fuel in gallons (gal) for each side of a
standard fuel tank.
7
Carbon Monoxide Detector Displays the amount of carbon monoxide is present in Parts
Per Million (PPM) (optional)
8
Fuel Calculations Group
Displays calculated fuel used (GAL USED), endurance
(ENDUR), and range (in nautical miles, RANGE NM), and fuel
efficiency (in nautical miles per gallon, NMPG) based on the
displayed fuel remaining (GAL REM) and the fuel flow
totalizer
9
Engine Hours
Displays the total time in hours the engine has been in service
10
Exhaust Gas Temperature
Exhaust Gas (EGT) temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit are
displayed for each cylinder using a bar graph on the Engine
Page. A temperature display for each cylinder is shown at the
top of the graph. Cylinders whose EGTs are in the normal
range appear in white. The temperature display is replaced
with white dashes if the temperature exceeds the normal
range.
11
Electrical Group
Displays alternator (ALTR AMPS) and battery (BATT AMPS)
currents in amperes and bus voltage (VOLTS). Voltage for the
DC bus is shown along a color-coded horizontal scale, with
numerical display above the scale. The ammeter displays the
battery load in amperes (amps) along a horizontal scale, with
a white tick mark indicating zero amps.
NOTE: Fuel calculations do not use the aircraft fuel quantity indicators and are calculated
from the last time the fuel was reset.
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Index
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Appendices
Fuel used (GAL USED), endurance (ENDUR), range (in nautical miles, RANGE NM), and fuel
efficiency (in statute miles per gallon, MPG) are calculated based on the displayed fuel remaining (GAL
REM) and the fuel flow totalizer. The calculated range also takes into account the aircraft’s heading and
the wind direction and speed.
A map feature related to the EIS Fuel Calculations is the Fuel Range Ring, which graphically
illustrates the aircraft’s remaining range based on the endurance (ENDUR), heading, groundspeed, and
wind direction and speed. The solid green circle represents the range until all the remaining fuel is
Additional Features
FUEL CALCULATIONS
AFCS
3
Hazard Avoidance
Displays the exhaust gas temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
(°F) or degrees Celsius (°C)
Flight Management
Exhaust Gas Temperature
Audio Panel and CNS
2
Engine Indication System
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm)
Flight Instruments
Tachometer
System Overview
1
depleted. The dashed green circle indicates the aircraft range until only reserve fuel remains. Once on
reserve fuel, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
The Fuel Range Ring shifts position in relation to the aircraft according to wind effects. For example,
more fuel is required for flying into a headwind, and the aircraft’s decreased range in that direction is
indicated by the Fuel Range Ring shifting toward the tail of the Aircraft Symbol.
The amount of reserve fuel (only for purposes of the Fuel Range Ring) is set on the Navigation Map
Page Setup Menu in terms of remaining flight time. When enabled, the Fuel Range Ring appears on
the Navigation Map Page, the Weather Data Link Page, and PFD Inset Map. (refer to Flight
Management for more information on the Fuel Range Ring).
Adjusting and resetting the fuel totalizer quantity:
1) On the Engine Page, use the DEC Fuel and INC Fuel Softkeys to obtain the desired fuel
remaining (GAL REM).
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
2) On the Engine Page, select the RST Fuel Softkey; this resets displayed fuel remaining
(GAL REM) to the maximum fuel capacity for the aircraft and fuel used to zero.
Flight Management
Set Fuel Remaining
Calculated Fuel Used
Calculated Endurance
Hazard Avoidance
Calculated Range
Fuel Efficiency
CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR (OPTIONAL)
Carbon Monoxide Detector (CO DETECTOR) is displayed on the Engine Page below the TACH
TIME display. The carbon monoxide detector provides information in Parts Per Million (PPM) and
detects the amount of carbon monoxide present in PPM.
Resetting the Carbon Monoxide Detector
On the Engine Page, push CO RST softkey.
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 3-4 Fuel Calculations Group
Index
Figure 3-5 Carbon Monoxide Detector
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
EIS Display
Flight Instruments
In the event of a PFD or MFD display failure, the display(s) operating in Reversionary Mode are
configured to present PFD symbology together with the EIS Display (refer to the System Overview for
information about display reversionary mode).
The Engine Display in reversionary mode, is identical to the normal EIS Display on the MFD.
System Overview
3.3 EIS DISPLAY (REVERSIONARY MODE)
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 3-6 Reversionary Mode (EIS Shown)
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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105
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
BLANK PAGE
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
System Overview
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
Primary Flight Display (PFD)
•
Multi Function Display (MFD)
•
Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
•
Audio Panel
•
Mode S Transponder
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panel,
communication radios, navigation radios, and Mode S transponder. The System Overview Section
provides a block diagram description of the Audio Panel and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation in the PA–28 is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
Flight Instruments
OVERVIEW
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio
selection. The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and
passengers, a marker beacon receiver, and a COM clearance recorder.
The Mode-S transponder is controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary
Flight Display (PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The
data box displays the active four-digit code, mode, and reply status (Figure 4-1).
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
MFD/PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
1
Flight Management
9
10
Hazard Avoidance
11
13
12
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 4-1 MFD/PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and ADF/DME Tuning
Window
108
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code
identifier audio on and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a
percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small
knob for kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and
station ID. The frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The
selected COM transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz;
small knob for kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer
Arrow between COM1 and COM2.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic
squelch on and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
DME Tuning Window – Displays DME frequency pairing mode. Display by selecting the
DME Softkey.
Flight Instruments
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press
and hold this key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz)
automatically into the active frequency field.
System Overview
7
10 ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME mode and Auto-tune selection.
13 ADF/DME Softkey – Displays the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
Audio Panel and CNS
12 Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply,
and ident status for the transponder.
Engine Indication System
11 FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to select DME modes, enter
transponder codes, and Auto-tune entries when the DME Tuning Window or NRST Window
is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor on and off. The large knob
moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects individual characters for the
highlighted cursor location.
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Flight Management
17
PA Annunciation
18
19
20
21
22
Hazard Avoidance
Volume/Squelch
Annunciations
24
26
23
25
AFCS
Figure 4-2 GMA 1360 Audio Panel Controls
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
NOTE: When a key is selected, the in-key annunciation is illuminated.
110
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be
heard. COM2 receive can be added by pressing the COM2 Key. When the PTT is active the
in-key annunciation will be flashing.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously
selected when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be
heard. COM1 receive can be added by pressing the COM1 Key. When the PTT is active the
in-key annunciation will be flashing.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
5
AUX MIC – Reserved for optional audio.
6
AUX – Reserved for optional audio.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
System Overview
PILOT ICS – Controls the pilot intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable Bluetooth
Recording Mode when a recording device is connected via Bluetooth.
12
TEL – Selects/Deselects the TEL audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device to the TEL
audio. Press the TEL key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key annunciator will cycle
from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source and BLUE selects the
Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a
time. Once the Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment
audio sources will only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
13
COPLT ICS – Controls the copilot intercom system.
14
MUS1 – Selects/Deselects the MUS1 audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device to the
MUS1 audio. Press the MUS1 key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key annunciator
will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source and BLUE
selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one
source at a time. Once the Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining
entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
15
PASS ICS – Controls the passenger intercom system.
16
MUS2 – Selects/Deselects the MUS2 audio source and can assign the Bluetooth device to
the MUS2 audio. Press the MUS2 key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key
annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source
and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be
assigned to one source at a time. Once the Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source,
the remaining entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
17
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker. COM, NAV, AUX, and MKR receiver audio
can be heard on the speaker. Press and hold for 2 seconds for Passenger Address (PA). The
PA annunciator to the right of the button indicates the PA status. A solid annunciation
indicates PA mode is active, while a flashing annunciation indicates PTT has been keyed.
18
MKR/MUTE – Selects/Deselects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received
marker beacon receiver audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is
received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio.
19
HI SENS – Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low
sensitivity.
20
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is playing
and the previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent press plays each
previously recorded block. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block
stops play.
21
MAN SQ – Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the
VOL/SQ Knob to illuminate the squelch annunciation. Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust
squelch.
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Index
11
Appendices
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
Additional Features
10
AFCS
ADF – Turns ADF receiver audio on or off.
Hazard Avoidance
9
Flight Management
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
Audio Panel and CNS
8
Engine Indication System
DME – Turns optional DME audio on or off.
Flight Instruments
7
22
Volume/Squelch Indicator – Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
23
Bluetooth® Connection Annunciator – A flashing cyan annunciator indicates the unit is
discoverable. A solid blue annunciator indicates an active Bluetooth connection.
24
Volume/Squelch (VOL/SQ) Control Knob – Turn the smaller knob to control volume or
squelch of the selected source (indicated by the flashing white or blue annunciator). When
the volume control cursor is not active press to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume
control cursor is active, press twice (once to cancel the cursor, twice to activate Blue-Select
mode). Press and hold for five seconds to enable the audio panel as discoverable for pairing.
The Bluetooth Annunciator will flash to indicate that the unit is discoverable. The unit will
remain discoverable for 90 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once a successful
pair is established, the audio “Bluetooth paired” is played.
25
Cursor (CRSR) Control Knob – Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or blue
annunciator) to the desired source.
26
DISPLAY BACKUP Button – Manually selects Reversionary Mode.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
System Overview
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TUNING BOXES
2
3
4
5
Flight Instruments
1
Engine Indication System
7
6
Audio Panel and CNS
8
Flight Management
Figure 4-3 COM Tuning Box Indications
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields
with the Frequency Tuning Box. Indicates which COM transceiver is selected for frequency
transfer between the Standby and Active fields.
3
Standby Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby
frequencies are on the right. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or
gray. The standby frequency in the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
4
Frequency Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with
the Frequency Transfer Arrow. Indicates which COM transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby
Field.
Appendices
2
Additional Features
Active Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies
are on the left. An active COM frequency is displayed in green and indicates that the COM
transceiver is selected on the Audio Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM
frequencies appearing in white indicate that no COM radio is selected for transmitting (PA
mode is selected on the Audio Panel).
AFCS
1
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used
and the active COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
Index
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113
5
Automatic Squelch Indication – Indicates that Automatic Squelch is disabled. Automatic
Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing
good sensitivity to weak COM signals. When Automatic Squelch is disabled, COM audio
reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the headsets and speaker, if
selected.
6
Transmit and Receive Indications – During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the
active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow. During COM signal reception,
a white RX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow.
7
Frequency Spacing – The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975
MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel
configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing
frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
8
COM Volume – COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ
Knob. Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise
decreases volume. When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby
frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after the change.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of the MFD and PFD.
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for
Hazard Avoidance
kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
•
Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
•
WPT – Airport Information Page
•
NRST – Nearest Airports Page
•
NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
•
NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports
Window on the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency.
Pressing the Frequency Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Select the Nearest Softkey to Open
the Nearest Airports Window
Figure 4-4 Nearest Airports Window
AFCS
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of
25 nearest airport identifiers and COM frequencies is displayed.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
Additional Features
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active
Frequency Field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or
WPT page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Appendices
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Index
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115
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-5 Nearest Pages Menus
On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing
the FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. With the desired frequency highlighted, press the ENT
Key to bring up the ‘Load Frequency’ Options menu. Use the FMS Knobs to select the desired COM
radio field and press the ENT Key to load it.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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Flight Instruments
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Engine Indication System
Runway
Information
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Press ENT Key to load
frequency into PFD
COM Standby Field.
Cursor then advances
to the next frequency.
Hazard Avoidance
Select INFO Softkey for
AIRPORT, RUNWAYS,
and FREQUENCIES
Windows
Figure 4-6 WPT - Airport Information Page
AFCS
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST - Nearest Airspaces, NRST - Nearest
Frequencies, and NRST - Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the
appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
Additional Features
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by
pressing the FMS Knob or pressing the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on the PFD or MFD to transfer the frequency to the
Appendices
COM radio.
COM Active Frequency Field.
Or:
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System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
Flight Instruments
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected
COM radio.
Frequency Field.
FREQUENCY SPACING
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel
spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete
3040-channel list. COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup 1 Page of the Aux Page Group.
While the COM Configuration Window is selected, the softkeys are blank.
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
Appendices
Additional Features
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-7 AUX - System Setup 1 Page
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the Aux – System Setup 1 Page.
Index
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
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System Overview
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM
Configuration Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
Flight Instruments
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV TUNING BOXES
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 4-8 NAV Tuning Box Indications
1
Standby Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby
frequencies are on the left. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or
gray. The standby frequency in the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
2
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields
with the Frequency Tuning Box. Indicates which NAV transciever is selected for frequency
transfer between the Standby and Active fields.
3
Active Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies
are on the right. An active NAV frequency is displayed in green. The active NAV radio is
selected by pressing the CDI softkey on the PFD. Both active NAV frequencies appearing in
white indicate that no NAV radio is selected.
4
NAV Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio standby frequency fields with
the Frequency Transfer Arrow. Indicates which NAV transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby
Field. Moving the Frequency Tuning Box is accomplished by pressing the NAV knob on the
PFD.
5
VOR/LOC Morse Code Audio Indication – When the Morse Code Identifier audio is on for
a NAV radio, a white ID replaces the Frequency Transfer Arrow to the left of the active NAV
frequency. In order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only in the radio
with the NAV Tuning Box. To turn on/off both NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between
NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing the small NAV Knob and pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to
turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
2
1
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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7
NAV VOLUME – NAV radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/ID
Knob. Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise
decreases volume. When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby
frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after the change.
GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and
neither NAV radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the
previously selected NAV standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and
using VOR or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be
accomplished by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV
VOL/ID Knob.
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel.
Pressing the NAV1, NAV2, or AUX Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected
audio can be heard over the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected
individually or simultaneously.
Appendices
•
Additional Features
VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or
LOC2 is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or
LOC1 is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
Flight Management
•
Audio Panel and CNS
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The
active frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active
NAV frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects
NAV1 as the navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation
radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles
back to NAV1
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for
tuning, the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active
NAV frequency color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
Engine Indication System
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
Flight Instruments
Decoded Morse Code Station Identifier – The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded
Morse Code station identifier that is received from the navigation source. Audio verification of
the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished by selecting the
corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
System Overview
6
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the MFD and PFD.
Index
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System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Rotate the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
•
WPT – Airport Information
•
WPT – VOR Information
•
NRST – Nearest Airports
•
NRST – Nearest VOR
•
NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
•
NRST – Nearest Airspaces
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During
enroute navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field.
During approach activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency
field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or
WPT page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by
AFCS
pressing the FMS Knob or the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the
Additional Features
cursor on the NAV frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV
radio.
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active
Index
Appendices
Frequency Field.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Press the ENT
Key to load a
highlighted
Frequency into
the NAV Standby
Frequency Box
Turn the FMS Knob to
scroll through a list of
Frequencies
Engine Indication System
Figure 4-9 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
Or:
page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV
radio.
Flight Management
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD control unit to display the
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active
Hazard Avoidance
Frequency Field.
AFCS
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-10 Nearest Pages Menu
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The
FMS Knob or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the
FREQ Softkey and loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
Additional Features
Nearest Airports Menu
Appendices
Index
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Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
Figure 4-11 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST - Nearest VOR Page
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST - Nearest Airports, WPT Airport Information, WPT - VOR Information, and NRST - Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in a
similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer
approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated while navigating by GPS, the system
automatically switches to LOC as the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of
the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically
transferred to a NAV frequency field as follows:
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
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•
If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the
NAV1 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
•
If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the
standby frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and
cannot be turned off.
Audio Panel and CNS
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and
detects any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker
beacon annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
Engine Indication System
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER (OPTIONAL)
Flight Instruments
If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1
active frequency field. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 active frequency field is
transferred to standby.
System Overview
•
Flight Management
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125
Index
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Appendices
NOTE: When another auxiliary window is turned on, the ADF/DME Tuning Window is
replaced on the PFD.
Additional Features
ADF/DME TUNING
AFCS
The Audio Panel provides three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and
Deselected. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key
annunciator indicates when marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not
affect the marker annunciations. The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The
MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the
next marker beacon signal is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O,
M, I indication) while marker beacon audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE
Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI
SENS function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a
marker during an approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower
marker dwell while over a station.
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 4-12 Marker Beacon Keys
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME and bearing information windows (ADF)
and using the ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The system tunes the ADF receiver (optional) and DME transceiver (optional). The ADF is tuned by
entering the frequency in the ADF standby frequency field of the ADF/DME Tuning Window. (The
softkey may be labeled ADF/DME, ADF, or DME, depending on installed equipment.)
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is
automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The following ADF/DME information is displayed in the ADF/DME Tuning Window:
•
Active and standby ADF frequencies
•
ADF receiver mode
•
DME tuning mode (DME transceiver pairing)
When the ADF/DME Tuning Window is displayed, the selection cursor is placed over the standby
ADF frequency field.
Turning the large FMS Knob moves the selection cursor through the various fields (standby ADF
frequency, ADF receiver mode, and DME tuning mode). Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates
the selection cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The ADF frequency is entered using the FMS
Knob and the ENT Key.
Active ADF Frequency
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Standby ADF Frequency
ADF Mode
AFCS
DME Tuning Mode
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 4-13 ADF/DME Tuning Window
ADF TUNING
ADF frequencies in the 190.0-kHz to 1799.5-kHz range are entered in the standby ADF frequency
field of the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The system does not tune the ADF emergency frequency,
2182.0 kHz.
Pressing the CLR Key before completing frequency entry cancels the frequency change and reverts
back to the previously entered frequency.
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is
automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
Pressing the CLR Key when the cursor is flashing, clears the frequency and replaces the standby field
with 0000.0.
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Figure 4-14 Entering ADF Standby Frequencies
Audio Panel and CNS
Press the ENT
Key to Transfer
the ADF
Frequencies
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 4-15 Transfer ADF Frequencies
Tuning ADF Frequency:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
AFCS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency
field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin data entry and change each digit.
Additional Features
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next digit position.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete data entry for the standby frequency.
Tranferring the active and standby ADF frequencies:
field.
2) Press the ENT Key to complete the frequency transfer.
Appendices
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency
SELECTING ADF RECEIVER MODE
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Index
The following modes can be selected: (In all modes NDB audio can be heard by selecting the ADF
Key on the Audio Panel.)
•
ANT (Antenna) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees. Best mode for listening
to NDB audio.
•
ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB
station.
•
ADF/BFO (ADF/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the
NDB station and an audible tone confirms signal reception. This mode allows identification of the
interrupted carrier beacon stations used in various parts of the world.
•
ANT/BFO (Antenna/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90
degrees while an audible tone is provided when a signal is received. This mode also allows
identification of the interrupted carrier beacon stations and confirms signal reception.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Flight Management
Turn the Small FMS Knob
to Select the Mode
Figure 4-16 Selecting ADF Receiver Mode
Hazard Avoidance
Selecting ADF Receiver Mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF mode field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired ADF receiver mode.
AFCS
DME TUNING
The system tunes the optional DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a
VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The DME Tuning Window is located to the right of the HSI in the lower right corner of the PFD. The
DME transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the DME Tuning Window. Pressing
the ADF/DME or DME Softkey switches the DME Tuning Window on and off.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 NXi for use, the system remembers the last frequency
used for DME tuning and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
DME
Modes
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 4-17 ADF/DME Tuning Window
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
•
NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
•
HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
Hazard Avoidance
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the data entry and
reverts back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates
the cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME information window.
Flight Management
•
1) Press the ADF/DME or DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDER
Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
•
Surveillance identifier capability
•
Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as
either the aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
•
Altitude reporting
•
Airborne status determination
•
Transponder capability reporting
•
Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
•
Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification
address. The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose
of acquisition squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic
Avoidance System (TAS) to recognize the presence of Mode S equipped aircraft for selective
interrogation.
•
Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as
altitude (barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended
squitter is to provide aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs)
and other aircraft.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
•
Engine Indication System
The system is equipped with a Mode S Transponder. The Mode S Transponder provides Mode A, Mode
C, and Mode S interrogation and reply capabilities. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S)
capability includes the following features:
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection,
and Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is pressed, the following XPDR and Mode
Selection softkeys appear: Standby, On, ALT, VFR, Code, Ident, Back.
When the Code Softkey is pressed, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Ident, BKSP,
Back. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Pressing the numbered softkeys in sequence
enters the transponder code. If an error is made, pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection
cursor to the previous digit. Pressing the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous
digit.
Pressing the Back Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Pressing the
Back Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on the PFD. Code entry must be completed with
either the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Pressing the Ident Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to
the top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 4-18 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
Flight Management
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Mode) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The Standby, On, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by pressing the XPDR Softkey.
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
AFCS
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Hazard Avoidance
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the Standby Softkey. In Standby, the
transponder is powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted..
When Standby is selected, a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field
of the Transponder Data Box.
Additional Features
Figure 4-19 Standby Mode
MANUAL ON MODE
Appendices
On Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the On Softkey. An On indication will appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting On mode enables transmission of transponder
replies and squitters, but transmissions will not include altitude information. The On indication and
transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and white while on
the ground. When the transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies
to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic
systems of other aircraft.
Index
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System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Flight Instruments
On-Ground On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Airborne On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Figure 4-20 On Mode
ALTITUDE MODE
ALT Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ALT Softkey. When ALT mode is selected,
an ALT indication will appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting ALT mode
enables transmission of transponder replies and squitters. Transmissions will include pressure
altitude information. The ALT indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will
appear green while airborne and white while on the ground. When the transponder is operating
with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call
interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic systems of other aircraft.
Hazard Avoidance
On-Ground ALT Mode
Figure 4-21 Altitude Mode
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in
the reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to
Interrogation
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Airborne ALT Mode
Figure 4-22 Reply Indication
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
System Overview
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
VFR CODE
Audio Panel and CNS
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by pressing the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR
Softkey. When the VFR Softkey is pressed, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed
in the code field of the Transponder Data Box. Pressing the VFR Softkey again restores the previous
identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required,
contact a Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
Engine Indication System
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and
restores the previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code
automatically.
Flight Instruments
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
VFR Code
Flight Management
Figure 4-23 VFR Code
Hazard Avoidance
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit
entry.
Entering a Code
Additional Features
next softkey in sequence must be pressed within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled
and restored to the previous code. Pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection
cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been entered, the
transponder code becomes active.
AFCS
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the
Appendices
Figure 4-24 Entering a Code
Index
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System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code
entry.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
Pressing the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The
indication distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s
screen. The Ident Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is
pressed, a green Ident indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a
duration of 18 seconds.
After the Ident Softkey is pressed while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the toplevel softkeys.
Ident Indication
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits.
Select the Ident Softkey to
Initiate the ID Function
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 4-25 Ident Softkey and Indication
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
System Overview
4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects
the cabin speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed.
SPLIT-PA MODE
During Split-PA Mode the pilot can continue to use the radio(s) while the copilot delivers PA
announcements. To initiate Split-PA Mode, first enter Split-COM Mode by pressing the COM1 MIC
Key and the COM2 MIC Key simultaneously, then press and hold the SPKR Key for 2 seconds.
AFCS
INTERCOM
Hazard Avoidance
Press and hold the SPKR Key for 2 seconds to initiate Passenger Address Mode. PA Mode is
annunciated by the PA annunciator. When in PA Mode the crew can use the PTT “Push-to-Talk”
button to deliver announcements over the speaker, to the passenger headsets, or both depending on
configuration.
Flight Management
PASSENGER ADDRESS MODE (PA MODE)
Audio Panel and CNS
SPEAKER
Engine Indication System
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While
this does not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left
channel in both ears. If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other
passenger using a stereo headset hears audio in the left ear only.
Flight Instruments
The Audio Panel performs a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel
annunciator lights illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of
the settings are restored to those in use before the unit was last turned off.
Additional Features
The GMA 1360 includes a six-position intercom system (ICS), two music inputs, and one telephone
input for the pilot, copilot and passengers. The intercom provides Pilot, Copilot, and Passenger audio
isolation.
Appendices
Index
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Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Figure 4-26 Intercom Controls
Press the PILOT ICS, COPLT ICS, and/or PASS ICS Keys to distribute as required. If the
annunciators are lit, those positions will share intercom audio. If an annunciator is NOT lit that
position is isolated from the others.
INTERCOM MODES
Flight Management
ALL INTERCOM MODE
Hazard Avoidance
In ‘All Intercom’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear each other and hear the aircraft
audio.
AFCS
PILOT ISOLATE MODE
Appendices
Additional Features
In ‘Pilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot and
Passengers also hear each other.
PASSENGER/CREW ISOLATE MODE
Index
In ‘Passenger/Crew Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio and each other.
The Passengers hear each other.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
COPILOT ISOLATE MODE
Engine Indication System
In ‘Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Pilot and
Passengers also hear each other. The Copilot has the option to use Split-COM mode.
Audio Panel and CNS
In ‘All Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot has the option to
use Split-COM mode. The Passengers hear each other.
Flight Management
ALL ISOLATE MODE
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
PILOT & COPILOT ISOLATE MODE
In ‘Pilot & Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The
Passengers hear each other. The Copilot has the option to use Split-COM mode.
Additional Features
Appendices
PILOT & PASSENGER ISOLATE MODE
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Index
In ‘Pilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio. The Passengers
hear each other.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Engine Indication System
COPILOT & PASSENGER ISOLATE MODE
BLUE-SELECT MODE (TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT DISTRIBUTION)
The music (MUS) and telephone (TEL) audio are distributed using the Blue-Select Mode. The
following example indicates that the pilot, copilot, and passengers will all hear the telephone/
entertainment audio.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
In ‘Copilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot can hear the aircraft audio. The
Copilot has the option to use Split-COM mode. The Passengers hear each other.
Figure 4-27 Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pressing the small knob when the volume control cursor
(flashing white annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, press the small knob
twice. The first press will cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select
Mode.
The annunciator over the TEL Button will be flashing blue. Any combination of the annunciators
over the PILOT ICS, COPLT ICS, and PASS ICS buttons may be blue. Select the desired button to
turn the blue annunciator on or off to distribute the telephone audio to selected crew/passenger
positions. Turn the large knob to select MUS1 or MUS2, and select the crew/passenger positions to
receive the music audio.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
When the cursor is on PILOT ICS, COPLT ICS, or PASS ICS, the Volume Control Knob adjusts
the intercom volume for the listener.
Flight Instruments
ADJUSTING INTERCOM VOLUME
System Overview
Selecting any button other than PILOT ICS, COPLT ICS, PASS ICS, TEL,MUS1, or MUS2 will
cancel Blue-Select Mode. Pressing the small knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After
approximately ten seconds with no input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel.
ADJUSTING SPEAKER VOLUME
ADJUSTING MKR, AUX, MUS1, OR MUS2 VOLUME
ADJUSTING MANUAL SQUELCH
Flight Management
When the cursor is on MAN SQ, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the ICS Squelch Threshold
(the volume level that must be exceeded to be heard over the intercom).
Audio Panel and CNS
When the cursor is on MKR, AUX, MUS1, or MUS2 the Volume Control Knob adjusts the
individual volume of the selected source.
Engine Indication System
When the cursor is on SPKR, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the speaker volume of the
selected sources (COM, NAV, AUX, MKR). Alert volumes are not affected by the speaker volume
control knob.
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Manual Squelch
Annunciator:
- Off for Automatic Squelch
- On for Manual Squelch
Additional Features
Relative Volume/
Squelch Scale
Volume or
Manual Squelch
Appendices
Cursor
Figure 4-28 Volume/Squelch Control
Index
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CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected
COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks,
starting from the oldest block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded
memory block. Pressing the PLAY Key while audio is playing begins playing the previously recorded
memory block. Each subsequent press of the PLAY Key selects the previously recorded memory
block.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is
detected during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
SPLIT-COM OPERATION
NOTE: Split COM performance is affected by the distance between the COM antennas and
the separation of the tuned frequencies. If the selected COM1 and COM2 frequencies are
too close together, interference may be heard during transmission on the other radio.
During Split COM operation, both the pilot and the copilot can transmit simultaneously over
separate radios. In Split COM mode, the pilot uses COM1 and the copilot uses COM2.
Pressing the COM1 MIC Key and the COM2 MIC Key simultaneously initiates Split COM Mode
(i.e., COM1/COM2). The respective COM1 MIC/COM1 or COM2 MIC/COM2 annunciators are
illuminated indicating Split COM operation. Split COM operation is cancelled by pressing one of the
selected MIC Keys again.
3D AUDIO
3D Audio is useful when multiple audio sources are present. By using different responses in each ear,
3D audio processing creates the illusion that each audio source is coming from a unique location or
seat position.
Because this feature uses different signals for left and right channels, it requires wiring for stereo
intercom and stereo headsets. If 3D audio is activated when mono headsets are in use, the listener will
still hear all audio sources; however, there is no benefit from location separation.
With a single COM selected and 3D Audio enabled, the listener hears the audio source at the 12
o’clock position. If both COMs are selected, the listener hears COM1 at 11 o’clock and COM2 at the 1
o’clock position. All other intercom positions are processed to sound like their relative seat location.
By default, the audio assumes the pilot sits in the left seat. See the System Overview for the discussion
of the System Setup page procedures for swapping pilot/copilot 3D audio left-right.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Symptom(s)
Cause(s)
2) Stereo headset in use
with mono/stereo switch
set to ‘mono’
2) Set mono/stereo switch on headset to
‘stereo’
3) Aircraft wiring has left
audio wired to both left
and right channels of stereo
headset jack
3) If after checking solutions #1 and #2 see
a service center as soon as possible to
inspect/correct wiring. This wiring fault can
cause fail-safe audio not to function.
1) Mono headset in use
1) Use a stereo headset
2) Stereo headset in use
with mono/stereo switch
set to mono
2) Set mono/stereo switch on headset to
‘stereo’
3) Incorrect aircraft wiring
3) If after checking solutions #1 and #2 see
(left/right shorted together) a service center as soon as possible to
inspect/correct wiring. This wiring fault can
cause fail-safe audio not to function.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
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Index
1) Incorrect aircraft wiring
1) See a service center as soon as possible
(right channel used for
to inspect/correct wiring. This wiring fault
mono instead of left or left/ can cause fail-safe audio not to function.
right swapped)
Appendices
190-02130-02 Rev. A
1) Use a stereo headset
Additional Features
“3D audio right”
message heard in both
ears. “3D audio left”
not heard
1) Mono headset in use
AFCS
“3D audio left”
message heard in both
ears, followed by “3D
audio right” message
heard in both ears
Solutions(s)
Hazard Avoidance
“3D audio left”
message heard in both
ears.
Or:
“3D audio right”
message not heard
Flight Management
See the System Overview for the discussion of the System Setup page procedures for enabling/
disabling pilot/copilot 3D Audio. When 3D Audio is enabled, the aural message “3D audio left” is
heard in the left ear followed by “3D audio right” in the right ear. If the aural messages are not heard
in only the left and then the right ear respectively, the cause may be aircraft wiring or headset
settings. Refer to the following table if a headset or aircraft wiring problem is suspected.
Audio Panel and CNS
ENABLING 3D AUDIO
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Symptom(s)
1) Stereo headset is on
backwards
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
“3D audio left”
message heard in right
ear only followed by
“3D audio right”
message heard in left
2) Incorrect aircraft wiring
ear only
(left/right channels
swapped)
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Cause(s)
Solutions(s)
1) Verify correct orientation from the left/
right indication on each side of the
headset or the position of the boom mic
(usually attached on left side). If the
headset is backwards left/right position
information will be swapped.
2) See a service center as soon as possible
to inspect/correct wiring. This wiring fault
can cause fail-safe audio not to function.
“3D audio left”
message heard in left
ear only, no audio
heard in right ear.
1) Aircraft wired for mono
intercom
1) See a service center to wire the
installation for stereo headsets.
“3D audio right”
message heard in right
ear only, no audio
heard in left ear
1) Incorrect aircraft wiring
(right channel used for
mono instead of left, or
left/right swapped)
1) See a service center as soon as possible
to inspect/correct wiring. This wiring fault
can cause fail-safe audio not to function.
Table 4-1 3D Audio Troubleshooting
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs:
•
The TEL Key controls a telephone or entertainment device connected to the rear of the audio panel
or to the Front Panel Jack.
•
The MUS1 Key and MUS2 Key controls the Entertainment Music audio input. External audio jacks
can also be used as an entertainment input. GDL 69 (SiriusXM Radio) audio, if equipped, is wired to
the MUS1 and MUS2 inputs. The Front Panel Jack does not disable audio connected to the MUS1
and MUS2 inputs.
The Front Panel Jack can be used as an entertainment input or a telephone input. Plugging a device
into the Front Panel Jack will disable any audio source connected to the rear telephone/entertainment
jack. The Front Panel Jack is a 3.5-mm stereo jack that is compatible with popular portable
entertainment devices such as cell phones and other tablet devices. The headphone outputs of the
entertainment devices are plugged into the Front Panel Jack.
Distribution of the entertainment inputs are configured in Blue-Select Mode.
Appendices
TELEPHONE AND ENTERTAINMENT MUTING
Telephone and entertainment muting can be enabled or disabled by the user, however it is always
muted during alerts.
ENABLING/DISABLING MUTING
Index
Press and hold the MUS1 Key, or MUS2 Key for two seconds to toggle muting on and off. The
aural message “Mute Music on Reception Enabled/Disabled” or “Mute Tel and Jack on Reception
Enabled/Disabled” is heard.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
BLUETOOTH®
ASSIGNING AN AUDIO SOURCE TO THE BLUETOOTH DEVICE
NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time. Once the
Bluetooth audio is assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment audio sources
will only cycle between OFF and WHITE.
When the Audio Panel detects a recording device as the Bluetooth connected device, the Pilot ICS
Annunciator will turn BLUE. All audio heard by the Pilot will be recorded. Press and hold the
PILOT ICS Key to enable/disable Bluetooth Recording mode.
Additional Features
ADDITIONAL BLUETOOTH CONTROL FUNCTIONS
AFCS
Bluetooth audio will maintain a separate volume level and Blue Select distribution from the wired
audio source. If the Bluetooth connection is supporting a phone call, all intercom positions listening
to that source can also speak on the call through the headset MICs.
Hazard Avoidance
Press the TEL Key, MUS1 Key or MUS2 Key until the annunciator turns blue (the audio from the
Bluetooth source will not be heard until this step is complete). The key annunciator cycles OFFWHITE-BLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source. BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. The
BLUE source assignment will persist through Bluetooth audio connection disruptions.
Flight Management
Press and hold the inner knob for five seconds. The Bluetooth Annunciator flashes to indicate the
unit is discoverable and the aural message “Bluetooth discoverable” is heard. The Audio Panel will
remain discoverable for 90 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once paired, the
Bluetooth Annunciator turns steady blue and the aural message “Bluetooth connected/paired” is
heard.
Audio Panel and CNS
PAIRING A BLUETOOTH DEVICE WITH THE AUDIO PANEL
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Pairing is only necessary during the first attempt to connect a Bluetooth device to the
Audio Panel. Once paired, the Audio Panel and the device will connect automatically.
Flight Instruments
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers
simultaneously (optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional
Features Section for more details on the Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to the Stereo Input jack removes the SiriusXM Radio Audio from that
input.
System Overview
SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
Appendices
Index
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4.6 AUDIO PANEL PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume
control knob, verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the
headsets are at maximum volume setting. On single pilot flights, verify that all other headsets
are not connected to avoid excess noise in the audio system.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot
and copilot. If manual squelch is set to full open, background noise is heard in the ICS system
as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the system, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well
as prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a
pilot boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind
the notes above.
Flight Management
Setting the Audio Panel During Preflight:
1) Verify that the PILOT ICS, COPLT ICS and PASS ICS annunciators are lit.
2) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV) to a suitable level.
3) Use the Blue-Select Mode to distribute the TEL, MUS1, and MUS2 appropriately.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
4) Use the VOL/CRSR Knobs to adjust the intercom volumes to the desired level.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Abnormal operation of the system includes equipment failures of the system components and failure
of associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
COM TUNING FAILURE
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
REVERSIONARY MODE
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section
for more information on Reversionary Mode.
Flight Management
If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset (left ear only if
stereo) and microphone directly to the COM1 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker during
Fail-safe operation.
Audio Panel and CNS
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically
tuned in the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may
appear on the frequency display.
Engine Indication System
If the PTT Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the pilot of a stuck microphone.
The MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains stuck.
Flight Instruments
STUCK MICROPHONE
System Overview
4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
BLANK PAGE
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
System Overview
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.1 INTRODUCTION
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This
section of the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the two full color displays: one Primary Flight Display
(PFD) and one Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft
using the GPS sensors is displayed on the PFD and the MFD. A brief description of the GPS navigation
data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight
plan phase (e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV
Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V,
and LPV approach service levels are only available with SBAS.
The Inset Map and HSI Map are small versions of the Navigation Map. The Inset Map is displayed in
the lower left corner of the PFD (lower right during reversionary mode), and the HSI Map is displayed
in the center of the HSI. The Inset Map and the HSI Map may each be referred to as the PFD Map. A
PFD Map is displayed by pressing the Map/HSI Softkey, pressing the Layout Softkey, then pressing
either the Inset Map or HSI Map Softkey. Pressing the Map Off Softkey removes the PFD Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data
(e.g., cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard
data (e.g., traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the PFD Map can be reduced by
pressing the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey. The amount of displayed
data for the Navigation Map can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the MFD. The Navigation
Map can be oriented three different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or Heading Up
(HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated
present position. The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations.
The basemap upon which these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative
position of the aircraft to map features is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown
is shown as a magenta line on the navigation map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. The current range is indicated
in the upper left corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To
change the map range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or
clockwise to zoom out (+, increasing).
The ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘Flight Plan’ Window, the ‘Procedures’ Window, and the ‘Nearest Airports’
Window can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed
in detail later in the section.
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Current Track Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Navigation Status Box
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD (Inset Map)
Flight Management
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD Inset Map
Hazard Avoidance
Navigation Mode
Current Track
Indicator
Additional Features
AFCS
HSI Map
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD HSI Map
Index
Appendices
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD HSI Map
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
System Overview
Navigation Data Bar
Display Title
Map Orientation
Flight Instruments
Navigation Map
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Map Range
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Flight Plan Leg
Engine Indication System
Active Flight Plan Leg
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
Hazard Avoidance
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
•
Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD
within 1 minute’)
The symbols used in the PFD Status Box are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Left Holding
Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure
Turn
Right DME Arc/
Radius to Fix Leg
Appendices
Active Leg
Additional Features
Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn
right to 021˚ in 8 seconds’)
AFCS
•
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Symbol
Symbol
Left Procedure
Turn
Description
Left DME Arc/
Radius to Fix Leg
Flight Instruments
Right Holding
Pattern
Table 5-1 PFD Status Box Symbols
The Navigation Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one
of the following items:
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Description
BRG
Bearing
FOB
Fuel on Board
DEST
Destination Airport Identifier
FOD
Fuel over Destination
DIS
Distance
GS
Ground Speed
DTG
Distance to Go
ISA
Temperature at Standard Pressure
DTK
Desired Track
LDG
ETA at Final Destination
END
Endurance
MSA
Minimum Safe Altitude
ENR
ETE to Final Destination
TAS
True Airspeed
ESA
Enroute Safe Altitude
TKE
Track Angle Error
ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival
TRK
Track
ETE
Estimated Time Enroute
VSR
Vertical Speed Required
FLT
Flight Timer
XTK
Cross-Track Error
Table 5-2 MFD Data Bar Field Items
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the ‘MFD Data Bar
Fields’ Box on the ‘Aux-System Setup 1’ Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS,
DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
Appendices
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the ‘MFD Data Bar
Fields’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the
desired data.
Index
5) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the Defaults Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
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Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system
maps can display the following information:
Flight Instruments
• Map Pointer information (distance and
bearing to pointer, location of pointer,
name, and other pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
• Topography scale and data
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways,
land data (highways, cities, lakes, rivers,
borders, etc.) with names
• Map range
• Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (present position)
• Obstacle data
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Nearest Group Pages (‘NRST’)
• Direct To Window
• PFD Maps
• Procedure Loading Pages
Flight Management
• All Map Group Pages (‘Map’)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (‘WPT’)
• Trip Planning Page (‘Aux’)
• Flight Plan Pages (‘FPL’)
System Overview
5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining
aircraft position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are
relative to where the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the
upper left corner of the map.
Hazard Avoidance
MAP ORIENTATION
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
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•
North up (North up) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
•
Track up (Track up) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
•
Heading up (HDG up) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
The Auto North Up setting configures the map to switch automatically to a north up orientation
when the map range reaches a minimum range.
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the
map does not show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other
displays that show navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map
Page.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
Map Group Selection
AFCS
Orientation Field
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
North Up Above Field
Index
Figure
MapSettings
Settings Menu
Window - -Map
Group
Figure
5-85-8
Map
Window
Map
Group
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Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Map Settings’ Window.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
7) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
Audio Panel and CNS
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
Engine Indication System
5) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘Orientation’ Field.
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Flight Management
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
5) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘North Up Above’ Field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the
range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
AFCS
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Appendices
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. The current range is
indicated in the upper left corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the
map. When the map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to
accurately represent the map, a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change
the map range turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the
range
Additional Features
MAP RANGE
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Since the PFD Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are
removed on the PFD Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map
Settings pages (e.g., a setting of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD
navigation maps, while the PFD Map removes the same item at 50 nm).
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Auto Zoom On
Figure 5-9 Map Range
Figure 5-9 Map Range
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly
showing the active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick,
and remains until the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off,
or the manual override times out (timer set on ‘Map Settings’ Window). Auto zoom is suspended
while the map pointer is active.
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map
range clearly showing the potential impact areas If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any navigation
map displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing
the traffic advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom
range based on the active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of
the ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look
forward’ times (set on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the ‘Map’ Group). These settings determine the
minimum and maximum distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
•
Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many
details on the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to
a value that limits the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
•
Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where
situational awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a
value that limits the auto zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational
awareness.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
AUTO ZOOM
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The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the Map Group) determines
how long auto zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of
this time, the auto zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual
override to never time out.
•
When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum
range available (1000 nm).
•
When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Configuring automatic zoom:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and
decrease as waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/
minimum times can be adjusted.
System Overview
•
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ On/Off Field, and select ‘Off’ or
‘On’ using the small FMS Knob.
Hazard Avoidance
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the
Flight Management
4) Press the ENT Key.
‘Auto Zoom’ display selection Field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max
Look FWD’ Field. Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
AFCS
9) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the ‘Max Look FWD’ time. Press the ENT Key.
10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99
minutes).
Additional Features
11) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
•
Highlight and select locations on the map
•
Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
•
Designate locations for use in flight planning
•
View airspace and airway information
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View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
Appendices
•
155
When the panning function is selected by pushing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map
display. A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position
of the pointer, the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the
elevation of the land at the position of the pointer.
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned
and there has been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to
centered on the aircraft position and the flashing pointer is removed.
Map Pointer Information
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Map Pointer
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name
was not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map
display, pertinent information is displayed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Information about Point
of Interest
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace
information is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Flight Management
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
Audio Panel and CNS
Map Pointer on
POI
Hazard Avoidance
Panning the map:
1) Push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s
AFCS
current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘WPT - Waypoint Information’ Page for the selected
waypoint.
Additional Features
Map Pointer and place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
3) Press the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the ‘WPT - Waypoint
Reviewing information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
Appendices
Information’ Page and return to the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the
Map Pointer and place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
airspace. (As the Map Pointer crosses the airspace boundary, the boundary is
highlighted and airspace information is shown.)
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
display the ‘Information’ Window for the selected airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the ‘Information’ Window.
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation
map may be calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page
menu. The bearing and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to
aid in graphically identifying points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for
the Measure Pointer is provided in a window at the top of the navigation map.
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Measurement Line
FigureNavigation
5-12 Navigation
Map- -Measuring
Measuring Bearing
and Distance
Figure 5-12
Map
Bearing
and Distance
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
Appendices
1) Press the MENU Key (with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed).
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present
position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing
Index
and distance are displayed at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer
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System Overview
position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes the starting point for
measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, push the Joystick; or select ‘Stop
TOPOGRAPHY
Engine Indication System
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation,
similar to aviation sectional charts. The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which
topographic data is displayed.
Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following procedures.
Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable VSD Inset at the bottom of the navigation
map. In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand
side of the map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.
Flight Instruments
Measuring’ from the ‘Page Menu’ Window and press the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Flight Management
Navigation Map
Black Background
Topographic Data
on VSD Inset
Hazard Avoidance
TOPO Off
TOPO On
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
AFCS
Additional Features
Absolute Terrain On
Appendices
Terrain Off
Figure 5-14 PFD Inset Map - Terrain Data
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Audio Panel and CNS
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map - Topo Scale
Flight Management
Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation
maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data
Hazard Avoidance
from the navigation map. When topographic data is removed from the page, all
navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
AFCS
2) Press the TER Softkey.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data
Additional Features
from the navigation map. When topographic data is removed from the page, all
navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Appendices
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Index
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ Field.
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6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
Flight Instruments
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Use the large FMS knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range field. Ranges are from 1
nm to 1000 nm.
Engine Indication System
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
Audio Panel and CNS
6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the
range list.
7) Enter the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
Flight Management
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
Hazard Avoidance
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group. Press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ Field.
AFCS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type
of symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The
decluttering of the symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
Additional Features
MAP SYMBOLS
LAND SYMBOLS
Appendices
The following items are configured on the land menu:
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Land
Symbols
Default
Range (nm)
Max Range
(nm)
User Waypoint
25
40
Highways and
Roads
N/A
N/A
Interstate
Highway
(Freeway)
50
400
International
Highway
(Freeway)
50
400
US Highway
(National
Highway)
15
150
State Highway
(Local
Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads
(RAILROAD)
7.5
25
Large City (>
200,000)
100
1000
Medium City
(> 50,000)
50
400
Small City (>
5,000)
25
100
State/Province
400
1000
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/
Longitude
(LAT/LON)
1
1000
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Local Road
(Local Road)
Symbol
N/A
AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Index
Appendices
Table 5-3 Land Symbol Information
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25
150
1.5
5
7.5
150
N/A
N/A
Intersection (INT)
25
40
Non-directional
Beacon (NDB)
25
50
VOR
50
250
N/A
N/A
Visual Reporting
Point (VRP)
25
1000
Temporary Flight
Restriction (TFR)
250
1000
VNAV Constraints
1000
1000
N/A
N/A
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
See Additional
Features
Runway Extension
Missed Approach
Preview On/Off
(Missed APR)
VOR Compass Rose
On/Off
(VNAV Constraints)
Show All (show all
constraints within
flight plan if VNAV
Constraints are
‘On’ above)
N/A
N/A
N/A
Appendices
Small Airport
(Longest Runway <
5000 ft without
control tower)
Additional Features
400
AFCS
50
Hazard Avoidance
Medium Airport
(8100 ft > Longest
Runway >5000 ft,
or Longest Runway
< 5000 ft with
control tower)
Flight Management
1000
Audio Panel and CNS
100
Engine Indication System
Large Airport
(Longest Runway
>8100 ft)
Flight Instruments
Max
Range
(nm)
Symbols
System Overview
Default
Range
(nm)
Aviation Symbols
Index
Table 5-4 Aviation Symbol Information
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AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
Default
Range
(nm)
Max
Range
(nm)
Smart Airspace On/Off
N/A
N/A
N/A
Airspace Altitude Labels
(Airspace ALT LBL) On/
Off:
N/A
N/A
N/A
Class B Airspace
Altitude Label (ceiling/
floor)
N/A
N/A
Class C Airspace
Altitude Label (ceiling/
floor)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
50
150
50
100
10
100
50
100
50
250
50
250
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Flight Management
•
Class D Airspace
Altitude
Label
(ceiling)
Class B Airspace/TMA
(CLASS B/TMA)
Class C Airspace/TCA
(CLASS C/TCA)
Class D Airspace (CLASS
D)
Alert/Prohibited/
Restricted/Warning
Areas (RESTRICTED)
Military Operations
Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
Other/Air Defense
Interdiction Zone
(OTHER/ADIZ)
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
•
Additional Features
Appendices
Symbol
Airspace Symbols
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Table 5-5 Airspace Symbol Information
SYMBOL SETUP
Index
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway
extensions, railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which
items appear on the display. For example, enabling “Runway Extension” displays a dashed line on
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the map extending from each runway of an airport in the flight plan when the range is set at or
below the value of the map settings option.
Setting up the Land, Aviation or Airspace group items:
‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
Item
Detail 3
Detail 2
Detail 1
Data Link Lightning
X
Graphical METARs
X
Airports
X
Safe Taxi
X
Runway Labels
X
TFRs
X
Restricted
X
MOA (Military)
X
X
NDBs
X
X
VORs
X
X
VRPs
X
X
User Waypoints
X
X
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X
Appendices
Intersections
Additional Features
X
AFCS
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Hazard Avoidance
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map
information. The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu
Option.
The following table lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents
map items decluttered for each level of detail.
Flight Management
MAP DECLUTTER
Audio Panel and CNS
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
Engine Indication System
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
Flight Instruments
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the
165
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Detail 2
Detail 1
Latitude/Longitude Grid
X
X
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
X
X
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
X
X
Class B Airspaces/TMA
X
X
Class C Airspaces/TCA
X
X
Class D Airspaces
X
X
X
X
Obstacles
X
X
Engine Indication System
Detail 3
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Cities
X
X
X
Roads
X
X
X
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Instruments
Item
Railroads
X
X
X
State/Province Boundaries
X
X
X
Table 5-6 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
Flight Management
Decluttering the MFD Map:
Press the Detail Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter
level is shown. With each softkey press, another level of map information is removed.
Hazard Avoidance
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key to apply the next declutter level and return to the Navigation Map.
AFCS
Decluttering the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection,
AIRWAYS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in
places other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this guide. Low
Altitude Airways (Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend
up to 18,000 feet mean sea level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before
the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to
45,000 feet MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
another level of map information is removed.
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Audio Panel and CNS
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Flight Instruments
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
System Overview
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are
drawn in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of
Low Altitude Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and
Intersections) are also displayed.
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
Low Altitude Airways
(V Routes and T
Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways
(J Routes and Q
Routes)
50
100
Symbol
Appendices
Maximum
Range (nm)
Airways Symbols
Additional Features
Default
Range
(nm)
AFCS
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY
Softkey presses, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway
range can also be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below
a specific number.
The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-16 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
Flight Management
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Table 5-7 Airways Symbol Information
Index
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (AWY LO).
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (AWY HI).
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed
Engine Indication System
(AWY Off).
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
Audio Panel and CNS
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ On/Off Field.
Flight Management
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
Hazard Avoidance
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’
AFCS
range field.
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
Additional Features
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Appendices
ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION MAP ITEMS
Navigation maps can display some additional items. These items (e.g. track vector, wind vector, fuel
range ring, SVT field of view, and selected altitude intercept arc) can be displayed/removed
individually.
Index
TRACK VECTOR
The map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is
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selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the
track vector. The track vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time
settings. It is always a straight line for the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Flight Instruments
Track Vector
Engine Indication System
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map -Track Vector
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map -Track Vector
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the
selected altitude. The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or
descending.
Audio Panel and CNS
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
AFCS
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
WIND VECTOR
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Appendices
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
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Index
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the
Waypoint Information pages.
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Additional Features
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector
information is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for
wind speeds greater than or equal to 1 kt.
FUEL RANGE RING
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green
circle indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance
range. If only reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Total Endurance Range
Audio Panel and CNS
Time to Reserve Fuel
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of
view. The field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol
on the map. This is only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Range to Reserve Fuel
Appendices
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Index
Figure Figure
5-215-20
Navigation
Map
- Field
of View
Navigation Map
- Field
of View
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Setting up additional Map group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
Engine Indication System
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Or
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
Audio Panel and CNS
If it is a data field, use the FMS Knob to select the range or time value.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions,
and are used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint
Information (WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (on PFD). This
auto-tuning feature simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS
section for details on auto-tuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by
entering the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the
system. As a waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the Spell’N’Find feature scrolls
through the database, displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to
that point. A direct-to navigation leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to
Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Identifier Entry Field
VNV Constraints
Entered Waypoint on
Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Waypoint Location &
Course
Figure 5-25 Waypoint Information Window
Figure 5-22 Waypoint Information Window
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by
continuing to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an
identifier, a ‘Duplicate Waypoints’ Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
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Identifier with
Duplicates
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Duplicate
Waypoints
Audio Panel and CNS
Duplicate Message
Figure 5-26 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
Figure 5-23 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
Flight Management
AIRPORTS
AFCS
Additional Features
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT Page Group and allows the pilot to view
airport information, load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review
instrument procedures that may be involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on loading frequencies (auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport
Information Page defaults to the airport where the aircraft is located. After a flight plan has been
loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple airports, it defaults to the
airport which is the current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport
Information Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled Airport, Runways, and
Frequencies. For airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This
information is viewed on the Airport Information Page by pressing the Info Softkey until ‘1’ is
displayed.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: North Up orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot
needs to be aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from
the Airport Information Page Map.
Appendices
Index
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Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Airport/Runway
Diagram
Figure 5-24 Airport Information Page
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
•
Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
•
Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water.
•
Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
•
COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information
available)
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
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Airport Information
Flight Instruments
Airport Directory
Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Figure 5-25 Airport Directory Page Example
Airport: Identifier, Type, Name, City, State, Map
•
Control Tower: Full/Part-time Hours, Days Open
•
Attendance: Annual, weekly, daily, hours
•
Facility Lighting and Beacon: Hours operating, Type and Location, CTAF, beacon colors
•
Noise Abatement: Flying Procedures
•
Pattern Altitudes: Aircraft Class/Altitude
•
Runways: Headings, Length, Width, Facility Obstructions, Surface, Condition, Clearance Slope
•
FBO: Name/Type, Frequencies, Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit Cards, Phone/Fax, Hours Internet,
Courtesy Car
•
Aircraft Businesses/Clubs: Name, Type (sales, training, servicing), Frequencies/Phone/Fax, Credit
Cards, Internet, Services
•
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
•
Instrument Approaches: Published Approach, Freq.
•
Services Available: Category, Specific Service
•
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
Appendices
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Additional Features
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AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the Info
Softkey until ‘2’ is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if
available) on the Airport Directory Page:
175
•
Weather Contacts: Service Type and Frequencies/Phone (AWOS/ASOS)
•
Obstructions: General Airport Obstructions
•
Flight Service Station (FSS): FSS Name, Phone Numbers
•
Approaches: Types
•
General Information and/or Notes: Fees, Airport Notes, local area information
•
Special Operations at Airport: Helicopters, etc.
•
Restaurants: On the Field and Nearby
•
Transportation: Taxi Services, Car Rentals, Type and Availability (public, shuttle, limo, etc.)
•
Attractions: Hotels, Museums, Raceways, Golfing, etc.
•
NAVAIDs: Type, Identifier, Frequency, Radial, Distance
•
Charts: VFR Sectional
•
Elevation: Airfield Elevation (feet)
•
Mag Var: Airfield Magnetic Variation (degrees)
•
Airport Manager: Phone
The airport ‘Frequencies’ Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Communication Frequencies
Approach *
Arrival *
ASOS
ATIS
AWOS
Center
Class B *
Class C *
Clearance
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Control
CTA *
Departure *
FSS
Gate
Ground
Helicopter
Multicom
Other
Navigation Frequencies
Pre-taxi
Radar
Ramp
Terminal *
TMA *
Tower
TRSA *
Unicom
ILS
LOC
Table 5-8 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page.
See the Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be
selected for display (see the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
Appendices
Additional Features
* May include Additional Information
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey), press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
Index
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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1) With the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) displayed, press the FMS
System Overview
Selecting a runway:
Knob to activate the cursor.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway
designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the
selected airport.
Viewing a destination airport:
Airport Identifier/
Type
Hazard Avoidance
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Flight Management
Bearing/Distance to Airport
Audio Panel and CNS
From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) press the MENU Key. Select
‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination Airport is displayed.
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest
airport information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
displays a list of up to 25 of the nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there
are more than three they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available,
“None Within 200nm” is displayed.
Engine Indication System
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
AFCS
Additional Features
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-29 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
Figure 5-26 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
Appendices
Pressing the ENT Key while the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window is shown displays the PFD ‘Airport
Information’ Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing the ENT Key again returns to the ‘Nearest
Airports’ Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list. Continued presses of the ENT Key
sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest Airports list.
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Airport Information
Flight Instruments
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
Engine Indication System
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-27 Airport Information Window on PFD
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey to display the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport identifier, and press the ENT Key to
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
display the Airport Information Window.
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on
‘BACK’) or press the CLR Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the ‘Nearest
Airports’ Window list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key moves through the airport list,
alternating between the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window and the ‘Airport Information’
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential
use in the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected
airport and surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled
Nearest Airports, Information, Runways, Frequencies, and Approaches.
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the
navigation map from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one
runway, up to three frequencies, and up to four approaches are visible at one time. If there are more
than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text
indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
See the Audio Panel & CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for
approaches.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
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Nearest Airports
Nearest Airport
Flight Instruments
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
- Facility/City/Elevation
Engine Indication System
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
Approaches Available
Window Selection
Softkeys
Figure 5-28 Nearest Airport Page
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Nearest Airports’ Page (it is the first page of the
group, so it may already be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, ‘None
Within 200nm’ is displayed.
Hazard Avoidance
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ page group.
Flight Management
Figure 5-31 Nearest Airport Page
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Audio Panel and CNS
- Identification
- Frequency
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight
AFCS
‘Select Airport Window’ and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest
Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves
to the next airport.)
Additional Features
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
Appendices
the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor
is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Index
The ‘Nearest Airports’ Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and
surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports
Page. A minimum runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small
runways or runways that are not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are
3000 feet (or meters) for runway length and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface and minimum runway length matching criteria:
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
Engine Indication System
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Runway Surface’ Field in the ‘Nearest
Airport’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, Hard/
Soft).
Airport’ Box.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INTERSECTIONS
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not
necessarily the VOR used to define the intersection.
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to
displaying a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection
Information Page displays information about the VOR which is nearest to the selected intersection.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Minimum Length’ Field in the ‘Nearest
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Intersection Identifier
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
Flight Instruments
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
Selected Intersection
Engine Indication System
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Audio Panel and CNS
The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path.
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow.
Flight Management
Figure 5-32 Intersection Information Page
Figure 5-29 Intersection Information Page
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Intersection Information
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
Nearest
Intersection
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Audio Panel and CNS
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
Flight Management
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
Figure 5-33 Nearest Intersections Page
Figure 5-30 Nearest Intersection Page
Selecting an intersection:
Hazard Avoidance
1) With the ‘WPT - Intersection Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The
cursor is placed in the ‘Intersection’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter an identifier.
3) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Intersections’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
Additional Features
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest INT’ Box, and press the ENT
Key .
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The NDB Information Page displays information for the selected NDB and a map of the surrounding
area. This page also provides the NDB Frequency and information for the airport nearest to the NDB.
Index
Appendices
NDB
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NDB Identifier/Type
Flight Instruments
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
NDB Information
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Engine Indication System
NDB Frequency
Selected NDB
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-31 NDB Information Page
AFCS
The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find an NDB close to the flight path. A white arrow
before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. In addition to displaying a map of the
surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs. The list only includes
waypoints that are within 200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no
nearest NDBs is displayed, and the information and frequency fields are dashed.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon
installed in conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is
at the Outer Marker; when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
Flight Management
Figure 5-34 NDB Information Page
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NDB Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
Audio Panel and CNS
Nearest NDB
NDB Frequency
Flight Management
Figure 5-35 Nearest NDB Page
Figure 5-32 Nearest NDB Page
Selecting an NDB:
Hazard Avoidance
1) With the ‘WPT - NDB Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The cursor is
placed in the ‘NDB’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the NDB identifier, name, or the city in which it’s located.
3) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
Additional Features
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest NDB’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest NDB’ Box, and press the ENT
Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Index
Appendices
VOR
The VOR Information Page displays information for the selected VOR and a map of the surrounding
area. This page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS navigation signals, or to quickly
auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency.
Localizer information cannot be viewed on the VOR Information Page. If a VOR station is combined
with a TACAN station it is listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information Page and if it includes only
DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
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System Overview
VOR Identifier/Type
VOR Information
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest Airport Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
Engine Indication System
VOR Frequency
Selected VOR
Flight Instruments
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected VOR
Audio Panel and CNS
Hazard Avoidance
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. A white arrow
before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Also, a NAV frequency from a selected VOR
station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of the surrounding
area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations. The list only
includes waypoints that are within 200 nm. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information is
dashed.
Flight Management
Figure 5-36 VOR Information Page
Figure 5-33 VOR Information Page
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
VOR
VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
VOR Information
Nearest VOR
Audio Panel and CNS
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Flight Management
Figure 5-37 Nearest VOR Page
Figure 5-34 Nearest VOR Page
Selecting a VOR:
1) With the ‘WPT - VOR Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The cursor is
Hazard Avoidance
place in the ‘VOR’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the VOR identifier, name, or the city in which it’s located.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob; or press the VOR
Softkey.
Additional Features
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest VOR’ Box, and press the ENT
Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
Appendices
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest VOR’ Box, and press the ENT
Index
Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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The VRP Information Page dispays information about the selected visual reporting point (VRPs) and
a map of the surrounding area.
- VRP Name
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Selected VRP
Engine Indication System
VRP Information
Flight Instruments
VRP Identifier/Symbol
Navigation Map
Showing Selected VRP
System Overview
VRP
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Figure 5-38 VRP Information Page
Figure 5-35 VRP Information Page
Hazard Avoidance
The Nearest VRP Page can be used to quickly find a VRP close to the aircraft. A white arrow before
the VRP identifier indicates the selected VRP. In addition to displaying a map of the surrounding area,
the Nearest VRP Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VRPs. The list only includes VRPs that
are within 200 nm. If there are no nearest VRPs in the list, the information is dashed.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest VRP
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Nearest VRP
VRP Information
Audio Panel and CNS
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
Flight Management
Figure 5-39 Nearest VRP Page
Figure 5-36 Nearest VRP Page
Selecting a VRP:
1) With the ‘WPT - VRP Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The cursor is
Hazard Avoidance
placed in the ‘VRP’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the VRP identifier or name.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest VRP’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
USER WAYPOINTS
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created
from any map page (except PFD Maps, Aux-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a
position on the map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a
bearing/distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and
longitude. Once a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user
waypoints are erased upon system power down.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest VRP’ Box, and press the ENT
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User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
User Wpt Comment
Reference Wpt/Info
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint List
- Identifier
- Comment
Engine Indication System
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
Flight Instruments
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Audio Panel and CNS
# User Wpts Used
Flight Management
Figure 5-40 User Waypoint Information Page
Figure 5-37 User Waypoint Information Page
Nearest User Wpt List
Hazard Avoidance
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
AFCS
User Waypoint Info
Selected User
Waypoint
Reference Wpt Info
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Appendices
Figure 5-41 Nearest User Waypoint Page
Additional Features
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-38 Nearest User Waypoint Page
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selecting a User Waypoint:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The
cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
Flight Instruments
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or use the large FMS
Knob to scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest User WPTS’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest User’ Box, and press the ENT
Audio Panel and CNS
Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Creating user waypoints from the User WPT Information Page:
Flight Management
1) Press the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new
waypoint.
Hazard Avoidance
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two
reference waypoint identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Box using the
FMS Knobs.
AFCS
Or:
Additional Features
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the
reference waypoint identifier, the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude
and longitude into the ‘Information’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Appendices
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the
cursor to ‘Temporary’ and selecting the ENT Key to check the box.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Index
Or:
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1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new user
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Or:
Audio Panel and CNS
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the
reference waypoint identifier, the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Engine Indication System
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two
reference waypoint identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Box using the
FMS Knobs.
Flight Instruments
waypoint AAAAAA?’ is displayed.
Or:
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
Flight Management
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude
and longitude into the ‘Information’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the
Hazard Avoidance
cursor to ‘Temporary’ and selecting the ENT Key to check the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the
AFCS
desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page is displayed with the
captured position.
Additional Features
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens
upon pressing the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of
initiating a new waypoint, 2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’
or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new waypoint is initiated with the default name being the
selected map item.
Appendices
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is
highlighted.
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Index
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two
reference waypoint identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Box using the
FMS Knobs.
Flight Instruments
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the
reference waypoint identifier, the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Engine Indication System
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude
and longitude into the ‘Information’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Audio Panel and CNS
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by
moving the cursor to ‘Temporary’ and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the
box.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Once a user waypoint has been created, it may be edited, renamed, or deleted. A system generated
comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing, and distance. If
a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the ‘WPT — User
Waypoint Information’ Page Menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the
next power cycle.
AFCS
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
Additional Features
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the desired field.
Appendices
5) Use the FMS Knobs to make any changes.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
Index
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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System Overview
Renaming user waypoints:
1) With the ‘WPTS - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob. The
cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
Flight Instruments
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the Rename Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Rename User Waypoint’,
and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA
to BBBBBB?’ is displayed.
Audio Panel and CNS
6) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
4) Enter a new name.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
Flight Management
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the MENU Key.
Hazard Avoidance
4) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
5) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
AFCS
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
Additional Features
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
Appendices
5) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to
define the waypoint.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The
cursor is placed on ‘Waypoint Setup’ in the ‘Options’ Box.
Index
2) Press the ENT Key.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the ‘WPT - User WPT
Information’ Page.
Flight Instruments
Deleting a single user waypoint:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
Engine Indication System
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
3) Press the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘YES’ is highlighted in the confirmation
window.
Audio Panel and CNS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
Flight Management
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
5) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AFCS
Deleting all user waypoints:
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Additional Features
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor. The cursor is placed in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the name of the User Waypoint; or turn the large FMS
Knob and scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
Appendices
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All User Waypoints’.
5) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
Index
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Flight Instruments
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D,
Restricted, MOA (Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary
Flight Restriction (TFR). For detailed information concerning TFRs, see the Hazard Avoidance Section.
Display settings for airspace altitude labels and airspace boundaries are selected from the ‘Airspace’
Group in the ‘Map Settings’ Window.
System Overview
5.4 AIRSPACES
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Class B Airspace
Engine Indication System
Restricted Area
Airspace Altitude Label
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Class D Airspace
Hazard Avoidance
Military Operating
Area (MOA)
Class C Airspace
AFCS
Warning Area
TFR
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Alert Area
ADIZ
Figure 5-42 Airspaces
Figure 5-39 Airspace
A selected frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the ‘Nearest Airspaces’ Page. In
addition to displaying a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the ‘Nearest Airspaces’ Page
displays airspace information in four boxes labelled Airspace Alerts, Airspace Agency, Vertical Limits,
and Frequencies. Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the ‘Nearest
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Airspace 1
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Audio Panel and CNS
Airspace Vertical Limits
Airspace 2
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
Flight Management
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Figure 5-43 Nearest Airspaces Page
Figure 5-40 Nearest Airspace Page
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less
than 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft
penetrates the airspace within 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft
position.
Appendices
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Additional Features
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
AFCS
Comments
Hazard Avoidance
The ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box (Aux - System Setup 1 Page) on the MFD allows the pilot to turn the
controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off. This does not affect the alerts listed on the
Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the Navigation Map Page. It simply turns
on/off the message provided in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD when the aircraft is approaching or
near an airspace. An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below
an airspace. For example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/
below an airspace, an alert message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below
an airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default setting for
the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Pressing the PFD Message Softkey displays the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD. The following airspace
alerts are displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window:
Message
Engine Indication System
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Flight Instruments
Airspace Alerts Info
System Overview
Airspaces’ Page. The Alerts and FREQ Softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey
is enabled only if one or more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft
position.
2 nm.
Index
Table 5-9 PFD Airspace Messages
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace’ Group, if necessary, and press the ENT
Key.
Engine Indication System
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace ALT LBL’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ to display labels and ‘Off’ to remove labels.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude Buffer’ Field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’
Flight Management
Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Hazard Avoidance
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to
AFCS
turn the alert Off.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Additional Features
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page.
2) Press the Alerts Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight
Index
Appendices
‘Select Alerts’ Window, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace
Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The
function does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the
airspace. If the current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the
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System Overview
airspace boundary is shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the
vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Smart Airspace On
Flight Management
Smart Airspace Off
Figure 5-44 Smart Airspace
Figure 5-41 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Group’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ and press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ Field.
turn smart airspace Off.
AFCS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace On or counterclockwise to
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key, is quicker to use than a
flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present
position to the selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced
with a new direct-to or flight plan, or cancelled.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the
path) from the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is
based on barometric altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The ‘Direct-to’ Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The ‘Direct To’ Window
displays selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Desired Course
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Location of Destination
AFCS
- Bearing/Distance
Figure 5-45 Direct-to Window - MFD
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 5-42 Direct To Window - MFD
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Direct-to Point Info
Flight Instruments
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Engine Indication System
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the ‘Direct To’ Window. Also, any
waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the ‘Direct To’
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window.
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
Hazard Avoidance
Waypoint Submenu
Flight Management
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD “Flight
Plan” or “Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport
waypoint is loaded into the flight plan.
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-43 Direct-to Window - PFD
Figure 5-43 Direct To Window - PFD
AFCS
Figure 5-44 Waypoint Submenu
Additional Features
Appendices
The ‘Direct To’ Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of directto navigation. If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is
the active flight plan waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on
any WPT page defaults to the displayed waypoint.
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The
course to a destination can also be manually selected using the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field on the ‘Direct To’
Window.
Index
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan
waypoint as the default selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it
Engine Indication System
counter-clockwise brings up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to
remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Field and turn
the small FMS Knob to begin entering an identifier, facility, or city. If duplicate entries
exist, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS Knob during the
selection process.
3) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Audio Panel and CNS
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window
is displayed with the active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints
Flight Management
(turning the knob counter-clockwise displays the waypoint submenu window).
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
Hazard Avoidance
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Or:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window on
the PFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD), and turn the large
AFCS
FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
Additional Features
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
Appendices
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
Index
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired
System Overview
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
waypoint.
the direct-to destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
Engine Indication System
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected waypoint as
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the ‘NRST -
Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD and press the FMS Knob.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan
Flight Management
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
waypoint as the default selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
counter-clockwise brings up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to
remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Field and turn
the small FMS Knob to begin entering an identifier, facility name, or city. If duplicate
entries exist, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS Knob during
the selection process.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it
AFCS
3) Highlight the ’CRS’ or Course’ Field.
4) Enter the desired course.
Additional Features
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the cursor flashing in
Appendices
the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Box.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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Index
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no
airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named
‘MAPWPT’ is automatically created at the location of the map arrow.
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From the Navigation Map Page, push the Joystick to display the pointer.
Flight Instruments
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, VRP, or user waypoint, the
waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected point
Engine Indication System
entered as the direct-to destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active,
the system resumes navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path)
from the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the
waypoint, or at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All
VNV altitudes prior to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful
activation of a direct-to destination that is part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the
direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more information regarding
the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
AFCS
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ Box altitude Field.
3) Enter the desired altitude using the FMS Knob.
Additional Features
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an
airport, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or
‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude
5) The cursor is now flashing in the ‘VNV’ offset distance Field.
Appendices
6) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
Index
8) Press the ENT Key to activate.
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System Overview
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Flight Instruments
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time,
adding waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed.
The system allows flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight
plan is displayed on maps using different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the
segment of the flight plan currently being flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed
approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A roll steering path is a computed transition between two disconnected legs.
‡ A roll steering path in the flight plan that is beyond the next leg appears as a future roll steering
path. When a future roll steering path becomes the next leg in the flight plan, it appears as a roll
steering path.
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. Upon
power up, the previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft
position is at the origin airport and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not at the
origin, on the ground, or if more than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification,
the previously active flight plan is not retained. One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes
the active flight plan. The active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When
storing flight plans with an approach, departure, or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information
from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the system
automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been modified. If an approach,
departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the affected stored
flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that one or
more stored flight plans need to be edited.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of
approach, departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Table 5-10 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
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Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no
longer on the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
•
Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
Audio Panel and CNS
•
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
•
‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
•
Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Flight Management
•
Engine Indication System
Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
Flight Instruments
•
System Overview
describing the instrument procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan
remains active (unless an instrument procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded
from the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the
sequence of waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the
database is updated). The update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway
waypoints are changed to regular (non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see
Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
AFCS
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Hazard Avoidance
Active FPL Waypoint List
Active Flight
Plan Leg
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Vertical Deviation
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Additional Features
Vertical Navigation Profile
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Appendices
Figure 5-48 Active Flight Plan Page
Figure 5-45 Active Flight Plan Page
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Flight Instruments
Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
Engine Indication System
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Audio Panel and CNS
Active
Flight Plan
on PFDon PFD
Figure Figure
5-46 5-46
Active
Flight
PlanWindow
Window
Catalog Contents
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
- Comment
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
AFCS
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
The active flight plan is listed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the ‘Flight Plan’
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is
shown on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page on the
MFD, and are available for activation (becomes the active flight plan).
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 5-50 Flight Plan Catalog Page
Figure 5-47 Flight Plan Catalog Page
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or GPS APR
mode). The system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI,
VM, or VR).
Auto-designation will determine the most likely airport of origin and auto-populate the Active Flight
Plan. Once determined, the airfield identifier automatically appears in the ‘Origin’ Field and the line
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•
Aircraft is on the ground
•
Nearest airport is within 200NM
•
Flight plan is empty
Hazard Avoidance
Creating an active flight plan:
Flight Management
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD “Flight
Plan” or “Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport
waypoint is loaded into the flight plan.
Audio Panel and CNS
If the pilot manually enters the origin, or any other leg of the flight plan before auto-designation
occurs, nothing gets inserted automatically. The automatic insertion logic only runs once, so the pilot
can edit the origin if the nearest airport is not the desired origin.
If the pilot enters a different airport into the first point of the flight plan, the Origin will change to
this entry, and the pilot will be prompted to enter the departure runway.
Both the Origin airport/runway and the first point of the flight plan will be the same unless a
departure is entered and a manual leg is inserted at the beginning of the loaded departure. Loading a
departure locks in the origin information.
Engine Indication System
Aircraft position is known
Flight Instruments
•
System Overview
immediately below ‘Origin’ while keeping the runway (‘RW’) Field empty. The line below the Origin
line serves as the first point in the flight plan.
Auto-designation occurs between 15 and 60 seconds after display power-up under the following
conditions:
1) Press the FPL Key. Press the small FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
2) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
AFCS
using the FMS Knob.
name of the departure waypoint.
highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
Appendices
3) Repeat step number 2 for the destination airport and runway.
4) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute
header is selected, the new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new waypoint will be placed ahead of the
selected item).
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
Flight Instruments
name of the waypoint. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is
entered.
5) Repeat step number 4 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor (if
Engine Indication System
required).
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and
press the ENT Key to display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Select the origin airport and runway.
Flight Management
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier
using the FMS Knob, or by moving the Quick Select Box (MFD only) with the
Joystick (the waypoint will be inserted at the insertion point indicator).
b) Use the FMS Knob, alphanumeric keypad, or the waypoint submenu to enter the
Hazard Avoidance
identifier, facility, or city name of the origin waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field
highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
5) Repeat step number 4 for the destination airport and runway.
6) Select the enroute waypoints.
Additional Features
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute
header is selected, the new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute
waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new waypoint will be placed ahead of the
selected item.)
b) Use the FMS Knob, alphanumeric keypad, or the waypoint submenu to enter the
Appendices
identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The stored flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
Index
8) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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A flight plan file stored on the SD
card was successfully imported as a
stored flight plan.
‘File contained user
waypoints only. User
waypoints imported
successfully. No stored
flight plan data was
modified.’
The file stored on the SD card did
not contain a flight plan, only user
waypoints. These waypoints have
been saved to the system user
waypoints. No flight plans stored in
the system have been modified.
‘No flight plan files found
to import.’
The SD card contains no flight plan
data.
Flight Management
‘Flight plan successfully
imported.’
Audio Panel and CNS
Description
Engine Indication System
Flight Plan Import/
Export Results
‘Flight plan import failed.’ Flight plan data was not successfully
imported from the SD card.
The flight plan on the SD card
contains more waypoints than the
system can support. The flight plan
was imported with as many
waypoints as possible.
‘Some waypoints not
loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
The flight plan on the SD card
contains one or more waypoints that
the system cannot find in the
navigation database. The flight plan
has been imported, but must be
edited within the system before it
can be activated for use.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
‘Too many points. Flight
plan truncated.’
Appendices
The file stored on the SD card did
not contain a flight plan, only user
waypoints. One or more of these
waypoints did not import
successfully.
Additional Features
‘File contained user
waypoints only.’
AFCS
Some flight plan waypoints were
successfully imported from the SD
card, however others had errors and
were not imported. A partial stored
flight plan now exists in the system.
Hazard Avoidance
190-02130-02 Rev. A
‘Flight plan partially
imported.’
Flight Instruments
Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight
Plan Page.
Under certain conditions, the following messages may appear when a flight plan is imported or
exported from or to an SD card. Some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
System Overview
FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT/EXPORT
211
Flight Plan Import/
Export Results
Description
‘User waypoint database
full. Not all loaded.’
The flight plan file on the SD card
contains user waypoints. The
quantity of stored user waypoints
has exceeded system capacity,
therefore not all the user waypoints
on the SD card have been imported.
Any flight plan user waypoints that
were not imported are locked in the
flight plan. The flight plan must be
edited within the system before it
can be activated for use.
‘One or more user
waypoints renamed.’
One or more imported user
waypoints were renamed when
imported due to naming conflicts
with waypoints already existing in
the system.
‘Flight plan successfully
exported.’
The stored flight plan was
successfully exported to the SD card.
‘Flight plan export failed.’
The stored flight plan was not
successfully exported to the SD card.
The SD card may not have sufficient
available memory or the card may
have been removed prematurely.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Table 5-11 Flight Plan Import/Export Messages
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card:
AFCS
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Additional Features
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and
Appendices
press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be
displayed.
Or:
Index
If an existing flight plan is selected, an ‘Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL’
prompt is displayed. Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan
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Flight Instruments
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
System Overview
and see the list of available flight plans on the SD card. If overwriting the existing flight
plan is not desired, select ‘CANCEL’ using the FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, select
another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Audio Panel and CNS
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card:
Engine Indication System
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name
of a waypoint already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the
imported waypoint with those of the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the
imported waypoint is automatically renamed by adding characters to the end of the name.
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Flight Management
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Export Flight Plan’.
left to highlight the name, then use the FMS Knobs to enter the new name, and press
the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
AFCS
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
Additional Features
Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Flight Stream 510 Bluetooth wireless
connection. Transfer of a flight plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device.
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
Pending Flight Plan
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Flight Instruments
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
Preview Softkey
Ignore Softkey
Figure 5-51 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
Flight Management
Figure 5-48 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Pending Flight Plan
Additional Features
Store? or Activate?
Selection
Delete Softkey
Store Softkey
Activate Softkey
Figure 5-52 Preview Flight Plan Page
Index
Appendices
Figure 5-49 Preview Flight Plan Page
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1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight
Flight Instruments
Plan pop-up alert appears in the lower right corner of the MFD, and a Connext
annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
System Overview
Previewing a pending flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Preview Flight Plan’.
Ignoring a pending flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The
pending flight plan will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
Or:
Flight Management
Plan pop-up alert appears in the lower right corner of the MFD, and a Connext
annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
Audio Panel and CNS
c) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Engine Indication System
Press the Preview Softkey to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Press the Ignore Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight
plan. The pending flight plan will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
Storing a pending flight plan:
AFCS
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Additional Features
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
6) Press the Store Softkey to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and
Appendices
the pending annunciation is removed.
Or:
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store?’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the
Flight Instruments
pending annunciation is removed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
Engine Indication System
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the
pending annunciation is removed.
Audio Panel and CNS
Activating a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight
Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
Flight Management
pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page.
4) Press the Activate Softkey. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ Window is displayed.
Or:
Hazard Avoidance
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ Window is displayed.
Or:
AFCS
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’.
Additional Features
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ Window is displayed.
5) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to activate the pending flight plan. The
pending flight plan becomes the active flight plan and is removed from the Flight Plan
Catalog Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Appendices
Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Index
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
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System Overview
5) Press the Delete Softkey. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
Or:
Press the CLR Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
Flight Instruments
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. The
pending flight plan is removed from the Flight Plan Catalog Page. To cancel the request,
press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
Audio Panel and CNS
Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Flight Management
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All Pending’.
5) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation Window is
displayed.
the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
Additional Features
NOTE: Manually adding waypoints to a flight plan after a MANSEQ leg creates a lateral gap
in the flight plan. Time, fuel, and distance values for legs beyond the gap do not include the
distance across the gap.
AFCS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan,
select the desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected
waypoint. Flight plans are limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and
procedures). If the number of waypoints in the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is
full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight
plan.
Hazard Avoidance
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel
Appendices
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Stored Flight Plan Selected
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Figure 5-53 Stored Flight Plan Page
Figure 5-50 Stored Flight Plan Page
Hazard Avoidance
Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to
AFCS
select “EDIT” and press the ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed
directly in front of the highlighted waypoint.
Additional Features
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it
clockwise displays a blank ‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise
displays the ‘Waypoint Information Window’ with a waypoint selection submenu
allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the
Appendices
submenu of waypoints and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the
flight plan.
Index
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window has duplicates, a
‘Duplicate Waypoint’ Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
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1) Press the FPL Key.
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed
prior to the highlighted waypoint.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
Flight Instruments
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
System Overview
NOTE: If the flight plan is successfully edited in the ‘Flight Plan’ Window from PFD while the
MFD Active Flight Plan Page is in the process of being edited, the ‘Flight Plan Modified By
Other User’ Window will appear on the MFD. Press the ENT key to return to the Active Flight
Plan Page with the accepted changes.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
Flight Management
submenu of waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each
waypoint is entered.
Audio Panel and CNS
clockwise displays a blank ‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise
displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with a waypoint selection submenu
allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
1) Press the FPL Key
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the FMS Knob on the MFD to activate the cursor.
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint.
4) Push the Joystick on the MFD to activate the panning function on the ‘FPL - Active
Flight Plan’ Page and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
Additional Features
the ENT Key. The user waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next
available in sequence) and is added to the active flight plan.
Waypoints entered in the enroute segment of the flight plan may be treated as fly-by waypoints,
unless otherwise designated. A fly-by waypoint is a waypoint that marks the intersection of two
straight paths, with the transition from one path to another being made by the aircraft using a
precisely calculated turn that “flies by” but does not vertically cross the waypoint. A fly-over
waypoint is a waypoint that must be crossed vertically by the aircraft.
AFCS
5) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press
Appendices
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Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-By Waypoint
Figure 5-54 TOP Fly-By Waypoint
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-51 TOP Fly-By Waypoint
AFCS
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Appendices
Additional Features
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-By Waypoint
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
Figure 5-55 TOP Fly-Over Waypoint
Index
Figure 5-52 TOP Fly-Over Waypoint
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System Overview
Designating a fly-over waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan, press the FPL Key and press the FMS Knob to activate the
cursor (not required on the PFD).
For a stored flight plan, highlight the desired flight plan on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog
Page’ and press the Edit Softkey.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-Over Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set
[waypoint] to be a fly-over waypoint?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
5) To change the waypoint back to a fly-by waypoint, highlight the desired waypoint. Press
the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-By Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set
[waypoint] to be a fly-by waypoint?’ Window is displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press
the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the
desired airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway
entry point, select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be
loaded if there is a waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an
arrival or approach procedure. The system also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on
loaded flight plan waypoints.
Flight Management
ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
Audio Panel and CNS
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
Flight Instruments
Or:
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
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Selected Airway
Airways Available at TOP
Preview of
Selected Airway
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Airway Entry Waypoint
Flight Management
Figure 5-54 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Figure 5-53 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Hazard Avoidance
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
AFCS
Preview of
Selected Airway
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Figure 5-55 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
Figure 5-54 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway A2 in Europe has a
directional restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Airway Exit Points
Available
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2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway
inserted.
Hazard Avoidance
ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
Flight Management
the MENU Key and select ‘Load Airway’. The Select Airway Page/Window is displayed.
The LD AIRWY Softkey or the ‘Load Airway’ menu item is available only when a valid
airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor position).
Audio Panel and CNS
If this waypoint is not a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at
this time.
Engine Indication System
1) Press the FPL Key.
Flight Instruments
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
System Overview
For example, airway UR975 in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the
list of airway waypoints. That is, each waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to
another waypoint.
In the US, airways that are one-way for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These
airways are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the
flight plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
AFCS
The system allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation
database into a flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport
(departure), arriving at an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the procedures
section for more details.
Additional Features
Appendices
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Flight Instruments
Flight Plan Name
Engine Indication System
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Softkeys
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Load Departure Load Arrival Load Approach Activate Flight Plan -
Figure 5-56 Stored Flight Plan Page
Figure 5-55 Stored Flight Plan Page
DEPARTURE
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one
departure can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure,
the transition waypoints, and a runway.
AFCS
Departure Airport
Additional Features
Selected
Departure
Departures Available at
KMKC
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Appendices
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-57 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Index
Figure 5-56 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
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System Overview
Departure Airport
Flight Instruments
Selected
Departure
Selected Runway
Selected Transition
Departure Transition
Points Available
Engine Indication System
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Selected
Departure End
Point
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-58 Departure Loading Page - Selecting Transition
Flight Management
Figure 5-57 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Departure’, and press the
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
ARRIVAL
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one
arrival can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
Additional Features
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
Appendices
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selected Arrival
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Selected Runway
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-59 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Figure 5-58 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
DBRY3
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Destination Airport
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Appendices
Additional Features
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Figure 5-60 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Index
Figure 5-59 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
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System Overview
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
Engine Indication System
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only
one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by
designating transition waypoints.
Audio Panel and CNS
APPROACH
Flight Management
Destination Airport
Hazard Avoidance
Selected
Approach
Approaches Available at
KCOS
AFCS
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Additional Features
Figure 5-61 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Figure 5-60 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Appendices
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Flight Instruments
Destination Airport
Engine Indication System
Selected
Approach
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Audio Panel and CNS
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Figure 5-62 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Flight Management
Figure 5-61 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Approach’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
AFCS
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS
Knob to move the cursor to the ‘Approach Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key
Appendices
to accept the approach channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
Index
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
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Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
AFCS
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Hazard Avoidance
Stored Flight Plan Info
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
Engine Indication System
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Selected Flight Plan
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
Flight Instruments
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased
when the system is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored
flight plan can be viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
A stored flight plan may be viewed or edited. The system also allows copying a flight plan into a
new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without affecting the original flight plan. This
can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating a modified version of the
original stored flight plan.
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being
activated. Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and
replaces it with the flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Lastly, individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
System Overview
STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Figure 5-62 Stored Flight Plan Information
1) Press the MENU Key.
Additional Features
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the ‘Active Flight
Plan’ Window:
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available
Appendices
3) Press the ENT Key.
position in the flight plan list on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Flight Instruments
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired flight plan.
Engine Indication System
4) The ‘Flight Plan Info’ Box displays departure, destination, total distance, and enroute
safe altitude information for the selected flight plan.
5) Press the Edit Softkey to open the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page and view the
waypoints in the flight plan.
Audio Panel and CNS
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
Flight Management
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired flight plan.
3) Press the Activate Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key,
Hazard Avoidance
highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘activate stored flight plan?’
Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
AFCS
Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
Additional Features
desired flight plan.
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and
press the ENT Key. The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Appendices
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
Index
desired flight plan.
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the ENT Key. The ‘Copy to flight plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
System Overview
3) Press the Copy Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. The flight plan is
Flight Instruments
stored in the next available position in the flight plan list on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan
Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
Audio Panel and CNS
flight plan to be edited.
Engine Indication System
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Flight Management
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ Window is displayed.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
AFCS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be deleted.
Additional Features
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [airway name] from flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Appendices
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Flight Instruments
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
Engine Indication System
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
Audio Panel and CNS
displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Flight Management
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Hazard Avoidance
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
AFCS
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight
‘Remove [procedure]’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
Additional Features
displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Appendices
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
Index
flight plan to be edited.
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ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
System Overview
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
Flight Instruments
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
3) Press the Delete Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete
Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete flight plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
Audio Panel and CNS
desired flight plan.
Engine Indication System
Deleting a stored flight plan:
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Flight Management
request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
Page.
Hazard Avoidance
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight
AFCS
plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the
request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
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Appendices
The active flight plan can be edited by adding or removing flight plan items. The edits made to the
active flight plan affect navigation as soon as they are entered. The system allows deleting an active
flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by the system. Individual waypoints,
entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints in the final
approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete a
waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification’.
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for
identification and sorting.
The flight plan leg which is currently being used for navigation guidance is referred to as the ‘active
leg’. The system automatically sequences from one active leg to the next as defined by the active flight
Additional Features
ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
plan. Any leg in the active flight plan successive to the leg currently being flown may be selected to
become the new active leg.
Lastly, the active flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure
point.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
Audio Panel and CNS
Window (PFD).
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or
FMS Knob to highlight the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’,
and press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Flight Management
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert
Hazard Avoidance
active flight plan?’ confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete
Additional Features
all waypoints in flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the
request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
Appendices
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
Index
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ Window is displayed.
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highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
System Overview
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [airway name] from flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
Audio Panel and CNS
FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be deleted.
Engine Indication System
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
Flight Instruments
NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the
end waypoint of the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and
activated.
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the header of the procedure to be deleted.
Hazard Avoidance
Window (PFD).
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
displayed.
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Additional Features
Or:
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight
Appendices
‘Remove [procedure]’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
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Index
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
235
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a
flight plan. Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used
to make the system reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan
waypoint. Offset distances can be entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a
negative offset distance results in an along track offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint,
whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an along track offset waypoint inserted after the
selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the alongtrack distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected
waypoint is the active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active
waypoint. Assigning an along track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along
track offset is not allowed at or after the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance
must be changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with
the new offset distance.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
the comment field.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Engine Indication System
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-64 Along Track Offset
Flight Management
Figure 5-63 Along Track Offset
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint for the along track offset.
Hazard Avoidance
Window (PFD).
3) Press the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK
Offset Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key.
+/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
Additional Features
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
PARALLEL TRACK
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237
Index
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Appendices
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right
of the current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages
shows the parallel course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
Activation of parallel track will apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that
does not meet the criteria for parallel track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track
at the beginning of that leg.
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the
activation prompt is displayed, but disabled.
The following will inhibit activation of a parallel track:
•
Initiating a direct-to, to the selected waypoint.
•
If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track
with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’.
•
If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp
turn of more than 120 degrees), the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel
track because of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’).
•
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status indicates
that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’).
•
If there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active.
The following will cancel the parallel track:
•
Initiating a direct-to, to a waypoint.
•
Initiating a hold at the present position.
•
If a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a result of the course
change.
•
No legs are remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active.
Initiating a hold at a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is
required to fly to the hold waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the
parallel track will be resumed. Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be
resumed upon exiting the hold.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
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System Overview
Offset Direction
Flight Instruments
Offset Distance
Activation Prompt
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-64
TrackTrack
WindowWindow
Figure
5-64Parallel
Parallel
Flight Management
Original Track
AFCS
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Hazard Avoidance
Parallel Track
Waypoints
Parallel Track
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 5-66 Parallel Track Active
Figure 5-65 Parallel Track Active
Index
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239
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Flight Instruments
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel
Track’ Window is displayed with the ‘Direction’ Field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The
Engine Indication System
‘Distance’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key.
‘Activate Parallel Track’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to
Audio Panel and CNS
cancel the parallel track activation.
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Flight Management
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel
Track’ Window is displayed with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be
configured to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of
the flight plan, and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view,
additional information is displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE),
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Changing the flight plan view:
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
Additional Features
2) Press the View Softkey to display the Wide, Narrow, Leg-Leg, and CUM Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the Leg-Leg
Softkey to view leg-to-leg waypoint distance.
4) Press the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or select the Narrow Softkey to
Index
Appendices
display the narrow view.
5) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Charts may also be viewed alongside the active flight plan in split screen mode. With an active flight
plan loaded into the system, the Charts Page will automatically display a chart coinciding with the
active flight plan leg. For more information on Charts, see the Additional Features Section.
Activating split screen mode from the active flight plan displays the Charts Page which removes the
Flight Plan Map. The Flight Plan Map can be re-displayed on the active flight plan page. However,
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System Overview
replacing the Flight Plan Map on the active flight plan page in split screen mode limits the flight plan
content which can be displayed. For example, displaying the Flight Plan Map while in split screen
narrow view removes the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box. See the following figures below depicting the
different split screen displays with the active flight plan.
Flight Instruments
Display Title shows ‘Chart + Active Flight Plan
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Split Screen Narrow View
Split Screen Wide View
Figure 5-66 Split Screen Narrow and Wide View
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Split Screen Narrow View with Flight Plan Map
Split Screen Wide View with Flight Plan Map
Figure 5-67 Split Screen Mode with Flight Plan Map
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Viewing charts and active flight plan page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. Split screen mode is now enabled showing the Charts Page
Flight Instruments
alongside the Active Flight Plan Page, and Charts Page is bordered by a cyan box
indicating it is the active display pane.
3) To quickly view the chart corresponding to the active flight plan leg, press the AUTO
Engine Indication System
Softkey.
Displaying the flight plan map on the active flight plan page in split mode:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. Split screen mode is now enabled showing the Charts Page
3) Move the Joystick to select the Active Flight Plan page as the active display pane.
4) Press the MENU Key. ‘Show Flight Plan Map’ is highlighted. Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the Flight Plan Map, press the MENU Key and select ‘Hide Flight Plan Map’.
Press the ENT Key.
COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Stored or
Active Flight Plan Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway
heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit
waypoint reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display.
The DTK value is inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint,
“To” waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden
in a collapsed airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next”
waypoint is automatically expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded
to facilitate flight plan review.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
alongside the active flight plan, and the Charts Page is bordered by a cyan box
indicating it is the active display pane.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
V4.SLN Airway
Expanded View
Engine Indication System
All Airways
Collapsed View
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-68 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
Window (PFD).
ENT Key. The airways are collapsed/expanded.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
Hazard Avoidance
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a
reference waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a
chosen reference waypoint.
Flight Management
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
AFCS
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A
window appears with the reference waypoint field highlighted.
and distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference
waypoint and creates a user waypoint at this location. Press the ENT Key. The name for
the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference waypoint.
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position,
or at a direct-to waypoint.
Appendices
USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
Additional Features
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint. The system displays the bearing (BRG)
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
Hazard Avoidance
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
AFCS
(Right or Left)
Appendices
Additional Features
Map of Hold Location
Expect Further Clearance Time
Index
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-68 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
Figure 5-69 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Waypoint
Selected
Audio Panel and CNS
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
Hazard Avoidance
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Flight Management
Course Direction
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode
Button
(Time or Distance)
AFCS
Map of Hold Location
Additional Features
Appendices
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Index
Hold At Direct To Waypoint Selection
5-69 Creating
DefinedHolding
Holding Pattern
at a Direct
WaypointTo Waypoint
Figure 5-70 Figure
Creating
a Usera User
Defined
Pattern
at aToDirect
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Flight Instruments
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold
Engine Indication System
at’ Window appears with the ‘Course’ Field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
Hazard Avoidance
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Hold at’ Window appears with the ‘Course’ Field highlighted.
AFCS
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
Additional Features
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
Appendices
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold
Index
waypoint at the aircraft present position and activate the hold.
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1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘Hold?’
System Overview
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
instead of ‘Activate?’ when finished.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-
Editing a user-defined hold:
Flight Management
defined hold defined at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the
active flight plan, the hold is inserted into the active flight plan. If the direct-to
waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is created.)
Audio Panel and CNS
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
Engine Indication System
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Flight Instruments
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint for the hold.
Hazard Avoidance
Window (PFD).
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Edit Hold’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’
Window appears with the ‘Course’ Field highlighted.
AFCS
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
ENT Key.
Appendices
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Update?’ is highlighted to update the hold.
Index
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Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern
to the inbound course and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Flight Instruments
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the ‘HOLD’ waypoint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active
Audio Panel and CNS
flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the
holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window (PFD or MFD).
Flight Management
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To
NAV’ selection.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
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System Overview
5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
The system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute
and terminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan
or to a direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is
provided as a linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two
waypoints with specified altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical
waypoints are integrated into the active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are
supported.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ),
and time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator
(VDI) and Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ,
and TOD items displayed in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until
manually enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an
altitude constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active
Flight Plan Page allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude
constraint at the VNV direct-to waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is
spread along the flight plan from current position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the
leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key
also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight plan waypoints between the current position in
the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent (TOD) point is computed based on the
default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT)
and/or flight path angle (FPA) in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following
leg types: AF, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in
stored flight plans.
Additional Features
Appendices
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Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Disabled (fields dashed)
Flight Management
Cncl VNV Softkey
ENBL VNV Softkey
Figure 5-70 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Figure 5-71 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Hazard Avoidance
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL- Active Flight Plan’ Page.
AFCS
Enabling and Disabling VNV guidance:
3) To Disable VNV guidance, press the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key,
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press
the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the
waypoint shown in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box (defaults first waypoint in the active
flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation).
highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is disabled.
Additional Features
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired waypoint.
Appendices
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to
be used. If not, the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is
selected.
3) Press the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’,
Index
and press the ENT Key. An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’
confirmation window is displayed.
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waypoint.
System Overview
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Flight Instruments
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from
the published altitudes in the navigation database.
Altitudes associated with arrival and approach procedures are not “auto-designated”. This means the
system does not automatically provide descending vertical speed and deviation guidance to an altitude
chosen by the system. Therefore, altitudes are displayed as white text. However, all altitudes can be
manually designated to include the FAF. Manually designated altitudes are displayed as cyan text and
pencil icon. For all designated altitudes, the system will automatically calculate altitude constraints
prior to the designated altitude, which are displayed as white text.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the
CLR Key. The altitude is now removed or reverts to a reference altitude (white text) and no longer
provides vertical guidance. Other displayed altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered
invalid as a result of manually changing an altitude to a non-designated altitude.
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest
hundred. An altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports.
When a database altitude restriction is displayed, the system allows entry of a different altitude when
creating a waypoint, effectively overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a
database altitude restriction of type “AT or ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses
the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical profile.
Audio Panel and CNS
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
Engine Indication System
Window’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is now located in the ‘Active VNV Profile’
Box.
Appendices
Index
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Flight Instruments
Altitude Constraint
Examples
System Calculated Altitude
(White Text)
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Engine Indication System
Edited Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text with Pencil Icon)
Cross AT 2,300 ft
White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Displayed Text
Examples
Temperature
Compensated
Figure 5-72 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
Altitude calculated by the system estimating
the altitude of the aircraft as it passes over the
navigation point. No white line above or
below to indicate a potential constraint.
Altitude is designated for use in determining
vertical guidance. A pencil icon indicates manual
designation or manually edited data entry.
5OOOFT
The system cannot use this altitude in determining
Altitude retrieved from the navigation
database. White line above or below indicates vertical guidance because of an invalid constraint
condition.
the type of constraint, as shown in the
preceding figure. These altitudes are provided
as a reference, and are not designated to be
used in determining vertical guidance.
Additional Features
Table 5-12 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
NOTE: All designated altitudes (cyan text) will be displayed in the Active Flight Plan Page and
Flight Plan Window without restriction bars regardless of what is shown on the published
procedure.
Appendices
Manually designating a waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint
altitude field.
Index
3) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the desired altitude.
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guidance.
System Overview
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Flight Instruments
Manually designating a procedure waypoint altitude to be used for vertical
guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
altitude field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the desired altitude
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical
Audio Panel and CNS
guidance.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
An altitude constraint is invalid if:
•
Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be
exceeded
•
The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
•
The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS
or GPS SBAS approach)
•
The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF
AFCS
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the
event an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for
the lateral waypoint, the system displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no
predicted altitude can be provided. The system also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude
constraint that has been edited.
Hazard Avoidance
Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
Flight Management
•
Entering/modifying an altitude constraint:
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight
Appendices
level, turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the
first character, and the system automatically changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn
the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter the three digit flight
level.
Additional Features
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an
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Index
airport without a runway selected, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS
Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’
confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is
Engine Indication System
replaced by a system calculated altitude, if available).
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database
value:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’
confirmation window is displayed.
database value.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD)
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. The
terrain, obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active
flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNAV profile,
TOD/BOD, and destination runway) can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode.
See the Hazard Avoidance section for information about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on
the VSD.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation
NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNAV PATH descents
because the lateral distance of those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNAV profile
for any legs that have no vertical path guidance.
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track
mode. When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation
map indicated range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD
altitude range automatically changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant
ratio of altitude range to horizontal range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been
met. At ranges above the maximum, the altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on
the vertical scale is close to the top for a descent phase and in the middle for a cruise phase or if the
phase is unknown.
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure
any text, one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
is displayed as darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO
waypoint, (2) waypoint with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough
for the terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown in gray if the terrain is selected Off on the
Navigation Map). The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of
the terrain based upon the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the
terrain database resolution, within a predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft
present position and the end of the map range or active flight plan. The predefined width is
determined by the flight phase.
Audio Panel and CNS
Active FPL Waypoints
Altitude Constraints
Destination Runway
Selected Alt.
(14,000 FT)
Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
Hazard Avoidance
Absolute Terrain
Current VNAV Profile
Flight Management
VSD Mode (FPL)
VSD Mode Buttons
- FPL
- TRK
- Auto
Figure 5-72 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
Figure 5-73 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
AFCS
VSD Mode
Button
Displayed
Mode
FPL Criteria
Items available on VSD
(1) Active FPL available &
Terrain/obstacles along the
aircraft not within FPL swath, current track, vertical track
or (2) Active FPL not available vector, and selected altitude
Appendices
AUTO TRK
Auto
Additional Features
AUTO FPL
Terrain/obstacles along the active
Available active FPL & aircraft flight plan route, vertical track
within FPL swath
vector, selected altitude, and
active flight plan information
Index
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Flight Instruments
VSD Mode
Button
Displayed
Mode
Engine Indication System
Flight Plan
Track
FPL Criteria
Items available on VSD
Active FPL available
Terrain/obstacles along the active
flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and
active flight plan information
Active FPL not available
Only shows message 'Flight Plan
Not Available'
FPL
TRK
Terrain/obstacles along the
current track, vertical track
vector, and selected altitude
NA
Audio Panel and CNS
Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current
VNAV profile, TOD/BOD, and destination runway
Flight Management
Table 5-13 VSD Modes
Flight Phase
Width of Swath
Approach, Departure
0.6 nm
Terminal
2.0 nm
En Route, Oceanic
4.0 nm
Hazard Avoidance
Table 5-14 VSD Width of Swath
VSD MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Additional Features
AFCS
Message
Description
‘Loading...’
VSD is loading data due to a range
change, full/half switch, or first being
selected for display
‘Flight Plan Not Available’
Flight Plan mode is selected and there
is not a flight plan loaded with at
least one leg.
All of the following are true:
Appendices
‘Flight Plan mode unavailable
because aircraft off course and
active leg over 200 NM’
•
Flight Plan mode is selected
•
The active leg is greater than 200
NM
The aircraft is outside the swath
Flight Plan mode is selected and the
aircraft’s position, as projected on the
flight plan, is past the end of the
active leg.
•
Index
‘Aircraft Beyond Active Leg’
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‘Active Leg Begins Beyond
Aircraft Position’
System Overview
Message
Description
Flight Instruments
Flight Plan mode is selected and the
aircraft’s position, as projected on the
flight plan, is prior to the beginning
of the active leg.
At least one of the following is true:
Valid terrain database not available
•
GPS MSL altitude not available
•
Current barometric
available
•
Neither current track nor current
heading available
•
GPS position not available
‘VSD Not Available
altitude
Engine Indication System
•
not
Audio Panel and CNS
Map range setting is less than 1 nm
VSD data has failed to update for 2
seconds or more.
•
‘VSD Data Old. Deselect and
Reselect VSD’
Flight Management
Table 5-15 VSD System Messages
Enabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable the Vertical Situation Display.
AFCS
5) Press the VSD [Mode] Softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Additional Features
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
5) Press the Inset Softkey.
Appendices
6) Press the VSD [Mode] Softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Disabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
257
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
3) Press the Inset Softkey
4) Press the Off Softkey.
Flight Instruments
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
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Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Flight Instruments
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals
(STARs), and non-precision and precision approaches (APRs) are stored within the database and can be
loaded using any Procedures (PROC) Key.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No
waypoints are required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and
destination airport are already loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport,
saving some time selecting the correct airport on the Procedure Loading Page.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure
in the navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’,
that indicates a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading
leg in the flight plan displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the
pilot to manually initiate sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
System Overview
5.8 PROCEDURES
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Figure 5-74 Procedure Leg Identifiers
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page:
Flight Instruments
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Or:
Engine Indication System
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Or:
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting
to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. To select another airport, enter an identifier/
facility name/city, and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the procedure in its respective box. The
procedure is previewed on the map.
Flight Management
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the list of available procedures. Press the ENT Key to
select the procedure. The cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The
procedure is previewed on the map.
5) Turn the FMS Knobs, as required, to highlight a runway or transition. Press the ENT Key
Hazard Avoidance
to select the runway or transition. The cursor moves to the next box. The procedure is
previewed on the map.
6) Repeat Step 5, until desired information has been viewed for the chosen procedure.
7) Press the Info 1 Softkey or the Info 2 Softkey to return to the ‘WPT - Airport
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Information’ Page.
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System Overview
Loading a procedure into the active flight plan from the [Procedure] Information
Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page:
Or:
Or:
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. To select another airport, enter an identifier/
facility name/city, and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the procedure in its respective box. The
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the list of available procedures, and turn the FMS
Knob to move the cursor. Press the ENT Key to select the procedure. The cursor moves
to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure is previewed on the map.
the FMS Knob to move the cursor. Press the ENT Key to select the runway or transition.
The cursor moves to the next box
6) Repeat Step 5, until the cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box or the ‘Minimums’ Box.
Hazard Avoidance
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the list of available runways or transitions, and turn
Flight Management
procedure is previewed on the map.
Audio Panel and CNS
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting
to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Engine Indication System
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Flight Instruments
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
7) Press the MENU Key to display the [Procedure] Information Page Menu.
AFCS
8) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load [procedure]’.
9) Press the ENT Key to load the procedure into the active flight plan.
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in
the active flight plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by
selection of a departure, the transition waypoints, and a runway.
Additional Features
DEPARTURES
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Departure Airport
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Available Procedure Actions
Flight Management
Departure Preview
Loaded Procedures
Figure 5-74 Departure Selection
Departure Choices
Figure 5-75 Departure Selection
Loaded Departure
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Selected Departure
Appendices
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-75 Departure Loading
Index
Figure 5-76 Departure Loading
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System Overview
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Departure’.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page/Window is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Audio Panel and CNS
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Hazard Avoidance
Or:
Flight Management
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight
plan.
AFCS
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ARRIVALS
Appendices
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one
arrival can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in
the active flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of
an arrival, the transition waypoints, and a runway.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Destination Airport
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Available Procedure Actions
Flight Management
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
Figure
5-76Arrival
Arrival Selection
Figure
5-77
Selection
Loaded Arrival
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Selected Arrival
Appendices
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-77 Arrival Loading
Index
Figure 5-78 Arrival Loading
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System Overview
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page/Window is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Audio Panel and CNS
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
Flight Management
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Hazard Avoidance
Or:
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
AFCS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPROACHES
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Index
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides
guidance for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach
procedures. Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when
another approach is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach.
The route is defined by selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
Appendices
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published
approach procedures for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available
approaches.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the
procedure can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation,
meaning the GPS receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver
cannot be used for primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected
approach (e.g., VOR or ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown
by tuning the NAV receiver to the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service
levels according to the published chart. LNAV+V is an LNAV with advisory vertical guidance provided
for assistance in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach.
This guidance is displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a
magenta diamond. In all cases where LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV
minima are used. The active approach service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the
following table:
HSI
Annunciation
LNAV
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV/VNAV
minima (downgrades to
LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
LP (available
only if SBAS
available)
RNAV GPS approach using
published LP minima
(downgrades to LNAV if
SBAS unavailable)
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Example on HSI
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV minima.
Advisory vertical guidance is
provided
L/VNAV
(available only
if SBAS
available)
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
LP+V (available RNAV GPS approach using
only if SBAS published LP minima.
available)
Advisory vertical guidance is
provided (downgrades to
LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
LPV (available
only if SBAS
available)
Appendices
Additional Features
Description
RNAV GPS approach using
published LNAV minima
LNAV+V
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
RNAV GPS approach using
published LPV minima
(downgrades to LNAV if
SBAS unavailable)
Index
Table 5-16 Approach Service Levels
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System Overview
Available Procedure Actions
Destination Airport
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Loaded Procedures
Approach Preview
Approach Choices
Flight Management
Figure 5-78 Approach Selection
Figure 5-79 Approach Selection
Selected Approach
Loaded Approach
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-79 Approach Loading
Figure 5-80 Approach Loading
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System Overview
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Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
Flight Instruments
Approach Loading Page/Window is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS
Audio Panel and CNS
Knob to move the cursor to the Approach Channel Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key
to accept the approach channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
5) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the
ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. Turn
the small FMS Knob to select the temperature, and press the ENT Key
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the
AFCS
large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the
approach procedure.
Additional Features
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must
to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
Appendices
NOTE: If there is no arrival procedure in the active flight plan, loading an approach after a
destination airport has already been entered will result in a duplicate destination airport
waypoint being added to the end of the enroute segment.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
1) Select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page.
Index
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest
airport. The airport is previewed on the map.
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and press the ENT Key.
System Overview
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’,
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
Flight Instruments
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and
press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed with the
‘Transition’ Field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the
ENT Key.
the small FMS Knob to select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the
Hazard Avoidance
large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the
approach procedure. The system continues navigating the current flight plan until the
approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach
course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to
the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course
of the approach.
Flight Management
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
Audio Panel and CNS
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. Turn
Engine Indication System
7) Minimums
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
AFCS
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key.
Or:
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight
Appendices
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Additional Features
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
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4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key.
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either ‘Load’ or ‘Activate’ is given. ‘Load’ adds the
approach to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This
allows continued navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the
procedure available for quick activation when needed. ‘Activate’ also adds the procedure to the end
of the flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to ‘load’ the full approach while still some distance away, enroute
to the destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps below to select ‘Activate Vector-ToFinal’ — which makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’
highlighted.
Flight Management
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the ‘Procedures’ Window.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Vector-to-Final’ and press the ENT Key.
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) From the ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page, press the MENU Key on the MFD. The
page menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course,
AFCS
the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of
the approach.
Additional Features
Or:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’ and press the ENT Key.
3) From the ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page, press the MENU Key on the MFD. The page
Appendices
menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course,
Index
the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of
the approach.
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case
‘6600ft’) is not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which
guides the aircraft along the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first
turn toward the MAHP is exceeded. This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be
below, equal to, or above the published minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft
altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet) after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to
provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,600 feet is reached. After reaching 6,600
feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case ADANE). If the aircraft altitude is
above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the published fix
(ADANE) to begin the missed approach procedure.
System Overview
MISSED APPROACH
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Course to Altitude Leg
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-80 Course to Altitude
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
Additional Features
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published
procedure. For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to
the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of
waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is
established on a Course to Altitude leg when the missed approach procedure is activated.
AFCS
Figure 5-81 Course to Altitude
1) Press the PROC Key.
Appendices
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Or:
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Press the Go-Around Button. Prior to the MAP, the aircraft will continue to laterally
navigate to the MAP before executing the missed approach. Otherwise, the aircraft
automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Fly past the MAP, and press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD.
VISUAL APPROACH
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches
are not defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the
system calculates the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach
waypoints based on runway position and course as specified in the navigation database.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRAIGHT) and the
Vectors-to-Final transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial
fix (STRGHT), the final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree
glide path is calculated from the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended
straight-in path.
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore,
when a visual approach is selected, the message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual
approaches” is displayed on the approach selection page and must be acknowledged before the
visual approach is loaded into the flight plan.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-82 Loading Visual Approach
Loading and Activating a visual approach using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The Procedures Window is displayed.
AFCS
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page is
displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
Additional Features
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
b) Select a visual approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
4) Select a transition and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
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a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the
ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. Turn
the small FMS Knob to select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure (‘Load?’ is
only available if there is a previous approach already loaded in the flight plan); or turn
the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate
the approach procedure. The message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual
approaches’ is displayed. Press ENT to continue.
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied
temperature at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C,
the system increases the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is
displayed in white text with a snowflake icon next to it.
Manually inputting the temperature for compensation is explained in the following procedures.
However, the system already automatically offsets the lateral position of the baro-VNAV bottom of
descent without manual input. Once calculated, the VNAV function seamlessly applies the lateral
adjustment to the baro-VNAV descent path so that a smooth transition onto the approach vertical
path occurs. For example, on a day with temperatures colder than ISA, the baro-VNAV path will
typically be below the actual approach descent path. The system will automatically adjust for this by
calculating a lateral distance prior to the FAF which is applied to ensure the baro-VNAV path
intersects the approach descent path.
NOTE: Manually specifying temperature compensation for an approach will disrupt the
system from automatically creating a lateral offset of the VNAV function in use.
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
NOTE: Initiating the VNAV direct-to function or manually specifying an FPA at the FAF will
disrupt the VNAV function from creating a lateral offset. Thus, temperature is not
compensated for and the baro-VNAV path and may not intersect the approach descent path.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Audio Panel and CNS
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Engine Indication System
Compensated
Altitude
Flight Management
Figure 5-83 Temperature Compensation
Hazard Avoidance
Uncompensated
Altitudes
AFCS
Compensated
Altitudes
Additional Features
Figure 5-84 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
Manually activating temperature compensated altitude:
Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
Appendices
1) From the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key on the MFD. The ‘Page
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed with the
temperature highlighted.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
4) Use the small FMS Knob to change the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. The compensated
altitude is computed as the temperature is selected.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the ‘Temperature
Compensation’ Window on the MFD, or in the ‘References’ Window on the PFD. There is
only one compensation temperature for the system, therefore, changing the temperature will
affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums. Refer to the Flight Instruments
section for information about applying temperature compensation to the MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight
plan.
Audio Panel and CNS
Cancelling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is
displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
Flight Management
3) Press the ENT Key. The Temperature Compensation Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitude at the FAF is cancelled.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes
does not select/deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/
deselecting temperature compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated
approach altitudes.
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The ‘Aux - Weight and Fuel Planning’ Page is available to manage actual weight, estimated weight, and
fuel quantity.
Fuel Weight Calculator
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Wt Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Audio Panel and CNS
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Wt Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
Engine Indication System
A/C Payload Calculator
Flight Instruments
NOTE: All weight planning page data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds
or 5 kilograms.
System Overview
5.9 WEIGHT PLANNING
Flight Management
Empty Weight Softkey
Hazard Avoidance
(selects Basic Empty Weight)
Figure
5-83 Weight
Page
Figure 5-85
Weight
andPlanning
Fuel Planning
Page
Est Landing Weight = Zero Fuel Weight + Estimated Landing Fuel Weight.
•
Est Landing Fuel = Fuel on Board Weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
•
Excess Fuel = Estimated Landing Fuel Weight - Fuel Reserves Weight
Additional Features
•
WEIGHT WARNING CONDITIONS
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Appendices
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel
weight is displayed in amber.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight
is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the
estimated landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the
following values are displayed in amber:
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AFCS
The following three fuel calculations can be completed when a destination waypoint has been entered
into the flight plan and one of the following has occurred: 1) the aircraft is in the air, or 2) the aircraft is
on the ground with the Trip Planning Page Fields completed in Manual Mode. Otherwise, these three
fuel fields will display invalid values consisting of four dashes:
•
Est Landing Fuel
•
Excess Fuel
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in
red:
•
Est Landing Fuel
•
Excess Fuel
Entering basic empty weight:
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the Config Softkey; or press the MENU
Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT Key to select the ‘Basic
Empty Weight’ Field.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Flight Management
Entering pilot and stores weight:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
highlight the ‘Pilot & Stores’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the number of passengers:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
AFCS
highlight the ‘Passengers #’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
Additional Features
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
highlight the passenger weight (‘at’) field.
Appendices
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
Index
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
System Overview
Entering the cargo weight:
highlight the ‘Cargo’ Field.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Engine Indication System
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel on Board’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserves weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel Reserves’ Field.
Flight Management
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
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5.10 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information
for a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data.
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip
Planning Page located in the Aux Page Group.
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Selected Flight Plan Segment
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Auto/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-84 Trip Planning Page
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 5-86 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs
(manual page mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
•
Departure Time - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are
from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
•
Calibrated Airspeed - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of
information is GPS ground speed.
•
Indicated Altitude - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of
information is GPS altitude.
Index
TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip
planning inputs.
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•
If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the
departure time all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight
plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
•
If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the
current leg being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the
current leg up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA
is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
- Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as
hours:minutes of the time at the destination.
Additional Features
- Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
AFCS
If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
- Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
Audio Panel and CNS
- Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is
shown as minutes:seconds.
Engine Indication System
- Distance - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
Flight Instruments
- Desired Track - Desired Track is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected
waypoints. It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
System Overview
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM)
selected, the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected,
the waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan
(REM) selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the
endpoint of the active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected,
the ‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan,
these default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
FUEL STATISTICS
Appendices
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip
planning inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active
flight plan has already been flown.
Index
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Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
•
Fuel efficiency (Efficiency) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
•
Time of fuel endurance (Total Endurance) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is
obtained by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
•
Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (Remaining Fuel) - This value is calculated by
taking the amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the
selected leg.
•
Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (Remaining Endurance) - This value is calculated
by taking the time of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the
selected leg.
•
Fuel required for trip (Fuel Required) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by
the fuel flow.
•
Total range at entered fuel flow (Total Range) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of
fuel endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning
inputs.
•
Density Altitude
•
True Airspeed
The pilot may select Automatic or Manual page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs)
mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/
WPTs selection). In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the
pilot, in addition to flight plan and leg selection.
Selected Leg(s)
Selected Flight Plan NN AFCS
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Additional Features
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-89 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Figure 5-87 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Appendices
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Index
Figure 5-90 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-88 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or
press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or
press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the
ENT Key.
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the
‘FPL’ Field.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be
viewed by turning the small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Trip Planning Map
also displays the selected data.
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is positioned in the
waypoint field directly below the FPL Field.
WPT to Present Position’ if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor
moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The
Hazard Avoidance
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set
Flight Management
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
Engine Indication System
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
Flight Instruments
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
System Overview
Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
statistics for the selected leg are displayed.
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the ‘Departure Time’ Field and enter the
desired value. Press the ENT Key. The statistics are calculated using the new value and
the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all desired values have been
entered.
Additional Features
from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor may now be positioned in any
field within the Input Data Box.
AFCS
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
Appendices
Index
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5.11 ABNORMAL OPERATION
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of
flight. In all other phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION”
annunciation on the map and the system stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable
to calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR
Mode, the system uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and
heading data (when available) to calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become
increasingly unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode
airspeed and/or heading data is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of
accurately tracking estimated position and, consequently, the system may display a path that is different
than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated position information displayed by the system
through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite
measurements needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound
the relative inaccuracy of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must
be relied upon for position awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over
the ‘own aircraft’ symbol. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI slightly below
and to the left of the aircraft symbol on the CDI. The CDI deviation bar remains, but is removed from
the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled in DR mode as long as the
deviation info is available (20 min.) Furthermore, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD.
Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is
restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated
position and is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information
as shown in the following figure. If the VSD Inset is selected on the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be
displayed.
Also, while the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the
accuracy of all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace
alerts continue to function, but with degraded accuracy.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
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System Overview
Distance &
Bearing
Flight Instruments
Current
Track
Indicator
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
Hazard Avoidance
Nav Data Bar
Flight Management
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Audio Panel and CNS
Course Deviation
Indicator
Engine Indication System
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
All data except
Active Leg, TAS,
and DTK are in
amber
AFCS
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure
5-87Reckoning
Dead Reckoning
Mode--GPS
GPS Derived
DataData
ShownShown
in Amberin Amber
Figure 5-89
Dead
Mode
Derived
Index
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Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
BLANK PAGE
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System Overview
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 OVERVIEW
GDL 69/69A or 69/69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
•
Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather (Optional)
Engine Indication System
•
Terrain Avoidance
Terrain Proximity
•
Terrain SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option)
•
Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Flight Instruments
Hazard avoidance features available for the G1000 NXi are designed to aid situational awareness and
provide advisory information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather,
terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
Traffic
TIS (Traffic Information Service)
•
GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
•
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic (Optional)
Flight Management
•
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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6.2 DATA LINK WEATHER
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around
areas of hazardous weather. Information contained within data link weather products may
not accurately depict current weather conditions.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of
the weather information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays
inherent in gathering and processing weather data for data link transmission, the weather
information shown by the data link weather product may be older than the indicated
weather product age.
The Data Link Weather feature enables the system to receive weather information from a variety of
weather sources, depending on the equipment installed in the aircraft. These sources may include
SiriusXM Weather, Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B). For each source, a ground-based
system processes the weather information collected from a network of sensors and weather data
providers.
The SiriusXM Weather service, available with the Garmin GDL 69A and 69A SXM data link receiver
and an active service subscription, updates its weather data periodically and automatically, and transmits
this information to the aircraft’s receiver via satellite on the S-Band frequency. This service provides
continuous reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America. Differences in performance
between the GDL 69A and 69A SXM data link receiver models, where relevant, are discussed where
applicable in this section.
The FIS-B Weather service, available when equipped with a capable transponder or data link receiver
which can receive 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data, delivers subscription-free weather
information periodically and automatically to the aircraft. FIS-B uses a network of FAA-operated
Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) to transmit the information to the aircraft’s receiver. Reception is
limited to line-of-sight, and is available below 24,000 feet MSL in the United States. FIS-B broadcasts
provide weather data in a repeating cycle which may take approximately ten minutes to transmit all
available weather data. Therefore, not all weather data may be present immediately upon initial FIS-B
signal acquisition. FIS-B is a component of the Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS-B) system,
which offers both weather and traffic data; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later in this section for a
more detailed discussion of the ADS-B system and its capabilities.
NOTE: To check the availability of Garmin Connext weather products offered in a particular
region, visit http://www.flygarmin.com.
ACTIVATING DATA LINK WEATHER SERVICES
ACTIVATING THE SIRIUSXM WEATHER SERVICE
Index
NOTE: Not all weather products offered by SiriusXM are supported for display on this
system. This pilot’s guide only discusses supported weather products.
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•
The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
•
The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
After SiriusXM has been contacted, it may take approximately 15 minutes until the activation
occurs.
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM Satellite
Radio)
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Select to Display XM
Information page
Flight Management
Weather Products
(Available Products for
Service Class Indicated
in Green)
Audio Panel and CNS
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather
Engine Indication System
The Aux - XM Information Page on the MFD
Flight Instruments
•
System Overview
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s
customer service the coded ID(s) unique to the installed data link receiver. The Data Radio ID
must be provided to activate the weather service. A separate Audio Radio ID, if present, enables the
receiver to provide SiriusXM Radio entertainment. To view this information, refer to the following
locations:
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
Additional Features
NOTE: Not all weather products offered by SiriusXM are supported for display on this
system. This pilot’s guide only discusses supported weather products.
1) Select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
Appendices
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather data) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for
SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website,
www.siriusxm.com.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition
Flight Instruments
to payment information, and the desired weather product subscription package.
Verifying the SiriusXM Weather service activation:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Radio Page in
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) View the list of supported Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an
unavailable weather product; a green filled box appears next to an available weather
product. During activation, it may take several minutes for weather products in the
selected subscription package to become available.
WEATHER PRODUCT AGE
Unlike real-time weather information collected directly from weather sensors on-board an aircraft,
such as an airborne weather radar or a lightning detection system, data link weather by contrast relies
on service providers to collect, process, and transmit weather information to the aircraft. This
information can come from a variety of sources such as government agencies. Due to the time it takes
to collect, process, and distribute data link weather information, it is imperative for pilots to
understand that data link weather information is not real-time information and may not accurately
depict the current conditions.
For each data link weather product which can be displayed as a map overlay, such as radar
precipitation, the system can also show a weather product age. This age represents the elapsed time, in
minutes, since the weather service provider compiled the weather product and the current time. It
does not represent the age of the information contained within the weather product itself. For
example, a single mosaic of radar precipitation is comprised data from multiple radar sites providing
data at differing scan rates or intervals. The weather service provider periodically compiles this data to
create a single composite image, and assigns one time to this image which becomes the basis of the
product age. The service provider then makes this weather product available for data link transmission
at the next scheduled update time. The actual age of the weather data contained within the mosaic is
therefore older than its weather product age and should never be considered current.
SiriusXM and FIS-B weather products are broadcast automatically on a repeating cycle without pilot
intervention.
Each data link weather product age has an expiration time. The weather product age is shown in
white if it is less than half of this expiration time, otherwise it is shown in amber until reaching its
expiration time. After a weather product has expired, the system removes the expired weather product
from the displays, and shows white dashes instead of the age. If the data link receiver has not yet
received a weather product ‘N/A’ appears instead of the age to show the product is currently not
available for display. This may occur, for example, after powering on the system but before the data
link receiver has received a complete weather data transmission. It could also indicate a possible
outage of a weather product.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
the Auxiliary Page Group.
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Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD
30
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
15 (69/69A)
30 (69/69A SXM)
Cell Movement
30
1.25
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
12
METARs
90
12
City Forecast
90
12
Surface Analysis
60
12
Freezing Levels
120
12
Winds Aloft
90
12
County Warnings
60
5
Cyclone Warnings
60
12
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
22
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
12
Air Report(AIREP)
90
12
Turbulence
180
12
30
5
Radar Coverage Not Available
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Index
5
Appendices
30
Additional Features
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
AFCS
7.5
Hazard Avoidance
30
Flight Management
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
Audio Panel and CNS
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Engine Indication System
Symbol
Flight Instruments
SiriusXM Weather Product
System Overview
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For
PFD maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
The following tables show the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates
for SiriusXM Weather and FIS-B Weather, respectively. The broadcast rate represents the interval at
which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated
weather product information. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is
updated or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. The service provider and its weather data
suppliers define and control the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
291
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
No product image
60
12
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
No product image
60
12
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
FIS-B Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
METARs
90
5
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
10
Winds Aloft
90
10
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
5
No Radar Coverage
no product image
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
no product image
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR
no product image
10
Table 6-2 FIS-B Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For
PFD maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
AFCS
Enabling/disabling the weather product age for PFD Maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
Appendices
Additional Features
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the WX LGND to show/remove the weather product age information for PFD
maps.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
DISPLAYING DATA LINK WEATHER PRODUCTS
WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
Index
The ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM/CNXT)’ Page is the principal map page for viewing data link
weather information. This page provides the capability for displaying the most data link weather
products of any map on the system. The ‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page also provides system-wide
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NEXRAD Weather
Product Age (US)
Flight Instruments
NEXRAD Weather
Product Display
Enabled Icon
System Overview
controls for selecting the data link weather source, if more than one source has been installed. The
page title indicates the selected data link weather source (e.g., “XM”, “CNXT”, “FIS-B”).
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-2 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
AFCS
Additional Features
Figure 6-3 Changing the Data Link Weather Source
Appendices
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Viewing the Weather Data Link Page and changing the data link weather source, if
applicable:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
currently selected data link weather source appears in the page title.
3) If the page title does not contain the desired weather source, press the MENU Key.
a) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’, or ‘Display Connext
Weather’ (choices may vary depending on the installed equipment).
b) Press the ENT Key.
WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE SOFTKEYS
NOTE: Only softkeys pertaining to data link weather features are shown in the following
tables.
The system presents the softkeys for the selected source on the Weather Data Link Page, and for
map overlays used throughout the system. The following figures show the softkeys for the Weather
Data Link Page based on the selected source.
Level 1
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page. The
Level 2
Index
Description
NEXRAD
Enables/disables the NEXRAD weather product
overlay.
Echo Top
Enables/disables the Echo Tops weather product
overlay.
CLD Top
Enables/disables the Cloud Tops weather
product overlay.
XM LTNG
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Lightning weather
product overlay.
Cell MOV
Enables/disables the Cell Movement weather
product overlay.
SIG/AIR
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather
product overlay.
METAR
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather
product overlay.
Legend
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
More WX
Displays second-level SiriusXM Weather product
softkeys.
Cyclone
294
Level 3
Enables/disables the Cyclone weather product
overlay.
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Level 2
Level 3
Description
Displays third level softkey for enabling/disabling
the Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather
product and selecting a forecast period.
SFC
Current
Flight Instruments
Off
Disables the Surface Analysis and City Forecast
weather product overlay.
Displays the Surface Analysis for the current
time period overlay.
Legend
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the Freezing Level weather
product overlay.
FRZ LVL
Wind
PREV
Next
Back
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather
product for the surface (SFC) through 15,000
feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot
increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Additional Features
Legend
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product
overlay.
AFCS
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
from the Surface to
42,0000 feet
Hazard Avoidance
Off
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Flight Management
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/
disabling the Winds Aloft weather product and
selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Audio Panel and CNS
These softkeys display a Surface Analysis and
City Forecast overlay for the selected future time
period.
Engine Indication System
12 HR, 24 HR, 36
HR, 48 HR
Back
System Overview
Level 1
Displays altitude softkeys for the Icing weather
product overlay.
ICNG
Off
Appendices
PREV
Shows the previous level of Icing altitude
softkeys.
Disables the Icing weather product.
Index
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Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Description
Flight Instruments
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
Enables/disables the Icing weather product
from the Icing
overlay from 1,000 feet to 30,000 feet. Softkeys
altitude from to
available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
1,000 to 30,000
feet
Engine Indication System
Next
Legend
Audio Panel and CNS
PREV
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Off
Shows the previous level of Turbulence altitude
softkeys.
Disables the Turbulence weather product
overlay.
Softkeys available
for selecting
Turbulence altitude
from 21,000 feet
to 45,000 feet
Enables/disables the Icing weather product
overlay from 21,000 feet to 45,000 feet.
Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
altitude.
Next
Shows the next level of Icing weather product
softkeys.
Legend
AFCS
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays softkeys for enabling/disabling the
Turbulence weather product overlay.
TURB
Back
Additional Features
Shows the next level of Icing weather product
softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
AIREPS
Enables/disables the AIREPs weather product
overlay.
PIREPS
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product
overlay.
County
Enables/disables the County Warnings weather
product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
Index
Appendices
Back
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WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B) PAGE SOFTKEYS
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Description
Cycles through NEXRAD display modes:
Off: No NEXRAD shown.
US: Displays NEXRAD for Continental US
(CONUS).
REG: Displays regional NEXRAD data.
All: Displays regional NEXRAD data where
available, and CONUS NEXRAD data in other
coverage areas.
SIG/AIR
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather
product overlay.
METAR
Enables/disables the METAR weather product
overlay.
Legend
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
More WX
Displays second-level Connext Weather product
softkeys.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Appendices
Back
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Additional Features
Legend
AFCS
Next
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather
product for the surface (SFC) through 15,000
feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot
increments of altitude.
Hazard Avoidance
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
from the Surface to
42,0000 feet
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product
overlay.
Flight Management
Off
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Audio Panel and CNS
PREV
Back
Engine Indication System
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/
disabling the Winds Aloft weather product and
selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Wind
PIREPs
Flight Instruments
NXRD
or
US
or
RGNL
or
US/RGNL
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product
overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
The Weather Data Link Page can display a legend for each enabled weather product.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the
window.
4) To remove the Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the
CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following weather products can be displayed by panning the Map
Pointer over the following products on the Weather Data Link Page:
Echo Tops
METARs
Cloud Tops
County Warnings
Cell Movement
TFRs
SIGMETs
AIREPs
AIRMETs
PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning
the Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
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Flight Instruments
Audio Panel and CNS
Severe
Thunderstorm
Selected with Map
Pointer
Engine Indication System
Additional
Information
on Weather
Feature
Selected with
Map Pointer
Flight Management
Figure 6-4 Panning on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
AFCS
CUSTOMIZING THE WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
Hazard Avoidance
Certain weather products, such as METARs or TFRs have associated full text. When a weather
product is selected with the Map Pointer, press the ENT Key. The system displays the full text for the
selected weather product in a window. To remove the window, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The Weather Data Link Page also has a page menu that can be accessed by pressing the MENU Key.
It has controls for enabling/disabling the weather products as an alternative to using the softkeys.
Additional Features
The Weather Data Link Page includes controls for selecting the maximum map range to display
each weather product on the page. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected
maximum range, the system removes the weather product from the map. If more than one data
link weather source has been installed, the system uses the same maximum map range for the
comparable weather product of another source.
NOTE: Product Group 2’ is only applicable to SiriusXM and Garmin Connext Weather.
Appendices
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
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Index
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
299
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press
the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range
settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the
changed settings.
The pilot can select a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page, or choose to synchronize the
map orientation to the same orientation used on the Navigation Map Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
Selecting a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’.
Flight Management
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Group options.
5) If SiriusXM is the selected data link weather source, turn the small FMS Knob to
highlight the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
Or:
If FIS-B or Garmin Connext is the selected data link weather source, turn the large FMS
Knob to highlight the ‘Orientation ‘ field at the bottom of the Product Group 1 list.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired map orientation: North up, Track up,
HDG up, or SYNC, then press the ENT Key.
AFCS
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
Additional Features
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Press the MENUKey.
Appendices
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
WEATHER PRODUCTS MAP OVERLAYS
Index
Other PFD and MFD maps and pages can display a smaller set of data link weather products. The
following table shows which data link weather products can be displayed on specific maps, indicated
with a ‘+’ symbol.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD/
Radar
Precipitati
on
+
Navigatio Weather Weather Aux - Trip
n Map
Data Link Informati Planning
Page
Page
on Page
Page
+
+
+
Echo Top
+
Infrared
Satellite
+
+
Cell
Movement
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/
AIRMETs
+
+
+
+
+
Freezing
Levels
+
Winds
Aloft
+*
Hazard Avoidance
Surface
Analysis &
City
Forecast
+
Flight Management
METARs
+
Audio Panel and CNS
Data Link
Lightning
Flight
Plan
Pages
Engine Indication System
Cloud Top
Nearest
Page
Group
Flight Instruments
PFD
MAPS
System Overview
Data Link
Weather
Product
+
+
Cyclone
Warnings
+
Icing
Potential
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence
(TURB)
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
Appendices
+
Additional Features
No Radar
Coverage
AFCS
County
Warnings
+
Index
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Data Link
Weather
Product
PFD
MAPS
Navigatio Weather Weather Aux - Trip
n Map
Data Link Informati Planning
Page
Page
on Page
Page
Flight Instruments
TAFs
Flight
Plan
Pages
+
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-3 Weather Product Display Maps
Engine Indication System
Displaying Data Link Weather Products on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the softkey to enable/disable the desired weather product.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
+
Nearest
Page
Group
Showing/removing the weather legend on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Legend Softkey to show the weather legends window.
4) When finished, press the Legend Softkey again, or press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key
to remove the window.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also allows the pilot to select the maximum map range to display
weather products. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the
system removes the weather product from the map. The system uses this setting for all navigation
maps, including those displayed on the PFD.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
The system can also display data link weather information on the PFD navigation maps.
Index
Appendices
settings).
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Displaying Data Link Weather products on the PFD:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of data link
Engine Indication System
Enabling/disabling the weather product icon and age display (PFD maps):
Flight Instruments
products on the PFD map.
On the MFD maps, the weather product icon and age appear automatically when a weather is
enabled and the range is within the maximum display limits. On PFD maps, this information is
available using the PFD softkeys.
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
WEATHER PRODUCT OVERVIEW
Flight Management
icon box display on PFD Maps.
The setup menus for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the
map range settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range
larger than the weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed
from the map. The page menus also provide an alternative to using the softkeys to enable/disable data
link weather product overlays on maps.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the WX LGND Softkey to enable/disable the weather product age, source, and
The following is an overview of data link weather products the system can display.
NOTE: Data link weather radar information cannot be displayed at the same time as relative
terrain, echo tops, icing, or turbulence data.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation
RADar) system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD
network provides centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and
selected overseas locations. The maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar
site may arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider
compiles the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and
assigns a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD
weather product. Individual images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always
older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD
data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this information during the next
designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the
current radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather
Hazard Avoidance
NEXRAD (SIRIUSXM)
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product should never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather regardless of the information it contains.
Figure 6-5 NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity
image. This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various
altitudes. For radar sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from
the lowest antenna tilt angle, known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is colorcoded to indicate the intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation, if known.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page:
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on MFD navigation maps:
Appendices
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on PFD maps:
Index
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
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System Overview
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown.
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
No Radar Coverage
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-6 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
Changing the NEXRAD coverage region:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
Flight Management
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Region datafield.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected.
Areas where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not
being collected are indicated in gray shade of purple.
The pilot can select either the United States or Canada region for the desired NEXRAD coverage area
on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page. NEXRAD information is shown for the selected region, while a
gray shade of purple is shown for the region which is not selected.
The NEXRAD weather product age display indicates either ‘US’ or ‘CN’ for the selected coverage
region.
The system can animate a loop of NEXRAD information. The animated view is available on the
Weather Data Link (XM) Page, and on navigation maps with the exception of the HSI Map. Animation
begins after the system has received at least two recent NEXRAD images since the avionics power cycle.
When NEXRAD animation is enabled, a timeline appears in the upper-right corner of the map, except
for the PFD Inset Map. A pointer on the timeline indicates the relative position of the displayed frame of
animation, from oldest to newest. The NEXRAD weather product age corresponds to the displayed
frame. The system can show up to six frames of NEXRAD animation when the USA coverage option is
selected, and up to three frames of animation when Canada is selected.
Hazard Avoidance
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ (Canada) and press the ENT Key.
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Enabling/disabling animated SiriusXM NEXRAD on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page:
1) Press the Menu Key.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ Selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD
Animation On/Off field.
Engine Indication System
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’, then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on navigation maps:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Select the ‘Map — Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group and press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’ and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Hazard Avoidance
REFLECTIVITY
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the
NEXRAD display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates
to hazardous weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of
weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an
indication of the weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection,
while dry hail does not. Both wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z).
NEXRAD measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver
(designated by the letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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Flight Instruments
Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-7 NEXRAD Weather Product with 30 NM Map Range
Flight Management
NEXRAD LIMITATIONS
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional
version of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm
tall. For the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5
nm wide by 5 nm wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected
within that area.
•
The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of
latitude.
Ground clutter
•
Strobes and spurious radar data
•
Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
•
Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
•
Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
Additional Features
•
AFCS
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
Appendices
NEXRAD LIMITATIONS (CANADA)
Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
•
ny precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless
of actual precipitation type.
•
If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of
actual precipitation type.
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307
Index
•
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Engine Indication System
No Coverage
Above 55°N
Figure 6-8 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
NEXRAD (FIS-B)
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain.
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation
RADar) system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD
network provides centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and
selected overseas locations. The maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar
site may arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to
FIS-B compiles the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and
assigns a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD
weather product. Individual images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always
older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD
data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this information during the next designated broadcast time
for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar
synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be
used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Precipitation
Above 52°N
Always Displays
as Mixed
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Flight Instruments
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Engine Indication System
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-9 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
Hazard Avoidance
The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher
resolution, updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution,
updated less frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display
on the same map. When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display
precedence where data is available, and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional
NEXRAD coverage area.
Flight Management
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
No radar coverage
Flight Management
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-10 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page
Additional Features
Figure 6-11 Weather Data Link (FIS-B)
Page Menu
Figure 6-12 Weather Data Link (FIS-B)
Page Setup Menu
Appendices
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the NXRD Softkey. Each selection cycles though a coverage option as the softkey
Index
name changes (Each selection cycles though a coverage option displayed in cyan on the
softkey (‘Off’, ‘US’, or ‘REG’, or ‘All’)..
Or:
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System Overview
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) To enable/disable the display of NEXRAD informations, turn the small FMS Knob to
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of NEXRAD or ‘Off’
to disable.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Region’ field..
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following options: ‘CONUS’ for the
b) Press the ENT Key.
5) When finished, push the FMS Knob.
Flight Management
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Page:
Audio Panel and CNS
continental United States, ‘Regional’ for regional NEXRAD, or ‘Combined’ to show
regional NEXRAD where data is available, and continental NEXRAD outside of the
regional coverage area.
Engine Indication System
b) Press the ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
highlight the NEXRAD On/Off field.
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey.
Hazard Avoidance
3) To change the type of NEXRAD displayed, press the MENU Key.
4) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
(regional), or ‘Combined’, then press the ENT Key. This selection also affects display of
NEXRAD on the PFD Maps.
Additional Features
8) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
AFCS
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘CONUS’ (continental United States), ‘RGNL’
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
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Index
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received
from ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white spiked
boundary encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being
Appendices
NOTE: If equipped, FIS-B weather products can be shared with certain Bluetooth connected
devices. Refer to Additional Features Section for Bluetooth pairing instructions.
displayed. The system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this
boundary area.
If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey
enabled), the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
No radar coverage
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-13 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of
the information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be
viewed on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page. For the NEXRAD legend, select the Legend Softkey
when the NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Figure 6-14 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
REFLECTIVITY
Appendices
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
•
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Index
At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional
version of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm
tall. For the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5
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NEXRAD LIMITATIONS
AFCS
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the
Precipitation display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to
hazardous weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of
weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an
indication of the weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection,
while dry hail does not. Both wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z).
Weather radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver
(designated by the letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during
initial FIS-B signal acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system
may display areas of no radar coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is
received. It may take up to approximately ten minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when
adequate reception is available.
Flight Management
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar
data is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray
shade of purple.
Audio Panel and CNS
No radar coverage
Boundary of radar
coverage area
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
nm wide by 5 nm wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected
within that area.
Flight Instruments
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
•
Ground clutter
•
Strobes and spurious radar data
•
Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
•
Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
•
Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
ECHO TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is
displayed.
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar
echo. The highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the
highest altitude at which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of
latitude.
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Altitude for
selected Echo Top
Index
Figure 6-15 Echo Tops Weather Product
Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops
data are removed.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-16 Echo Tops Legend
Displaying Echo Tops information:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
CLOUD TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver is installed, the broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30
minutes. As with all SiriusXM Weather products, the product age becomes amber when it
reaches half of the expiration time, which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops. Therefore, this
weather product age may be amber during routine operation.
Flight Management
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Figure 6-17 Cloud Tops Weather Product
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-18 Cloud Tops Legend
Appendices
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page with the FMS Knob.
Index
2) Select the CLD Top Softkey.
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System Overview
DATA LINK LIGHTNING (SIRIUSXM, GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Lightning from a data link source cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same
map as information from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
Flight Instruments
The Data Link Light weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning
strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact
location of the lightning strike is not displayed.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Lightning
Strikes
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-19 Data Link Weather Product
AFCS
To display the Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the Legend Softkey
when SiriusXM Lightning is selected for display.
Additional Features
Figure 6-20 Data Link Lightning Legend
Appendices
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
Flight Instruments
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
Displaying Data Link Lightning on PFD Maps:
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the Datalink Softkey.
4) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
CELL MOVEMENT (SIRIUSXM)
The Cell Movement weather product shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified
by the ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement
indicated with short, orange arrows.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
Storm Cells
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Additional
information for
selected Storm Cell
Figure 6-21 Cell Movement Weather Product
Index
On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated CEL
MOV softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
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System Overview
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69 SXM or 69A SXM data link
receiver is installed. In this case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the
map pointer selects a storm cell.
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Figure 6-22 Cell Movement Legend
Displaying Cell Movement information on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page using the FMS Knob.
Hazard Avoidance
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation
maps:
Flight Management
For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the
NEXRAD Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map
Settings menu of the Navigation Map Page.
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling
the NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the
NEXRAD Softkey.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Select the Cell MOV Softkey.
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to remove the menu.
Additional Features
set to ‘On’, Cell Movement is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on
navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement is not displayed on navigation
maps.
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
Appendices
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological
Information) are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for
hazardous convective weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a
significant weather condition occurring at a localized geographical position.
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flight Instruments
NOTE: If SiriusXM Weather is the active data link weather source and a GDL 69A SXM
receiver installed, the SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless at least
one SIGMET or AIRMET has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no
SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
Engine Indication System
NOTE: For Garmin Connext Weather only, the entire SIGMET or AIRMET is shown on the
map as long as any portion of it is issued within the selected coverage area of the Connext
Data Request.
AIRMET for IFR
conditions
AIRMET for
Icing conditions
SIGMET
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
AIRMET for
Turbulence
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 6-23 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Sample SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Index
Figure 6-24 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
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Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the ‘Map- Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT or FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
Flight Instruments
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map
Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows sample SIGMET text.
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except
for in the United States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are
reported in Celsius.
Flight Management
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the
temperature, dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric
pressure at an airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation
amounts, lightning, and other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates
include the code “SPECI” in the report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide
them.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service
area.
Engine Indication System
METARS AND TAFS
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Additional Information on Weather
Feature Selected
with Map Pointer
METAR flag
selected with Map
Pointer
Appendices
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Figure 6-25 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
321
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24hour period, and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather
phenomena, and sky conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR and TAF data is
displayed first in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain
additional information not found in the decoded version.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Audio Panel and CNS
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
Figure 6-26 METAR and TAF Text on the Weather Information Page
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the Legend Softkey
when METARs are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a
gray METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the information
available.
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
Figure 6-27 METAR Legend
Index
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the Active Flight Plan Page on the
MF.D. The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available
METAR.
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System Overview
Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page, press the METAR
Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR
Engine Indication System
text must be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that
the METAR text must be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF
text.
Hazard Avoidance
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
Flight Management
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated
AFCS
with a METAR flag next to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint
Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
Additional Features
the Active Flight Plan Page.
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map
pointer is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
Appendices
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
3) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on
the map.
4) When finished, press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
Index
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SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST (SIRIUSXM)
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather
conditions. Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 6-28 Current Surface Analysis Data
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Figure 6-29 Surface Analysis Legend
Hazard Avoidance
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the SFC Softkey.
HR. The SFC Softkey label changes to show the forecast time selected.
AFCS
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48
Or:
FREEZING LEVEL (SIRIUSXM)
Appendices
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and
location at which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data
for that altitude has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New
data appears when it becomes available.
Additional Features
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
Index
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Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 6-30 Freezing Level Data
Figure 6-31 Freezing Levels Legend
Displaying Freezing Level information:
Appendices
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
Index
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
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Flight Instruments
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and
at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up
to 42,000 feet MSL.
If the FIS-B option is installed and FIS-B is the active data link weather source, the Winds Aloft
weather product also displays temperatures aloft next to the winds aloft arrows on the Weather Data
Link (FIS-B) Page.
System Overview
WINDS ALOFT
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Figure 6-32 Winds Aloft Data at 9,000 Feet
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 6-33 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
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Index
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
on the Navigation Map Page. The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and
track, but not to aircraft speed.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
Altitude Scale
Figure 6-34 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to
the right, as shown in the following table.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Winds Aloft Data Age
Headwind Symbol
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
AFCS
10 knots
50 knots
Additional Features
Table 6-4 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
Appendices
3) Select the Wind Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the
Index
Next or Prev Softkey to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label
changes to reflect the altitude selected.
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System Overview
Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
b) Press the MENU Key.
c) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
Engine Indication System
a) Select the Navigation Map Page.
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Flight Management
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Hazard Avoidance
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
COUNTY WARNINGS (SIRIUSXM)
AFCS
The County warning weather product provides specific public awareness and protection weather
warnings from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes,
severe thunderstorms, and flood conditions.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flood
Warnings
Engine Indication System
Thunderstorm
Warning
Audio Panel and CNS
Additional
Information
on Flood
Warning
Selected
with Map
Pointer
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Figure 6-35 County Flood Warning
Figure 6-36 County Warnings Legend
AFCS
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
Appendices
Additional Features
2) Press the More WXSoftkey.
3) Press the County Softkey.
CYCLONE (SIRIUSXM)
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms,
and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of DD/
HH:MM.
Index
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver is installed, the Cyclone weather product is not
available unless at least one cyclone or tropical storm has been received. The weather
product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Cyclone
Flight Management
Figure 6-37 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-38 Cyclone Legend
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
AFCS
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Cyclone Softkey.
Appendices
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the current icing
environment. Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not
specific to aircraft type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current
conditions at the time of the analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively
large, super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat
areas are depicted as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Additional Features
ICING (CIP & SLD) (SIRIUSXM)
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Light Icing Potential
Flight Management
Moderate Icing
Potential
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-39 Icing Data at 6,000 Feet
Figure 6-40 Icing Potential Legend
Additional Features
Displaying icing information:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
Appendices
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the
Next or PREV Sofktey to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG SOftkey label
changes to indicate the icing altitude selected.
Index
TURBULENCE (SIRIUSXM)
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air
mass associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes
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System Overview
between 21,000 and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs,
SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-41 Turbulence Weather Product at 21,000 Feet
AFCS
Additional Features
Figure 6-42 Turbulence Legend
Displaying turbulence information:
Appendices
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or
PREV Softkey to cycle though the available softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes
to indicate the turbulence altitude selection.
PIREPS AND AIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots. When
significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are
required to solicit PIREPs. A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight
visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or
Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
NOTE: AIREPs are only available with the SiriusXM Weather service.
Hazard Avoidance
AIREP
AFCS
Urgent PIREP
Additional Features
PIREP selected with
Map Pointer
Index
Appendices
Figure 6-43 PIREPs and AIREPS on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Decoded PIREP Text
Audio Panel and CNS
Original PIREP
Text
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-44 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
AFCS
Additional Features
Figure 6-45 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
Appendices
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS or AIREPS Softkey. (Note the AIREPS Softkey is only available with the
SiriusXM Weather service.)
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear
around the weather report when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text.
Flight Instruments
The data is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the
original text may contain additional information not present in the decoded version.
6) Turn the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
information. Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service
Stations or Air Traffic Control.
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where
flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national
security, law enforcement, natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any
time, and TFR data displayed on the system is only intended to supplement official TFR information
obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system
displays ‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Appendices
Additional Features
Information for
selected TFR
Index
Figure 6-46 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Figure 6-47 Full Text for Selected TFR
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page or Navigation Map
Hazard Avoidance
Displaying TFR Data:
Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system
AFCS
displays TFR summary information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
Appendices
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR
data is decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is
selected, the TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
Additional Features
The system displays the TFR Information window.
Index
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be
displayed:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B
Status Page’.
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range settings.
Index
Figure 6-48 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on ADS-B Status Page
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System Overview
Status
Message
Description
FIS-B Weather Status: FIS-B
Processing
ENABLED
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process
and display FIS-B weather products.
DISABLED
---------------AVAILABLE
NOT AVAILABLE
FIS-B weather data is available for display for
the weather product.
FIS-B weather data is not available for the
weather product, and/or the system is not
receiving the FIS-B weather service.
The system is receiving the FIS-B weather
service, and is waiting to receive the weather
product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
Audio Panel and CNS
AWAITING
DATA
No FIS-B weather data received from the
transponder.
Engine Indication System
Weather Products: AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD METAR METAR
GRAPHICAL NOTAM/TFR PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD SIGMET TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled
Flight Instruments
ADS-B Status Page Item
Table 6-5 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
Viewing FIS-B status:
Hazard Avoidance
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
Flight Management
On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature, which
includes all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B
Additional Features
Weather’, and press the ENT Key. The system will not receive FIS-B weather information
when FIS-B Weather is disabled.
Appendices
Index
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6.3 TERRAIN DISPLAYS
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for
maintaining separation from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data
from third party sources and cannot independently verify the accuracy of the information.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain
database coverage area.
Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º
South latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s
ability to process the data representing the affected areas.
Terrain and obstacle alerting requires the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B option. No terrain or
obstacle alerting occurs for the Terrain Proximity feature.
The terrain system increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain
(CFIT) and obstacles.
One of the following terrain systems is installed on this aircraft:
•
Terrain Proximity
•
Terrain-SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option when the Terrain Awareness and Warning
System Class-B (TAWS-B) is not installed; refer to the Flight Instruments section for more
information about Garmin SVT.)
•
TAWS-B (optional)
The installed terrain system provides color indications on map displays when terrain or obstacles,
including certain power lines, are within a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Terrain-SVT and
TAWS-B furthermore provide advisory visual annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence of
threatening terrain or obstacles relevant to the projected flight path. This alerting capability is not
present in the Terrain Proximity feature. Compared to Terrain-SVT alerting, TAWS-B uses more
sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles. The TAWS-B system
includes more alerting capabilities than the Terrain-SVT system.
The terrain system requires the following for proper operation:
•
Valid 3-D GPS position
•
Valid terrain and obstacle databases
The terrain system uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government and other sources.
Terrain information is based on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain
inaccuracies. Individual obstructions, such as towers or power lines, may be shown if available in the
database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content. However, the displayed
information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may still contain inaccuracies.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by the terrain system are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS
position and GSL altitude, terrain system displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and
obstacles relative to the position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, for the Terrain-SVT or
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Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
The terrain system uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and point obstacles (with heights
greater than 200 feet above ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The
system dynamically adjusts these colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the
aircraft altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown
on the On-Ground Legend. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain
information using red, yellow, green, and black, as shown on the In-Air Legend. As the aircraft
transitions from on-ground to in-air, or from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain
momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. For Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, if an alert
occurs, the relative terrain colors transition to the In-Air Legend if the On-Ground Legend was shown
in order to provide the pilot with the most information possible.
Flight Instruments
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
System Overview
TAWS-B systems, the system uses the GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and “predict” the
aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, the TerrainSVT or TAWS-B systems can provide advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local
atmospheric conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently
updating the altimeter setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because
actual atmospheric conditions seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International
Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it
is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude.
This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing from the baro-corrected altitude.
Hazard Avoidance
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
AFCS
Additional Features
Figure 6-49 Relative Terrain Legend
The following figure shows the relative terrain coloring for the Terrain Proximity system.
Appendices
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
100 ft Threshold
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Flight Instruments
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-50 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
The following figure shows relative terrain coloring for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Red
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
Flight Management
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Hazard Avoidance
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-51 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Systems
AFCS
NOTE: The Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset Window shows terrain at least 2000 feet
below the aircraft altitude as gray.
Projected Flight Path
The following tables show the relative obstacle coloring used Terrain
by the
terrain systems.
above or within 100 feet
Red
100 ft Threshold
Additional Features
Unlighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL
Lighted ObstacleObstacle
Lighted
> 1000’ AGL
2000 ft
< 1000’ AGL
Yellow
below the aircraft altitude
Obstacle Location
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
> 1000’ AGL
Red point obstacle is at or
above the aircraft altitude
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Appendices
Figure 6-97 In-Air Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for TAWS
Yellow point obstacle is
between the aircraft altitude to
within 250 feet below the
aircraft altitude
Index
White point obstacle is more
than 250 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Table 6-6 Relative Point Obstacle Symbols and Colors
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System Overview
Wire Obstacle
Wire Obstacle Location
Red wire obstacle is at or above the aircraft altitude
White wire obstacle is more than 250 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Engine Indication System
Table 6-7 Relative Wire Obstacles and Colors
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Audio Panel and CNS
Red wind turbine obstacle is at or above the
aircraft altitude
Yellow wind turbine obstacle is between the
aircraft altitude to within 250 feet below the
aircraft altitude
Table 6-8 Relative Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
TAWS-B Warning:
Terrain-SVT Warning:
Additional Features
or
Warning
Example Annunciation
AFCS
or
Alert Type
Caution
Appendices
Table 6-9 Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
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Index
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’ or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is the principal map
page for viewing terrain information. Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the
following maps and pages:
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Hazard Avoidance
The Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems show potential impacts areas for terrain and obstacles using
yellow and red as shown in the following table.
Flight Management
White wind turbine obstacle is more than 250 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Potential Impact Area Examples
Flight Instruments
Yellow wire obstacle is between the aircraft altitude to
within 250 feet below the aircraft altitude
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
PFD Maps
Trip Planning Page
‘Map - Navigation Map Page’
Flight Plan Page
Displaying relative terrain information (MFD maps other than the terrain page)
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the Map/HSI Softkey).
2) Press the TER Softkey as needed to cycle through the terrain options, with the current
selection displayed in cyan on the softkey (‘Off’, ‘Topo’ or ‘REL’). ‘REL’ indicates relative
terrain is selected.
When relative terrain is shown on maps other than the terrain page, a relative terrain icon appears
on the map. A relative terrain legend appears with the icon on the Navigation Map Page. The legend
appears by itself on the terrain page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/
disabling the display of relative terrain, point obstacles (such as towers), and wire obstacles (such as
power lines). The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and obstacle
data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD,
while the maximum range setting also affects the PFD maps.
The pilot can display relative terrain information independently of point or wire obstacle
information; however, obstacles for which Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B warnings and cautions are issued
are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting limit.
Maps besides the terrain page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map.
Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The
map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page
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System Overview
Additional
Information on
Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Engine Indication System
Red Lighted
Obstacles
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Flight Instruments
Lighted Obstacle
Selected with Map
Pointer
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Audio Panel and CNS
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-52 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
Flight Management
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
•
Point Obstacle – Enables/disables the display of point obstacle data and sets maximum
range at which point obstacles are shown
•
Wire Obstacle – Enables/disables the display of wire obstacle data and sets maximum range
at which wire obstacles are shown
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range
settings, etc.).
Additional Features
Terrain Display – Enables the display of relative (‘REL’) terrain data or select ‘Off’ to disable;
also sets maximum map range at which terrain is shown.
AFCS
•
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
Appendices
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
TERRAIN PAGE
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Index
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’, or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’, or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is specialized to show
terrain, and obstacle in relation to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. This
page is the principal page for viewing terrain information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other
NAVAIDs) can be enabled for reference.
For Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems only, this page also shows potential impact areas. If terrain or
obstacles (including wire obstacles) and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display
automatically adjusts to a map range if necessary to emphasize the display of the potential impact area.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading, in which case
the orientation is track up. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 250 feet to 1000 nm, which is
indicated on the map range arc.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Orientation
Audio Panel and CNS
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Flight Management
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
Hazard Avoidance
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
Figure 6-53 Terrain Proximity Page
Displaying the terrain page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map page group.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the terrain page:
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice
dependent on the current state), then press the ENT Key.
WIRE OBSTACLE INFORMATION AND ALERTING
For additional safety, the terrain system incorporates Garmin’s WireAware™ wire obstacle
information. For wire obstacles such as power lines present in the obstacle database, the system shows
these on the maps as well as the Synthetic Vision display; see the Flight Instruments section for more
information about Synthetic Vision displays of power lines. For the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B only, this
system can also issue cautions or warnings for potential impact with wire obstacles.
WireAware database information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power
lines which are typically high voltage transmission lines depicted on VFR Sectional charts, and are
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1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
Flight Management
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
Audio Panel and CNS
Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
Engine Indication System
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles
in an inset window on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. Although the VSD does not display
Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B alerts and potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors
and symbols as these systems to depict relative terrain and obstacles within the VSD.
Flight Instruments
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
System Overview
considered of special interest to fixed-wing pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers,
valleys, canyons, or be in close proximity to airports.
It is important to note the obstacle database does not contain all power lines. In fact, WireAware
database coverage is mostly limited to HOT power lines, such as the especially tall transmission lines
and their associated support structures. It does not typically have information for the more prevalent
smaller utility poles or lines, such as those found in residential areas. Furthermore, WireAware
obstacle database coverage exists mainly in the United States; with limited coverage in portions of
Canada and Mexico. In addition, the height of the wire obstacles is commonly estimated and should
not be relied upon for maneuvering decisions.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the VSD.
Hazard Avoidance
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on
AFCS
current state) and press the ENT Key.
VSD DISPLAY
Additional Features
Appendices
he same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the
Navigation Map Page also control the display of this information in the VSD.
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is
low enough or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain
will be shown in gray if the TER Softkey is selected off on the Navigation Map Page).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain
based upon the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain
database resolution, within a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present
position and the end of the map range. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as
annunciated on the HSI, and is widest during enroute or oceanic phases.
Index
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Flight Phase Total VSD Width
Total VSD Width
Approach
0.6 nm
Departure
0.6 nm
Terminal
2.0 nm
Enroute
4.0 nm
Oceanic
4.0 nm
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the topleft corner of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan,
and if no active flight plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In
Track Mode, the contour is based on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based
on the active flight plan, when available, otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the VSD is
adjusted to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the
Navigation Map range is adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical
mile. When Navigation Map range is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as
shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed
from the VSD; only an outline of the terrain will be displayed in black in the VSD Inset Window.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Track Mode
Boundary enabled
Additional Features
Altitude Scale
VSD Total Distance
Index
Appendices
Figure 6-54 VSD on the Navigation Map Page with Relative Terrain Information
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Figure 6-55 VSD with Tall Obstacles
Selecting a VSD Mode:
1) Select the Navigation MapPage.
3) Press the VSD Softkey, which displays the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey
selects a mode: FPL (Flight Plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
Hazard Avoidance
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The
boundary is shown as a white rectangle on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and is only available
when the VSD is enabled in Track Mode. White range markers on both edges of the Track Mode
Boundary rectangle match the range markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window
whenever the profile range is at least four nautical miles (or 7.5 km if configured for metric units).
The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the Navigation Map range at which the
Profile Path is removed from map display can be changed.
Flight Management
TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Press the Inset Softkey.
Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page:
AFCS
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘VSD’ group, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Track Mode Boundary ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field. Turn
Additional Features
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
the small FMS Knob if needed to change this setting.
Mode Boundary. Turn the small FMS Knob to select a maximum range, then press the
ENT Key.
Appendices
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the maximum map range to display the Track
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
Index
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Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS-B ALERTING DISPLAYS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B
software algorithms. Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B alerts typically employ a caution or a warning alert
severity level, or both. When an alert is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are
simultaneously issued.
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The terrain alert annunciation
appears to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and bottom on the MFD. If the terrain page
is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
•
Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
•
Press the ENT Key (accesses the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page)
Pop-up
Alert
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Alert Annunciation
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 6-56 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
Appendices
Potential Impact
Area
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
Index
Figure 6-57 Navigation Map Page (After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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PFD/Terrain-SVT
Page Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except Terrain-SVT
Page)
Voice Alert
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
“Warning; Wire, Wire”
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
“Warning; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Line Impact
Caution (ILI)
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Line
Clearance Caution (RLC)
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
“Caution; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
AFCS
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Voice Alert
“Pull Up”
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull
Up, Pull Up”
“Wire Ahead; Pull Up,
Pull Up”
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Index
Imminent Line Impact
Warning (ILI)
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Appendices
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
PFD/TAWS-B Page
Alert Annunciation
Additional Features
Table 6-10 Terrain-SVT Alerts Summary
Alert Type
Hazard Avoidance
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
Flight Management
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
Audio Panel and CNS
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
Engine Indication System
Reduced Required Line
Clearance (RLC)
Warning
Flight Instruments
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
System Overview
Alert Type
Alert Type
PFD/TAWS-B Page
Alert Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Voice Alert
Reduced Required Line
Clearance Warning
(RLC)
“Wire, Wire; Pull Up,
Pull Up”
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull
Up, Pull Up”
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Obstacle, Obstacle;
Pull Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Warning (IOI)
“Obstacle, Obstacle;
Pull Up, Pull Up”
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution, Terrain;
Caution, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
“Caution, Terrain;
Caution, Terrain”
Required Reduced Line
Clearance (RLC) Impact
Caution
“Caution, Wire;
Caution, Wire”
Imminent Line
Clearance Impact
Caution (ILI)
“Wire Ahead; Wire
Ahead”
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution, Obstacle;
Caution, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution, Obstacle;
Caution, Obstacle”
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Altitude Voice Callout
(VCO) “500”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
“Sink Rate”
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
“Don’t Sink”
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Table 6-11 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
Index
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B compares the
projected flight path as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and
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Audio Panel and CNS
700
600
500
Flight Management
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
Engine Indication System
Descending (FT)
Flight Instruments
Level (FT)
800
System Overview
obstacle databases. The system issues FLTA alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain
or obstacles.
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of
the projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when
the ground speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to
the nearest runway along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight
path becomes narrower until the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually
inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle/Line Clearance
(RTC /ROC/RLC respectively) and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle/Line Impact (ITI/IOI/ILI respectively).
400
300
200
Hazard Avoidance
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
AFCS
Figure 6-58 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
INHIBITING FLTA ALERTING
Additional Features
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the
destination runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between
runway ends.
The pilot can manually inhibit FLTA alerts. If TAWS-B is installed, PDA alerts are also inhibited with
FLTA alerts.
Appendices
Terrain-SVT System
TAWS-B System
Figure 6-59 FLTA Alerting is Inhibited when Annunciation is displayed
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Inhibiting/enabling FLTA Alerting (Terrain SVT and TAWS-B only):
1) Select the terrain page.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the Inhibit Softkey. FLTA alerting is inhibited when softkey annunciator is green.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL TAWS-B ALERTING
In addition to the FLTA alerting discussed previously, TAWS-B provides the following additional
types of alerts.
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of theExcessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide notification when the aircraft
is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain a rate that is calculated to be excessive relative
to height above terrain. Figure 6-59 shows the parameters for the alert.
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired inhibit or enable option, then press the
6000
5500
5000
Hazard Avoidance
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
4000
ion:
Caut
3500
ATE”
KR
“SIN
3000
2500
AFCS
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
Descent Rate (FPM)
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
Additional Features
500
Index
Appendices
Figure 6-60 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination
airport and ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
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800
Flight Instruments
600
500
Engine Indication System
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
Audio Panel and CNS
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
Flight Management
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-61 PDA Alerting Threshold
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
•
Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
•
Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After
Takeoff”) provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon
terrain) after takeoff. The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual
annunciations. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
Additional Features
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
1000
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
Audio Panel and CNS
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Flight Management
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-62 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
1000
AFCS
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
Hazard Avoidance
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
Additional Features
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Appendices
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-63 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
Index
FIVE-HUNDRED VOICE ALERT
The purpose of the TAWS-B “Five-hundred” voice alert is to provide an advisory alert of when the
aircraft descends to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is
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Flight Instruments
SYSTEM STATUS
TERRAIN-SVT
TERRAIN TEST
None
None
Single Aural Chime
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
None
None
No GPS Position
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System
Not Available”*
Excessively degraded
GPS signal; or Out of
database coverage area
None
“Terrain System
Not Available”*
Terrain System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System
audio fault
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System
Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE
FAILURE
None
System Test in Progress
System Test Passed
None
Additional Features
None
Appendices
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid, and Terrain-SVT
operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle
databases
AFCS
Voice/Aural Alert
Hazard Avoidance
Terrain-SVT Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
Flight Management
PFD/Terrain-SVT
Page Annunciation
Audio Panel and CNS
Alert Type
Engine Indication System
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An
voice alert is issued at test completion. Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical
items such as database validity, hardware status, and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is
not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’
alert annunciation. Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical
accuracy minimums. Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the
database coverage area, the annunciation ‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on
the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ Page. The voice alert “Terrain System Not Available” is generated. When
sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the voice alert
“Terrain System Available” is generated.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
Table 6-12 Terrain-SVT System Status Annunciations
190-02130-02 Rev. A
System Overview
within 5 nm of an airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold
elevation. When the aircraft is more than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert
is based on the height above terrain (as determined by the GPS altitude and Terrain Database).
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alert.
357
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database
coverage area re-entered.
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An
voice alert is issued at test completion. The pilot can also manually select a TAWS-B system test. The
system test option is unavailable when the ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware
status, and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System
Failure” is generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums.
Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage
area, the system displays the ‘TAWS N/A’ annunciation, and issues the “TAWS Not Available” voice
alert. When the GPS signal integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the
system issues the voice alert, “TAWS Available”
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database
coverage area re-entered.
Alert Type
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
TAWS-B
PFD/TAWS-B Page TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
System Test in
Progress
TAWS TEST
None
None
Single Aural
Chime
Terrain Alerting
Inhibited
None
None
No GPS Position
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not
Available”*
None
“TAWS Not
Available”*
Hazard Avoidance
System Test Passed
Excessively degraded
GPS signal; or Out of
database coverage
area
None
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Voice/Aural
Alert
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PFD/TAWS-B Page TAWS-B Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System
Failure”
TERRAIN DATABASE FAILURE
None
Flight Instruments
TAWS-B System Test
Fail; Terrain or
Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid;
Invalid software
configuration; or
System audio fault
Voice/Aural
Alert
System Overview
Alert Type
None
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
MFD Terrain or
Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid,
and TAWS-B
operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle
databases
Table 6-13 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
Flight Management
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage
area re-entered.
1) Select the ‘Map — TAWS-B’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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6.4 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Engine Indication System
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: Mode S TIS is disabled if another traffic system such as TAS or Automatic Dependent
Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is installed.
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS
uses the Mode-S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground
stations, and is updated every five seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic symbols within a
7.5-nm radius, from 3000 feet below to 3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. The system displays
TIS traffic with the symbology shown in the following table.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable
terminal radar site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to both Traffic
Advisory Systems (TAS), Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) and TIS. Aircraft
without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb
descent indication.
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
AFCS
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Table 6-14 TIS Traffic Symbols
Traffic Advisories (TA) alert the crew to intruding aircraft. When traffic meets the advisory criteria for
the TA, a solid amber circle symbol appears. A TA which is detected but is outside the range of the
map on which traffic is displayed are indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map.
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest
45°. Traffic information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is
displayed in the center of the Traffic Map Page or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other
than the Traffic Map Page on which traffic can be displayed.
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/
below the traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the
altitude separation appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below.
Altitude trend is displayed as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction)
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System Overview
to the right of the target symbol. Traffic symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability
appear without altitude separation or climb/descent information.
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
•
Navigation Map Page
•
Traffic Map Page
•
Trip Planning Page
•
Nearest Pages
•
Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Terrain-SVT option is installed and
enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
Flight Management
Enabling/disabling traffic overlays (MFD navigation maps):
Audio Panel and CNS
PFD Maps
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic
information can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD
when the traffic TIS is operating:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the navigation map.
Hazard Avoidance
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the
feature is enabled for display.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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361
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Engine Indication System
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
Non-Threat
Traffic, Not
Reporting
Altitude
Audio Panel and CNS
TA Off Scale
Banner
Annunciation
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Traffic System
Status Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-64 TIS Traffic on Navigation Map Page
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/
disabling display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic
data (symbols and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range
setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings
based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling traffic information on the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map:
AFCS
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the TrafficSoftkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset
Map or HSI Map.
Additional Features
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Appendices
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key.
Index
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
362
•
Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
•
Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Alerts only
System Overview
•
Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
•
Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the
option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the
changed settings.
Flight Management
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s
current position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is
always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2
to 12 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is
on the ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches
from Standby to Operating Mode and the system begins to display traffic information. Refer to the
System Status discussion for more information.
Audio Panel and CNS
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
Engine Indication System
settings, etc.).
Flight Instruments
•
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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363
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Mode Annunciation
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
Traffic Advisory, 500’
Below, Climbing
Non-Threat
Traffic, 1200’
Above,
Descending
“Non-Bearing” Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
1100’ Above,
Descending
Range
Marking
Rings
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
400’ Below, Level
Select
to Mute
“TIS Not
Available”
Voice Alert
Flight Management
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciations
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-65 Traffic Map Page
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
AFCS
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Press the TIS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following
occur:
•
A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
•
A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the right of the airspeed tape, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
•
The PFD Inset Map or HSI Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
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Flight Instruments
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is
generated only when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice
and visual annunciation are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional
voice alerts are generated. If a second TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially
decreases and then subsequently increases, another voice alert is generated.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-66 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
•
Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
•
Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an
adjacent site.
•
Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about
3000 feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar
coverage in all directions.
•
Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA
muting status is shown in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Additional Features
Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is
out of range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
Appendices
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the TNA Mute Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the
Traffic Map Page.
Or:
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press
SYSTEM STATUS
The system performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters
Standby Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an
annunciation is shown in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Description
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the transponder*
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the transponder, but a failure
is detected in the data stream*
FAILED
The transponder has failed*
FAILED
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-15 TIS Failure Annunciations
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft
is on the ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another
map while Standby Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case
whenever TIS has failed). Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic
information is displayed. The mode can be changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
Traffic Map Mode
Annunciation
Traffic Map Center
Banner Annunciation
Traffic Overlay
Status Icon
(Navigation Maps
Description
DATA FAILED
TRFC FAIL
Data is being
received from the
transponder, but a
failure is detected
in the data
stream*
NO DATA
TRFC FAIL
Data is not being
received from the
transponder*
OPERATING
NONE
TIS is operating
and is receiving
traffic data from a
data link.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
the ENT Key.
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Traffic Overlay
Status Icon
(Navigation Maps
Description
UNAVAILABLE
STANDBY
STANDBY
TIS is in Standby
Mode.
UNIT FAILED
TRFC FAIL
The transponder
has failed*
TIS is operating,
but the traffic
service is currently
unavailable or is
out of reception
range.
Table 6-16 TIS Modes and Status Annunciations
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Description
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds If after
another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the
display The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the
age increases
TRFC COAST
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last
message) The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced
when this message is displayed
TRFC RMVD
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60
seconds since last message) Traffic may exist within the selected
display range, but it is not displayed
TRFC FAIL
Traffic data has failed
NO TRFC DATA
Appendices
AGE MM:SS
Additional Features
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in
hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
AFCS
TA X.X ± XX
Hazard Avoidance
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected
display range
TA OFF SCALE
Flight Management
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left
corner of maps on which traffic can be displayed, as shown in the following table.
Audio Panel and CNS
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Engine Indication System
OPERATING
Flight Instruments
Traffic Map Center
Banner Annunciation
System Overview
Traffic Map Mode
Annunciation
Traffic has not been detected
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Description
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
TRFC UNAVAIL
Flight Instruments
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-17 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
Engine Indication System
Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Standby or Operate Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is
displayed in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
press the ENT Key.
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6.5 TAS TRAFFIC
Appendices
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system interrogates the transponders of other
aircraft in the vicinity while monitoring for transponder replies. The system uses this information to
derive the distance, relative bearing, and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft
within its surveillance range. The traffic system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on
the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic
Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual annunciations and voice alerts.
Additional Features
THEORY OF OPERATION
AFCS
The optional Garmin GTS 800 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). It enhances flight crew situational
awareness by displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also
provides visual annunciations and voice traffic alerts to assist in visually acquiring traffic.
The GTS 800 is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C
transponders, and up to 30 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30
aircraft with the highest threat potential can be displayed simultaneously. No TAS surveillance is
provided for aircraft without operating transponders.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: If a Garmin GTX 345R transponder is installed with this traffic system, refer to the
ADS-B traffic discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic displays.
Flight Management
NOTE: Mode-S TIS is disabled when another traffic system such as TAS or TCAS I is installed.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of TAS system limitations. TAS systems require transponders of
other aircraft to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to
interrogations due to phenomena such as antenna shading or marginal transponder
performance, traffic may be displayed intermittently, or not at all. Aircraft without altitude
reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb descent indication.
Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
Engine Indication System
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all
of the traffic information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal
reception, and/or inaccurate information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not
represented on the display.
Flight Instruments
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
TAS SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
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Index
The TAS/TCAS I surveillance system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude.
Under ideal conditions, the TAS system scans transponder traffic up to 22 NM in the forward
direction. The TCAS I system scans for transponder traffic up to 40 NM in the forward direction.
The range is somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional
interrogation signal patterns. In areas of greater transponder traffic density, the on-board traffic
system automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to
limit potential interference from other signals.
The system can display the symbols shown in the following table.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the
intruder aircraft track.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Audio Panel and CNS
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional
information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional
information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of
the aircraft track.
Flight Management
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Hazard Avoidance
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the
direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B
is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
AFCS
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the
ground.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is
in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-18 Traffic Symbology
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a amber circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially
hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A
TA that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of
the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding
aircraft is within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat. A
Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond 6
nm that is neither a TA or PA.
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic
beyond 6 nm that is neither a TA or PA.
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Relative Altitude
System Overview
A solid white rounded arrow indicates either a PA or Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional
information, but the position of the traffic is shown with degraded accuracy.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol
in hundreds of feet . When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus
sign ‘-’ indicates traffic is below own aircraft. The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/
down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol.
Vertical trend arrow
Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
Flight Management
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, a motion vector line extending
beyond the traffic symbol in the direction of the track may also be displayed when either absolute or
relative motion vectors are enabled; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion for more information..
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-67 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-68 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B Directional Information and Track
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
AFCS
Additional Features
The TAS/TCAS I system automatically reduces its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of
nuisance TA alerting during certain flight conditions.
Level A (reduced) TA sensitivity normally applies when the aircraft is less than 2,000 feet above
ground level. If the system cannot determine this height, then level A sensitivity applies when the
landing gear is extended. If the system also cannot determine the landing gear position, then level A
TA sensitivity applies when the groundspeed is less than 120 knots.
In all other conditions, the system uses level B (increased) sensitivity in order to determine TA
threats.
Appendices
Index
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Sensitivity
Level
Intruder Altitude
Available
A
Yes
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of
vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of
horizontal separation and vertical separation is within
600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation
is within 600 feet.
A
No
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of
separation.
B
Yes
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of
vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of
horizontal separation and vertical separation is within
800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation
is within 800 feet.
B
No
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TA Alerting Conditions
Table 6-19 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
TRAFFIC ALERTS
•
The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the
bearing, relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table
6-28). For example, the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the
traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
•
A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the right of the airspeed tape on the PFD, flashes for five
seconds, and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area
•
The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center
of the Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text
will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA
traffic, if known. A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that
initially triggered the TA are no longer present.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
When the TAS/TCAS I system detects a new TA, the following occur:
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-69 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance
(nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock” or “No
Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”, “One
Mile” through “Ten Miles”,
or “More than ten miles”
Flight Management
Bearing
Hazard Avoidance
Table 6-20 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
AFCS
Additional Features
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic
information. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is
adjustable with the Joystick (up to 40 nm) as indicated by the map range rings.
The system annunciates the traffic mode and altitude display mode in the upper right corner of the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAS Operating Mode
Annunciation
Flight Instruments
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 below,
climbing
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ above,
descending
Traffic Display
Range Rings
Proximity
Advisory, 1200’
feet below,
descending
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
Figure 6-70 Traffic Map Page
Hazard Avoidance
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to select Standby Mode.
SYSTEM TEST
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when
performing a system test during flight.
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes
approximately ten seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic
symbols appears on the traffic maps.
If the aircraft has ADS-B In capability, the system announces “Traffic System Test”, and the test
pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing TA is shown to the west, level Other
Non-Threat traffic is shown to the northwest, and a descending proximity Advisory is in the northeast,
relative to own aircraft. If the system test passes, the traffic system enters standby mode, and no traffic
failure annunciations are displayed on the traffic maps.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
3) Press the Operate or TAS OPER Softkey to select Operating Mode.
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If the aircraft does not have ADS-B In capability, the test pattern is fixed and does not correspond to
the aircraft heading. If the system test passes, the system announces “TAS System Test Passed”.
Otherwise the system announces, “TAS System Test Failed”. When the system test is complete, the
traffic system enters Standby Mode.
Flight Instruments
TAS Test Mode
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-71 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
Testing the Traffic System:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
for the outer range ring. This ensures the full traffic test pattern is depicted on the map.
AFCS
2) Turn the Joystick to adjust the map range to 2 NM for the inner range ring, and 6 NM
3) If the traffic system is Operating Mode, press the Standby or TAS Standby Softkey.
Or:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, press the MENU Key and turn the FMS Knob highlight ‘Test
Additional Features
4) Press the Test Softkey.
Mode’.
Appendices
2) Press the ENT Key.
Index
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OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic system automatically transitions from Standby to Operating mode eight
seconds after takeoff. The system also automatically transitions from Operating to Standby
mode 24 seconds after landing.
At the beginning of the avionics power-up cycle, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The system
must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Pressing the OPERATE Softkey allows the traffic unit to switch from Standby Mode to Operating
Mode as necessary. Pressing the STANDBY Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
Selecting a TAS Operating Mode:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) To select Standby Mode, press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired mode and press the ENT Key.
ALTITUDE DISPLAY MODE
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory
traffic is displayed. TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown regardless of the
chosen mode.
Changing the altitude range of traffic to display:
1) On the ‘Map — Traffic Map’ Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
2) Press one of the following softkeys:
•
Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the
aircraft to 2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
•
Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above
the aircraft to 2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
•
Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the
aircraft to 9900 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below
the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Map Page, press the Back Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
Index
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following softkeys (see previous
description):
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System Overview
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
Flight Instruments
•
3) Press the ENT Key.
The Flight IDs of other aircraft (when available) can be enabled for display on the Traffic Map
Page. When a flight ID is received, it will appear above or below the corresponding traffic symbol
on the Traffic Map Page when this option is enabled.
Engine Indication System
FLIGHT ID DISPLAY
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight ID
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-72 Traffic Map Page with Flight IDs Enabled
AFCS
Enabling/Disabling Flight ID Display:
On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, select the FLT ID Softkey.
Additional Features
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘Show Flight IDs’ or ‘Hide Flight IDs’ (choice
dependent on current state).
Appendices
3) Press the ENT Key.
TRAFFIC MAP DISPLAY RANGE
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable
with the Joystick, and rings on the map denote the ranges.
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Selecting a display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
the map range.
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic
information can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD
when the traffic unit is operating:
Navigation Map Page
Nearest Page
Active Flight Plan Page
Trip Planning Page
IFR/VFR Charts Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Garmin Synthetic Vision
Technology (SVT) option is installed and enabled. See the Flight Instruments section for details.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, the system shows a traffic status
icon to indicate traffic is enabled for display.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease
Proximity
Advisory
AFCS
Traffic Advisory
Additional Features
Traffic
Advisory OffScale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic overlay
enabled icon and
Altitude Display
Mode
Figure 6-73 TAS Traffic on Navigation Map
Appendices
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD navigation maps):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the traffic overlay.
Index
3) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
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System Overview
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Flight Instruments
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
•
Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
•
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
•
Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
•
Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the
option to turn off
Flight Management
•
Hazard Avoidance
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
AFCS
Additional Features
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu
controls the map range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display.
If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps
besides the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page.
A Traffic Map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map will appear
in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic and
optional data link weather information on navigation maps.
Showing the HSI Traffic Map:
Appendices
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Trfc Softkey.
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Enabling/disabling traffic overlay on PFD navigation maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the traffic overlay.
3) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level PFD softkeys.
SYSTEM STATUS
Engine Indication System
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Mode
Traffic Mode Annunciation (Traffic Map
Page)
Audio Panel and CNS
Traffic System Test Initiated
TEST (‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page)
Operating
OPERATING
Standby
STANDBY(also shown in center of page)
FAIL
* See for the following table for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-21 Traffic Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the
Traffic Map Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center Annunciation
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Traffic System Failed*
Description
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but
the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic
unit
Table 6-22 TAS/TCAS I Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left
corner of maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Traffic Display
Status Icon
(Other Maps)
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TA OFF SCALE
NO TRFC DATA
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in
hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/
descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending
incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Audio Panel and CNS
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Engine Indication System
TRFC FAIL
Description
Flight Instruments
TA X.X ± XX
System Overview
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Table 6-23 TAS/TCAS I Traffic Status Annunciations
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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6.6 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The optional Garmin GTX 345R transponder sends and receives Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B) traffic information on the 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) frequency. It
receives ADS-B traffic and data link weather information on the 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver
(UAT) frequency. The system provides visual annunciations and voice traffic alerts to help the pilot
visually acquire potentially conflicting traffic. This discussion covers the traffic features of the GTX
transponder; refer to the Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather section for more
information about the UAT data link weather features of the GTX 345.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ADS-B is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic control system and is comprised of three
segments: ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R (Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TISB).
ADS-B is the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters
on fixed objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call
Sign, Tail Number, ICAO registration number, etc), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude,
and emergency status.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all
of the traffic information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal
reception, and/or inaccurate information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not
represented on the display.
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System Overview
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
Flight Instruments
1090 ES
Engine Indication System
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
ATC
UAT
UAT
Audio Panel and CNS
RADAR
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
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Index
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Appendices
TIS-B provides the bridge between the radar-based ATC system and the ADS-B-based system.
When an ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B ground
station, the ground station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is
then included in the list of aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B
participant.”
Additional Features
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
AFCS
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the
1090 MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other.
ADS-R is the rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by
taking data from one link and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, two aircraft are in the
service volume for a ground station, and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other on 978
MHz, the ground station retransmits the data from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two
aircraft can “see” each other.
Because the GTX 345R transponder sends and receives ADS-B traffic reports on the 1090 ES
frequency, but only receives traffic reports on the 978 MHz UAT frequency, the presence of an ADS-R
ground station is necessary for an aircraft with only UAT-capabilities to ‘see’ the aircraft with the GTX
345R transponder.
Hazard Avoidance
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of
aircraft or system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the
capability to receive ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B
information. ADS-B participating refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B
information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out, or both ADS-B capabilities may also be
referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
Flight Management
Figure 6-74 ADS-B System
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in Secondary
Surveillance Radar coverage, and the other aircraft is also in Secondary Surveillance Radar coverage,
and is transmitting its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15
NM of the participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B
broadcasts occur once every three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the
ground station providing the TIS-B service.
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTX 345R-equipped aircraft
according to the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Other Aircraft Equipment
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped Aircraft
1090ES Out Equipped
Yes
UAT Receive Only Capable
No
UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S
Transponder
Yes*
*Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar
coverage, or own aircraft is equipped with a TAS/TCAS I system and traffic is within the TAS/
TCAS I surveillance range.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Table 6-24 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
ADS-B WITH TAS/TCAS I
When an optional active traffic system, such as a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) or Traffic Alert and
Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) is insalled and operating with an optional GTX 345R
transponder, the transponder receives traffic from the active traffic system and attempts to match (or
“correlate”) this traffic with ADS-B traffic the transponder is tracking. When a correlation is made,
the only the traffic with the most accurate information is displayed to the flight crew. Any traffic that
is not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the other) is also displayed for the flight
crew. This correlation of traffic by the transponder improves the accuracy of the traffic displayed,
while reducing the occurrence of the same aircraft being displayed twice.
NOTE: When operating on the edges of ATC radar coverage or when using an optional
active traffic system providing intermittent traffic data, a single aircraft may be briefly or
periodically depicted as two aircraft on the display.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AND ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting
similar to the TAS/TCAS I system discussed previously.
The system issues a voice alert when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is displayed, for example “Traffic! Two
O’clock, Low, Two Miles.”
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
0.2
Any
Any
20
850
0.2
Unavailabl
e
Approach
Any
20
850
0.2
Any
Any
Any
25
850
0.2
Any
Any
25
850
0.2
Terminal
Any
25
850
0.2
<=5000
30
850
0.35
40
850
0.55
45
850
0.8
Any
Any
4
Any
4
5
5
>1000
<=2350
7
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
8
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
>5000
<=10,000
>10,000
<=20,000
Appendices
6
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
Additional Features
Unavailabl
e
AFCS
5
Hazard Avoidance
850
4
Flight Management
20
Own
Altitude
(Feet)
Audio Panel and CNS
Any
GPS
Phase of
Flight
Engine Indication System
Protected
Volume
(NM)
Sensitivit
y Level
Flight Instruments
Lookahead
time (sec)
Vertical
Threshol
d for
Alert
(feet)
Height
Above
Terrain
(HAT)
System Overview
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize
nuisance alerts. Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to adjust the
sensitivity of the CSA algorithm in accordance with the following table:
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
GPS
Phase of
Flight
Own
Altitude
(Feet)
>20,000
9
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
10
Not
approach
Unavailabl and not
e or
Terminal
>2350
(including
unavailabl
e)
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Sensitivit
y Level
> 42,000
Vertical
Threshol
d for
Alert
(feet)
Protected
Volume
(NM)
48
850
1.1
48
1200
1.1
Table 6-25 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
When the system detects a new Traffic Advisory (TA), the following occur:
•
The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the
bearing, relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table
6-34). For example, the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the
traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
•
A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears to the right of the Airspeed Indicator on the PFD, flashes for five
seconds, and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
•
If the PFD Inset Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the displayed map. Otherwise
the Traffic Map is shown on the PFD.
•
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center
of the Traffic Map and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will
indicate ‘TA’ followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if
known.
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
<=42,000
Lookahead
time (sec)
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Height
Above
Terrain
(HAT)
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-75 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance
(nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock” or “No
Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude”
(if within 200 feet of own
altitude), or “Altitude not
available”
“Zero miles”, “Less than one
mile”, “One Mile” through
“Ten Miles”, or “More than
ten miles”
Flight Management
Bearing
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: ADS-B traffic voice alerts are suppressed when below 500 feet.
AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
387
Index
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Appendices
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Additional Features
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of
traffic, especially when runways are in close proximity to each other.
AFCS
ADS-B can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two
ADS-B applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational
Awareness (SURF). The system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five nautical miles and 1,500 feet above
the nearest airport. When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is
airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five nautical miles and less than 1,500 feet
above field elevation. When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the
ground traffic. At a Traffic Map Page range of one nautical mile or less, the airport environment
(including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to traffic. The airport displays are derived from
the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for more information about SafeTaxi
displays.
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic
symbols may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic
to be displayed in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while
SURF is on. Availability for AIRB and SURF is depicted on the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page, discussed
later in this section.
SURF Application On
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Audio Panel and CNS
Ground-based
vehicle
Figure 6-76 Traffic Map Page with SURF Mode On
TRAFFIC DESCRIPTION
The symbols used to display ADS-B traffic are shown in the table below. Above or below the traffic
symbol is the traffic identifier, and altitude. A small up or down arrow next to the traffic symbol
indicates that the traffic is climbing or descending at a rate of at least 500 feet per minute.
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Aircraft on the
ground
Symbol
Description
Additional Features
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the
intruder aircraft track
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information.
Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Appendices
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information.
Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the
aircraft track.
Index
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
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System Overview
Symbol
Description
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of
the intruder aircraft track.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction
of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface
(SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Engine Indication System
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed
when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Flight Instruments
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in
Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
Flight Management
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there
is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
Audio Panel and CNS
OPERATION
AIRB Application On
Hazard Avoidance
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 below,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
Traffic Display
Range Rings
AFCS
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ above,
descending
Additional Features
Proximity
Advisory, 1200’
feet below,
descending
Appendices
Figure 6-77 Traffic Map Page
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the ADS-B Softkey.
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Index
Or:
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
389
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-
B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test
Engine Indication System
pattern display.
3) Ensure the the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
4) If the optional TAS/TCAS I is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
Or:
Press the MENU Key.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes about ten
seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on
any displayed traffic maps. The test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing
TA is shown to the west, level Other Non-Threat traffic is shown to the northwest, and a descending
Proximity Advisory is in the northeast, relative to own aircraft. The voice alert “Traffic System Test”
indicates the traffic system test is complete, and the system enters Standby Mode.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
5) Press the Test Softkey.
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System Overview
ADS-B Test Mode
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is
displayed. TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Hazard Avoidance
Changing the altitude range:
Flight Management
Figure 6-78 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
1) On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following softkeys:
•
Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft
to 2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
•
Below:Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
9000 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below
the aircraft.
Additional Features
Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft
to 2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
AFCS
•
3) To return to the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, select the Back Softkey.
Appendices
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options (see softkey
description in step 2 above):
Index
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391
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
•
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict
the traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected,
the vectors extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own
aircraft. These vectors are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s
track and ground speed. These two values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely
with respect to own aircraft, and provide a forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own
aircraft, in the near future.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
AFCS
Absolute
Motion Vectors
Additional Features
Absolute Motion Vectors
selected
Index
Appendices
Figure 6-79 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Relative Motion
Vectors
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Relative Motion Vectors
selected
Figure 6-80 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
Flight Management
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press one of the following softkeys:
Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
Off: Disables the display of the motion vector.
Hazard Avoidance
•
4) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
AFCS
5) Press the MENU Key.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion
Vector Off’.
Additional Features
7) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
Appendices
3) Press the Duration Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, press the Back Softkey to return to the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
DISPLAYING ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC INFORMATION
Flight Instruments
The Traffic Map Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may
include the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft,
service vehicle, unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV)), course, track, groundspeed), and other
information.
Showing additional traffic information:
Engine Indication System
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The first selected traffic symbol is highlighted in cyan. Additional
information appears in a window in the upper-right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’
Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob until the selected aircraft traffic
Audio Panel and CNS
symbol is highlighted.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
Flight Management
1) Turn the Joystick.
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
2) The following range options are available:
•
500 feet
•
500 feet and 1000 feet
•
1000 feet and 2000 feet
•
2000 feet and 1 nm
•
1 and 2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Index
Appendices
ADS-B Mode
Traffic Mode
Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Map Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B: AIRB
NONE
394
Traffic Display Status
Icon (Other Maps)
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
ADS-B: SURF
NONE
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
NO TRK/HDG
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
Traffic Display Status
Icon (Other Maps)
Engine Indication System
Traffic Map Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
Flight Instruments
Traffic Mode
Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
* See ‘Traffic Failure Annunciations’ Table for additional failure annunciations
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Description
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but
the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic
unit
Table 6-27 Traffic Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left
corner of maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Description
TA OFF SCALE
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected
display range.
TA X.X±XX
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in
hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TRFC FAIL
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending
incorrectly formatted data)
AFCS
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Hazard Avoidance
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Flight Management
NO DATA
Additional Features
Appendices
NO TRFC DATA
Audio Panel and CNS
Table 6-26 ADS-B Modes
Traffic Map Page Center Annunciation
System Overview
ADS-B Mode
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Index
Table 6-28 Traffic Status Annunciations
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395
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B
Status’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-81 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
AFCS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
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Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Available to Run
Traffic application is not currently active, but application
is ready to run when condition(s) determine the
application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data
is available, but it does not meet performance
requirements.
Fault
Traffic application is not available. Required input data
is not available or the application has failed
Not Configured
---------------Available
Not Available
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an
FAA ground station.
--------------
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
External #1
The GTX 345R is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS
position source.
External #2
The GTX 345R is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS
position source.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Table 6-29 ‘Aux-ADS-B Status’ Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
Additional Features
Number of minutes, Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink
or ‘------’
from a ground station occurred. If no uplink has been
received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear instead
of a number of minutes.
AFCS
--------Ground Uplink
Status: Last Uplink
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an
FAA ground station.
Hazard Avoidance
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
Flight Management
TIS-B/ADS-R
Coverage
Traffic application is not available, because it has not
been configured. If this annunciation persists, the
system should be serviced.
Audio Panel and CNS
Not Available
Engine Indication System
Status Message
Flight Instruments
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface
(SURF), Airborne
Alerts (CSA)
System Overview
ADS-B Status
Page Item
Appendices
Index
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Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
BLANK PAGE
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 OVERVIEW
•
Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
•
Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
•
Autopilot communication
Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos. It also
provides servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering
commands, Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and
airspeed.
•
Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim
capability when the autopilot is not engaged.
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Director (FD) — The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and referred
to as pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both
PFDs. The flight director provides:
Engine Indication System
The Garmin AFCS is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the
system avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this
system description.
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The approved Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
AFCS CONTROL UNIT
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned on the MFD, and has the following controls:
AFCS
Engages/disengages the autopilot
2
FD Key
Activates/deactivates the flight director only Pressing once turns on the
selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral modes. Pressing
again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command Bars. If the
autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
3
NAV Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
4
ALT Key
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
5
VS Key
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
6
FLC Key
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
7
HDG Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
8
APR Key
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
Appendices
AP Key
Additional Features
1
Index
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9
VNV Key
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight
control
10
NOSE
UP/DN
Keys
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change
modes
1
2
7
3
8
4
9
5
10
6
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS controls on the MFD:
AP DISC
Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and interrupts pitch trim operation An AP
DISC Switch is located on each control stick. This switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
CWS Button
(Control
Wheel
Steering)
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged
and synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch
(if not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll
Hold Mode) A CWS Button is located on each control stick. Upon release of the
CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll references,
depending on the current vertical and lateral modes.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 7-1 AFCS Control Unit
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
•
Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to
hold the current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case,
‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will be annunciated.
•
Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will
smoothly pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director
modes remain unchanged
•
Autopilot Disengagement — One way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the AP
DISC Switch. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and annunciated on the PFD. Other ways
to disconnect the autopilot include:
Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
•
Pressing the GA Switch
•
Operating the MEPT Switch (located on each control wheel)
•
Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker
AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS
Control Unit. Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
Flight Management
•
Audio Panel and CNS
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed
description follows in Section 7.4.
Engine Indication System
Used to command manual electric pitch trim An MEPT Switch is located on each
control wheel. The aircraft uses a four direction switch. Pushing down on the
switch and operating the switch forward and backward adjusts pitch trim down
(forward) and up (rearward).
Flight Instruments
MEPT
Switch
(Manual
Electric Pitch
Trim)
System Overview
Disengages the autopilot and selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go
GA Button
(Go Around) Around (in air) Mode. If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates
the missed approach when the selected navigation source is FMS or when the
navigation source is VOR/LOC and a valid frequency has been tuned. The GA
Button is located on the throttle.
Additional Features
In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP DISC Switch will
disconnect the autopilot and remove all power to the servos.
Appendices
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the
PFDs. With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the
Command Bars. Maximum commanded pitch (15°, +25°) and roll (25°) angles, vertical acceleration, and
roll rate are limited to values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides
commands to the autopilot.
Engine Indication System
Activating The Flight Director
Audio Panel and CNS
An initial press of a key listed in the table below (when the flight director is not active)
activates the pilot-side flight director in the listed modes. The flight director may be
turned off and the Command Bars removed from the displays by pressing the FD Key
again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
Control Pressed
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Lateral
Vertical
FD Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
AP Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Roll Hold (default)
PIT
CWS Button
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Roll Hold (default)
PIT
GA Button
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
TO
GA
Takeoff (on Ground)
Go Around (in air)
TO
GA
ALT Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Altitude Hold
ALT
VS Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Vertical Speed
VS
VNV Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Vertical Path Tracking*
VPTH
NAV Key
Navigation**
FMS
VOR
LOC
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
APR Key
Approach**
FMS
VOR
LOC
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
HDG Key
Heading Select
HDG
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS course
before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
AFCS STATUS BOX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active.
Flight director selection and autopilot status is shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Lateral
flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in
white and active in green.
Index
Appendices
Modes Selected
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Vertical Modes
Active
Active
Mode
Reference
Flight Instruments
Armed
System Overview
Autopilot
Status
Lateral Modes
Armed
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
AFCS
Additional Features
COMMAND BARS
403
Index
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a
single cue. The Aircraft Symbol (in yellow) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format; the
Command Bars do not override the Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars move together
vertically to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Appendices
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the
default flight director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 7-3 Loss of FMS Signal
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Flight Management
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless
otherwise specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of
specific mode selection, the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes. Armed modes
are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation, when
the control for the active flight director mode is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default
mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white
armed mode annunciation moving to the green active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds. If the
information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation
and annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS)
required to compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the
wings level (enters Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending
on the affected axis. The flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another
mode for the axis is selected. If after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
Audio Panel and CNS
Selected
Altitude
Engine Indication System
AFCS Status Box
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flight Instruments
Command Bars
Aircraft Symbol
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the
Command Bars are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the
pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Figure 7-4 Single-cue Command Bars
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
The AFCS is capable of operating in a variety of independent Lateral Modes, Vertical Modes and
Combination of both the Lateral and Vertical Modes.
Control
Annunciation
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
Pitch Hold
Holds the
current aircraft
pitch attitude;
may be used
to climb/
descend to the
Selected
Altitude
(default)
PIT
-15° to +25°
0.5°
Selected
Altitude
Capture
Captures the
Selected
Altitude
*
ALTS
Altitude
Hold
Holds the
current
Altitude
Reference
Flight Management
Description
Audio Panel and CNS
Vertical
Mode
Engine Indication System
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations.
The mode reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical
Speed, and Flight Level Change modes. The NOSE UP/DN Keys can be used to change the vertical
mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode.
Increments of change and acceptable ranges of values for each of these references using the NOSE
UP/DN Keys are also listed in the table.
Flight Instruments
VERTICAL MODES
System Overview
7.3 AFCS MODES
ALT
Hazard Avoidance
ALT Key
nnnnn ft
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Vertical
Mode
Description
Control
Annunciation
Vertical
Speed
Maintains the
current aircraft
vertical speed;
may be used
to climb/
descend to the
Selected
Altitude
VS Key
VS
Flight
Level
Change
Maintains the
current aircraft
airspeed while
the aircraft is
climbing/
descending to
the Selected
Altitude
FLC Key
FLC
Reference
Range
Reference
Change
Increment
nnnn fpm
-4000 to +3000
fpm
100 fpm
nnn kt
80 to 265 kt
1 kt
PITCH HOLD MODE
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed), Pitch Hold Mode is selected by default.
Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’ annunciation. This mode may be
used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter), since Selected Altitude
Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated. In Pitch Hold Mode, the
flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch reference is set to the
aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude exceeds the flight
director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to the nose-up/
down limit.
Changing the Pitch Reference:
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
•
Using the NOSE UP/DN Keys
•
Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then
releasing the CWS Button
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-5 Pitch Hold Mode
AFCS
SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
Pitch Hold
•
Vertical Speed
•
Flight Level Change
•
Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
•
Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude is to be captured instead of the VNV Target Altitude)
Additional Features
•
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
407
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Appendices
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see previous
figure for example). The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter) until Selected Altitude Capture Mode becomes active. As the aircraft nears the Selected
Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude
Hold Mode armed (next figure). This automatic transition is indicated by the green ‘ALTS’
annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The
Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation. At 50 feet from
the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude Capture to
Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and
flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flight Management
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 7-6 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the Selected Altitude:
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel
the mode.
ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the
current aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude
Reference, shown in the AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the
Altimeter. Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status
Box. Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude
Capture Mode. Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when
the altitude error is less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s
Altitude Reference.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude
Capture Mode is active causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with
Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the new Selected Altitude.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected
Altitude, but not the flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
Altitude
Reference
Engine Indication System
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Flight Instruments
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude
Reference. When the CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is
established as the Altitude Reference.
System Overview
Changing the Altitude Reference
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Selected
Altitude
Hazard Avoidance
Selected
Altitude
Bug
AFCS
Additional Features
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-7 Altitude Hold Mode
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409
Index
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference.
Current aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the
moment of Vertical Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the
Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically
armed when Vertical Speed Mode is selected. When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the
Appendices
VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS Status Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference.
The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed
Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on the indicator.
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Engine Indication System
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the
Vertical Speed Indicator) may be changed by:
•
Using the NOSE UP/DN Keys
•
Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference,
then releasing the CWS Button
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is
not changed. To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed
again after the Selected Altitude is reached.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Additional Features
AFCS
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Appendices
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Index
Figure 7-8 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
•
Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then
releasing the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Airspeed Reference
is not changed. To adjust the Airspeed Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be
pressed again after the Selected Altitude is reached.
Hazard Avoidance
Using the NOSE UP/DN Keys
Flight Management
•
Audio Panel and CNS
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed
Indicator) may be adjusted by:
Engine Indication System
Changing the Airspeed Reference
Flight Instruments
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains
the Airspeed Reference while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter). When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors
Selected Altitude, airspeed, and altitude. The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon
mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the
Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed Reference is also displayed directly above
the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the Airspeed Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude
corresponding to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed
Reference. The flight director maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed
Reference are adjusted and does not allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected
Altitude.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Selected
Airspeed Altitude Capture
Reference Mode Armed
Flight Instruments
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Airspeed
Reference
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Figure 7-9 Flight Level Change Mode
LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and
annunciation. Refer to the combination modes section for information regarding Go Around and
Takeoff modes.
Description
Control
Annunciation
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
Roll Hold
Holds the current
aircraft roll
attitude or rolls
the wings level,
depending on the
commanded bank
angle
(default)
ROL
25°
Heading Select
Captures and
tracks the
Selected Heading
HDG Key
HDG
25°
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Lateral Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Description
Navigation, FMS
Captures and
Arm/Capture/Track tracks the selected
navigation source
(FMS, VOR, LOC)
NAV Key
FMS
25°
Navigation, VOR
Enroute Arm/
Capture/Track
Captures and
tracks the selected
navigation source
(FMS, VOR, LOC)
NAV Key
VOR
25° Capture/10°
Track
Navigation, LOC
Captures and
Arm/Capture/Track tracks the selected
(No Glideslope)
navigation source
(FMS, VOR, LOC)
NAV Key
LOC
25° Capture/10°
Track
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of
the CWS Button.
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls
the wings level.
AFCS
Figure 7-10 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Flight Director Response
<6°
Rolls wings level
6 to 25°
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
>25°
Limits bank to 25°
Additional Features
Bank Angle
Hazard Avoidance
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the
bank angle condition.
Flight Management
ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
Audio Panel and CNS
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
Engine Indication System
Annunciation
Flight Instruments
Control
System Overview
Lateral Mode
Changing the Roll Reference
Appendices
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired
bank angle, then releasing the CWS Button.
Index
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413
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and
maintains the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a cyan bug on the HSI and in the
box to the upper left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob on either PFD. Pressing the CWS
Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading upon release of the CWS
Button.
Audio Panel and CNS
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even
if the bug is turned more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the
right). However, Selected Heading changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn
reversals.
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Index
Figure 7-11 Heading Select mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
NAVIGATION MODES (FMS, VOR, LOC)
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected
navigation source (FMS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows FMS roll steering commands when
FMS is the selected navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director
creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be
used to fly non-precision FMS and LOC approaches where vertical guidance is not required. If the
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the
selected mode is armed. If the CDI shows less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically
captured when the NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the
active lateral mode.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS
course for the flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
Figure 7-12 FMS Navigation Mode Armed
•
Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
•
During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in FMS Navigation Mode after the automatic
navigation source switch from FMS to LOC
AFCS
Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
When the CDI has automatically switched from FMS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, FMS
Navigation Mode remains active, providing FMS steering guidance until the localizer signal is
captured. LOC Navigation Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place
if the APR Key is not pressed prior to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold
Mode (wings rolled level):
Changing the Selected Course
Appendices
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected
Course while in Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Course (or FMS flight plan) when the CWS Button is released.
Additional Features
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using
FMS, the Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the
selected flight director.
Index
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415
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
FMS Navigation
Mode Active
Hazard Avoidance
FMS is Selected
Navigation Source
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track FMS Course
Figure 7-13 Navigation Mode
The following table lists the modes that operating by using both Vertical and Lateral Modes with
their corresponding controls and annunciations.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
COMBINATION MODES (VNV, APR, NAV, GA)
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Annunciation
Vertical Path
Tracking
Captures and
tracks descent
legs of an active
vertical profile
VNV Key
VPTH
VNV Target
Altitude Capture
Captures the
Vertical
Navigation
(VNV) Target
Altitude
*
ALTV
Glidepath
Captures and
tracks the SBAS
glidepath on
approach
Glideslope
Captures and
tracks the ILS
glideslope on
approach
Audio Panel and CNS
GP
APR Key
Flight Management
GS
Approach, FMS
Arm/Capture/Track
FMS
VAPP
APR Key
25° Capture
10 Track°
LOC
AFCS
GA Button
TO
Additional Features
6°
Appendices
Disengages the
autopilot and
commands a
constant pitch
angle and wings
level on the
ground in
preparation for
takeoff
25°
Hazard Avoidance
Captures and
Approach, VOR
tracks the
Arm/Capture/Track
selected
Approach, ILS
navigation
Arm/Capture/Track source (FMS,
(Glideslope Mode VOR, LOC)
automatically
armed)
Takeoff
Engine Indication System
Control
Flight Instruments
Description
Ref.
Range
System Overview
Mode
Maximum
Roll
Command
Limit
Index
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417
Mode
Go Around
Description
Control
Disengages the
autopilot and
commands a
constant pitch
angle and wings
level in the air
GA Button
Annunciation
Maximum
Roll
Command
Limit
GA
Ref.
Range
6°
* ALTV is armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of
Selected Altitude.
VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active. Refer to the
Flight Management Section for more information on VNV flight plans
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent
operations any time that VNV flight planning is available. Refer to the FMS Navigation Section for
more information on VNV flight plans. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
•
The selected navigation source is FMS.
•
A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
•
VNV is enabled (VNV Softkey pressed on the MFD)
•
Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
•
Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
•
The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft
altitude
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a
climb. The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered
manually or loaded from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The
appropriate VNV flight control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined
by the vertical profile. Upon reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director
transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and cancels any armed VNV modes.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
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System Overview
VERTICAL PATH TRACKING MODE
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel
the mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the
CWS Button.
Flight Management
•
Adjusting the Selected Altitude
AFCS
Additional Features
If acknowledgment is not received within one minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted.
If the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed
and the descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation
Status Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical
deviation, and vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta.
Hazard Avoidance
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft
altitude by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path
Tracking Mode, acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
Pressing the VNV Key
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 7-14 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
•
Engine Indication System
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or
Glideslope Mode is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed
modes. If applicable, the appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV
Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected,
Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Audio Panel and CNS
VNV Target
Altitude
Flight Management
Selected
Altitude
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Figure 7-15 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking
becomes active and tracks the descent profile (next figure). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or
‘ALTV’) is armed as appropriate.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
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System Overview
Vertical Path
Tracking Active
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Flight Management
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Audio Panel and CNS
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Engine Indication System
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Flight Instruments
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-16 ICN-GRMNC-PP01-15207C23-A-0TRC3-00002-A-001-01
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path
(without commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in
VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes
for the aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with
a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical
constraint.
AUTOMATIC REVERSION TO PITCH HOLD MODE
Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
•
Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results
in the vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused
by flight plan changes that affect the vertical profile.
•
Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
•
A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Appendices
•
Additional Features
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight
director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
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Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode
become armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path
descents while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path
Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate
altitude capture mode to allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-17 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
•
At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
•
Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet Pressing the
VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually
exclusive. However, Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated)
whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is armed.
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed
automatically after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted
before the Selected Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be
captured. VNV Target Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be
entered manually or loaded from a database (see the FMS Navigation Section for details). At the same
time as “TOD within 1 minute” is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target
Altitude is displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated
by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’
annunciation. The VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’
annunciation and remains displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed
Indication (RVSI) is removed once VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV
Target Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode
becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green
for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path
Tracking, allowing upcoming descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
NON-PATH DESCENTS
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System Overview
Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 7-18 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing The VNV Target Altitude
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the FMS
Navigation Section for details).
AFCS
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
Hazard Avoidance
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is
active causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and
the appropriate altitude capture mode are armed in preparation to capture the new
VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending on which altitude is to be
intercepted first.
Flight Management
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel
the mode.
A FMS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan.
•
The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
•
Vertical deviation is valid.
•
The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
•
Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
Appendices
•
Additional Features
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture
and track the glidepath.Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured
Index
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a
stabilized approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical
Guidance (APV). Approaches that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V should be
flown to an MDA, until visual with the landing surface, even though vertical glidepath (GP)
information may be provided.
Engine Indication System
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture
and track the glidepath.
Audio Panel and CNS
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle) with the autopilot
coupled, the aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude
preselect.
Figure 7-19 Glidepath Mode Armed
•
A FMS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan.
•
The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF)
•
Vertical deviation is valid.
•
The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
•
Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode.
The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
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System Overview
FMS Approach
Mode Active
Glidepath
Mode Active
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
LPV Approach
Active
AFCS
Glidepath
Indicator
Figure 7-20 Glidepath Mode
1) Ensure a FMS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must
be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
Additional Features
Selecting Glidepath Mode
2) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
Appendices
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
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Index
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When
Glideslope Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral
flight director mode.
Figure 7-21 Glideslope Mode Armed
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the
glideslope, the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the
glideslope.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode.
The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
Approach
Mode Active
Glideslope
Mode Active
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
Additional Features
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 7-22 Glideslope Mode
Selecting Glideslope Mode
Appendices
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Index
Or
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
navigation sources if necessary).
System Overview
1) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan
Flight Instruments
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
APPROACH MODES (FMS, VAPP, LOC)
•
Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
•
During a LOC/ILS approach, FMS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the
automatic navigation source switch from FMS to LOC
Additional Features
Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC
Approach Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if
the difference between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level)
Flight Management
Figure 7-23 Approach Mode Armed
Audio Panel and CNS
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the
selected navigation source (FMS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the
selected navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR
Key when the CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to
the left of the active lateral mode). If the CDI is less the 1 dot, the LOC is automatically captured when
the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation
Mode.
When FMS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
Engine Indication System
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS
course for the flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Selecting VOR Approach Mode
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
Appendices
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Index
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Selecting FMS Approach Mode
1) Ensure a FMS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must
be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
Flight Instruments
2) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key
Engine Indication System
Selecting LOC Approach Mode
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the APR Key.
Or
1) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
Flight Management
navigation sources if necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
Hazard Avoidance
Changing The Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using
FMS, the Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the
selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
AFCS
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected
Course while in Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Course (or FMS flight plan) when the CWS Button is released.
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front
course.
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the
mode is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the
BC Key is pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and
deviation when in Backcourse Mode.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
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Backcourse
Mode Active
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
Changing The Selected Course
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data
while in Backcourse Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Course when the CWS Button is released.
AFCS
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
Hazard Avoidance
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e.
ATC provides vectors to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or
Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically intercept or track the arc unless the pilot
activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms FMS Navigation Mode. The AFCS will
not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of
the arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot
deselects FMS Navigation Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
Flight Management
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan
provided that FMS Navigation Mode is engaged, FMS is the active navigation source on
the CDI, and the DME arc segment is the active flight plan leg. It is important to note
that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS. Thus, even if the APR key is
pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach
Mode will
not activate
until the arc segment is completed.
LOC2 is Selected
Navigation
Source
Audio Panel and CNS
Intercepting and Flying a DME Arc
Engine Indication System
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using
FMS, the Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the
selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Flight Instruments
Figure 7-24 Backcourse Mode
Additional Features
Appendices
Go Around and Takeoff modes are coupled pitch and roll modes and are annunciated as both the
vertical and lateral modes when active. In these modes, the flight director commands a constant set
pitch attitude and wings level. The GA Button is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the
flight director depends on whether the aircraft is on the ground.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected
only while on the ground by pushing the GA Button. The flight director Command Bars assume a
wings-level, pitch-up attitude.
Pressing the GA Button while in the air activates the flight director in wings level, pitch-up attitudes,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Go Around Mode disengages the autopilot
and arms Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically. Subsequent autopilot engagement is allowed.
Attempts to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e., with the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or CWS Button) result in
reversion to Pitch and Roll Hold modes.
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Additional Features
AFCS
Takeoff Mode Active
Index
Appendices
Figure 7-25 Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes
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System Overview
7.4 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the POH for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
Hazard Avoidance
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers.
The flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control,
and sent to the roll servo motor.
Flight Management
ROLL AXIS
Audio Panel and CNS
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director
maneuvers. Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch
damper control, and sent to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque)
and provides this signal to the pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce
the average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric
pitch trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the
trim wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are
operated simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent
response.
Engine Indication System
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
Flight Instruments
The autopilot operates the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight control. The
autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from the flight
director. Pitch autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any sustained effort
required by the pitch servo. Autopilot operation is independent of the yaw damper.
FLIGHT CONTROL
AFCS
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Servo
motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo gearboxes are equipped with
slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case of an emergency.
ENGAGEMENT
Index
Figure 7-26 Engagement
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Appendices
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot and flight director (if not already active) are activated and
the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot is illuminated. The flight director
engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Additional Features
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/
disengagement. Use the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the
autopilot remains active.
431
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot.
Pressing and holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control
surfaces and allows the aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized
to the aircraft attitude during the maneuver.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS
maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Figure 7-27 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to
flight director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
DISENGAGEMENT
The autopilot may be manually disengaged by pushing the AP DISC, GA, MEPT Switch, or the AP
Key on the AFCS Control Unit. Manual disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow
‘AP’ annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert. The AP DISC or MEPT Switch
may be used to cancel the aural alert.
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by
the autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or
MEPT Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
•
System failure
•
Invalid sensor data
•
Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically)
•
Stall warning
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 7-28 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
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System Overview
7.5 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS ALERTS
Condition
Flight Instruments
The following alert annunciations appear on the PFD.
Annunciation Description
Yaw Damper
Failure
YD control failure; AP also inoperative
System Failure
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a
sustained force. Be prepared to apply nose up control wheel force
upon autopilot disconnect.
Elevator
Mistrim Up
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a
sustained force. Be prepared to apply nose up control wheel force
upon autopilot disconnect.
Elevator
Mistrim Down
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a
sustained force. Be prepared to apply nose down control wheel
force upon autopilot disconnect.
Aileron Mistrim
Left
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a
sustained left force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Aileron Mistrim
Right
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a
sustained right force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Rudder Mistrim
Left
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a
sustained force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Rudder Mistrim
Right
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a
sustained force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Preflight Test
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion.
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and
preflight system tests as this may cause the preflight system test to
fail or never to start (if servos fail their power-up tests). Power must
be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
Additional Features
If annunciated when AP is engaged, take control of the aircraft and
disengage the autopilot. If annunciated when AP is not engaged,
move each half of the MEPT switch separately to check if a stuck
switch is causing the annunciation.
Index
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Appendices
Preflight system test has failed.
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AFCS
MEPT Switch
Stuck, or Pitch
Trim Axis
Control Failure
Hazard Avoidance
Roll axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
Flight Management
Roll Failure
Audio Panel and CNS
Pitch axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
Engine Indication System
Pitch Failure
433
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture
mode is active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Overspeed protection is provided to limit
the flight director’s pitch command in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain
the mode reference for the selected vertical mode without exceeding Vmo.
When Overspeed Protection is active, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed
Indicator, flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch
reference adjusted to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is
resolved.
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in ALT, GS or GP modes.
ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change
from active to armed, and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the
wings to level.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 7-29 Overspeed Annunciation
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
Audio Panel and CNS
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red “UNDERSPEED PROTECT
ACTIVE” annunciation (next figure) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The pitch
down force will continue until the aircraft reaches a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the IAS at
which stall warning turns off, plus two knots.
Engine Indication System
Figure 7-30 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Figure 7-31 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciatiion
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning
turns off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical
reference. The vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active, and when
aircraft angle of attack reaches approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch
Limit Indicator will be removed.
Additional Features
NON ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (VS, VNAV, IAS)
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Index
When the airspeed trend vector (specific to each flap setting) reaches a predetermined airspeed, a
single aural “AIRSPEED” will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition. If the
aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red
“UNDERSPEED PROTECT ACTIVE” annunciation (previous figure) will appear to the right of the
vertical speed indicator. The vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed (next figure),
and the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals
the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed.
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
Figure 7-32 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to an IAS above the minimum
commandable autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the
vertical reference. The vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active, and when aircraft
angle of attack reaches approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch Limit
Indicator will be removed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
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System Overview
7.6 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Suspected Autopilot Malfunction
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the
following steps:
2) Press and hold the AP DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed
from the trim motor. Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged
solenoids. Note the visual and aural alerting indicating autopilot disconnect.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
Engine Indication System
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as
specifics that may supplement or amplify this procedure.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid
components.
5) Release the AP DISC Switch.
AFCS
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to
run, resulting in an out-of-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is
prolonged. In this case, larger than anticipated control forces are required after the
autopilot is disengaged.
Hazard Avoidance
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied
to the pitch controls when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or
force on the pitch controls can cause the autopilot automatic trim to run to an out-oftrim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to the controls should be
avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Flight Management
Overpowering Autopilot Servos
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
Additional Features
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
Appendices
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Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
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System Overview
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 OVERVIEW
•
ChartView, FliteCharts®, and IFR/VFR electronic charts
•
AOPA™ or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
•
SiriusXM® Satellite Radio entertainment
•
Flight Data Logging
•
Connext®
•
WiFi Connections
•
Electronic Checklist
•
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™)
Flight Management
SafeTaxi® diagrams
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
Additional features of the system include the following:
Flight Instruments
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi, ChartView, or FliteCharts in electronic form, it is still
advisable to carry another source of charts on board the aircraft.
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports
in the United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up
view of the airport layout can be seen.
The optional ChartView, FliteCharts and IFR/VFR electronic charts provides on-board electronic
terminal procedures charts. Electronic charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential
information.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory offers detailed information for a selected airport, such as
available services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A/GDL 69A SiriusXM
Data Link Receiver handles more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
Connext allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth connection
between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application. The optional Flight
Stream 510 device provides a Bluetooth® connection between the system and a mobile device running
the Garmin Pilot™ application. GPS and AHRS data can then be shared with the mobile device. Also,
flight plans can be transferred from the mobile device to the system.
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WiFi setup allows for the transmission of data recorded by the Maintenance Logs feature as well as
weather information while aircraft is on ground. The recording of this data is not visible to the pilot and
requires no pilot interaction, other than setting up WiFi connections where applicable.
Electronic checklists allow a pilot to quickly find the proper procedure for a particular phase of flight.
The Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside the
normal flight envelope.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
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Audio Panel and CNS
- PFD Maps
Engine Indication System
- Navigation Map Page
Flight Instruments
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range.
The maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close
enough to show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport
Hot Spots, and airport landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent
features. Resolution is greater at lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi
ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways,
and/or complex ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport
surface where positional awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are
defined with a magenta circle or outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the
maximum configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
System Overview
8.2 SAFETAXI
- Weather Datalink Page
Flight Management
- Airport Information Page
- Intersection Information Page
- NDB Information Page
Hazard Avoidance
- VOR Information Page
- User Waypoint Information Page
- Trip Planning Page
- Nearest Pages
Additional Features
Appendices
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and
airport features. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features
such as runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
The Detail Softkey (declutter) label advances to Detail All, Detail 3, Detail 2 and Detail 1 each time
the softkey is selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Pressing the Detail All Softkey
removes the taxiway markings and airport feature labels. Pressing the Detail 3 Softkey removes VOR
station ID, the VOR symbol, and intersection names if within the airport plan view. Pressing the Detail
2 Softkey removes the airport runway layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route
structure. Pressing the Detail 1 Softkey cycles back to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter
Levels in the Flight Management Section.
AFCS
- Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Configuring SafeTaxi Range
1) While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the
‘Page Menu.’
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map Settings’ Menu Option and press the
ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Aviation’ Group options to SafeTaxi.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display
range.
Audio Panel and CNS
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page.
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System Overview
8.3 CHARTS
CHARTS
1) While viewing a chart select the MENU Softkey to display the Page Menu options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Chart Setup menu option and press the ENT
Audio Panel and CNS
Key.
Engine Indication System
Selecting preferred charts source:
Flight Instruments
Electronic charts that resemble the paper versions of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts
(FliteCharts) and Jeppesen terminal procedures charts (ChartView) can be displayed on the MFD.
When the databases for both chart types are purchased and loaded in the system, the desired charts
brand, or source, can be selected for viewing. The active chart source for a particular procedure is
shown on the information pane under Source.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the Preferred Charts Source option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the available options (FliteCharts,
ChartView).
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Preferred Charts Source Option
Chart Setup Option
Appendices
Figure 8-1 Preferred Charts Source
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Chart Source
CHARTVIEW
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed in full color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the
moving map in the planview of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are
outlined in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when
the current position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes are not considered within the
chart boundaries. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the
aircraft symbol is removed from the display.
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey
shading is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display.
These off-scale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted
geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual
geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft
position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-2 Chart Source
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System Overview
Inset Box
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Off-Scale
Area
Audio Panel and CNS
Off-Scale
Areas
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-3 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
AFCS
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
Arrivals (STAR)
•
Departure Procedures (DP)
•
Approaches
•
Airport Diagrams
•
NOTAMs
Additional Features
•
While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST-Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPLActive Flight Plan’ Page, press the Charts Softkey.
Appendices
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to Charts.
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
Navigation Map Page Options Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu
Figure 8-4 Option Menus
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner No Available Charts appears
on the screen. The No Available Charts banner does not refer to the FliteCharts
subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or
procedure for a selected airport.
Figure 8-5 Chart Not Available Banner
Additional Features
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an
individual chart), the banner Unable To Display Chart is then displayed.
Appendices
Figure 8-6 Unable To Display Chart Banner
When a chart is not available by pressing the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu
Option, charts may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan
Pages.
Index
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active
flight plan, the chart appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting a chart
Nearest Airports’ Page, press the Chart Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart
is displayed on the ‘WPT-Airport Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Box. (Press the APR Softkey if the ‘Approach’ Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Approach’
Engine Indication System
1) While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL-Active Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST-
Flight Instruments
The chart shown is one associated with the ‘WPT–Airport Information’ page. Usually
this is the airport runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off
Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that page appears. If Airport
Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
System Overview
flying to a direct-to destination, pressing the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the
nearest airport, if available.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
Flight Management
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Approach’ Box.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
Hazard Avoidance
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Chart Scale
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-7 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
AFCS
While the Approaches Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank.
Once the desired chart is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page
can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing the Joystick centers the chart on the
screen.
Additional Features
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft
position is within the boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when
the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO
SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not Shown Icon may appear at
certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
Appendices
Pressing the Chart Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the
associated map in the WPT page group. In the example shown, the Chart Softkey
switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport Diagram and the navigation map
on the ‘WPT–Airport Information’ page.
Index
Pressing the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is
on a different chart. If the displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info 1 or Info 2
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System Overview
Softkey has no effect. The aircraft position is shown in magenta on the ChartView
diagrams when the location of the aircraft is within the chart boundaries.
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Another source for additional airport information is from the Info Box above the chart
for certain airports. This information source is not related to the Info 1 or Info 2
Softkey. When the Info Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The
Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering information; the Airport
Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and
Airline Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are
Jeppesen designators.)
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Aircraft
Current
Position
Additional Features
Figure 8-8 Airport Information Page, Info View, Full Screen Width
In the example shown in following figure, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the
ENT Key displays the Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart.
Appendices
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Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 8-9 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from Info View
- Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
- Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Additional Features
- Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
Appendices
- Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and
includes weather data such as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver,
when available. Weather information is available only when a SiriusXM Data Link
Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
Index
- Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the
ChartView database. Pressing the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information
for selected airports, when available. When NOTAMS are not available, the NOTAM
Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM Softkey may appear on the
Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections. Pressing the NOTAM
Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
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System Overview
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Engine Indication System
CHART OPTIONS
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Only NOTAMs applicable to specific information conveyed on the displayed Jeppesen
chart are available when the NOTAM Softkey is pressed. There may be other NOTAMs
available pertaining to the flight that may not be displayed. Contact Jeppesen for more
information regarding Jeppesen database published NOTAMs.
Pressing the CHRTOpt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
Pressing the All Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Complete
Chart
Shown
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 8-10 Approach Information Page, All View
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Pressing the Header Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
Pressing the Plan Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
Pressing the Profile Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
451
Pressing the Minimums Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom
of the approach chart.
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, pressing the Fit WDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the
right.
Selecting Additional Information
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, press the Full SCN Softkey to display the
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
information windows (Airport, Info).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Airport, Info, Runways, or Frequencies Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. If multiple choices are
available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key
to complete the selection.
Flight Management
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Pressing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection
softkeys. The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
Hazard Avoidance
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’
Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the
ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the ‘Full Screen’ and ‘Color Scheme’
AFCS
Options.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the ‘On’ and ‘Off’ ‘Full Screen’ Options.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-11 Page Menus
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing.
The Day View offers a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View
gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark environment. When the Chart Setup
Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
AFCS
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’
Hazard Avoidance
Day/Night View
Flight Management
Chart Setup Option
Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the
Additional Features
ENT Key.
Appendices
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Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-12 Page Menu Chart Setup
Hazard Avoidance
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, and ‘Night’ Options.
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use
AFCS
the small FMS Knob to change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/
night crossover point based on the percentage of backlighting intensity. For example, if
the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display backlight
reaches 15% of full brightness.
Additional Features
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may
be accomplished by selecting another page or changing the display range.
Index
Appendices
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-13 Arrival Information Page, Day View
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts
are displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when
the current position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. These
charts will display an Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Figure 8-14 Arrival Information Page, Night View
Index
Figure 8-15 Aircraft Not Shown Icon
An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas
are indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These offscale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted
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System Overview
geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual
geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft
position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
Flight Instruments
- Arrivals (STAR)
- Departure Procedures (DP)
- Approaches
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
Flight Management
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) and optional AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
databases offer detailed information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more.
This information is viewed on the Airport Information Page by pressing the Info Softkey until Info 2 is
displayed.
Both Airport Directories are available for downloading at flygarmin.com. However, copy only one of
the databases to the Supplemental Data Card. The system cannot recognize both databases
simultaneously.
Audio Panel and CNS
AIRPORT DIRECTORY
Engine Indication System
- Airport Diagrams
Selecting the Airport Directory Page:
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Airport Information Page. Initially, information
for the airport closest to the aircraft’s present position is displayed.
Hazard Avoidance
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ page group.
3) If necessary, press the Info softkey until Info 2 is displayed.
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-16 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
IFR/VFR charts resemble the paper version and are displayed with high-resolution and in color for
applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when
the current position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. IFR/VFR
charts may be viewed by selecting the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
Index
Appendices
IFR/VFR CHARTS
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System Overview
Modifying the Chart Settings:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Display VFR’ Field, the ‘Display IFR Low’ Field, or
Flight Instruments
the ‘Display IFR High’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. The selected chart is displayed.
Selecting IFR Low, IFR High, VFR Charts:
Engine Indication System
Select the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
Press the VFR, IFR Low, or IFR High Softkey to display the desired chart.
Or:
2) Select ‘Display VFR’, ‘Display IFR Low’ or ‘Display IFR High’ to display the desired chart.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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8.4 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISIONS
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation,
ChartView, SafeTaxi, Airport Directory. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable
during a period that extends from the cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the
system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the databases. As an example, see the table
below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page displays and the definition of each. The expiration date
and disables date varies for each database.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Table 8-1 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current.
Yellow text, such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no
longer viewable and have expired.
Database time critical information can also be found on the ‘Aux - System Status’ page. The database
Region, Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue or
yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not within
the current subscription period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the Database window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the applicable database
information is shown.
Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
YYTI
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
YYII
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
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System Overview
Example Power-up Page Display Text Database Cycle Number Format Revision Cycle
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
28 days
Flight Management
Not Applicable
Audio Panel and CNS
YYMI
Engine Indication System
28 days
Flight Instruments
YYII
Hazard Avoidance
Table 8-2 Database Cycle Number and Revision
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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8.5 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather
products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A SiriusXM Data Link
Receiver is available for the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A SiriusXM can receive
SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to
constantly search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based
transmissions. SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific
service packages, visit www.SiriusXM.com.
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services:
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Flight Management
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two
coded IDs, depending on the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio
ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite Radio to activate the entertainment
subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions
with the GDL 69A SiriusXM. Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite
Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an activation signal that, when
received by the GDL 69A SiriusXM, allows it to play entertainment programming.
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
These IDs are located:
•
On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
•
On the XM Information Page on the MFD
•
On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at
www.garmin.com, P/N 190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite
Additional Features
Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ page.
4) Press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux-XM Information’ Page.
Index
Appendices
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
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System Overview
Audio
Radio ID
Data
Radio ID
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Weather
Products
Window
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Figure 8-17 XM Information Page
6) If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are
Hazard Avoidance
blank on the XM Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is
displayed in the center of the Weather Data Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service
Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for subscription.
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
AFCS
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the
SiriusXM Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
Additional Features
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed ‘Aux — XM Information’ Page.
3) Press the Radio Softkey to show the ‘Aux — XM Radio’ Page where audio
entertainment is controlled.
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Index
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the
SiriusXM Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected
category. Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel
number.
Appendices
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page, press the Channel Softkey.
2) Press the CH+Softkey to go up through the list in the ‘Channels’ Box, or move down
Flight Instruments
the list with the CH–Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll
Engine Indication System
through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) While on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page, press the Channel Softkey.
2) Press the Direct CH Softkey. The channel number in the ‘Active Channel’ Box is
highlighted.
3) Press the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
desired channel number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
CATEGORY
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories
of channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music
or other contents. One of the optional categories is Presets to view channels that have been
programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Press the Category Softkey on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page.
AFCS
2) Press the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category
with the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all
channels in the list.
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are
selected by pressing the Presets and More Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly
and added to the channel list for the Presets category.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Or:
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1) On the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page, while listening to an ‘Active Channel’ that is wanted for a
Flight Instruments
preset, press the Presets Softkey to access the first five preset channels (Preset 1 Preset 5).
System Overview
Setting a preset channel number:
2) Press the More Softkey to access the next five channels (Preset 6 – Preset 10), and
again to access the last five channels (Preset 11 – Preset 15). Pressing the More
Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
channel.
4) Press the Set Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
Audio Panel and CNS
Pressing the Back Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the
top level softkeys.
Engine Indication System
3) Press any one of the (Preset 1 - Preset 15) softkeys to assign a number to the active
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.6 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being
logged by the system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data
card (up to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be
recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged
on a specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport
identifier. The file is created automatically each time the system is powered on, provided an SD card has
been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the ‘Aux-Utility’ Page. If no SD card has
been inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA”
is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the system is capable of logging.
•
Local Date (YYYY-MM-DD)
•
Local Time (HH:MM:SS)
•
Active Waypoint Distance (nm)
•
Active Waypoint Bearing (degrees mag.)
•
UTC Offset (HH:MM)
•
Mag. Variation (degrees)
•
Active Waypoint Identifier
•
Voltage 1 (volts)
•
Voltage 2 (volts)
•
Amps 1 (amps)
•
Amps 2 (amps)
•
AFCS On ( 0 – false, 1 – true)
•
Latitude (degrees)
•
AFCS Roll Mode (e.g. HDG, LOC, GPS, VOR, ROL)
•
Longitude (degrees)
•
Right Fuel Qty (gals or lbs)
•
Left Fuel Qty (gals or lbs)
•
Center Fuel Qty (gals or lbs)
•
AFCS Pitch Mode (e.g. ALT, GS, GP, VS)
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•
OAT (deg. C)
•
True Airspeed (kts)
•
Selected Vertical Speed (fpm)
•
Vertical Speed (fpm)
•
HSI Selection (GPS,NAV1/2)
•
GPS Fix (e.g. 2D, 3D, 3DDiff)
•
Indicated Airspeed (kts)
•
Horizontal Alert Limit (HAL, meters)
•
Gnd Speed (kts)
•
Vertical Alert Limit (VAL, meters)
•
Vertical Speed (fpm)
•
NAV1 Frequency (MHz)
•
NAV2 Frequency (MHz)
•
Horizontal Protection Level (HPLWAS, meters)
•
Pitch (degrees)
•
Roll (degrees)
•
Horizontal Protection Level (HPLFD, meters)
•
Vertical Protection Level (VPLWAS, meters)
•
COM1 Frequency (MHz)
•
COM2 Frequency (MHz)
•
Lateral Acceleration (g)
•
CDI Deflection (0.0 to 1.0)
•
VDI Deflection (0.0 to 1.0)
•
Normal Acceleration (g)
•
Heading (degrees magnetic)
•
Course (deg)
•
Wind Direction (degrees mag.)
•
Wind Speed (kts)
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Index
Roll Commanded (degrees)
Appendices
•
Additional Features
Pitch Commanded (degrees)
AFCS
•
Hazard Avoidance
GPS Altitude (ft)
Flight Management
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Altimeter Setting (in. Hg.)
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
Barometric Altitude (feet)
System Overview
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•
Gnd Trk (degrees magnetic)
•
Fuel Flow (gph)
•
Fuel Press. (psi)
•
Oil Temperature (deg. F)
•
Oil Pressure (psi)
•
Engine Speed (rpm)
•
Power (%)
•
Torque (ft. lbs.)
•
Np (rpm)
•
Ng (%)
•
ITT (deg. C)
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in the following figure. This file
can be imported into most computer spreadsheet applications.
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Hazard Avoidance
Local Date
YYMMDD
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
log_170610_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-18 Log File Format
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Data logging status can be monitored on the ‘Aux-Utility’ Page.
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1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Connext Setup page.
Engine Indication System
Viewing the Connext Setup Page:
Flight Instruments
The Connext Setup Page allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a
Bluetooth connection between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the system in order to use the various functions. Pairing is
accomplished by first placing the system in pairing mode by displaying the Connext Setup Page. The
system is ‘discoverable’ whenever this page is displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the
mobile device and the Garmin Pilot application. See the device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the
connection instructions in the Garmin Pilot application.
System Overview
8.7 CONNEXT SETUP
Changing the Bluetooth Name:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Bluetooth Name’ field.
the small FMS Knob select the desired alphanumeric character for that field.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is removed and the new name is displayed.
Hazard Avoidance
Enabling/Disabling Flight Plan Importing from Garmin Pilot:
Flight Management
3) Enter the desired name by using the large FMS Knob to select the character field, and
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Flight Plan Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
AFCS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Enabling/Disabling WiFi Database Importing from Garmin Pilot:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Additional Features
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘WiFi Database Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Appendices
Enabling/Disabling Automatic Reconnection of a Specific Paired Device:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’. Selecting ‘Enabled’ allows
the system to automatically connect to a previously paired device when detected.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Flight Instruments
Remove a Specific Paired Device from the List of Paired Devices:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
Engine Indication System
3) Press the Remove Softkey. A confirmation screen is displayed.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Yes’.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
5) Press the ENT Key to remove the device from the list of paired devices.
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Audio Panel and CNS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
Engine Indication System
Viewing the WiFi Setup Page:
Flight Instruments
The optional GDL 59 Data Link provides a high speed IEEE 802.11g WiFi data link between the
aircraft and a ground computer network while the aircraft is on the ground and located within range of
the network.
The system is capable of WEP64, WEP128,WPA-PSK, and WPA2-PSK encryption formats. WPAEnterprise and WPA2-Enterprise are not supported. Connections that require web proxies, captive
portals, or other elements that require user credentials, including a user name and password or a
redemption or access code; or require action such as accepting a user agreement, are not supported.
Control and monitoring of Wi-Fi functions are accomplished through the ‘Aux-Maintenance WiFi
Setup’ Page.
System Overview
8.8 WIFI CONNECTIONS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux-Maintenance WiFi Setup’ Page.
Setting up a new WiFi connection:
Available Networks window. Signal strength is shown for each network, as well as
Flight Management
1) Press the Avail Softkey on the MFD. A list of available networks will be displayed in the
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
security requirements and whether the network has been saved in the system’s
memory.
Figure 8-19 Available WiFi Networks
Appendices
2) If necessary, press the Rescan Softkey to have the system scan again for available
networks.
Index
Or:
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
System Overview
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Rescan Available Networks’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the FMS Knob to place the cursor in the list of networks.
4) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired network.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 8-20 Desired Network Selected
5) Press the Connect Softkey.
Index
Or:
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Connect to Selected Network’.
Flight Instruments
c) Press the ENT Key.
6) If the network is secured, a window will be displayed in order to enter the necessary
Engine Indication System
passcode. Use the FMS Knobs to enter the desired alpha numeric characters. Press the
CapsLock Softkey to enter upper case letters. If there is no security associated with the
network, proceed to step 9.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ will be highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key again.
9) The Save Settings window is now displayed with the cursor highlighting ‘Save
Audio Panel and CNS
Connection’.
10) The selected network can be saved to system memory to make re-connection easier at
a later time.
Editing a saved network:
Flight Management
1) While viewing list of saved networks, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight the network to be edited.
3) Pressing the ENT Key at this point will check or uncheck the Auto Connect checkbox.
Hazard Avoidance
When a checkmark is present, the system will automatically connect to the network
when within range.
4) Press the Edit Softkey. The cursor now appears in the Connection Settings window.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the network attribute to be edited.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin editing the field.
AFCS
7) When the entry is complete, press the ENT Key.
8) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key until ‘Save’ is highlighted.
Additional Features
9) Press the ENT Key.
Disconnecting a WiFi network:
Press the DISCNCT Softkey.
Or:
Appendices
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disconnect From Network’.
Index
c) Press the ENT Key.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
1) While viewing the list of saved networks, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
System Overview
Deleting a saved WiFi network:
2) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight the network to be deleted.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the Delete Softkey. The selected network is removed from the list.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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8.9 ELECTRONIC CHECKLISTS
NOTE: The optional checklists presented here are for example only and may differ from
checklists available for the airframe. The information described in this section is not intended
to replace the checklist information described in the POH or the Pilot Safety and Warning
Supplements document.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: Garmin is not responsible for the content of checklists. Checklists are created by the
aircraft manufacturer. Modifications or updates to the checklists are coordinated through the
aircraft manufacturer. The user cannot edit these checklists.
The MFD is able to display optional electronic checklists which allow a pilot to quickly find the proper
procedure on the ground and during each phase of flight. The system accesses the checklists from an SD
card inserted into the bezel slot. If the SD card contains an invalid checklist file or no checklist, the
Power-up Page messages display ‘Checklist File: Invalid’ or ‘Checklist File: N/A’ (not available) and the
ChecklistSoftkey is not available.
Accessing and Navigating Checklist
Flight Management
1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn
the large FMS Knob to select the Checklist Page.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Group’ field.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired procedure and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Checklist’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired checklist and press the ENT Key. The selected
checklist item is indicated with white text surrounded by a white box.
6) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected checklist item. The line item
AFCS
turns green and a checkmark is placed in the associated box. The next line item is
automatically selected for checking.
Additional Features
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired
checklist item.
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
7) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green
Appendices
text at the bottom left of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be
checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be displayed in yellow text.
8) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
9) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
Index
10) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
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1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn
System Overview
Accessing Emergency Checklist
the large FMS Knob to select the Checklist Page.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired emergency checklist and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected emergency checklist item.
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired
checklist item.
5) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green
text at the bottom left of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be
checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be displayed in yellow text.
Flight Management
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
Audio Panel and CNS
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
Engine Indication System
The line item turns green and a checkmark is placed in the box next to it. The next line
item is automatically highlighted for checking.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the EMER Softkey.
7) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
8) Press the Return Softkey to return to the previous checklist.
9) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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8.10 ELECTRONIC STABILITY AND PROTECTION (ESP)
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature that is intended to discourage the
exceedance of attitude, established airspeed and angle of attack parameters. This feature will only
function when the aircraft is above 200 feet AGL and the autopilot is not engaged.
ESP engages when the aircraft exceeds one or more conditions (pitch, roll, Vmo, Mmo, and/or angle of
attack) beyond the normal flight parameters. Enhanced stability for each condition is provided by
applying a force to the appropriate control surface to return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope.
This is perceived by the pilot as resistance to control movement in the undesired direction when the
aircraft approaches a steep attitude, high airspeed, or when a stall is imminent.
As the aircraft deviates further from the normal attitude, angle of attack, or airspeed continues to
increase, the force increases (up to an established maximum) to encourage control movement in the
direction necessary to return to the normal attitude and/or airspeed range. Except in the case of high
airspeed, when maximum force is reached, force remains constant up to the maximum engagement
limit. Above the maximum engagement limit, forces are no longer applied. There is no maximum
engagement related to a high airspeed condition.
When ESP has been engaged for more than ten seconds (cumulative; not necessarily consecutive
seconds) of a 20-second interval, the autopilot is automatically engaged with the flight director in Level
Mode, bringing the aircraft into level flight. An aural “Engaging Autopilot” alert is played and the flight
director mode annunciation will indicate ‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
The pilot can interrupt ESP by pressing and holding either the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) or
Autopilot Disconnect (AP/YD DISC TRIM INTRPT) switch. Upon releasing the CWS or AP/YD DISC
TRIM INTRPT switch, ESP force will again be applied, provided aircraft attitude, angle of attack and/or
airspeed are within their respective engagement limits. ESP can also be overridden by overpowering the
servo’s mechanical torque limit.
ESP can be enabled or disabled on the ‘Aux-System Setup 2’ Page on the MFD.
ESP is automatically enabled on system power up.
Enabling/Disabling ESP:
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
Additional Features
3) If necessary, select the Setup 2 Softkey to display the ‘Aux-System Setup 2’ Page. If the
Aux-System Setup 2 is already displayed, proceed to step 4.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Appendices
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Stability & Protection field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
Index
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Flight Instruments
Roll Limit Indicators are displayed on the roll scale at 45° right and left, indicating where ESP will
engage. As roll attitude exceeds 45°, ESP will engage and the on-side Roll Limit Indicator will move to
30°. The Roll Limit Indicator is now showing where ESP will disengage as roll attitude decreases.
System Overview
ROLL ENGAGEMENT
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 8-21 ESP Roll Engagement Indication (ESP NOT Engaged)
ESP Disengage (30°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 46°
Flight Management
ESP Engage (45°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 44°
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Before ESP Engage
After ESP Engage
Figure 8-22 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
Appendices
Once engaged, ESP force will be applied between 30° and 75°. The force increases as roll attitude
increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is intended to encourage pilot
input that returns the airplane to a more normal roll attitude. As roll attitude decreases, ESP will
disengage at 30°.
Index
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
º
30
0º
10º
20º
30
º
60
º
Flight Instruments
º
45
90º
90º
75º
75º
º
60
Engine Indication System
10º
º
45
Figure 8-23 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged(Force Increases as Roll Increases &
Decreases as Roll Decreases)
ESP is automatically disengaged if the aircraft reaches the autopilot roll engagement attitude limit of
75°.
ESP Upper Disengage Limit (75°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 74°
Figure 8-24 Roll Attitude Autopilot Engagement Limit (ESP Engaged)
PITCH ENGAGEMENT
ESP engages at 20° nose-up and 17° nose-down. Once ESP is engaged, it will apply opposing force
between 15° and 50° nose-up and between 12° and 50° nose-down. Maximum opposing force is
applied between 25° and 50° nose-up and between 22° and 50° nose-down.
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the direction of pitch
travel. This force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis in the direction of the normal
pitch attitude range for the aircraft.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
20º
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
45˚
40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
45˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
15˚
15˚
20˚
20˚
25˚
25˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
15˚
AFCS
20˚
Hazard Avoidance
20˚
Flight Management
25˚
Audio Panel and CNS
25˚
Engine Indication System
50˚
Flight Instruments
50˚
System Overview
There are no indications marking the pitch ESP engage and disengage limits in these nose-up/nosedown conditions.
35˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
Additional Features
40˚
Appendices
Figure 8-25 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged(Force Increases as Pitch Increases &
Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
ANGLE OF ATTACK PROTECTION
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Index
When a compatible lift computer is installed with the G1000NXi retrofit, angle of attack protection
is provided as part of the ESP feature. ESP force may be applied if the lift computer determines a stall
warning condition is imminent. In this condition, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be initially displayed
4° below this computed pitch attitude. When pitch attitude equals that indicated by the Pitch Limit
Indicator, ESP will engage, applying a force in the direction necessary to lower the nose of the aircraft.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-26 Pitch Limit Indicator
HIGH AIRSPEED PROTECTION
Exceeding Vmo or Mmo will result in ESP applying force to raise the nose of the aircraft. When the
high airspeed condition is remedied, ESP force is no longer applied.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Pitch Limit Indicator
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
System Overview
8.11 ABNORMAL OPERATION
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Unusual attitudes are displayed with red chevrons overlaid on the display indicating the direction to
fly to correct the unusual attitude condition. The display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at
the top or bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the
horizon during extreme pitch attitudes.
The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain gradient is great enough to completely fill the
display.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-27 Unusual Attitude Display
GDL 69A / GDL 69A SIRIUSXM DATA LINK RECEIVER
TROUBLESHOOTING
Ensure the owner/operator of the aircraft in which the Data Link Receiver is installed has subscribed
to SiriusXM
•
Ensure the SiriusXM subscription has been activated
•
Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link
Receiver
Appendices
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the ‘Aux - System Status Page’ for
Data Link Receiver (GDL 69A / GDL 69A SiriusXM) status, serial number, and software version
number. If a failure has been detected in the GDL 69A / GDL 69A SiriusXM the status is marked with
a red X.
Additional Features
•
AFCS
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a
failure.
Index
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the System Status Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
Aux Page Group).
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux —System Status’ Page (the last page in the
Message Location
Description
CHECK ANTENNA
XM Information Page (MFD)
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service
required
UPDATING
XM Information Page (MFD)
Data Link Receiver updating encryption
code
Audio Panel and CNS
NO SIGNAL
XM Information Page Weather Loss of signal; signal strength too low for
Datalink Page (MFD)
receiver
LOADING
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Acquiring channel audio or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Missing channel information
WEATHER DATA LINK
FAILED
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
No communication from Data Link
Receiver within last 5 minutes
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
XM Information Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
DETECTION
ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription is activating
WAITING FOR DATA...
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription confirmed
downloading weather data
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Message
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Table 8-3 Data Link Receiver Messages
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APPENDIX A
System Overview
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
The Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
•
Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the Messages Softkey may appear as a flashing
annunciation to accompany an alert. The Messages Softkey assumes a new label consistent with the
alert level (Warning, Caution, or Advisory). By pressing the softkey when flashing an annunciation, the
alert is acknowledged. The softkey label then returns to Messages. If alerts are still present, the
Messages label is displayed in white with black text.
•
System Annunciations: Typically, a large red or amber ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information
is supplied by a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the System Annunciations Section for more
information.
Flight Management
Messages Window: The Messages Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized system
messages. Pressing the Messages Softkey displays the Messages Window. Pressing the Messages
Softkey a second time removes the Messages Window from the display. When the Messages Window is
displayed, the FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the system message list.
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
CAS Window: The Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is based
on alert levels described in the following section. The CAS Window is located to the right of the
Altimeter and Vertical Speed Indicator. All Crew Alerting System (CAS) annunciations can be
displayed simultaneously in the CAS Window. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are
acknowledged from annunciations that are not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are
displayed towards the top of the window.
Flight Instruments
•
Hazard Avoidance
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
System
Annunciation
(Amber ‘X’)
AFCS
Additional Features
CAS
Window
Messages
Window
Appendices
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-1 Alerting System
Index
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CAS MESSAGE PRIORITIZATION
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Any CAS messages that are generated when the system is first powered on are
considered already acknowledged. They do not flash or trigger the Warning or Caution
softkeys.
The Alerting System uses three alert levels. Messages are grouped by criticality (warning, caution,
advisory) and sorted by order of appearance (most recent messages on top). The color of the message is
based on its urgency and on required action:
The Crew Alerting System (CAS) Window is located on the right side of the PFD. Warning messages
cannot be scrolled through and remain at the top of the CAS display. The scroll bar appears if more
caution and advisory messages exist than can be displayed at once or if messages have been scrolled off
the display. The CAS softkeys also become available.
NOTE: Aural alerts associated with abnormal conditions and advisories are managed through
the audio panels. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information.
Warning: This level of alert requires immediate attention. When a new warning CAS message appears
in the CAS Window, it flashes (inversely red on white) in conjunction with the Warning Softkey (see
Figure A-3) and is accompanied by a repeating triple chime. Pressing the Warning Softkey acknowledges
all flashing warning messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once acknowledged, warning messages are
shown in red text and are displayed until the issue is corrected. Warning voice alerts repeat continuously
until acknowledged by pressing the Warning Softkey.
Caution: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may
require intervention. When a new caution message appears in the CAS Window, it is shown in black on
amber inverse video in conjunction with the Caution Softkey (see Figure A-3) and is accompanied by a
double chime. Pressing the Caution Softkey Indicator acknowledges all amber messages and
extinguishes the softkey. Once acknowledged, caution messages are displayed until the issue is
corrected.
Advisory: This level of alert provides general information. When a new white advisory appears on the
CAS display, it is shown in black on white inverse video in conjunction with the Advisory Softkey (see
Figure A-3) and may be accompanied by a single chime.
Some CAS messages can be display in more than one alert level group. For example, a message might
display as both a warning and a caution, but cannot appear more than once at any given time (unless the
CAS is being tested). If the received signals justify multiple priorities for a certain message, the message
is displayed for the higher priority condition. When graduating to a higher priority, the message flashes
and requires new acknowledgment. When degrading to a lower priority condition, the message moves
to the top of the appropriate grouping, but does not require new acknowledgment.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
APPENDIX A
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APPENDIX A
System Overview
Flight Instruments
CAS
Window
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-2 CAS Message Prioritization
Hazard Avoidance
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (Message Softkey Labels)
DISPLAY INHIBITS
AFCS
Inhibits prevent certain CAS messages from being displayed during the following conditions:
If two alert levels of the same message are active simultaneously (e.g., FUEL IMBALANCE warning
and FUEL IMBALANCE caution) only the higher alert level is displayed.
•
If a GEA or GIA fails, all CAS messages depending on sensors associated with that LRU are
automatically inhibited. Inhibits cannot be activated by invalid sensor data.
AUDIO ALERTING SYSTEM
CAS MESSAGES
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Index
The following annunciations are configured specifically for the Piper Archer. Red annunciation
window text signifies warnings, amber signifies cautions, and white signifies advisories. See the POH
for recommended pilot actions.
Appendices
The system issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met. See the Alert Level
Definitions Section for more information. The annunciation tone may be tested from the AUX System Status Page.
Additional Features
•
WARNING MESSAGES
Warning Messages
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
ALTR FAIL
Alternator failure
L FUEL QTY
Left fuel quantity in warning range
R FUEL QTY
Right fuel quantity in warning range
START ENGD
Starter motor energized when engine is running
Caution Messages
AC DOOR OPEN*
Air conditioning condenser door is open
Left fuel quantity in caution range
R FUEL QTY
Right fuel quantity in caution range
PITOT HEAT FAIL
Pitot heat failure
PITOT HEAT OFF
Pitot heat selected OFF
*Optional
ADVISORY MESSAGES
Advisory Messages
AC DOOR OPEN*
AV FAN FAIL
AFCS
FUEL IMBAL
Additional Features
Description
L FUEL QTY
EMERG BAT ON
Description
Air conditioning condenser door is open
Avionics cooling fan is inoperative
Emergency power in use
Fuel imbalance (left vs. right tank quantity)
MAINT MODE
Maintenance Mode has been activated
MFD FAN FAIL
MFD display fan is inoperative.
PFD FAN FAIL
PFD1 display fan is inoperative
*Optional
VOICE ALERTS
The following aural alerts are announced by the system using a voice of female gender. If an
optional terrain system is installed, voice alerts are also generated (refer to the appropriate terrain
alerts section).
Index
Appendices
Description
CAUTION MESSAGES
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
APPENDIX A
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APPENDIX A
Priority
“Stall”
“Airspeed”
Imminent stall is sensed by stall vane
Warning
“Traffic”
Airspeed exceeds VNE
Aircraft has descended below the preset barometric minimum
descent altitude
TIS Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued with the TIS system
Caution
TAS Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued with the optional GTS 800
TAS system. See the Hazard Avoidance section for additional
details on GTS 800 voice alerts.
Played when the optional GTS 800 traffic system passes a
pilot-initiated self test.
“TAS System Test
Failed”
Played when the optional GTS 800 traffic system fails a pilotinitiated self test.
Advisory
“Vertical track”
“TIS Not Available”
Aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent. Issued only when
vertical navigation is enabled.
Audio Panel and CNS
“TAS System Test
Passed”
Engine Indication System
“Traffic, (distance,
bearing, altitude)”
Description
Flight Instruments
“Minimums,
minimums”
System Overview
Message
Aircraft is outside TIS coverage area
Flight Management
“Timer Expired”
Countdown timer on the PFD has reached zero
Testing the system annunciation tone:
1) Press the ANN Test Softkey.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the AUX - System Status Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
SYSTEM MESSAGE ANNUNCIATIONS
Additional Features
Appendices
System Messages Advisories convey messages to the flight crew regarding problems with the system.
When a new message is issued, the Message Softkey flashes to alert the flight crew. It continues to
flash until acknowledged by pressing the softkey; the softkey returns to its previous Messages label.
Pressing the Messages Softkey removes the Messages Window from the display. Active messages are
displayed in the Messages window in white text. Messages that have become inactive change to gray
text. The Message Softkey flashes again if the state of a displayed message changes or a new message is
displayed. Typically, a large red or amber ‘X’ appears in a window when a related LRU fails or detects
invalid data.
Index
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System Overview
APPENDIX A
Message Annunciation
(Prior to softkey being
pressed)
Messages Annunciation
(After softkey is
pressed)
Figure A-4 Message/Messages Softkey Annunciation
SYSTEM MESSAGES
This section describes various system message advisories. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU
or an LRU function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red or amber
‘X’ annunciation as shown previously in the System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This section provides information regarding message advisories that may be displayed
by the system. Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing
operational priorities must be considered when responding to a message. Always use sound
pilot judgment. The Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) takes precedence over any conflicting
guidance found in this section.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Messages
Window
Message Advisory
AFCS
ABORT APR – Loss
of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
Comments
Abort approach due to loss of GPS
navigation.
Additional Features
The AHRS should be serviced.
ADC1 SERVICE –
ADC1 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
Appendices
AHRS1 CAL –
Calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
The AHRS calibration version error. The
system should be serviced.
Index
AHRS configuration settings do not match
AHRS1 CONFIG –
AHRS1 config error. those of backup configuration memory.
Config service req’d. The system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
System Overview
Message Advisory
Comments
The AHRS is using the backup GPS path.
AHRS1 GPS –
AHRS1 using backup Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
GPS source.
Flight Instruments
The AHRS is not receiving any or any useful
AHRS1 GPS –
GPS
information. Check POH limitations.
AHRS1 not receiving
The system should be serviced.
any GPS
information.
Engine Indication System
The AHRS is not receiving backup GPS
AHRS1 GPS –
AHRS1 not receiving information. The system should be
serviced.
backup GPS
information.
The AHRS earth magnetic field model is
out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
Flight Management
AHRS1 SERVICE –
AHRS1 Magneticfield model needs
update.
Audio Panel and CNS
The AHRS is operating exclusively in noAHRS1 GPS –
GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS
mode.
Hazard Avoidance
The AHRS is not receiving true airspeed
AHRS1 TAS –
AHRS1 not receiving from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the
airspeed.
lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
APR DWNGRADE – Use LNAV minima when approach is
downgraded.
Approach
downgraded.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the
aircraft position.
ARSPC NEAR –
Airspace near and
ahead.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of
the aircraft position.
APR INACTV –
Approach is not
active.
The system notifies the pilot that the
loaded approach is not active. Activate
approach when required.
Appendices
ARSPC NEAR –
Airspace near – less
than 2 nm.
Additional Features
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft.
The aircraft will penetrate the airspace
within 10 minutes.
AFCS
ARSPC AHEAD –
Airspace ahead less
than 10 minutes.
Index
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System Overview
APPENDIX A
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Message Advisory
Comments
AUDIO MANIFEST
- Audio software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
Incorrect audio software installed. The
system should be serviced
CHECK CRS –
Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is
[CRS]°.
Selected course for LOC2 differs from
published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
CHECK ARRIVAL
SPEED – [Arrival
Speed] KT AT [LOC
ID] exceeds MMO.
The arrival speed loaded exceeds MMO.
CHECK ARRIVAL
SPEED – [Arrival
Speed] KT AT [LOC
ID] exceeds VMO
The arrival speed loaded exceeds VMO.
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
The departure speed loaded exceeds VMO.
CHECK
DEPARTURE SPEED
– [Departure Speed]
KT AT [LOC ID]
exceeds VMO
CNFG MODULE –
PFD1 configuration
module is
inoperative.
The PFD1 configuration module backup
memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
CO DET FAIL – The
carbon monoxide
detector is
inoperative.
A failure in the carbon monoxide detector
has been detected. The system should be
serviced.
CO DET SRVC – The
carbon monoxide
detector needs
service.
A failure has been detected in carbon
monoxide detector has been detected. The
detector may still be available. The system
should be serviced when possible.
Appendices
COM #[1, 2] INOP – COM 1 and/or COM 2 calibration version
CAL – Check COM error. Check COM calibration.
calibration.
Index
COM #[1, 2] INOP – COM 1 and/or COM 2 current is low.
CRNT – Check COM Check COM current.
current.
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APPENDIX A
System Overview
Message Advisory
Comments
COM #[1, 2] INOP – COM 1 and/or COM 2 has an internal
fault.
INTRL – Com
internal fault.
Flight Instruments
COM #[1, 2] INOP – The COM 1 and/or COM 2 has a
synthesizer lock fault.
SYNTH – COM
synthesizer lock
fault.
Engine Indication System
The COM1 configuration settings do not
COM1 CONFIG –
COM1 config error. match backup configuration memory. The
Config service req’d. system should be serviced
Audio Panel and CNS
COM1 MANIFEST – COM1 software mismatch. The system
should be serviced.
COM1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
Flight Management
COM1 PTT – COM1 The COM1 external push-to-talk switch is
stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
push-to-talk key is
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its
stuck.
operation. If the problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
COM1 TEMP –
COM1 over temp.
Reducing transmitter
power.
The system has detected an over
temperature condition in COM1. The
transmitter operates at reduced power. If
the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
Additional Features
The system has detected a failure in
COM1. COM1 may still be usable. The
system should be serviced when possible.
AFCS
COM1 SERVICE –
COM1 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
Hazard Avoidance
COM1 RMT XFR – The COM1 transfer switch is stuck in the
enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
COM1 remote
transfer key is stuck. transfer switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
Appendices
The COM2 configuration settings do not
COM2 CONFIG –
COM2 config error. match backup configuration memory. The
Config service req’d. system should be serviced
COM2 MANIFEST – COM2 software mismatch. The system
should be serviced.
COM2 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
Index
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System Overview
APPENDIX A
Message Advisory
Comments
Flight Instruments
COM2 PTT – COM2 The COM2 external push-to-talk switch is
stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
push-to-talk key is
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its
stuck.
operation.
If the problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
COM2 RMT XFR – The COM2 transfer switch is stuck in the
enabled (or “pressed”) position. Press the
COM2 remote
transfer key is stuck. transfer switch again to cycle its operation.
If the problem persists, the system should
be serviced.
COM2 SERVICE –
COM2 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
The system has detected a failure in
COM2. COM2 may still be usable. The
system should be serviced when possible.
COM2 TEMP –
COM2 over temp.
Reducing transmitter
power.
The system has detected an over
temperature condition in COM2. The
transmitter operates at reduced power. If
the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
COPILOT RADIOS
MUTED –Copilot
radios are muted.
The copilot radios are set on mute.
DB CHANGE –
Database changed.
Verify user modified
procedures.
This occurs when a stored flight plan
contains procedures that have been
manually edited. This alert is issued only
after an navigation database update. Verify
that the user-modified procedures in stored
flight plans are correct and up to date.
DB CHANGE –
Database changed.
Verify stored
airways.
This occurs when a stored flight plan
contains an airway that is no longer
consistent with the navigation database.
This alert is issued only after an navigation
database update. Verify use of airways in
stored flight plans and reload airways as
needed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
DATA LOST – Pilot The pilot profile data was lost. System
stored data was lost. reverts to default pilot profile and settings.
The pilot may reconfigure the MFD & PFD
Recheck settings.
with preferred settings, if desired.
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APPENDIX A
The PFD and MFD have different terrain
database versions or types installed. Check
the AUX-System Status Page to determine
versions or regions. Also, check the AUXSystem Status Page for a database
synchronization function not completed.
After synchronization is complete, power
must be turned off, then on.
DIG GMA1
MANIFEST – DIG
GMA 1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The digital audio controller has incorrect
software installed. The system should be
serviced.
Appendices
DB MISMATCH –
Terrain database
mismatch.
Additional Features
The PFD and MFD have different standby
navigation database versions or types
installed. Check the AUX-System Status
Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the AUX-System Status Page
for a database synchronization function
not completed. After synchronization is
complete, power must be turned off, then
on.
AFCS
DB MISMATCH –
Standby Navigation
database mismatch.
Hazard Avoidance
The PFD and MFD have different obstacle
database versions or types installed. Check
the AUX-System Status Page to determine
versions or regions. Also, check the AUXSystem Status Page for a database
synchronization function not completed.
After synchronization is complete, power
must be turned off, then on.
Flight Management
DB MISMATCH –
Obstacle database
mismatch.
Audio Panel and CNS
The PFD and MFD have different
navigation database versions or types
installed. Crossfill is off. Check the AUXSystem Status Page to determine versions
or regions. Also, check the AUX-System
Status Page for a database synchronization
function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must
be turned off, then on.
Engine Indication System
DB MISMATCH –
Navigation database
mismatch. Xtalk is
off.
Flight Instruments
Comments
System Overview
Message Advisory
A data path connected to the GDU or the
FAILED PATH – A
data path has failed. GIA 63W has failed.
Index
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495
Message Advisory
Comments
FPL TRUNC – Flight
plan has been
truncated.
This occurs when a newly installed
navigation database eliminates an obsolete
approach or arrival used by a stored flight
plan. The obsolete procedure is removed
from the flight plan. Update flight plan
with current arrival or approach.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
APPENDIX A
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Upon power-up, the system detects that a
FPL WPT LOCK –
Flight plan waypoint stored flight plan waypoint is locked. This
occurs when an navigation database
is locked.
update eliminates an obsolete waypoint.
The flight plan cannot find the specified
waypoint and flags this message. This can
also occur with user waypoints in a flight
plan that is deleted. Remove the waypoint
from the flight plan if it no longer exists in
any database, OR update the waypoint
name/identifier to reflect the new
information.
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is
inoperative.
A failure has been detected in glideslope
receiver 1. The system should be serviced.
G/S1 SERVICE –
G/S1 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
A failure has been detected in glideslope
receiver 1. The receiver may still be
available. The system should be serviced
when possible.
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is
inoperative.
A failure has been detected in glideslope
receiver 2. The system should be serviced.
G/S2 SERVICE –
G/S2 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
A failure has been detected in glideslope
receiver 2. The receiver may still be
available. The system should be serviced
when possible.
GDC1 MANIFEST –
GDC1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The AHRS has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
Appendices
GDL 59 configuration settings do not
GDL59 CONFIG –
GDL 59 config error. match those of backup configuration
Config service req’d. memory. The system should be serviced.
A fault has been detected in the GDL 59.
The receiver is unavailable. The system
should be serviced.
Index
GDL59 FAIL – GDL
59 has failed.
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APPENDIX A
System Overview
Message Advisory
Comments
A fault has been detected in the GDL 59
router. The system should be serviced.
GDL59 SERVICE –
GDL 59 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
A fault has been detected in the GDL 59.
The system should be serviced.
Flight Instruments
GDL59 RTR FAIL –
The GDL 59 router
has failed.
GDL69 MANIFEST
– GDL software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GDL 69/69A SXM has incorrect
software installed. The system should be
serviced.
Flight Management
A failure has been detected in the GDL
69/69A or GDL 69/69A SXM. The receiver
is unavailable. The system should be
serviced.
Audio Panel and CNS
GDL69 FAIL – GDL
69 has failed.
Engine Indication System
GDL 69/69A SXM configuration settings
GDL69 CONFIG –
GDL 69 config error. do not match those of backup
Config service req’d. configuration memory. The system should
be serviced.
Hazard Avoidance
GEA #1 CM INOP – There is a problem with the GEA config
module connection. Check the connection.
COMM – Check
GEA config module
connection.
AFCS
GEA #1 CM INOP – The GEA configuration module has
TEMP – Check GEA insufficient cooling. If the problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
config module
cooling.
GEA #1 INOP – CAL There is a problem with the GEA rigging.
Check the rigging.
– Check GEA
rigging.
GEA #1 INOP –
INTRL – GEA
internal fault.
The GEA has an internal fault. The system
should be serviced.
GEA #1 INOP –
SENS – Check GEA
configuration.
There is an error in the GEA configuration.
Check the configuration. If the problem
persists, the system should be serviced.
Appendices
There is a problem with the GEA software
configuration. Check the configuration. If
the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
Additional Features
GEA #1 INOP –
CNFG – Check GEA
software and
configuration.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
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497
System Overview
APPENDIX A
Message Advisory
The GEA1 configuration settings do not
GEA1 CONFIG –
match those of backup configuration
GEA1 config error.
Config service req’d. memory. The system should be serviced.
GEA1 MANIFEST –
GEA1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The #1 GEA 71 has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GEO LIMITS –
AHRS1 too far
North/South, no
magnetic compass.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits
for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
GFC MANIFEST –
GFC software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
Incorrect servo software is installed, or gain
settings are incorrect.
GIA1 CONFIG –
GIA1 audio config
error. Config service
req’d.
The GIA1 have an error in the audio
configuration. The system should be
serviced.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Instruments
The GEA voltage is low. Check GEA
voltages.
Engine Indication System
GEA #1 INOP –
VOLT – Check GEA
voltages.
Comments
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
The GIA1 configuration settings do not
GIA1 CONFIG –
match backup configuration memory. The
GIA1 config error.
Config service req’d. system should be serviced.
498
GIA1 COOLING –
GIA1 over
temperature.
The GIA1 temperature is too high. If
problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
GIA1 COOLING –
GIA1 temperature
too low.
The GIA1 and/or GIA2 temperature is too
low to operate correctly. Allow units to
warm up to operating temperature.
GIA1 MANIFEST –
GIA1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GIA1 1 has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GIA1 SERVICE –
GIA1 needs service.
Return the unit for
repair.
The GIA1 self-test has detected a problem
in the unit. The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
Comments
The GIA2 have an error in the audio
configuration. The system should be
serviced.
Flight Instruments
GIA2 CONFIG –
GIA2 audio config
error. Config service
req’d.
System Overview
Message Advisory
The GIA2 configuration settings do not
GIA2 CONFIG –
match backup configuration memory. The
GIA2 config error.
Config service req’d. system should be serviced.
The GIA 2 has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
GIA2 SERVICE –
GIA2 needs service.
Return the unit for
repair.
The GIA2 self-test has detected a problem
in the unit. The system should be serviced.
GMA1 AUX
MANIFEST – GMA
1 AUX software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The digital audio controller has incorrect
software installed. The system should be
serviced.
AFCS
GIA2 MANIFEST –
GIA2 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
Hazard Avoidance
The GIA2 temperature is too low to
operate correctly. Allow units to warm up
to operating temperature.
Flight Management
GIA2 COOLING –
GIA2 temperature
too low.
Audio Panel and CNS
The GIA2 temperature is too high. If
problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
Engine Indication System
GIA2 COOLING –
GIA2 over
temperature.
The audio panel configuration settings do
GMA1 CONFIG –
GMA1 config error. not match backup configuration memory.
Config service req’d. The system should be serviced.
The audio panel self-test has detected a
failure. The audio panel is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
Additional Features
GMA1 FAIL –
GMA1 is
inoperative.
Appendices
GMA1 MANIFEST – The audio panel has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GMA1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
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499
System Overview
APPENDIX A
Message Advisory
Flight Instruments
GMA1 SERVICE –
GMA1 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
Comments
The audio panel self-test has detected a
problem in the unit. Certain audio
functions may still be available, and the
audio panel may still be usable. The system
should be serviced when possible.
Engine Indication System
GMU1 MANIFEST – The GMU 44 has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
GMU1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
GPS NAV LOST –
Loss of GPS
navigation. Position
error.
Loss of GPS navigation due to position
error.
GPS NAV LOST –
Loss of GPS
navigation. GPS fail.
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
GPS1 SERVICE –
GPS1 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
A failure has been detected in the GPS1
receiver. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced.
GPS2 SERVICE –
GPS2 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
A failure has been detected in the GPS2
receiver. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced.
GRS1 MANIFEST –
GRS1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The AHRS has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
GTS CONFIG – GTS
config error. Config
service req’d.
GTS 800 configuration settings do not
match those of the GDU configuration.
The system should be serviced.
GTS MANIFEST –
GTS software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
The GTS has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient
GPS NAV LOST –
satellites.
Loss of GPS
navigation.
Insufficient satellites.
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APPENDIX A
Comments
INSIDE ARSPC –
Inside airspace.
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
INVALID ADM –
Invalid ADM: ATN
communication
halted.
Data link avionics were not configured
correctly and therefore will not be able to
communicate with the ground network.
LOCKED FPL –
Cannot navigate
locked flight plan.
This occurs when the pilot attempts to
activate a stored flight plan that contains
locked waypoint. Remove locked waypoint
from flight plan. Update flight plan with
current waypoint.
LOI – GPS integrity
lost. Crosscheck
with other NAVS.
GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight.
LRG MAG VAR –
Verify all course
angles.
The GDU’s internal model cannot
determine the exact magnetic variance for
geographic locations near the magnetic
poles. Displayed magnetic course angles
may differ from the actual magnetic
heading by more than 2°.
MANIFEST – MFD1
software mismatch,
communication
halted.
The MFD has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
A GIA mismatch has been detected; only
one is SBAS capable.
Appendices
HW MISMATCH –
GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA2
communication
halted.
Additional Features
A GIA mismatch has been detected; only
one is SBAS capable.
AFCS
HW MISMATCH –
GIA hardware
mismatch. GIA1
communication
halted.
Hazard Avoidance
A fault has occurred in the #1 GMU 44.
Heading is flagged as invalid. The AHRS
uses GPS for backup mode operation. The
system should be serviced.
Flight Management
HDG FAULT –
AHRS1
magnetometer fault
has occurred.
Audio Panel and CNS
The transponder has incorrect software
installed. The system should be serviced.
Engine Indication System
GTX1 MANIFEST –
GTX1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
Flight Instruments
190-02130-02 Rev. A
System Overview
Message Advisory
501
System Overview
APPENDIX A
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Message Advisory
Comments
MANIFEST – PFD1
software mismatch,
communication
halted.
The PFD has incorrect software installed.
The system should be serviced.
MFD SOFTWARE –
MFD mismatch,
communication
halted.
The specified GDU has different software
versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
MFD TERRAIN DSP One of the terrain or obstacle databases
required for TAWS in the specified GDU is
– MFD Terrain
missing or invalid.
awareness display
unavailable.
MFD1 BACKLIGHT
CALIBRATION –
MFD1 calibration.
Return for repair.
The specified GDU’s backlight calibration
cannot be found or is invalid. The system
should be serviced.
MFD1 CARD 1 ERR
– Card 1 is invalid.
The SD card in the top card slot of the
specified MFD contains invalid data.
MFD1 CARD 2 ERR
– Card 2 is invalid.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the
specified MFD contains invalid data.
Hazard Avoidance
MFD1 CARD 1 REM The SD card was removed from the top
card slot of the specified MFD. The SD card
– Card 1 was
needs to be reinserted.
removed. Reinsert
card.
AFCS
MFD1 CARD 2 REM The SD card was removed from the bottom
card slot of the specified MFD. The SD card
– Card 2 was
needs to be reinserted.
removed. Reinsert
card.
MFD1 COOLING –
MFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing
power usage.
The MFD is overheating and is reducing
power consumption by dimming the
display. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Airport
Directory database
error exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the Airport
Directory database. Ensure the data card is
properly programmed if present. If
problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
The MFD configuration settings do not
MFD1 CONFIG –
match backup configuration memory. The
MFD1 config error.
Config service req’d. system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
System Overview
Message Advisory
Comments
The MFD detected a failure in more than
one database. If problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 navigation
database error
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the
navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 obstacle
database missing.
The obstacle database is present on
another LRU, but is missing on the
specified LRU.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Safe Taxi
database error
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 terrain
database error
exists.
The MFD detected a failure in the terrain
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 terrain
database missing.
The terrain database is present on another
LRU, but is missing on the specified LRU.
Additional Features
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 multiple
database errors
exists.
AFCS
The MFD detected a failure in the
FliteCharts database (optional feature).
Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
Hazard Avoidance
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 FliteCharts
database error
exists.
Flight Management
The MFD detected a failure in the
ChartView database (optional feature).
Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
Audio Panel and CNS
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Chartview
database error
exists.
Engine Indication System
The MFD detected a failure in the basemap
database.
Flight Instruments
MFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 basemap
database error
exists.
Appendices
The MFD self-test has detected a problem.
MFD1 SERVICE –
MFD1 needs service. The system should be serviced.
Return unit for
repair.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
503
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
APPENDIX A
Message Advisory
Comments
MFD1 KEYSTK –
MFD1 [key name] is
stuck.
A key is stuck on the MFD bezel. Attempt
to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the
problem persists.
MFD1 VOLTAGE –
MFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing
power usage
The MFD voltage is low. The system should
be serviced.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 calibration version
CAL — Check COM error. Check COM calibration.
calibration.
Audio Panel and CNS
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 current is low. Check
COM current.
CRNT — Check
COM current.
Flight Management
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 has an internal fault.
INTRL — Com
internal fault.
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – Loss of NAV 1 and/or NAV 2 serial
communication. Check NAV serial
SERIAL – Check
communication.
NAV serial
communication.
Hazard Avoidance
NAV #[1, 2] INOP – NNAV 1 and/or NAV 2 has a synthesizer
lock fault.
SYNTH LOCK –
COM synthesiser
lock fault.
AFCS
NAV1 MANIFEST –
NAV1 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
NAV1 software mismatch. The system
should be serviced.
Additional Features
The remote NAV1 transfer switch is stuck
NAV1 RMT XFR –
in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
NAV1 remote
transfer key is stuck. the transfer switch again to cycle its
operation. If the problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
Index
Appendices
A failure has been detected in the NAV1
NAV1 SERVICE –
NAV1 needs service. receiver. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced.
Return unit for
repair.
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APPENDIX A
Comments
NAV2 software mismatch. The system
should be serviced.
Flight Instruments
NAV2 MANIFEST –
NAV2 software
mismatch,
communication
halted.
System Overview
Message Advisory
Engine Indication System
The remote NAV2 transfer switch is stuck
NAV2 RMT XFR –
in the enabled (or “pressed”) state. Press
NAV2 remote
transfer key is stuck. the transfer switch again to cycle its
operation. If the problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
The position of the selected waypoint
[xxxx] is not calculated based on the
WGS84 map reference datum and may be
positioned in error as displayed. Do not use
GPS to navigate to the selected nonWGS84 waypoint.
PFD1 BACKLIGHT
CALIBRATION –
PFD1 calibration
lost. Return for
repair.
The PFD1 backlight calibration cannot be
found or is invalid. The system should be
serviced.
PFD1 CARD 1 REM
– Card 1 was
removed. Reinsert
card.
The SD card was removed from the top
card slot of the specified PFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
PFD1 CARD 2 REM
– Card 2 was
removed. Reinsert
card.
The SD card was removed from the bottom
card slot of the specified PFD. The SD card
needs to be reinserted.
AFCS
NON WGS84 WPT
– Do not use GPS
for navigation to
[xxxx]
Hazard Avoidance
Navigation angle is not set to MAGNETIC
at power-up.
Flight Management
NON-MAGNETIC
UNITS –Nonmagnetic NAV
ANGLE display units
are active.
Audio Panel and CNS
A failure has been detected in the NAV2
NAV2 SERVICE –
NAV2 needs service. receiver. The receiver may still be available.
The system should be serviced.
Return unit for
repair.
Additional Features
Appendices
The PFD configuration settings do not
PFD1 CONFIG –
match backup configuration memory. The
PFD1 config error.
Config service req’d. system should be serviced.
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
505
System Overview
APPENDIX A
Comments
PFD1 COOLING –
PFD1 has poor
cooling. Reducing
power usage.
The PFD is overheating and is reducing
power consumption by dimming the
display. If problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Airport
Directory database
error exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the Airport
Directory database. Ensure the data card is
properly programmed if present. If
problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 basemap
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the basemap
database.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 Chartview
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the
ChartView database (optional feature).
Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 FliteCharts
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the
FliteCharts database (optional feature).
Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 multiple
database errors
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in more than
one database. If problem persists, the
system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
PFD1 navigation
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the
navigation database. Attempt to reload the
navigation database. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
PFD1 obstacle
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the obstacle
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
PFD1 DB ERR –
PFD1 obstaPFD1cle
database missing.
The obstacle database is present on
another LRU, but is missing on the
specified LRU.
PFD 1DB ERR –
PFD1 Safe Taxi
database error
exists.
The PFD detected a failure in the Safe Taxi
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Message Advisory
506
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APPENDIX A
System Overview
Message Advisory
Comments
The SD card in the top card slot of the
specified PFD contains invalid data.
PFD1 CARD 2 ERR
– Card 2 is invalid.
The SD card in the bottom card slot of the
specified PFD contains invalid data.
PFD1 VOLTAGE –
PFD1 has low
voltage. Reducing
power usage
The PFD1 voltage is low. The system should
be serviced.
PFD1 KEYSTK –
PFD1 [key name] is
stuck.
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt
to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the
problem persists.
PFD1 SERVICE –
PFD2 needs service.
Return unit for
repair.
The PFD self-test has detected a problem.
The system should be serviced.
Hazard Avoidance
PFD1 CARD 1 ERR
– Card 1 is invalid.
Flight Management
A key is stuck on the PFD bezel. Attempt
to free the stuck key by pressing it several
times. The system should be serviced if the
problem persists.
Audio Panel and CNS
PFD1 KEYSTK –
PFD1 [key name] is
stuck.
Engine Indication System
The PFD detected a failure in the terrain
database. Ensure the data card is properly
programmed if present. If problem persists,
the system should be serviced.
Flight Instruments
PFD1 DB ERR –
MFD1 terrain
database error
exists.
PTK FAIL – Parallel
track unavailable:
invalid leg type.
Invalid leg type for parallel offset.
PTK FAIL – Parallel
track unavailable:
past IAF.
IAF waypoint for parallel offset has been
passed.
PTK FAIL – Parallel
track unavailable:
bad geometry.
Bad parallel track geometry.
SCHEDULER [#] –
Message criteria entered by the user.
Appendices
The pilot radios are set on mute.
Additional Features
PILOT RADIOS
MUTED – Pilot
radios are muted.
AFCS
PFD1 TERRAIN DSP One of the terrain or obstacle databases
required for TAWS in PFD1 is missing or
– PFD1 Terrain
invalid.
awareness display
unavailable.
Index
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System Overview
APPENDIX A
Message Advisory
Flight Instruments
SLCT FREQ – Select
appropriate
frequency for
approach.
Comments
The system notifies the pilot to load the
approach frequency for the appropriate
NAV receiver. Select the correct frequency
for the approach.
SLCT MAG – Select The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav
Angle units on the Avionics Settings Screen
MAGNETIC NAV
ANGLE display units. to Magnetic.
Engine Indication System
SLCT NAV – Select
NAV on CDI for
approach.
The system notifies the pilot to set the CDI
to the correct NAV receiver. Set the CDI to
the correct NAV receiver.
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
SLCT NON-MAG – The system notifies the pilot to set the Nav
Select alternate NAV Angle units on the Avionics Settings Screen
ANGLE display units. to True.
STEEP TURN –
Steep turn ahead.
A steep turn is 15 seconds ahead. Prepare
to turn.
STRMSCP FAIL –
Stormscope has
failed.
Stormscope has failed. The system should
be serviced.
SVT DISABLED –
Out of available
terrain region.
Synthetic Vision is disabled because the
aircraft is not within the boundaries of the
installed terrain database.
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Synthetic Vision is disabled because a
SVT DISABLED –
Terrain DB resolution terrain database of sufficient resolution
(4.9 arc-second or better) is not currently
too low.
installed.
SW MISMATCH –
GDU software
version mismatch.
Xtalk is off.
The MFD and PFD have different software
versions installed. The system should be
serviced.
SYSTEM CONFIG –
SYSTEM config
error. Config service
req’d.
The system configuration has changed
unexpectedly. The system should be
serviced.
Appendices
TERRAIN AUD CFG TAWS is disabled because the audio
configuration is invalid. The system should
– Trn Awareness
be serviced.
audio config error.
Service req’d.
TAWS is disabled because a terrain
database of sufficient resolution (4.9 arcsecond or better) is not currently installed.
Index
TERRAIN
DISABLED – Terrain
Awareness DB
resolution too low.
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APPENDIX A
System Overview
Message Advisory
Comments
The system notifies the pilot that the timer
has expired.
TRAFFIC FAIL –
Traffic device has
failed.
The system is no longer receiving data
from the traffic system. The traffic device
should be serviced.
Flight Instruments
TIMER EXPIRD –
Timer has expired.
UNABLE V WPT –
Can’t reach current
vertical waypoint.
Engine Indication System
Terrain Awareness audio is unavailable. The
TRN AUD FAIL –
Trn Awareness audio system should be serviced.
source unavailable
Audio Panel and CNS
The current vertical waypoint can not be
reached within the maximum flight path
angle and vertical speed constraints. The
system automatically transitions to the next
vertical waypoint.
VNV Unavailable – The current crosstrack exceeds the limit,
Excessive crosstrack causing vertical deviation to go invalid.
error.
Flight Management
VNV Unavailable – The current track angle error exceeds the
Excessive track angle limit, causing the vertical deviation to go
invalid.
error.
Hazard Avoidance
VNV Unavailable – A parallel course has been selected,
causing the vertical deviation to go invalid.
Parallel course
selected.
VNV Unavailable – The lateral flight plan contains a procedure
turn, vector, or other unsupported leg type
Unsupported leg
prior to the active vertical waypoint. This
type in flight plan.
prevents vertical guidance to the active
vertical waypoint.
AFCS
Arriving at waypoint [xxxx], where [xxxx] is
WPT ARRIVAL –
Arriving at waypoint the waypoint name.
-[xxxx]
ADS-B is inoperative. The transponder may
not be receiving a valid GPS position.
Other transponder functions may be
available. Service when possible.
Appendices
XPDR1 ADS-B FAIL
– Transponder:
XPDR1 is unable to
transmit ADS-B
messages.
Additional Features
XPDR1 ADS-B 1090 A failure has been detected in the 1090
receiver.
– Datalinik: ADS-B
1090 receiver has
failed.
Index
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System Overview
APPENDIX A
Message Advisory
Flight Instruments
XPDR1 ADS-B NO
POS –Transponder:
ADS-B is not
transmitting
position.
Comments
The transponder is not able to receive
position information.
Engine Indication System
XPDR1 ADS-B TRFC The Transponder is incapable of processing
– Transponder: ADS- traffic information.
B traffic has failed
XPDR1 ADS-B UAT
–Datalink: ADS-B in
UAT receiver has
failed.
A failure has been detected in the UAT
receiver.
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
The transponder configuration settings do
XPDR1 CONFIG –
XPDR1 config error. not match those of backup configuration
Config service req’d. memory. The system should be serviced.
XPDR1 CSA FAIL Traffic: ADS-B In
traffic alerting has
failed.
ADS-B Conflict Situational Awareness
(CSA) is unavailable.
XPDR1 FAIL –
XPDR1 is
inoperative.
There is no communication with the #1 or
#2 transponder.
XPDR1 FAULT –
Datalink: ADSB-B in
has failed.
The transponder is unable to receive ADS-B
information.
XPDR1 FIS-B WX –
Datalink: FIS-B
Weather has failed.
The transponder is unable to receive FIS-B
weather information.
XPDR1 OVER TEMP
- Transponder:
Transponder over
temp.
The system has detected an over
temperature condition in XPDR1. The
transmitter operates at reduced power. If
the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
XPDR1 PRES ALT – Unable to provide pressure altitude
Transponder: ADS-B information.
no pressure altitude.
The #1 transponder should be serviced
when possible.
Index
Appendices
XPDR1 SRVC –
XPDR1 needs
service. Return unit
for repair.
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APPENDIX A
The system has detected an under
temperature condition in XPDR1. The
transmitter operates at reduced power. If
the problem persists, the system should be
serviced.
XTALK ERROR – A
flight display
crosstalk error has
occurred.
The MFD and PFD are not communicating
with each other. The system should be
serviced.
Engine Indication System
XPDR1 UNDER
TEMP -Transponder:
Transponder under
temp.
Flight Instruments
Comments
System Overview
Message Advisory
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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511
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
APPENDIX A
BLANK PAGE
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APPENDIX B
Index
513
Appendices
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Additional Features
190-02130-02 Rev. A
AFCS
Databases may be loaded through Garmin Pilot and Flight Stream 510. When loading databases
through Garmin Pilot and the Flight Stream 510, it must be enabled on the system and the multimedia
card inserted in the bottom SD slot of the MFD.
The cycles and dates for both standby and active databases are displayed on the “Aux – Databases”
page on the MFD. Any active databases with expiration dates in the past will be highlighted with
amber text. When an expired active database has a standby database that is ready to become effective,
a cyan double-sided arrow will be displayed between the database cycles. When this arrow is visible, it
indicates that the standby and active databases in that row will be switched on the next power cycle,
activating the current standby database. Databases can also be manually selected (or deselected) by
highlighting a list item and pressing the ENT key, provided a valid, verified standby database is
present.
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the
database product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin
authorized service facility in order to use some database features.
The navigation database contains the aeronautical data used by the system for the flight management
and flight planning functions. Included is detailed data for waypoints, procedures (arrivals, departures,
approaches), and airways. The navigation database is updated every 28 days.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: When loading database updates, the ‘DB Mismatch’ system messages will be
displayed until database synchronization is complete, followed by turning system power off,
then on. Synchronization can be monitored on the Aux - Database Page.
Flight Management
CAUTION: Never disconnect power to the system when loading a database. Power
interruption during the database loading process could result in maintenance being required
to reboot the system.
Audio Panel and CNS
LOADING UPDATED DATABASES
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Loading a database in the system prior to its effective date will result in the expiration
date on the power-up screen and the effective date on the Aux – Databases Page being
displayed in amber.
Flight Instruments
Database information is obtained from third party sources. Inaccuracies in the data may be discovered
from time to time. Garmin communicates this information by issuing a Database Alert. These
notifications are available on flygarmin.com.
Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain,
obstacles and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on
the ground. Go to flygarmin.com and select Aviation Data Error Report.
The system uses Secure Digital (SD) cards to load various types of data. For basic flight operations, SD
cards are required for database updates. Not all SD cards are compatible with the system.
System Overview
DATABASE MANAGEMENT
The basemap database contains data for the topography and land features, such as rivers, lakes, and
towns. It is updated only periodically, with no set schedule. There is no expiration date.
The terrain database contains the terrain mapping data. These databases are updated periodically
and have no expiration date.
The obstacle database contains data for obstacles, such as towers, that pose a potential hazard to
aircraft. Obstacles 200 feet and higher are included in the obstacle database. It is very important to
note that not all obstacles are necessarily charted and therefore may not be contained in the obstacle
database. This database is updated on a 56-day cycle.
NOTE: The data contained in the terrain and obstacle databases comes from government
agencies. Garmin accurately processes and cross-validates the data, but cannot guarantee
the accuracy and completeness of the data.
The AOPA or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory provides data on airports and heliports throughout the
U.S. or worldwide, respectively. The AOPA Directory offers detailed information for over 5,300 U. S.
airports, along with the names and phone numbers of thousands of FBOs. These databases are
updated every 56 days. The AC-U-KWIK Directory offers detailed information for more than 8,000
airports with runways longer than 3,000 feet worldwide.
The SafeTaxi database contains detailed airport diagrams for selected airports. These diagrams aid in
following ground control instructions by accurately displaying the aircraft position on the map in
relation to taxiways, ramps, runways, terminals, and services. This database is updated on a 56-day
cycle.
The FliteCharts database contains procedure charts for the United States only. This database is
updated on a 28-day cycle. If not updated within 180 days of the expiration date, FliteCharts will no
longer function.
The ChartView database is updated on a 14-day cycle. If the ChartView database is not updated
within 70 days of the expiration date, ChartView will no longer function. The ChartView database
must be purchased directly from Jeppesen, but can be update d at jeppesen.com or flygarmin.com.
The IFR/VFR charts database contains VFR and IFR raster charts. The VFR Charts are digital
representations of the Sectional Aeronautical Charts and Terminal Area Charts. The IFR Charts include
both IFR High (designed for navigation at or above 18,000 ft) and IFR Low (designed for navigation
below 18,000 ft). IFR/VFR Charts are updated every 28 days except for Canadian IFR/VFR Charts
which are updated every 56 days.
DATABASE UPDATES USING A SUPPLEMENTAL DATA (SD) CARD
All databases are updated through a single SD card in the bottom slot of the MFD. When the card
is inserted, the databases on the card will be copied to standby and synchronized across all powered,
configured units. After update, the card is removed and the databases are stored on the system.
When in standby, databases are not immediately available for use, but stored to be activated at a later
time.
Database updates can be obtained by following the instructions detailed in the ‘Aviation Databases’
section of the Garmin website (flygarmin.com). Once the updated files have been downloaded from
the website, a PC equipped with an appropriate SD card reader is used to unpack and program the
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
APPENDIX B
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APPENDIX B
Windows-compatible PC computer
•
SD Card Reader: SanDisk SDDR-93, SanDisk SDDR-99, Verbatim #96504, or equivalent
•
Updated database obtained from the Garmin website
•
Supplemental SD Cards
Flight Instruments
•
System Overview
new databases onto an existing Supplemental Data Card. Equipment required to perform the update
is as follows:
Updating Databases from any MFD page (except the Aux - Databases page):
Engine Indication System
In some cases it may be necessary to obtain an unlock code from Garmin in order to make the
database product functional. It may also be necessary to have the system configured by a Garmin
authorized service facility in order to use some database features.
1) Insert the Flight Stream Multimedia Card in the bottom slot of the MFD.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Press the Update softkey when the Database Update screen appears.
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
Figure B-1 Database Update Available
AFCS
3) The Flight Stream 510 will enter WI-FI mode. The following screen will appear.
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure B-2 Starting Database Transfer
Index
4) Put the mobile device in WI-FI mode (refer to the Additional Features section).
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515
System Overview
APPENDIX B
5) Connect the mobile device to the Flight Stream 510 WI-FI (refer to the Additional
Features section). The ‘WI-FI Not Connected’ screen will close when the WI-FI
connection is established.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
6) When the transfer is complete, the following screen will appear.
Figure B-3 Database Transfer Complete
Flight Management
7) Press the Close softkey.
8) When an existing database is expired and a new one is ready to become active, a
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
‘Database Expired’ window will appear. Continue to the next step to restart the system.
Figure B-4 Database Expired
NOTE: The Restart Softkey is enabled only when the aircraft is on the ground.
Appendices
9) Select the Restart softkey to restart the system and load the updated database(s), or
remove power from the system if the Restart Softkey is diminished.
10) After restarting the system, turn the large FMS Knob and select the Aux page group on
the MFD.
Index
11) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Databases page.
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APPENDIX B
System Overview
12) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
column.
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
13) To view database information for an individual display, press and then turn the FMS
Knob to select the database, and then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
AFCS
14) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
Hazard Avoidance
Figure B-5 Databases Page with Updated Databases
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
Additional Features
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the
standby database will become active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
Appendices
column.
Updating Databases from the Aux - Databases page:
1) With the system OFF, insert the Flight Stream Multimedia Card in the bottom slot of the
MFD.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
517
System Overview
APPENDIX B
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Database page group on the MFD.
4) Press the Device Softkey.
5) The Aux - Databases page will show the databases connected to the mobile device in
Flight Instruments
place of the active databases on the system. Databases selected to load will be
indicated by a cyan arrow.
6) Press the Update softkey. The Flight Stream 510 will enter WI-FI mode.
Engine Indication System
7) Put the mobile device in WI-FI mode (refer to the Additional Features section).
8) Connect the mobile device to the Flight Stream 510 WI-FI (refer to the Additional
Features section).
Audio Panel and CNS
9) The Database Update status will appear in the Status window at the top of the page.
NOTE: The Restart Softkey is enabled only when the aircraft is on the ground.
10) Select the Restart softkey to restart the system and load the updated database(s), or
remove power from the system if the Restart Softkey is diminished.
Flight Management
11) After restarting the system, turn the large FMS Knob and select the Aux page group on
the MFD.
12) Turn the small FMS Knob and select the Databases page.
13) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
Hazard Avoidance
column.
14) To view database information for an individual display, press and then turn the FMS
Knob to select the database, and then press the Details Softkey. Press the ENT Key or
the FMS Knob to exit.
AFCS
15) To manually activate any databases that did not transfer to the active column:
a) Press the FMS Knob. The first database title on the screen will be selected.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob as necessary to select the database title.
Additional Features
c) Press the ENT Key. A cyan double-sided arrow will appear indicating that the
standby database will become active.
d) Remove and reapply power to the system.
e) Verify that the standby databases transferred and are now in the active database
Index
Appendices
column.
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APPENDIX B
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Figure B-6 Databases Page with Updated Databases
A copy of the current magnetic field variation database (MV DB) is included with the navigation
database. At startup, the system compares this version of the MV DB with that presently being used by
the AHRS. If the system determines the MV DB needs to be updated, a prompt is displayed on the
Navigation Map Page.
Hazard Avoidance
MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATION DATABASE UPDATE
AFCS
Additional Features
Figure B-7 Magnetic Field Variation Database Update Prompt
Loading the magnetic field variation database update:
Appendices
With ‘OK’ highlighted, as shown in Figure B-6 above, press the ENT Key on the MFD. A
progress monitor is displayed as shown in Figure B-8. When the upload is complete, the
system is ready for use.
Index
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519
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
APPENDIX B
Figure B-8 Uploading Database
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APPENDIX C
System Overview
AVIATION TERMS AND ACRONYMS
Term/Acronym
AC
ACARS
ACT, ACTV
ADAHRS
Advisory Circular, Alternating Current
Airborne Communications Addressing and Reporting System
Accuracy
Active, Activate, Altitude Compensated Tilt
Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference System
Air Data Computer
ADF
Automatic Direction Finder
ADI
Attitude Direction Indicator
ADIZ
Air Defense Identification Zone
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
ADS-R
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Rebroadcast
AF
Aircraft Electronic Association
Arc to Fix Leg
Automatic Flight Control System
AFM
Airplane Flight Manual
AFMS
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
AFRM
Airframe
AHRS
Above Ground Level
Attitude and Heading Reference System
Aeronautical Information Manual
AIRB
Airborne
Airman’s Meteorological Information
AIRREP
Air Reports
ALT
ALT, ALTN
Alert
Altitude
Alternator, Alternate
Selected Altitude Capture Mode
ALTV
VNAV Altitude Capture Mode
AMPS
Amperes
Annunciation/Annunciator
Antenna
AOA
Angle of Attack, ACARS Over AVLC
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
ANT
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Appendices
ALTS
ANNUNC/ANN
Additional Features
AIRMET
AFCS
AIM
ALRT
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
AGL
Flight Management
ADS-B
Audio Panel and CNS
ADC
AEA
Engine Indication System
ACC
Amps
Flight Instruments
A
Definition
521
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Flight Instruments
Term/Acronym
AOC
Aeronautical Operational Control
AOG
Aircraft On Ground
AOPA
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
AP
AP DISC
Engine Indication System
APPR, APR
APT
Audio Panel and CNS
APTSIGNS
Air Route Traffic Control Center
Flight Management
ATC
ATCRBS
Hazard Avoidance
Airport Signs
ARTCC
AT
Arrival
Airspeed
Aviation Support Branch
Automated Surface Observing System
Auto Throttle
Air Traffic Control
ATC Radar Beacon System
ATIS
Automatic Terminal Information Service
ATK
Along Track
AUTOSEQ
AFCS
Airport, Aerodrome
Airspace
ASOS
Automatic Sequence
AUX
Auxiliary
AVG
Average
AVLC
Aviation VHF Link Control
AWOS
Automated Weather Observing System
B
Additional Features
Approach
ARSPC
ASB
Both Runways
B ALT
Barometric Altitude
BARO
Barometer, Barometric
BATT
Battery
BC
Appendices
Autopilot Disconnect
Aeronautical Radio Incorporated
AS
Bearing
Backcourse
The compass direction from the present position to a destination
waypoint.
BFO
Beat Frequency Oscillator
BKSP
Backspace
Bluetooth
Index
Autopilot
ARINC
ARV
522
Definition
Wireless standard for data exchange over short distances
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Definition
Bottom of Climb
BOD
Bottom of Descent
BRG
see also Bearing
°C
Degrees Celsius
C
Center Runway
Course to Altitude Leg
CAL
Calibrated
CALC
Calculator
Calibrated Airspeed
Indicated airspeed corrected for installation and instrument errors.
Crew Alerting System
CD
Course to DME Distance Leg
CDI
Course Deviation Indicator
CDU
Control Display Unit
Course to Fix Leg
CG
Center of Gravity
CH, CHNL
Channel
CHT
Cylinder Head Temperature
CHKLIST
Checklist
Course to Intercept Leg
CLD
Cloud
CLR
Clear
CM
Centimeter
CMC
CNS
Communication, Navigation, & Surveillance
CO
Carbon Monoxide
COM
Additional Features
Canada
AFCS
Central Maintenance Computer
CN
Communication Radio
CONFIG
Configuration
Coolant
COPLT
Copilot
Course
The line between two points to be followed by the aircraft.
Course to Steer
The recommended direction to steer in order to reduce course error
or stay on course. Provides the most efficient heading to get back to
the desired course and proceed along the flight plan.
Index
Controller Pilot Datalink Communications
Couple
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Appendices
COOL
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Hazard Avoidance
CI
CPL
Flight Management
CF
Audio Panel and CNS
CAS
Engine Indication System
CA
Flight Instruments
BOC
CPDLC
System Overview
Term/Acronym
523
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Flight Instruments
CR
Cockpit Reference Guide
CRNT
Current
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
CRS
CSA
Conflict Situational Awareness
CSC
Current Speed Control
CTA
Control Area
CTR
Center
CTRL
Control
Flight Management
CVR
Hazard Avoidance
Cockpit Voice Data Recorder
Cockpit Voice Recorder
Coverage
CWS
Control Wheel Steering
CYL
Cyclic Centering
Cylinder
D ALT
Density Altitude
D-ATIS
Digital Automatic Terminal Info Service
DB, DBASE
AFCS
The total of all legs in a flight plan.
CVRG
CYC CTR
Database
dBZ
Decibels ‘Z’ (Radar Return)
DCL
Departure Clearance
DCLTR, DECLTR
DEC FUEL
Additional Features
see also Course, Course to Steer
Cursor
CVDR
Declutter
Decrease Fuel
DEG
Degree
DEIC, DEICE
De-icing
DEP
Desired Track
DES, DEST
Appendices
The distance the aircraft is off a desired course in either direction,
left or right.
CRSR
Cumulative, CUM
DEV
DF
DFLT
DG
Index
Course to Radial Leg
CRG
Crosstrack Error
524
Definition
Departure
The desired course between the active “from” and “to” waypoints.
Destination
Deviation
Direct to Fix Leg
Default
Directional Gyro
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
System Overview
Term/Acronym
Definition
DGRD
Degrade
DH
Decision Height
A measure of GPS satellite geometry quality on a scale of one to ten
(lower numbers equal better geometry, where higher numbers equal
poorer geometry).
Direction
DIS
Distance
The ‘great circle’ distance from the present position to a destination
waypoint.
DL LTNG
Datalink Lightning
DLS
Data Link System
DME
Distance Measuring Equipment
DN
Down
Department of Defense
DOP
see also Dilution of Precision
DP
Flight Management
DOD
Departure Procedure
DPRT
Departure
DR
Dead Reckoning
Disabled
DTG
Distance To Go, Remaining distance to last active FPL waypoint
DTK
see also Desired Track
DQR
Data Quality Requirements
E
Hazard Avoidance
DSBL
Empty, East
ECU
Engine Control Unit
EDM
Emergency Descent Mode
EFC
Expected Further Clearance
Efficiency
Additional Features
Engine and Airframe Systems
AFCS
EAS
A measure of fuel consumption, expressed in distance per unit of
fuel.
EGNOS
European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
EGT
Exhaust Gas Temperature
Appendices
EICAS
Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System
EIS
Engine Indication System
ELEV
Elevation, Elevator
ELT
Emergency Locator Transmitter
Emergency
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
EMER, EMERG, EMERGCY
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Audio Panel and CNS
Distance
Engine Indication System
DIR
Flight Instruments
Dilution of Precision
525
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
EMI
END, ENDUR
Flight Instruments
Endurance
ENG
ENR
Flight Management
Endurance
Flight endurance, or total possible flight time based on available fuel
on board.
Engine
Engaged
Enroute; ETE to Final Destination
ENT
Enter
EPE
see also Estimated Position Error
EPU
Estimated Position Uncertainty
ERR
Error
ES
see also Enroute Safe Altitude
ESP
Electronic Stability and Protection
Estimated Time of Arrival
(ETA)
Estimated Time Enroute
(ETE)
Additional Features
Appendices
The estimated time at which the aircraft should reach the destination
waypoint, based upon current speed and track.
The estimated time it takes to reach the destination waypoint from
the present position, based upon current groundspeed.
see also Estimated Time of Arrival
ETE
see also Estimated Time Enroute
EVS
Enhanced Vision System
Expired
°F
Degrees Fahrenheit
FA
Course From Fix to Altitude Leg
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
FADEC
Full Authority Digital Engine Control
FAF
Final Approach Fix
FAIL
Failure
FANS
Future Air Navigation System
FAR
Federal Aviation Regulations
FBO
Fixed Base Operator
FC
Index
A measure of horizontal GPS position error derived by satellite
geometry conditions and other factors.
ETA
EXPIRD
526
Extended Squitter
ESA
Estimated Position Error
(EPE)
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Electromagnetic Interference
Enroute Safe Altitude (ESA) Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe altitude within ten miles left
or right of the desired course on an active flight plan or direct-to.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
ENGD
Definition
Course From Fix to Distance Leg
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Definition
FCC
Federal Communication Commission
FCST
Forecast
Flight Director, Course From Fix to DME Distance Leg
FDE
Fault Detection and Exclusion
FF, FFLOW
Flight Instruments
FD
see also Fuel Flow
Flight Information Services-Broadcast
FISDL
Flight Information Service Data Link
FL
Engine Indication System
FIS-B
Flight Level
FLC
Flight Level Change
FLT
Flight Timer
Audio Panel and CNS
FLTA
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance
Flight Management System
FOB
see also Fuel On Board
FOD
see also Fuel Over Destination
FPA
Flight Path Angle
FPL
Flight Plan
FPM
Feet Per Minute, Flight Path Marker
FREQ
Frequency
FRMT
Format
FRZ
Freezing
FSM
Flight System Messages
FSS
Flight Service Station
FT
foot/feet
The fuel flow rate, expressed in units of fuel per hour.
Fuel On Board
The total amount of usable fuel on board the aircraft.
Fuel Over Destination
Additional Features
Fuel Flow
AFCS
FMS
Hazard Avoidance
Course From Fix to Manual Termination Leg
Flight Management
FM
The estimated fuel remaining when the aircraft reaches the
destination waypoint, based upon current fuel flow.
Forward
G/S
Glideslope
GA
Go-Around
GAL, GL
Gallon(s)
GBOX
Gearbox
Ground Based Transceiver
GCU
Garmin Control Unit
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
GBT
Appendices
FWD
190-02130-02 Rev. A
System Overview
Term/Acronym
527
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Term/Acronym
GCS
Ground Clutter Suppression
GDC
Garmin Air Data Computer
GDL
Garmin Satellite Data Link
GDR
Garmin Data Radio
GDU
Garmin Display Unit
GEA
Garmin Engine/Airframe Unit
GEN
Generator
GEO
Geographic
GFC
Garmin Flight Control
GIA
Garmin Integrated Avionics Unit
GLONASS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
GLS
GMC
Garmin Mode Controller
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time
GMU
Garmin Magnetometer Unit
GND
Ground
GPH
Gallons per Hour
GPN
Garmin Part Number
GPS
Global Positioning System
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Global Navigation Satellite Landing System
Garmin Audio Panel System
Grid MORA (Minimum Off
—Route Altitude)
Index
Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite Landing System
GMA
GPWS
528
Definition
Ground Proximity Warning System
One degree latitude by one degree longitude in size and clears the
highest elevation reference point in the grid by: a) 1,000 feet where
the highest elevation is <5001MSL or b) 2,000 feet where the
highest elevation is >5000MSL
Groundspeed
The velocity that the aircraft is travelling relative to a ground
position.
Ground Track
See Track
GRS
Garmin Reference System
GS
Ground Speed, Glideslope
GSA
Garmin Servo Adapter
GSD
Garmin Data Concentrator
GSL
Geodetic Sea Level
GSR
Garmin Satellite Radio
GSU
Garmin Sensor Unit
GTC
Garmin Touchscreen Controller
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Definition
Garmin Traffic System
GTX
Garmin Transponder
GW
Gross Weight
GWX
Garmin Weather Radar
HA
Hold Terminating at Altitude Leg
HDG
see also Heading
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
Heading
The direction an aircraft is pointed, based upon indications from a
magnetic compass or a properly set directional gyro.
HF
High Frequency, Hold Terminating at Fix Leg
HFOM
Mercury
HI
High
HI SENS
High Sensitivity
Hold with Manual Termination Leg
HNS
Hybrid Navigation System
Horizontal Figure of Merit
A measure of the uncertainty in the aircraft’s horizontal position.
Hover
Hectopascal
HPI
Hover Power Indicator
HPL
Horizontal Protection Level
HR
Hour
High-Speed Data Bus
HT
Heat
Horizontal Uncertainty Level
Hertz (cycles per second)
Inner Marker
Initial Approach Fix
IAS
Indicated Air Speed
IAT
Indicated Air Temperature
IAU
Integrated Avionics Unit
International Civil Aviation Organization
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Appendices
IAF
ICAO
Additional Features
Horizontal Situation Indicator
I
AFCS
Horizon Heading
HSI
Hz
Hazard Avoidance
Hover Prediction
hPa
HUL
Flight Management
HM
HSDB
Audio Panel and CNS
see also Horizontal Figure of Merit
Hg
HRZN HDG
Engine Indication System
HDOP
HOV-P
Flight Instruments
GTS
HOV
System Overview
Term/Acronym
529
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
ICS
Intercom System
ID
Identification/Morse Code Identifier
Flight Instruments
IDENT, IDNT
IEEE
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
IF
Imperial Gallon
IGE
In Ground Effect
ILS
Instrument Landing System
IMC
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
Flight Management
IND
Hazard Avoidance
Indicated
Inactive
Increase Fuel
Indicator, Indicated
Information provided by properly calibrated and set instrumentation
on the aircraft panel.
Information
IN Hg
Inches of Mercury
INS
Inertial Navigation System
INT
Intersection(s)
IrDA, IRDA
AFCS
Inch
INFO
INTEG
Additional Features
Initial Fix
IG
INC FUEL
Integrity (RAIM unavailable)
Infrared Data Association
ISA
International Standard Atmosphere; ISA Relative Temperature
ISO
International Standards Organization
ITT
Inter-Turbine Temperature, Interstage Turbine Temperature
KEYSTK
Key Stuck
KG
Kilogram
kHz
Kilohertz
KM
Kilometer
KT
Knot
L
Appendices
Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
Instrument Flight Rules
INACTV
Left, Left Runway
LAT
Latitude, Lateral
LBL
Label
LB
Pound
LCD
Index
Identification
IFR
IN
530
Definition
Liquid Crystal Display
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
System Overview
Term/Acronym
Definition
Local
LDA
Landing Distance Available
LDG
ETA at Final Destination
LED
Light Emitting Diode
The amount of fuel remaining on board after the completion of one
or more legs of a flight plan or direct-to.
Left Over Fuel Reserve
The amount of flight time remaining, based on the amount of fuel
on board after the completion of one or more legs of a flight plan or
direct-to, and a known consumption rate.
Leg
Legend
LIFR
Low Instrument Flight Rules
LMM
Location Middle Marker
LNAV
Lateral Navigation
Low
Letter of Authorization
LOC
Localizer
LOI
Loss of Integrity (GPS)
LOM
Location Outer Marker
LON
Longitude, Longitudinal
LP
Localizer Performance
LPV
Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance
LRU
Line Replaceable Unit
LTNG
LVL
MMO (VMO)
Mach Number
MAG
Level
Meter, Middle Marker, Mach
Maximum Speed
Mach number is the ratio of the true airspeed to the speed of sound.
Magnetic
Magnetic Variation
MAHP
Missed Approach Hold Point
MAN IN
Manifold Pressure (inches Hg)
MAN SQ
Manual Squelch
MANSEQ
Manual Sequence
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Index
MAP
Appendices
MAG VAR
Lightning
Additional Features
M
Left
AFCS
LT
Hazard Avoidance
LOA
Flight Management
LO
Audio Panel and CNS
LGND
The portion of a flight plan between two waypoints.
Engine Indication System
Left Over Fuel On Board
Flight Instruments
LCL
Missed Approach Point
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
531
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
MASQ
MAX
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
MAXSPD
Maximum Continuous Power
MDA
Barometric Minimum Descent Altitude
MEPT
Manual Electric Pitch Trim
MET
Manual Electric Trim
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Aviation Routine Weather Report
Multi Function Display
Military Grid Reference System
MGT
Measured Gas Temperature
MHz
Megahertz
MIC
Microphone
MIN
Minimum
Minimum Safe Altitude
(MSA)
Additional Features
Maximum Speed (overspeed)
MCP
MGRS
Uses Grid MORAs to determine a safe altitude within ten miles of
the aircraft present position.
MKR
Marker Beacon
MOA
Military Operations Area
MON
Monitor
MOV
Movement
MORA
Minimum Off-Route Altitude
MPEL
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level
MPM
Meters per Minute
MSA
see also Minimum Safe Altitude
MSAS
Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System
MSG
Message
MSL
Mean Sea Level
MT, M
mV
MVFR
Appendices
Maximum
Marker Beacon
MFD
N
NAV
NAVAID
NDB
Index
Master Avionics Squelch
MB
METAR
532
Definition
Meter
Millivolt(s)
Marginal Visual Flight Rules
North
Navigation
Navigation Aid
Non-Directional Beacon
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
NEXRAD
Definition
Next Generation Radar
Gas Producer Rotation Speed
NM
Nautical Mile(s)
NOTAM
No Procedure Turn Required (procedure shall not be executed
without ATC clearance)
Notice To Airman
Power Turbine Speed
NR
Rotor Speed
O
Nearest
Outer Marker
OBS
Omni Bearing Selector
OFST
Offset
OGE
Out of Ground Effect
OOOI
Out of the gate, Off the ground, On the ground, and In the gate
OXY
Oxygen
P ALT
Pressure Altitude
PC
Passenger Address, Proximity Advisory
Passenger(s)
Personal Computer
Pre-Departure Clearance
PFD
Primary Flight Display
PG
Pilot’s Guide
PI
Procedure Turn to Course Intercept Leg
PIT, PTCH
Pilot Report
Pitch
Plain Old ACARS
POH
Pilot’s Operating Handbook
POHS
Pilot’s Operating Handbook Supplement
Position
Pounds per Hour
PPM
Parts per Million
P. POS
Present Position
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Pressure
Procedure(s), Procedure Turn
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
PROC
Appendices
PPH
PRES, PRESS
Additional Features
POA
POS, POSN
AFCS
PDC
PIREP
Hazard Avoidance
PASS
Flight Management
Outside Air Temperature
Audio Panel and CNS
OAT
PA
Engine Indication System
NP
NRST
Flight Instruments
NG
NoPT
System Overview
Term/Acronym
533
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Term/Acronym
PROP
Propeller
PROX
Proximity
PSI
Pounds per Square Inch, Power Situation Indicator
PT
Procedure Turn
PTK
Parallel Track
PTT
Push-to-Talk
PWR
Power
Audio Panel and CNS
Q
Field Elevation Pressure
QNH
Sea Level Pressure
QTY
Quantity
RA
Flight Management
RAD
Hazard Avoidance
RAD ALT
AFCS
Additional Features
Resolution Advisory, Radio Altimeter
Radial
Radio Altimeter
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
RAM
Random Access Memory
RAT
Ram Air Temperature
Receiver
REF
Reference
REM
Remaining (fuel remaining), Reminder
REQ
Required
RES
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
REV
Reverse, Revision, Revise
RF
Appendices
Right, Right Runway
RAIM
RCVR
Radio Frequency, Constant Radius Turn to Fix Leg
RFM
Rotorcraft Flight Manual
RMI
Radio Magnetic Indicator
RMT
Remote
RNAV
Area Navigation
RNG
Range
RNP
Required Navigation Performance
RNWY, RWY
Index
Engine Torque
QFE
R
534
Definition
Runway
ROL
Roll
ROM
Read Only Memory
RPM
Revolutions Per Minute
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Definition
RST FUEL
Reset Fuel
RSV
RVRSNRY
RVSM
RX
Right
Reversionary
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums
Receive
South
SA
Selective Availability
SAR
Search and Rescue
SAT
Static Air Temperature
Satellite-Based Augmentation System
SCIT
Storm Cell Identification and Tracking
SD
Secure Digital
SEC
Second(s)
SENS
Select
Selective Calling
Sense
Surface
SIAP
Standard Instrument Approach Procedures
SID
Standard Instrument Departure
SIG/AIR
SIGMET/AIRMET
SIGMET
Significant Meteorological Information
Simulator
SLD
Supercooled Large Droplet
SMBL
Symbol
SMS
Short Message System
SNGL
Single
SPC
Space
SPD
Speed
SPI
Special Position Identification
SPKR
Speaker
SQ
Squelch
SRVC, SVC
Service
Wireless Service Set Identifier
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Appendices
Slip/Skid
Additional Features
SLP/SKD
AFCS
SIM
Hazard Avoidance
SFC
SSID
Flight Management
SELCAL
Audio Panel and CNS
SBAS
SEL, SLCT
Engine Indication System
S
Reserve (fuel reserve entered by pilot)
Flight Instruments
RT
System Overview
Term/Acronym
535
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
STAB
Stabilization
STAL
Stall
STAR
Standard Terminal Arrival Route
STATS
Statistics
STBY
Standby
STD
Standard
Audio Panel and CNS
STRMSCP
SUA
Special Use Airspace
SURF
Surface
SUSP
Suspend
SVT
Synthetic Vision Technology
SW
Software
Flight Management
SYNC
Synthetic Terrain
SYN VIS
Synthetic Vision
T
Hazard Avoidance
TA
AFCS
Additional Features
TRUE
Traffic Advisory
Tactical Air Navigation System
TAF
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
TAS
True Airspeed, Traffic Advisory System
TAT
Total Air Temperature
Terrain Awareness and Warning System
TCA
Terminal Control Area
TCAS
Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System
TEL
Appendices
System
TACAN
TAWS
Telephone
TEMP
Temperature
TERM
Terminal
TF
Track Between Two Fixes Leg
TFR
Temporary Flight Restriction
TGT
Target
T HDG
TIS
TIS-B
TIT
Index
Synchronize
SYN TERR
SYS
536
Stormscope
True Heading
Traffic Information Service
Traffic Information Service-Broadcast
Turbine Inlet Temperature
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
Definition
TKE
see also Track Angle Error
TMA
Terminal Maneuvering Area
TMR/REF
Top of Climb
TOD
Top of Descent
TOGA, TO/GA
Take-Off, Go-Around
Takeoff and Landing Data
TOPO
Topographic
TORA
Takeoff Run Available
Total
TPA
Traffic Pattern Altitude
Track
Direction of aircraft movement relative to a ground position; also
‘Ground Track’.
Track Angle Error
see also Track
Terminal Radar Service Area
Truncated
Total
TURB
Turbulence
TURN
Procedure Turn
TWIP
Terminal Weather Information for Pilots
TX
Transmit
Universal Access Transceiver
UHF
Ultra-High Frequency
Unavailable
United States
USR
User
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
UTM/UPS
V, Vspeed
Universal Transverse Mercator/ Universal Polar Stereographic Grid
Volts
Velocity (airspeed)
Takeoff Decision Speed
V2
Takeoff Safety Speed
VA
Maneuvering Speed
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
V1
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Appendices
V
Additional Features
US
AFCS
UAT
UNAVAIL
Hazard Avoidance
TTL
The angle difference between the desired track and the current
track.
Flight Management
TRUNC
Audio Panel and CNS
TOT
Engine Indication System
TOLD
TRSA
Flight Instruments
Timer/Reference
TOC
TRK
System Overview
Term/Acronym
537
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Flight Instruments
VAPP , VAC
Maximum Flap Extended Speed
VLE
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed
Engine Indication System
VLNDx
Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed
VMC
Minimum Control Speed
Audio Panel and CNS
Never-Exceed Speed
VR
Takeoff Rotate Speed
VREF
Landing Approach Speed, Reference Landing Speed
VSB
Maximum Speedbrake Speed
VSR
Stall Speed
Flight Management
VTIRE
Hazard Avoidance
Maximum Operating Speed
VNE
VT
AFCS
Approach Speed (Flaps at x°)
VLO
VMO (MMO)
Additional Features
Approach Climb Speed
VFE
Takeoff Flap Retraction Speed
Maximum Tire Speed
VX
Best Angle of Climb Speed
VY
Best Rate of Climb Speed
VYSE
Best Single-Engine Rate of Climb Speed
V DEV
Vertical Deviation
VA
Appendices
Definition
Heading Vector to Altitude Leg
VAC
Volts Alternating Current
VAPP
VOR Approach
VAR
Variation
VD
Heading Vector to DME Distance Leg
VDC
Volts Direct Current
VDL
VHF Datalink
VERT
Vertical
Vertical Figure of Merit
A measure of the uncertainty in the aircraft’s vertical position.
Vertical Speed Required
The vertical speed necessary to descend/climb from a current
position and altitude to a defined target position and altitude, based
upon current groundspeed.
Index
VFOM
538
see also Vertical Figure of Merit
VFR
Visual Flight Rules
VHF
Very High Frequency
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX C
VI
VLOC
VMC
VNAV, VNV
Definition
Heading Vector to Intercept Leg
VOR/Localizer Receiver
Heading Vector to Manual Termination Leg
Visual Meteorological Conditions
Vertical Navigation
Volume
VOR
VHF Omnidirectional Range
VPATH, VPTH
VPL
VHF Omnidirectional Range Station and Tactical Air Navigation
Vertical Path
Vertical Protection Level
VNAV Profile, Vertical Profile
VR
Heading Vector to Radial Leg
VRP
Visual Reporting Point
Vertical Speed
Vertical Situation Display
VSI
Vertical Speed Indicator
see also Vertical Speed Required
Vector to Final
W
Watt(s), West
Wide Area Augmentation System
WARN
Warning
WATCH
Weather Attenuated Color Highlight
WGS-84
World Geodetic System - 1984
Wireless Local Area Network based on IEEE 802.11
Weight on Gear
WOW
Weight on Wheels
Waypoint(s)
WT
Weight
WW
World Wide
WX
Weather
XFER, XFR
Transfer
XM LTNG
SiriusXM Lightning
Transmission
XPDR
Transponder
XTALK
Cross-Talk
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
Index
XMSN
Appendices
WPT
Additional Features
WOG
190-02130-02 Rev. A
AFCS
WAAS
Hazard Avoidance
VTF
WI-FI, WIFI
Flight Management
VSD
VSR, VS REQ
Audio Panel and CNS
VPROF
VS
Engine Indication System
VOL
VORTAC
Flight Instruments
VM
System Overview
Term/Acronym
539
System Overview
APPENDIX C
Term/Acronym
Definition
Cross-Track, Crosstrack Error
YD
Yaw Damper
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
XTK
540
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX D
WHAT IS SBAS?
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
The implementation of LPV approaches further improves precision approach capabilities. LPV
approaches are designed to make full use of the improved GPS signal from the SBAS. This
approach combines the LNAV/VNAV vertical accuracy with lateral guidance similar to the typical
Instrument Landing System (ILS). LPV approaches allow lower approach minimums.
Both LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches use the accuracy of SBAS to include vertical (glide path)
guidance capability. The additional accuracy and vertical guidance capability allows improved
instrument approaches to an expanded number of airports throughout the U.S.
Audio Panel and CNS
HOW DOES SBAS AFFECT APPROACH OPERATIONS?
Engine Indication System
The Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) uses a system of ground stations to correct any
GPS signal errors. These ground stations correct for errors caused by ionospheric disturbances,
timing, and satellite orbit errors. It also provides vital integrity information regarding the health of
each GPS satellite. The signal correction is then broadcast through geostationary satellites. This
correction information can then be received by any SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.
SBAS is designed to provide the additional accuracy, availability, and integrity necessary to enable
users to rely on GPS for all phases of flight.
There are several SBAS systems serving different parts of the world. The Wide Area
Augmentation System (WAAS) is currently available in the United States, including Alaska and
Hawaii. The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) offers coverage of
Europe, parts of the middle east and northern Africa. The Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation
System (MSAS) covers mainly Japan and parts of northern Australia.
Flight Instruments
If a particular aspect of system operational capability is not addressed by these commonly asked
questions or in the index, contact Garmin (see the copyright page or back cover for contact
information) or a Garmin-authorized dealer. Garmin is dedicated to supporting its products and
customers.
System Overview
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
AFCS
WHAT IS RAIM AND HOW DOES IT AFFECT APPROACH OPERATIONS?
Monitors and verifies integrity and geometry of tracked GPS satellites
•
Notifies the pilot when satellite conditions do not provide the necessary coverage to support a
certain phase of flight
•
Predicts satellite coverage of a destination area to determine whether the number of available
satellites is sufficient to satisfy requirements
NOTE: If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach
does not become active, as indicated by the “RAIM not available from FAF to MAP” message
and the LOI annunciation flagging on the HSI.
Appendices
•
Additional Features
RAIM is an acronym for Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring. RAIM is a GPS receiver
function that performs the following functions:
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
541
System Overview
APPENDIX D
Flight Instruments
For RAIM to work correctly, the GPS receiver must track at least five satellites. A minimum of six
satellites is required to allow RAIM to eliminate a single corrupt satellite from the navigation
solution.
RAIM ensures that satellite geometry allows for a navigation solution calculation within a
specified protection limit (2.0 nm for oceanic and en route, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for
non-precision approaches). The system monitors RAIM and issues an alert message when RAIM
is not available (see Appendix A). Without RAIM, GPS position accuracy cannot be monitored. If
RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the pilot must fly the missed approach procedure.
Engine Indication System
WHY MIGHT THERE BE NO APPROACHES AVAILABLE FOR A FLIGHT PLAN?
Approaches are available for the final destination airport in a flight plan or as a direct-to (keep in
mind some VOR/VORTAC identifiers are similar to airport identifiers). If a destination airport does
not have a published approach, the system indicates “NONE” for the available procedures.
Audio Panel and CNS
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN AN APPROACH IS SELECTED? CAN A FLIGHT PLAN WITH AN
APPROACH, A DEPARTURE, OR AN ARRIVAL BE STORED?
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
When an approach, departure, or arrival is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan, along with a header line showing
the title of the selected instrument procedure. The original enroute portion of the flight plan
remains active, unless the instrument procedure is activated. This may be done either when the
procedure is loaded or at a later time.
Flight plans can also be stored with an approach, a departure, or an arrival. Note the active flight
plan is erased when the system is turned off. Also, the active flight plan is overwritten when
another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, a departure, or an
arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the
waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the
information, provided the procedure has not been modified. Should an approach, departure, or
arrival procedure no longer be available, the flight plan becomes locked until the procedure is
deleted from the flight plan.
CAN “SLANT GOLF” (“/G”) BE FILED USING THE SYSTEM?
Additional Features
“/G” may be filed for a flight plan. GPS approaches are not to be flown with an expired database.
See the approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) as well as the Aeronautical Information Manual
(AIM) for more information.
Normal (OBS not activated)
OBS
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints
• Manual sequencing - ‘holds’ on selected waypoint
• Manual course change on HSI not
possible
• Manually select course to waypoint from HSI
Index
Appendices
WHAT DOES THE OBS SOFTKEY DO?
542
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX D
• Always navigates ‘TO’ the active
waypoint
• Indicates ‘TO’ or ‘FROM’ waypoint
• Must be in this mode for final
approach course
• Cannot be set for final approach course or
published holding patterns
WHY MIGHT THE SYSTEM NOT AUTOMATICALLY SEQUENCE TO THE NEXT WAYPOINT?
The system smooths adjacent leg transitions based on a normal 15° bank angle (with the ability
to roll up to 30°) and provides three pilot cues for turn anticipation:
•
A flashing turn advisory (‘Turn [right/left] to ###° in # seconds’) appears on the PFD 10 seconds
before the turn and flashes as it counts down to zero. ‘Turn [right/left] to ###° now’ or ‘Next
[DTK/HDG] to ###° now’ is displayed when the pilot is to begin the turn and the HSI (GPS
mode) automatically sequences to the next DTK or HDG value.
•
The To/From indicator on the HSI flips momentarily to indicate the midpoint of the turn has
been crossed.
AFCS
A waypoint alert (‘Next DTK ###° in # seconds’ or ‘Next HDG ###° in # seconds’) appears on the
PFD 10 seconds before the turn point and flashes as it counts down to zero.
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
WHEN DOES TURN ANTICIPATION BEGIN?
Audio Panel and CNS
The system only sequences flight plan waypoints when automatic sequencing is enabled (i.e., no
‘OBS’ or ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI). For automatic sequencing to occur, the aircraft must
also cross the bisector of the turn being navigated. The bisector is a line passing through the
waypoint common to two flight plan legs at an equal angle from each leg.
Engine Indication System
The OBS Softkey is used to select manual sequencing of waypoints. Activating OBS mode sets
the current active-to waypoint as the primary navigation reference and prevents the system from
sequencing to the next waypoint in a flight plan. When OBS mode is cancelled, automatic
waypoint sequencing is continued, and the system automatically activates the next waypoint in the
flight plan once the aircraft has crossed the present active waypoint.
Flight Instruments
OBS
System Overview
Normal (OBS not activated)
WHEN DOES THE CDI SCALE CHANGE?
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
543
Index
Unlike a VOR, the CDI scale used on GPS equipment is based on the crosstrack distance to the
desired course, not on the angular relationship to the destination. Therefore, the CDI deflection on
the GPS is constant regardless of the distance to the destination and does not become less sensitive
when further away from the destination.
Appendices
WHY DOES THE HSI NOT RESPOND LIKE A VOR WHEN OBS MODE IS ACTIVE?
Additional Features
Once a departure is activated, the system Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) full scale deflection is
set to 0.3 nm. The CDI scale changes to 1.0 nm (terminal mode) then ramps up to 2.0 nm
(enroute mode) at 30 nm from the departure airport. When 31 nm from the destination, the CDI
scale smoothly transition from 2.0 nm back to 1.0 nm (terminal mode). At 2.0 nm before the FAF
during an active approach, the CDI scale transitions down further based on the type of approach
activated (LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, LPV). When a missed approach is activated, the CDI is set to 0.3
nm. See the Flight Instruments Section for more details on CDI scaling.
System Overview
APPENDIX D
HOW DO I ACTIVATE A MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURE?
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
To comply with TSO specifications, the system does not automatically sequence past the MAP.
The first waypoint in the missed approach procedure becomes the active waypoint when the SUSP
Button is selected after crossing the MAP. All published missed approach procedures must be
followed, as indicated on the published approach.
To execute the missed approach procedure prior to the MAP (not recommended), touch the
PROC Button on the Home Screen or the Active Flight Plan Screen. Touch the Activate Missed
Approach Button to activate the missed approach portion of the procedure.
AFTER A MISSED APPROACH, HOW CAN THE SAME APPROACH BE RE-SELECTED? HOW
CAN A NEW APPROACH BE ACTIVATED?
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Do not attempt to reactivate the current approach prior to crossing the missed
approach point (MAP). If an attempt to do so is made, an alert message “Are you sure you
want to discontinue the current approach?” appears. The system directs the pilot back to the
transition waypoint and does not take into consideration any missed approach procedures, if
the current approach is reactivated.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
After flying the missed approach procedure, the pilot may reactivate the same approach for
another attempt by touching the PROC Button on the Home Screen, followed by the Activate
Approach Button. The system provides navigation along the desired course to the waypoint and
rejoins the approach in sequence from that point.
To activate a new approach for the same airport, select the new procedure by touching the PROC
Button, then touch the Approach Button to access the Approach Selection Screen. Then touch the
Approach Button. The Touchscreen Controller displays a list of approaches as buttons. Scroll as
needed and touch the desired approach button, then touch a transition button. The Touchscreen
Controller returns to the Approach Selection Screen. To activate the selected approach, touch the
Load & Activate Button.
To activate a new approach to a different airport, touch the Direct To Button to access the Direct
To Screen. Then touch the waypoint point and enter the desired airport using the keypad or large
and small right knobs. Touch the Enter Button or push the Right Knob to accept the selected
airport, then follow the steps in the preceding paragraph to select an approach for the new airport.
544
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
APPENDIX E
System Overview
MAP SYMBOLS
Item
Symbol
Flight Instruments
ARTCC Frequency or FSS Frequency
Map Pointer (when panning)
Measuring Pointer
Engine Indication System
User Waypoint
Vertical Navigation Along Track Waypoint
Audio Panel and CNS
Parallel Track Waypoint
Unanchored Flight Path Waypoint
Displayed when aircraft GPS location is valid, but heading is
invalid.
Flight Management
Top of Descent (TOD)
Bottom of Descent (BOD)
Navigating using Dead Reckoning
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190-02130-02 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
545
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
APPENDIX E
BLANK PAGE
546
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the PA-28-181 Archer
190-02130-02 Rev. A
INDEX
3D Audio Enabling/Disabling................................ 44
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Abnormal GPS Conditions.................................... 96
Acquisition Squitter............................................ 130
Activating Data Link Weather Services................ 288
Establishing an account................................... 289
SiriusXM Weather activation............................290
Active Frequency
COM...............................................................113
NAV........................................................ 108, 121
Additional TAWS-B Alerting................................354
Additional Traffic Displays...................................378
ADS-B................................................................ 382
ADS-B Traffic
ADS-B Traffic Status.........................................396
Altitude range................................................. 391
Changing the display range.............................394
Display of ADS-B traffic................................... 389
Motion Vector................................................. 393
Motion Vector display......................................393
Showing additional traffic............................... 394
Testing............................................................ 390
ADS-B with TAS/TCAS I...................................... 384
Air Data Failure.................................................... 15
Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference System
(ADAHRS)
Normal Operation............................................. 13
Troubleshooting................................................ 14
Airborne and Surface Applications......................387
Airport
Information Page.............................................173
Information Window....................................... 178
Nearest........................................................... 177
Nearest Airport Information on MFD................179
Nearest Airport Information on PFD................. 178
Nearest Surface/Runway Length Match............180
Select & Review by ID, name, or location......... 176
Viewing Destination........................................ 177
Viewing Runway Information.......................... 179
Airport Signs........................................................ 86
Flight Instruments
A
Airspace............................................................. 195
Alerts/Messages.............................................. 197
Changing altitude buffer distance................... 198
Displaying/Removing Alt Labels....................... 198
Reviewing Information.................................... 157
Selecting and Viewing Alert Information..........198
Smart Airspace................................................ 198
Turning On or Off Alert................................... 198
Turning Smart Airspace On/Off........................ 199
Airspeed Indicator................................................ 56
Airway............................................................... 166
Adding to Flight Plan...............................221, 223
Adding to Stored Flight Plan............................ 223
Collapsing....................................................... 242
Displaying and Removing................................ 168
Selecting Range...............................................168
Along Track Offset..............................................236
Entering Offset Distance.................................. 237
Altimeter..............................................................57
Altimeter pressure............................................. 59
Altitude display units......................................... 59
Barometric Pressure........................................... 60
Standard barometric..........................................60
Altimeter Baro Transition Alerts
Baro Transition Alerts.........................................60
Altimeter Overlays
Altitude overlays................................................59
Altimeter Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude............................................... 59
Altitude Alerting...................................................80
Altitude Constraint
Chart.............................................................. 252
Deleting a Manual Entry.................................. 254
Entering/Modifying..........................................253
Invalid Causes................................................. 253
Reverting Manual back to Original...................254
Altitude Intercept Arc......................................... 169
Angle of Attack Protection................................. 481
Annunciations...................................................... 11
Power Up............................................................ 9
Test Tone........................................................... 13
System Overview
3
Index
I-1
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
INDEX
Approach................................................... 227, 265
Activating a Loaded With Vectors to Final........270
Activating a Previously Loaded.........................270
Loading Into Active FP Using PROC Key........... 268
Loading into Active from Nearest Airport Page 268
Loading into Stored FP.................................... 228
Loading/Activating Visual Approach................ 273
Loading/Activating w/MENU Key..................... 270
Removing from Active FP.................................269
Service Levels.................................................. 266
Arrival........................................................ 225, 263
Alerts................................................................ 42
Loading into Active FP with PROC Key.............265
Loading into Stored FP.................................... 227
Removing from Active FP.................................265
Attitude Indicator................................................. 54
Audio Panel........................................................107
Controls.......................................................... 110
Fail-Safe Operation..........................................145
Preflight.......................................................... 144
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Rebroadcast
(ADS-R).............................................................. 383
Automatic Squelch............................................. 114
Auto-Tuning
COM...............................................114, 115, 117
NAV........................................................ 122, 124
Autozoom..........................................................154
B
Backlighting......................................................... 49
Adjusting Display...............................................49
Adjusting Key Backlighting................................ 49
Bearing Pointers
Selecting bearing sources.................................. 76
Bearing Pointers and Information Windows.......... 75
Blue-Select Mode............................................... 138
Bluetooth........................................... 111, 112, 143
C
Carbon Monoxide Detector................................ 104
CAS Messages............................................486, 487
Cell Movement (SiriusXM)
Cell Movement................................................319
Cell Movement with NEXRAD..........................319
Charts
Split Screen..................................................... 240
Cloud Tops (SiriusXM)
Cloud Tops...................................................... 316
COM Frequency Box...................................108, 113
COM Tuning Failure............................................145
I-2
Command Bar Format
Command Bar Format....................................... 55
Conflict Situational Awareness and Alerting....... 384
County Warnings (SiriusXM)
Displaying County Warning............................. 330
Course Deviation Indicator................................... 69
Crew Profile......................................................... 36
Creating............................................................ 36
Deleting............................................................ 37
Exporting to SD Card.........................................39
Import/Export Messages.................................... 36
Importing from SD Card.................................... 38
Renaming..........................................................37
Selecting an Active Profile..................................37
Customizing the Weather Data Link Page...........299
Cyclone (SiriusXM)............................................. 330
Displaying cyclone information........................ 331
D
Data Link Lightning (SiriusXM, Garmin Connext) 317
Data Link Lightning................................. 317, 318
Databases
Information......................................................... 9
Status................................................................13
Updates from any MFD Page........................... 515
Updates from the Aux - Databases Page.......... 517
Updates Using an SD Card.............................. 514
Date/Time Settings............................................... 39
Dead Reckoning Mode....................................... 284
Defaults
Restoring System Setup..................................... 35
Departure...........................................................261
Loading Into Active FP using PROC Key........... 263
Loading Into Stored FP.................................... 225
Removing from Active FP.................................263
Direct-To
Cancelling....................................................... 204
Manual Course Selection.................................203
Navigation.......................................................200
Reselecting Direct from Present Position.......... 203
Using the Pointer.............................................203
Vertical............................................................204
Direct-To Destination
Entering waypoint, facility, or city.................... 202
Selecting Active Flight Plan Waypoint.............. 202
Selecting Any Waypoint...................................203
Selecting Nearby Airport..................................203
Selecting Nearest, Recent, or User Waypoint....202
Selecting Waypoint with Pointer...................... 204
INDEX
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
F
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Field of View...................................................... 170
FIS-B Weather Status.......................................... 338
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather............... 339
Viewing FIS-B status........................................ 339
Five-Hundred Voice Alert.................................... 356
Flight ID............................................................. 130
Flight Path Marker................................................87
Flight Plan
Activating Pending.......................................... 216
Adding Airway................................................ 223
Creation.......................................................... 207
Deleting All Pending........................................217
Deleting Pending.............................................216
Exporting to SD Card.......................................213
Ignore Pending Transfer from Wireless............. 215
Import/Export Messages.................................. 211
Importing from an SD Card............................. 212
Leg Symbols.................................................... 206
Previewing Pending Transfer from Wireless...... 215
Stored............................................................. 229
Transfers..........................................................213
Views: Narrow and Wide.................................240
Engine Indication System
Echo Tops (SirisuXM)
Displaying....................................................... 315
Echo Tops (SiriusXM).......................................... 314
Electronic Checklist............................................ 476
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP)...............478
Emergency Frequency.................................109, 145
Engine Indication System (EIS)............................ 100
Engine Page....................................................... 102
Excessive Descent Rate Alert...............................354
Extended Squitter...............................................130
Flight Instruments
E
Flight Plan, Active...............................................233
Activating Leg................................................. 234
Adding Waypoint to Active..............................219
Approach Loading Using Nearest Pg................ 268
Approach Loading Using PROC Key................. 268
Approach, Removing....................................... 269
Arrival Loading with PROC Key........................265
Arrival, Removing............................................ 265
Changing Active FP Comment.........................236
Changing View............................................... 240
Closest Point................................................... 243
Closest Point in Active FP to a WPT..................243
Collapsing/Expanding Airways in Active...........243
Creating Active............................................... 209
Creating/Adding User Waypoints to Active...... 219
Deleting Active................................................234
Deleting Airway from Active............................ 235
Deleting Procedure from Active....................... 235
Deleting Waypoint from Active........................234
Departure Loading.......................................... 263
Departure, Removing...................................... 263
Exiting User-Defined Hold................................248
Inverting Active............................................... 234
Missed Approach, Activating........................... 271
Procedure Loading...........................................261
Removing User-Defined Hold...........................248
Split Screen Map Display................................. 242
Split Screen with Charts.................................. 242
User-Defined Hold at Direct-to WPT.................247
User-Defined Hold at PP.................................. 246
User-Defined Hold at WPT............................... 246
Visual Approach Loading/Activating................ 273
System Overview
Display Units........................................................ 41
Changing Unit Settings..................................... 42
Displaying Additional Traffic Information............ 394
Displaying Motion Vectors.................................. 392
Displaying Traffic Data........................................ 361
DME
DME Information Window.................................77
DME Information Window................................... 77
DME Pairing....................................................... 129
Index
I-3
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
INDEX
Flight Plan, Stored
Activating Stored on MFD............................... 230
Adding a Waypoint......................................... 218
Adding Airway................................................ 223
Adding Approach............................................ 228
Adding Arrival................................................. 227
Adding Departure........................................... 225
Changing Stored FP Comment........................ 232
Copying Stored FP on MFD..............................230
Creating Stored............................................... 210
Deleting Airway from Stored........................... 231
Deleting Procedure from Stored.......................232
Deleting Stored (All) FPs.................................. 233
Deleting Stored FP........................................... 233
Deleting Waypoint from Stored....................... 231
Inverting/Activating Stored on MFD................. 230
Storing Active from Page or Window...............229
Storing Pending...............................................215
Viewing Stored FP Info.................................... 230
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance.................... 352
Freezing Level (SiriusXM).................................... 325
Displaying Freezing Level................................. 326
Frequency Spacing..................................... 114, 118
Fuel Range Ring................................................. 170
Fuel Totalizer
Adjusting and Resetting.................................. 104
G
Garmin Connext Weather
Weather product age...................................... 292
Generic Timer...................................................... 78
Generic Timer....................................................78
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Dead Reckoning Mode.................................... 284
Failure............................................................... 15
Normal Operation............................................. 15
Selecting a Receiver's Data................................ 16
Viewing Receiver Status Information..................16
GPS CDI Scaling................................................... 72
H
Appendices
High Airspeed Protection....................................482
Holding
Creating User-Defined at Active FP WPT.......... 246
Creating User-Defined at Direct-To WPT...........247
Creating User-Defined at Present Position........ 246
Editing User-Defined........................................247
Exiting Active FP User-Defined Hold................. 248
Removing Active FP User-Defined Hold............ 248
Removing Off-Route User-Defined Hold...........248
User-Defined................................................... 243
Horizon Heading.................................................. 88
Horizontal Situation Indicator............................... 66
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI
HSI Map............................................................ 68
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
Navigation angle............................................... 69
Selected Course................................................ 68
Selected Heading.............................................. 68
HSI Double Green Arrow.................................... 121
HSI FMS CDI Setting
FMS CDI setting................................................ 74
HSI Navigation Sources
Changing navigation sources.............................70
HSI Single Green Arrow...................................... 121
HSI Single Magenta Arrow................................. 121
I
Icing (CIP & SLD) (SiriusXM)
Displaying icing information............................ 332
IDENT Function...................................................134
Inhibiting FLTA Alerting.......................................353
Intercom.................................................... 111, 135
Intercom Modes................................................. 136
Intersection........................................................ 180
Selection......................................................... 182
L
Line Replaceable Units (LRU)
Failure............................................................... 11
List...................................................................... 1
Status................................................................13
Viewing Information..........................................12
Low Altitude Annunciation...................................80
M
Index
Magnetic Field Variation Database......................519
Magnetometer Failure.......................................... 15
Manual Tuning
COM...............................................................114
NAV........................................................ 121, 122
I-4
INDEX
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
I-5
Audio Panel and CNS
P
Page Groups
Multi Function Display (MFD).............................29
Page Menu
Navigating Page Menu Window........................ 29
Page Selection
Using the FMS Knob..........................................30
Parallel Track...................................................... 237
Activating........................................................240
Cancelling....................................................... 240
Passenger Address (PA).......................................111
Pathways..............................................................88
Engine Indication System
NAV Frequency Box............................ 108, 120, 121
NAV Radio Selection...........................................121
Navigation
Dead Reckoning Mode.................................... 284
Navigation Data Bar
Changing a Field............................................. 150
O
OBS Mode............................................................74
OBS Mode.........................................................75
Operation...................................................376, 389
Flight Instruments
N
Navigation Map
Auto North Up................................................ 153
Changing Orientation......................................153
Configuring Automatic Zoom..........................155
Decluttering.................................................... 166
Displaying Topo data on MFD.......................... 160
Measuring Bearing/Distance............................ 158
Panning...........................................................157
Setting Topographic Display.............................160
Setting up Additional Group Items.................. 171
Setting up Land, Aviation or Airspace.............. 165
Topography..................................................... 159
Nearest
Airport............................................................ 177
Negative Climb Rate After Takeoff Alert (NCR)....355
NEXRAD (FIS-B).................................................. 308
Displaying FIS-B NEXRAD.................................311
Displaying FIS-B NEXRAD on the Navigation Map
Page................................................................311
NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data
Link (FIS-B)...................................................... 310
NEXRAD (SiriusXM)............................................ 303
Coverage region..............................................305
NEXRAD weather MFD navigation maps..........304
NEXRAD weather PFD maps............................ 304
Weather Data Link (XM) Page..........................304
NEXRAD Limitations................................... 307, 313
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)............................ 307
Non-Directional Beacon (NDB)............................ 182
Selection......................................................... 184
Normal Operating Mode...................................... 10
System Overview
Map
Airspace Symbols............................................ 164
Airway Symbols...............................................167
Autozoom.......................................................154
Aviation Symbols............................................. 162
Declutter......................................................... 165
Land Symbols.................................................. 162
Orientation......................................................151
Range............................................................. 153
Ranges............................................................ 147
Symbol Setup.................................................. 164
Marker Beacon...................................................125
Marker Beacon Annunciations..............................80
METARS and TAFS.............................................. 321
Displaying METAR and TAF.............................. 323
Displaying original METAR text........................ 323
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight
Plan.................................................................323
MFD Navigation Data Bar................................... 150
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting
............................................................................ 81
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height.......82
Missed Approach............................................... 271
Activating in Active FP..................................... 271
Mode S Transponder.......................................... 130
Modifying Vspeed Bugs
Vspeed Reference Bugs..................................... 57
Morse Code Identifier.........................................120
Multi Function Display (MFD)
Backlighting...................................................... 49
Controls.............................................................. 4
Page Groups..................................................... 29
Power Up............................................................ 9
Softkeys............................................................ 25
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
INDEX
PIREPS And AIREPS............................................. 334
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text.......................335
Pitch Engagement.............................................. 480
Premature Descent Alerting................................ 354
Primary Flight Display (PFD)
Backlighting...................................................... 49
Controls.............................................................. 4
Map................................................................ 147
Map Decluttering............................................ 166
Power Up............................................................ 9
Setting Topographic Display.............................160
Softkeys............................................................ 21
Procedure Loading
Available Procedures at Airport........................260
Into Active FP from Information Page...............261
Procedures......................................................... 259
Pages................................................................ 32
R
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM)
FDE Prediction Tool............................................ 18
Prediction.......................................................... 17
Reflectivity..................................................306, 313
Relative Terrain Symbology................................. 341
Reversionary Mode.......................................10, 145
Roll Engagement................................................ 479
Runway
Selection......................................................... 177
RX Indicator....................................................... 114
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
S
Satellite Constellation...........................................17
Satellite Status......................................................17
Scheduler............................................................. 47
Deleting a Message........................................... 48
Entering a Message........................................... 47
Secure Digital (SD) Cards........................................ 7
Inserting/Removing..............................................8
Settings, System................................................... 34
SIGMETS And AIRMETS...................................... 319
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs.....................321
Smart Airspace................................................... 198
Softkeys
Function............................................................21
Multi Function Display (MFD).............................25
Primary Flight Display (PFD)................................21
Speaker..............................................................135
I-6
Split Screen........................................................ 240
Displaying Active FP Map.................................242
Enabling/Disabling.............................................34
Functionality......................................................32
Viewing Charts and Active FP.......................... 242
Split-PA Mode.................................................... 135
Standby Frequency
COM.......................................................108, 113
NAV........................................................ 108, 121
Stuck Microphone.............................................. 145
Surface Analysis And City Forecast (SiriusXM)..... 324
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast...325
SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology).........................83
SVT Features........................................................ 86
SVT Field of View................................................. 94
SVT in Reversionary Mode.................................... 97
SVT Operation
Airport Signs..................................................... 85
Horizon Headings..............................................85
Pathways...........................................................85
SVT display........................................................85
SVT Runways........................................................91
SVT Terrain Alerting..............................................92
SVT Traffic............................................................ 92
SVT Troubleshooting.............................................97
SVT Unusual Attitudes..........................................98
SVT WireAware Power Line Obstacles...................94
Swapping audio in a headset................................44
System Messages....................................... 489, 490
System Setup
Restoring Defaults............................................. 35
System Status.............................................357, 380
System Test........................................................ 374
System Utilities..................................................... 44
T
TA Alerting Conditions....................................... 371
TAS Surveillance Volume and Symbology............ 369
TAS Theory of Operation.................................... 369
TAS Traffic
Customizing traffic display...............................379
Flight ID.......................................................... 377
HSI Traffic Map................................................379
PFD Traffic Overlay...........................................380
INDEX
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
Hazard Avoidance
AFCS
Additional Features
Appendices
V
Vertical Deviation................................................. 61
Engine Indication System
U
Unit Settings........................................................ 41
User Waypoint................................................... 188
Changing Storage Duration Setting................. 193
Creating from Information Page...................... 190
Creating from Map Pages................................191
Creating/Adding to Active FP...........................219
Deleting All..................................................... 194
Deleting Individual...........................................194
Editing............................................................ 192
Renaming........................................................193
Resetting Comments to Automate.................. 193
Selection......................................................... 190
Utilities.................................................................44
Flight Instruments
Traffic Information Service
Customizing traffic display...............................362
Muting............................................................365
PFD Inset or HSI Map.......................................362
TIS modes....................................................... 368
Traffic map page............................................. 364
Traffic Overlays................................................ 361
Traffic Information Service (TIS)...........................360
Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B)....... 383
Traffic Map Display Range.................................. 377
Traffic Map Page........................................ 363, 373
Transponder Code Entry..................................... 133
Transponder Data Box........................................ 109
Transponder Mode Selection...................... 130, 133
Trip Planning...................................................... 280
Fuel Statistics...................................................281
Other Statistics................................................ 282
Trip Statistics................................................ 46, 280
Calculations via Manual Data Entry..................283
Resetting Readouts............................................47
Selecting Automatic or Manual Page Mode..... 283
Selecting Flight Plan and Leg........................... 283
Selecting Flight Plan or Waypoint Mode...........283
Turbulence (SiriusXM)......................................... 332
Displaying turbulence information................... 333
Turn Rate Indicator............................................... 70
TX Indicator........................................................114
System Overview
TAS/TCAS I Traffic
Display range.................................................. 378
Displaying traffic............................................. 374
TAS/TCAS I Operating Mode............................376
Testing the Traffic System................................ 375
Traffic information (MFD navigation maps)...... 378
TAWS-B..............................................................340
Temperature Compensation............................... 274
Temperature Compensation Altitude
Cancelling....................................................... 276
Manually Activating.........................................275
Temperature Displays............................................78
Temperature display.......................................... 79
Terrain Displays
Aviation information....................................... 346
Customizing display........................................ 345
FLTA Alerting................................................... 354
Relative terrain information............................. 344
TAWS-B System Test........................................ 359
Terrain page.................................................... 346
Track Mode Boundary display.......................... 349
Vertical Situation Display................................. 347
VSD Mode.......................................................349
Terrain Page....................................................... 345
Terrain Proximity.................................................340
Terrain-SVT.........................................................340
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Alerting Displays.......... 350
Testing the System Annunciation Tone................489
TFRs................................................................... 336
Displaying TFR Data.........................................337
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps 338
Three Dimensional (3D) Audio............................ 140
Time/Date Settings............................................... 39
Configuring System Time.................................. 40
Timers.................................................................. 45
Resetting the Flight Timer..................................46
Setting Flight Timer........................................... 46
Setting Generic................................................. 45
Setting the Departure Timer.............................. 46
TIS Alerts............................................................364
Topography
Display/Remove Scale...................................... 161
Range Setting..................................................161
Track Mode Boundary........................................ 349
Track Vector....................................................... 168
Traffic Alerts....................................................... 372
Traffic Description...............................................388
Index
I-7
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AFCS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
INDEX
Vertical Navigation (VNV)....................................249
Activating Direct-To......................................... 250
Altitude Constraints........................................ 251
Enabling/Disabling Guidance........................... 250
Entering Along-Track Offset for WPT............... 204
Modifying VS TGT and FPA.............................. 251
Procedure WPT Manual Designation................ 253
Removing Altitude Constraint..........................205
WPT Manual Designation................................ 252
Vertical Navigation Indications.............................. 64
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)........................... 254
Disabling......................................................... 257
Enabling..........................................................257
Modes.............................................................256
Width Swath........................................... 256, 257
Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain................347
Vertical Speed Indicator........................................ 61
VFR Code........................................................... 133
VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR).....................184
Selection......................................................... 186
Visual Approach................................................. 272
Visual Reporting Point (VRP)............................... 187
Selection......................................................... 188
Voice Alerts........................................................ 488
VOR Selection.................................................... 121
Vspeed Bugs
Vspeed Reference Bugs..................................... 57
W
Waypoint........................................................... 172
Adding to Active FP.........................................219
Adding to Flight Plan.......................................217
Adding to Stored FP........................................ 218
Change Existing WPT to Present Position......... 193
Changing Arrival Alert Distance.........................43
Editing Comment or Location..........................192
Enabling/Disabling Arrival Alert..........................42
Fly-By/Over...................................................... 219
Information Window....................................... 172
Measuring bearing/distance between.............. 158
Reviewing Information.................................... 157
Selecting for Waypoint Mode.......................... 283
Weather Data Link Page Softkeys
Customizing the Weather Data Link Page........ 299
Map orientation.............................................. 300
Restoring default Weather...............................300
Viewing legends..............................................298
Weather Product Map Overlay
Weather legend.............................................. 302
I-8
Weather Product Map Overlays
Customizing weather data.............................. 302
Data Link Weather products............................ 303
Displaying Data Link Weather.......................... 302
Weather product icon and age display.............303
Weather product Sysmbols
Changing the data link weather source........... 294
Weather Products Map Overlays......................... 300
Weight and Balance
Entering Basic Empty Weight........................... 278
Entering Cargo Weight....................................279
Entering Fuel on Board Weight........................ 279
Entering Fuel Reserves Weight......................... 279
Entering Passenger Number.............................278
Entering Passenger Weight.............................. 278
Entering Pilot/Stores Weight............................ 278
Warnings........................................................ 277
Wind Data........................................................... 79
Wind data......................................................... 79
Wind Vector....................................................... 169
Winds Aloft
Displaying....................................................... 328
Vertical Situation Display................................. 329
Winds aloft data display for the VSD............... 329
Wire Obstacle Information and Alerting..............346
Z
Zero Pitch Line......................................................94
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