Garmin | G1000 NXi: Piper PA-34-220T Seneca | Garmin G1000 NXi: Piper PA-34-220T Seneca G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the PA-34-220T Seneca

Garmin G1000 NXi: Piper PA-34-220T Seneca G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the PA-34-220T Seneca
®
G1000
Pilot’s Guide
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR U.K.
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Zhangshu 2nd Road
Xizhi District,
New Taipei City, Taiwan
Piper PA-34-220T Seneca
Garmin International, Inc.
Garmin AT, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
2345 Turner Road SE
Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A. Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
www.garmin.com
®
Pilot’s Guide
Piper PA-34-220T Seneca
System Software 3360.00 or later
190-02477-00
Revision A
Copyright © 2018 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 3360.00 or later for the PA-34-220T. Some differences in operation may be
observed when comparing the information in this manual to earlier or later software versions.
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, Kansas 66062, U.S.A.
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Liberty House, Hounsdown Business Park
Southampton, Hampshire SO40 9LR U.K.
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Zhangshu 2nd Road
Xizhi District, New Taipei City, Taiwan
Contact Garmin Product Support at www.flygarmin.com.
For warranty information refer to www.flygarmin.com.
Except as expressly provided herein, no part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, transmitted, disseminated, downloaded or stored
in any storage medium, for any purpose without the express written permission of Garmin. Garmin hereby grants permission to download
a single copy of this manual and of any revision to this manual onto a hard drive or other electronic storage medium to be viewed for
personal use, provided that such electronic or printed copy of this manual or revision must contain the complete text of this copyright notice
and provided further that any unauthorized commercial distribution of this manual or any revision hereto is strictly prohibited.
Garmin®, G1000® NXi, FliteCharts®, SurfaceWatch™, and SafeTaxi® are registered trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its
subsidiaries. Garmin ESP™, Garmin SVT™, Connext®, and WireAware™ are trademarks of Garmin International, Inc. or its subsidiaries.
These trademarks may not be used without the express permission of Garmin.
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AOPA Membership Publications, Inc. and its related organizations (hereinafter collectively “AOPA”) expressly disclaim all warranties,
with respect to the AOPA information included in this data, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties
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representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any
incidental, special or consequential damages that result from the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if
AOPA or an AOPA authorized representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and, to
the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action, claims or losses related to any actual
or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for
incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to you.
AC-U-KWIK and its related organizations (hereafter collectively “AC-U-KWIK Organizations”) expressly disclaim all warranties with
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merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The information is provided “as is” and AC-U-KWIK Organizations do not warrant or
make any representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Licensee agrees not to sue AC-U-KWIK Organizations and, to the
maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AC-U-KWIK Organizations from any cause of action, claims or losses related
to any actual or alleged inaccuracies in the information arising out of Garmin’s use of the information in the datasets. Some jurisdictions
do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages so the above limitations
or exclusions may not apply to licensee..
Printed in the U.S.A
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34-220T Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of displayed aeronautical
information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude requirements. The
primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air traffic control altitude regulations,
requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of navigation. Basemap
data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data sources and should be considered only
an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate information
from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
WARNING: Do not rely on the displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) as the sole source of obstacle
and terrain avoidance information. Always refer to current aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum
clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Do not operate this equipment without first obtaining qualified instruction.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ by a
system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown map reference datum that
may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS (known as WGS84) and may be positioned
in error as displayed.
190-02477-00 Rev. A
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
WARNING: Do not rely on the accuracy of attitude and heading indications in the following geographic
areas (due to variations in the earth’s magnetic field): North of 72° North latitude at all longitudes; South
of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W.
(Northern Canada); North of 70° North latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada);
North of 70° North latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South
latitude between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole basis for hazardous
weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate or
incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or
reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of
the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is intended only
to enhance situational awareness.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34-220T Seneca
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing ammonia. They will
harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Do not allow repairs to be made by anyone other than an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and affect the airworthiness of the
aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the system panel
and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system and aviation databases.
Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely responsible for
its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which could affect the accuracy and
performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system use GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation
AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or
misinterpreted and, therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an intermittent loss of
attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving the aircraft more than 100 yards
away from the source of the interference should alleviate the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being provided in accordance with
California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would like additional information, please refer to
our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or electromagnetic fields
can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare annunciations during start up, shut
down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no
comparison is possible.
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that procedure in the
Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed among similar types of procedures
due to differences in the Navigation Database coding specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent avionics of the
following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory guidance and information
related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen. Databases
obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured
compliance with all data quality requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable
database and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for compliance with
established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures
that may be presented by the system. It is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established
POHs and regulatory guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list as discussed in
SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database exclusion list can be viewed at
www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and consider their
impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by
selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database information.
These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure; incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles
and fixes; or any other displayed item used for navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go
to FlyGarmin.com and select ‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: Electronic aeronautical charts displayed on this system have been shown to meet the guidance in AC
120 76D as a Type B Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) for FlightCharts and ChartView. The accuracy of the charts
is subject to the chart data provider. Own-ship position on airport surface charts cannot be guaranteed to
meet the accuracy specified in AC 120-76D. Possible additional requirements may make a secondary source
of aeronautical charts, such as traditional paper charts or an additional electronic display, necessary on the
aircraft and available to the pilot. If the secondary source of aeronautical charts is a Portable Electronic
Device (PED), its use must be consistent with the guidance in AC 120-76D.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34-220T Seneca
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT display or may appear as
a partial symbol.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process
the data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: Operate system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days of continuous operation to
avoid an autonomous system reboot.
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WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
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190-02477-00 Rev. A
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
BY USING THE DEVICE, COMPONENT OR SYSTEM MANUFACTURED OR SOLD BY GARMIN (“THE GARMIN PRODUCT”), YOU AGREE TO
BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT. PLEASE READ THIS AGREEMENT
CAREFULLY. Garmin Ltd. and its subsidiaries (“Garmin”) grants you a limited license to use the software embedded in the Garmin Product
(the “Software”) in binary executable form in the normal operation of the Garmin Product. Title, ownership rights, and intellectual property
rights in and to the Software remain with Garmin and/or its third-party providers. You acknowledge that the Software is the property of
Garmin and/or its third-party providers and is protected under the United States of America copyright laws and international copyright
treaties. You further acknowledge that the structure, organization, and code of the Software are valuable trade secrets of Garmin and/or its
third-party providers and that the Software in source code form remains a valuable trade secret of Garmin and/or its third-party providers.
You agree not to reproduce, decompile, disassemble, modify, reverse assemble, reverse engineer, or reduce to human readable form the
Software or any part thereof or create any derivative works based on the Software. You agree not to export or re-export the Software to
any country in violation of the export control laws of the United States of America.
190-02477-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34-220T Seneca
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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190-02477-00 Rev. A
REVISION INFORMATION
Record of Revisions
Part Number
190-02477-00
190-02477-00 Rev. A
Revision
A
Date
10/09/18
Page Range
Description
All
Production Release at GDU 20.87
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34-220T Seneca
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REVISION INFORMATION
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190-02477-00 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Description.................................................. 1
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).......................................... 1
System Controls....................................................... 4
PFD/MFD Controls......................................................... 4
Secure Digital Cards....................................................... 7
System Operation..................................................... 8
System Power-up........................................................... 8
Normal Operation.......................................................... 9
Reversionary Mode........................................................ 9
System Annunciations.................................................. 10
System Status.............................................................. 12
AHRS Operation.......................................................... 12
GPS Receiver Operation............................................... 14
Accessing System Functionality........................... 19
Softkey Function.......................................................... 19
Menus........................................................................ 24
MFD Page Groups........................................................ 25
Split Screen Functionality............................................. 28
System Settings........................................................... 30
System Utilities............................................................ 39
Display Backlighting.............................................. 43
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Flight Instruments.................................................. 48
Attitude Indicator........................................................ 48
Airspeed Indicator....................................................... 49
Altimeter.................................................................... 51
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)........................................ 54
Vertical Deviation........................................................ 54
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications............................ 56
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............................... 57
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)................................... 61
2.2 Supplemental Flight Data..................................... 70
Generic Timer.............................................................. 70
Temperature Displays................................................... 70
Wind Data.................................................................. 71
2.3 PFD Annunciations and Alerting Functions......... 72
Altitude Alerting.......................................................... 72
Low Altitude Annunciation........................................... 72
Marker Beacon Annunciations...................................... 73
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height Alerting....... 73
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2.4 Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology).......... 75
SVT Operation............................................................. 76
SVT Features............................................................... 77
Field of View............................................................... 87
2.5 Abnormal Operations............................................ 88
Abnormal GPS Conditions............................................ 88
SVT Troubleshooting.................................................... 89
SVT in Reversionary Mode............................................ 89
Unusual Attitudes........................................................ 89
SVT Unusual Attitudes.................................................. 90
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
3.1 EIS Display............................................................... 92
3.2 Engine Page............................................................ 94
Fuel Calculations........................................................ 96
3.3 EIS Display (Reversionary Mode)......................... 97
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Overview................................................................. 99
PFD Controls and Frequency Display............................ 100
Audio Panel Controls................................................. 102
COM Operation..................................................... 105
COM TUNING BOXES................................................. 105
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning................................. 106
Auto-tuning the COM Frequency................................. 106
Auto-tuning from the MFD......................................... 108
Frequency Spacing..................................................... 110
NAV Operation...................................................... 111
NAV Tuning Boxes..................................................... 111
NAV Radio Selection and Activation............................ 112
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning...................................... 112
Auto-tuning a NAV Frequency from the MFD................ 112
Auto-tuning NAV Frequencies on Approach Activation.. 115
Marker Beacon Receiver............................................. 115
DME Tuning.............................................................. 116
GTX 335 or GTX 345 Mode S Transponder........ 117
Transponder Controls................................................. 117
Transponder Mode Selection....................................... 118
Entering a Transponder Code...................................... 120
IDENT Function......................................................... 121
Flight ID Reporting.................................................... 121
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions...................... 122
Power-Up.................................................................. 122
Mono/Stereo Headsets............................................... 122
Speaker.................................................................... 122
Intercom................................................................... 123
Blue-Select Mode
(Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)....................... 125
Clearance Recorder and Player.................................... 126
3D Audio.................................................................. 126
Bluetooth®................................................................ 126
Telephone/Entertainment Inputs.................................. 127
4.6 Audio Panel Preflight Procedure........................ 128
4.7 Abnormal Operation............................................ 129
Stuck Microphone...................................................... 129
COM Tuning Failure.................................................... 129
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation.................................. 129
Reversionary Mode.................................................... 129
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
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SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Introduction.......................................................... 131
Navigation Status Box and Data Bar............................ 133
Using Map Displays.............................................. 135
Map Orientation........................................................ 135
Map Range............................................................... 137
Map Panning............................................................. 139
Measuring Bearing and Distance................................. 141
Topography............................................................... 141
Map Symbols............................................................ 144
Airways.................................................................... 148
Additional Navigation Map Items................................ 150
Waypoints.............................................................. 153
Airports.................................................................... 154
Non-Airport Waypoints............................................... 159
Airspaces............................................................... 167
Nearest Airspace....................................................... 168
Smart Airspace.......................................................... 171
Direct-to-Navigation ........................................... 172
Flight Planning...................................................... 176
Flight Plan Views....................................................... 179
Creating a Flight Plan................................................ 181
Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications............ 183
Flight Plan Operations................................................ 191
User-Defined Holding Patterns.................................... 195
Managing Flight Plans............................................... 198
5.7 Vertical Navigation.............................................. 207
Constraints............................................................... 208
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)................................... 211
5.8 Procedures............................................................ 216
Departures................................................................ 217
Arrivals .................................................................... 220
Approaches .............................................................. 223
5.9 Trip and Weight Planning.................................... 234
Trip Planning............................................................. 234
Weight Planning........................................................ 238
5.10 Abnormal Operation............................................ 241
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Data Link Weather................................................ 244
Activating Data Link Weather Services......................... 245
Weather Product Age................................................. 248
Displaying Data Link Weather Products........................ 252
Connext Data Requests.............................................. 262
Weather Product Overview......................................... 266
FIS-B Weather Status................................................. 302
Abnormal Operations for Garmin Connext Weather...... 304
Airborne Color Weather Radar........................... 306
System Description.................................................... 306
Principles of Airborne Weather Radar........................... 306
NEXRAD and Airborne Weather Radar ........................ 307
Antenna Beam Illumination........................................ 308
Safe Operating Distance............................................. 313
Basic Antenna Tilt and Range Setup............................ 313
Weather Mapping and Interpretation.......................... 317
Weather Radar Operation........................................... 320
Ground Mapping and Interpretation............................ 329
Additional Radar Displays........................................... 330
System Status............................................................ 334
Stormscope Lightning Detection System.......... 336
Using the Stormscope Page........................................ 336
Setting Up Stormscope on the Navigation Map............ 338
Terrain Displays.................................................... 340
Relative Terrain Symbology......................................... 341
Terrain Page.............................................................. 346
Wire Obstacle Information and Alerting....................... 347
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain........................ 347
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Alerting Displays.................... 350
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance............................. 354
Additional TAWS-B Alerting........................................ 354
Inhibiting Alerting...................................................... 357
System Status............................................................ 358
6.5 Traffic Information Service (TIS)......................... 360
Displaying Traffic Data............................................... 361
Traffic Map Page........................................................ 362
TIS Alerts.................................................................. 363
System Status............................................................ 365
6.6 GTS 825 Traffic...................................................... 367
Theory of Operation................................................... 367
TAS Alerts................................................................. 371
System Test............................................................... 372
Operation................................................................. 373
6.7 ADS-B Traffic......................................................... 379
ADS-B System Overview............................................. 379
ADS-B with TAS......................................................... 381
Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting.................... 381
Airborne and Surface Applications............................... 382
Traffic Description...................................................... 384
Operation................................................................. 384
ADS-B System Status................................................. 390
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS Overview..................................................... 393
Basic Autopilot Operation........................................... 393
AFCS Controls .......................................................... 394
7.2 Flight Director Operation.................................... 397
Activating the Flight Director...................................... 397
AFCS Status Box........................................................ 397
Flight Director Modes................................................. 398
Command Bars.......................................................... 399
7.3 AFCS Modes.......................................................... 401
Vertical Modes.......................................................... 401
Lateral Modes........................................................... 406
Combination Modes (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA).............. 410
7.4 Autopilot And Yaw Damper Operation.............. 422
Flight Control............................................................ 422
Engagement.............................................................. 423
Control Wheel Steering.............................................. 423
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Disengagement......................................................... 424
Level Mode............................................................... 424
Underspeed Protection............................................... 425
7.5 AFCS Annunciations and Alerts.......................... 428
AFCS Status Alerts..................................................... 428
Overspeed Protection................................................. 428
7.6 Abnormal Operation............................................ 430
Suspected Autopilot Malfunction................................ 430
Overpowering Autopilot Servos................................... 430
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SafeTaxi................................................................. 432
Charts..................................................................... 434
ChartView................................................................. 435
FliteCharts................................................................ 444
IFR/VFR Charts.......................................................... 450
Airport Directory.................................................. 454
Satellite Phone and SMS Messaging................. 455
Registering with Garmin Connext ............................... 455
Disable/Enable Iridium Transceiver.............................. 455
Telephone Communication......................................... 456
Text Messaging (SMS)................................................ 464
SurfaceWatch........................................................ 476
Information Box........................................................ 476
Alerts....................................................................... 478
SurfaceWatch Setup................................................... 480
Database Cycle Numbers and Revisions........... 483
Cycle Number and Revision........................................ 483
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment........................... 485
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services................. 485
Using SiriusXM Radio................................................. 486
Flight Data Logging............................................. 490
Electronic Checklists............................................ 492
Electronic Stability & Protection (ESP™)............ 494
Roll Engagement....................................................... 495
Pitch Engagement..................................................... 496
High Airspeed Protection............................................ 497
Connext Setup...................................................... 498
Abnormal Operation............................................ 501
GDL 69/69A SXM Troubleshooting............................... 501
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts.............................................. 503
CAS Message Prioritization......................................... 504
CAS Annunciations.................................................... 505
System Annunciations................................................ 508
System Messages...................................................... 508
Database Management................................................. 521
Loading Updated Databases....................................... 521
Database Deletion Feature ........................................ 531
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update................... 532
Aviation Terms and Acronyms....................................... 535
Frequently Asked Questions......................................... 545
Miscellaneous Map Symbols........................................ 549
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This section provides an overview of the G1000 NXi Integrated Avionics System as installed in the Piper PA34 Seneca. The system presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication, and identification
information to the pilot through large-format displays.
EIS
LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GDU 1050 / 1054 / 1055 (3) – The system features three 10 inch, high resolution LED backlit display
units. The left and right displays are GDU 1050s configured as Primary Flight Displays (PFD). The center
display may be either a GDU 1050, a GDU 1054, or a GDU 1055, and is configured as an Multi Function
Display (MFD). The displays communicate with each other through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) Ethernet
connection. Each display is also paired with an Ethernet connection to the GIA 64W.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• GIA 64W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking all LRUs with the PFD and MFD. Each
GIA 64W contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and system
integration microprocessors. Each GIA 64W is paired with the PFD and MFD via HSDB connection. The
GIA 64Ws are not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• GMU 44B (1) / GMU 44B (2) (optional) – The Magnetometer measures local magnetic field and sends data
to the AHRS for processing to determine aircraft magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from
the AHRS and communicates with it via an RS-485 digital interface.
• GRS 79 (1) / GRS 79 (2) (optional) – The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) provides aircraft
attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to the GDUs and both GIAs. The AHRS contains advanced
sensors (including accelerometers and rate sensors) and interfaces with the Magnetometer to obtain magnetic
field information, with the ADC to obtain air data, and with both GIAs to obtain GPS information.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• GDC 72 (1) / GDC 72 (2) (optional) – The Air Data Computer (ADC) processes data from the pitot/static
system and outside air temperature (OAT) sensor. The ADC provides pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical
speed, and OAT information to the system. It communicates with the GIAs, displays, and AHRS using an
ARINC 429 digital interface.
• GEA 71B (2) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit communicates
with both GIA 64Ws using an RS-485 digital interface.
APPENDICES
• GMA 1360 (1) – The Audio Panel integrates navigation/communication radio (NAV/COM) digital audio,
intercom, and marker beacon controls, and is installed between the displays. This unit also provides manual
control of display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP Button, and communicates with both GIAs
using an RS-232 digital interface.
INDEX
• GTX 335R/345R (1) – Solid-state transponders that provide Modes A, C, S and ADS-B capability. The
optional GTX 345R also provides ADS-B In/Out. The transponder can be controlled from the PFD. The
transponder communicates with the both GIA 64Ws through an RS-232 digital interface.
• GWX 75 (1) (Optional) – The GWX 75 provides airborne real-time weather and ground mapped radar data
to the MFD and PFD1, through the GSD 41 via HSDB connection.
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1
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• GDL 69A SXM (1) (Optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides data link weather information to
the MFD (and, indirectly, to the PFD Map) as well as digital audio entertainment. The GDL 69A SXM
communicates with the MFD via HSDB connection. Subscriptions to the SiriusXM Weather or SiriusXM
Satellite Radio services are required to enable the GDL 69A SXM capability.
• GTS 825 (1) (Optional) – The GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations of Mode
S and Mode C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of the air traffic control
system.
EIS
• GSR 56 (1) (Optional) – The Iridium Transceiver provides voice communications by means of a telephone
handset in the cabin and pilot and copilot headsets in the cockpit. The transceiver can also send and receive
short message service (SMS) text messages. The GSR 56 also receives data link weather products from the
Garmin Connext weather service through the Iridium satellite network. In addition, the transceiver can send
and receive data provided by the GDL 69A.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GSA 80 (4) (only with Garmin AFCS option) – The GSA 80 servo is used for the automatic control of pitch
trim and for the automatic control of pitch and roll. These units interface with each GIA 64W.
The GSM 86 servo gearboxes are responsible for transferring the output torque of the GSA 80 servo actuators
to the mechanical flight-control surface linkage.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system has the option to be equipped with a Garmin Automated Flight Control System (AFCS), which
includes the Flight Director (FD), Autopilot (AP), manual electric trim, and control wheel steering (CWS)
functions of the system.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-1 shows interactions between the LRUs. Additional/optional equipment are also shown in Figure 1-1.
The system is capable of interfacing with the following optional equipment:
• KN 63 DME
• Flight Stream 510 Wireless Transceiver
• WX 500 Stormscope
• KR-87 ADF
AFCS
The optional Flight Stream 510 device (SD Card) provides a Bluetooth® connection between the system and a
mobile device. GPS, AHRS, ADS-B, traffic, Sirius XM audio, and FIS-B weather data can then be shared with the
mobile device, and flight plans can be transferred to or from the mobile device. Also, database updates may also
be performed using the Flight Stream 510 WiFi link.
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment, consult the applicable optional interface user’s guide.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of this additional equipment.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GTS 825
(TAS)
GWX 75
(Weather Radar)
GDL 69A SXM
(XM Weather/
Audio Datalink)
#2
GDU 1050
(PFD2)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
#1
GDU 1050
(PFD1)
#3
GDU 1050
(MFD)
or
GDU 1054
(MFD)
or
GDU 1055
(MFD)
FS 510
(Wireless
Transceiver)
EIS
#2 GDC 72
(Air Data
Computer)
#1 GMU 44B
(Magnetometer)
KN-63
(DME)
#2 GMU 44B
(Magnetometer)
VHF COM
GPS/SBAS
G/S
#1 GRS 79
(Attitude &
Heading)
GPS/SBAS
#2 GRS 79
(Attitude &
Heading)
VOR/LOC
G/S
Flight
Director
Flight
Director
AFCS Mode
Logic
AFCS Mode
Logic
#1 GEA 71B
(Engine & Airframe
I/F)
WX 500
(Stormscope)
GSR 56
(Iridium
Transceiver)
AFCS
Servo Logic
KR-87
(ADF)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VOR/LOC
VHF COM
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
#1 GDC 72
(Air Data
Computer)
#2 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
#1 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
GMA 1360
(Audio
Panel)
Servo Logic
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
#2 GEA 71B
(Engine & Airframe
I/F)
APPENDICES
GTX 335R
(Transponder)
or
GTX 345R
(Alternate)
GSA 80 (4)
(Garmin AFCS
Servos)
Non-Garmin Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
INDEX
Garmin Equipment
Figure 1-1 System (LRU Configuration)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.2 SYSTEM CONTROLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Audio Panel is described in the Audio Panel & CNS section.
The system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels and audio panel. The controls for the PFD and
MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
EIS
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
2
5
4
3
6
7
8
9
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
17
18
24
19
10
13
25
11
14
20
26
12
15
21
27
22
28
23
29
16
Figure 1-2 PFD/MFD Controls
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1 NAV VOL/ID Knob
Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as a percentage)
Press to toggle Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF
Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies
2 NAV Frequency
3 NAV Knob
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Transfer Key
Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
Press to toggle light blue tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2
4 Heading Knob
9
12 CLR Key
(DFLT MAP)
13 MENU Key
15 ENT Key
Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus
Press and hold to display the MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or making setting
changes
Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and approach
procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport
Validates/confirms menu selection or data entry
APPENDICES
14 PROC Key
Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination waypoint and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier, chosen from the
active route)
Displays flight plan information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
11 FPL Key
)
AFCS
10 Direct-to Key (
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
8
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6
EIS
5
Turn to manually select a heading. When operating in Heading Select mode, this knob provides the heading reference to the flight director.
Press to display a digital heading momentarily to the left of the HSI and synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading
Turn to change map range
Joystick
Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning
Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting
CRS/BARO Knob
Turn the small knob to set the pilot-selected course on the HSI when the VOR1, VOR2, or
OBS/SUSP mode is selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected
VOR. The pilot-selected course provides course reference to the pilot-side flight director
when operating in Navigation and Approach modes.
Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO bearing of active waypoint/
station
Turn to tune COM transceiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for kHz)
COM Knob
Press to toggle light blue tuning box between COM1 and COM2
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the COM MIC Key (Audio Panel).
Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies
COM Frequency
Transfer Key (EMERG) Press and hold two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into
the active frequency field
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the COM Frequency Box)
Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF
INDEX
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
16 FMS Knob
Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF.
Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to enter data in the highlighted field (large knob moves
cursor location; small knob selects character for highlighted cursor location)
Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for the window/box, a scroll bar appears,
indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn large knob to scroll through the list.
Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to view (large knob selects a page
group; small knob selects a specific page from the group)
Sets the selected altitude in the Selected Altitude Box (the large knob selects the thousands,
the small knob selects the hundreds). In addition to providing the standard system altitude
alerter function, selected altitude provides an altitude setting for the Altitude Capture/Hold
mode of the AFCS.
Engages/disengages the Autopilot and Flight Director in the default vertical and lateral modes.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
(Flight Management
System Knob)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
17 ALT Knob
18
*AP Key
19
*FD Key
20
*NAV Key
Activates/deactivates the Flight Director only. Pressing the FD key turns on the Flight Director in the default vertical and lateral modes. Pressing the FD key again deactivates the Flight
Director and removes the command bars, unless the Autopilot is engaged. If the Autopilot is
engaged, the FD key is disabled.
Selects/deselects the Navigation mode.
21
*ALT Key
Selects/deselects the Altitude Hold mode.
22
*VS Key
Selects/deselects the Vertical Speed mode.
23
*FLC Key
Selects/deselects the Flight Level Change mode.
24
**YD Key
Engages/disengages the Yaw Damper
25
*HDG Key
Selects/deselects the Heading Select mode.
26
*APR Key
Selects/deselects the Approach mode.
27
Selects/deselects Vertical Navigation mode
28
*VNV Key
(if equipped)
*NOSE UP Key
29
*NOSE DN Key
Controls the active pitch reference for the Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change
modes.
Controls the active pitch reference for the Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change
modes.
*GDU 1054/1055 MFD Only
INDEX
APPENDICES
**GDU 1055 MFD Only
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The GDU 1050/1054/1055 data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right
portion of the display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots.
EIS
Inserting and Removing an SD card:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch engages. The front of the card
should remain flush with the face of the display bezel. To remove, gently press on the SD card to release the
spring latch and eject the card.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SD Card Slots
AFCS
Figure 1-3 PFD/MFD Display Bezel SD Card Slots
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-02477-00 Rev. A
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7
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This section discusses powering up the system, normal and reversionary display operation, system status, AHRS
modes of operation, and GPS receiver operation.
SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: See the Appendices for additional information regarding system-specific annunciations and alerts.
EIS
NOTE: See the current version of the pertinent flight manual for specific procedures concerning avionics
power application and emergency power supply operation.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical busses.
The PFD, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in test features that
exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When powering up the system, test annunciations are displayed and key annunciator lights also become
momentarily illuminated on the audio panel and the display bezels. On the PFD, the AHRS begins to initialize
and displays ‘AHRS ALIGN: Remain Stationary’. All system annunciations should disappear typically within
one minute of power-up.
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• System version
• Land database name and version
• Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
• Terrain database name and version
• Obstacle database name and effective dates
• Navigation database name and effective dates
• Airport Directory name and effective dates
• FliteCharts/ChartView database information
• IFR/VFR charts database information
• Crew Profile
• Copyright
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type. When this
information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is prompted to
continue. Pressing the ENT Key acknowledges this information and displays the Weight Planning Page.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NORMAL OPERATION
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD (see Section 1.5). In
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display.
In normal operating mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading, airspeed,
altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster (see the Flight Instruments Section
for more information). The MFD normally displays a full-color moving map with navigation information (see
the Flight Management Section), while the left portion of the MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication System
(see the EIS Section). Both displays offer control for COM and NAV frequency selection.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-4 System Normal Operation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
REVERSIONARY MODE
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the Appendices for
further information regarding system-specific alerts.
AFCS
In the event of an MFD failure, the system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode. In
reversionary mode, all important flight information is presented on the remaining display in the same format
as in normal operating mode.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• PFD failure – MFD remains in normal mode.
• MFD failure – PFD automatically switches to reversionary mode.
APPENDICES
If a display fails, the appropriate GIA Ethernet interface is cut off. Thus, the GIA 64W can no longer
communicate with the remaining display (refer to Figure 1-1), and the NAV and COM functions provided to
the failed display by the GIA 64W are flagged as invalid on the remaining display. The system reverts to backup
paths for the AHRS, ADC, Engine/Airframe Unit, and Transponder, as required. The change to backup paths is
completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot action is required.
INDEX
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9
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV1 and COM1 Flagged Invalid (provided by the failed PFD)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DISPLAY BACKUP Button
Manually Activates/Deactivates Reversionary Mode on All Displays
Figure 1-5 Reversionary Mode (Failed PFD)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reversionary mode may also be manually activated by pressing the Audio Panel’s red DISPLAY BACKUP
Button. Pressing this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to initialize. All windows
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window continues to remain flagged, the
system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair facility.
AFCS
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large amber or red ‘X’ is typically displayed on windows associated
with the failed data (refer to Table 1-1 for all possible flags and the responsible LRUs). Refer to the Pilot’s
Operating Handbook (POH) for additional information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The status of detected LRUs can be checked on the System Status Page. Active LRUs are indicated by green
check marks; failed by red ‘X’s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin-authorized dealer
informed.
Viewing LRU information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
APPENDICES
Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
INDEX
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NOTE: Refer to the the current version of the pertinent flight manual for additional information regarding
pilot responses to these annunciations.
Comment
System Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System Annunciation
Comment
Display system is not receiving
vertical speed input from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
attitude information from the
AHRS.
Display system is not receiving
valid heading input from the
AHRS or magnetometer.
EIS
Air Data, Attitude and Heading
Reference System is aligning.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
AHRS calibration incomplete or
configuration module failure.
AFCS
Other Various Red or
Amber X Indications
Display system is not receiving
valid ISA information from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid OAT information from the
air data computer.
Display system is not receiving
valid transponder information.
A red or amber ‘X’ through
any other display field (such as
engine instrumentation fields)
indicates that the field is not
receiving valid data.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
GPS information is either
not present or is invalid for
navigation use. Note that
AHRS utilizes GPS inputs
during normal operation.
AHRS operation may be
degraded if GPS signals are
not present (see the current
version of the pertinent flight
manual).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Display system is not receiving
altitude input from the air data
computer.
APPENDICES
Display system is not receiving
airspeed input from the air
data computer.
Table 1-1 System Annunciations
INDEX
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11
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system LRUs.
Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by green check marks
and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a service center or Garmin dealer
informed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page select the applicable list (LRU Information
or Airframe window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information within the selected
window.
AFCS
Figure 1-6 Example System Status Page
Pressing the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected) places the
cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information for the MFD.
Pressing the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database information is now
displayed in the database window. Pressing the softkey a third time will change the softkey label back to MFD1
DB. MFD database information is displayed again in the database window.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The ANN Test Softkey, when pressed, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
AHRS OPERATION
APPENDICES
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while AHRS is not operating normally may degrade AHRS accuracy.
INDEX
In addition to using internal sensors, the AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air data
to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic field
measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air data
information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are available and depend upon the
combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated
to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
12
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic Field
Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International Geomagnetic
Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s main magnetic field
and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5 years. See the Appendices for
information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The system will prompt you on startup when
an update is available. Failure to update this database could lead to erroneous heading information being
displayed to the pilot.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 1-7 AHRS Operation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
190-02477-00 Rev. A
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13
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
GPS INPUT FAILURE
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data and at true
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under these rare conditions, it
is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite amount of time which would result in an
extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs are unavailable.
EIS
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the information
provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to using the other GPS
receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs fail, the
AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the air data and magnetometer inputs
are available and valid.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while AHRS is operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red or amber “X” flags).
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer modes
and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the heading output
on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Each GIA 64W Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the specified
receiver (GPS1 for the #1 GIA or GPS2 for the #2 GIA) may be viewed on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver has
acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal. While
the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS receiver to
have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result in one of the GPS
receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
INDEX
APPENDICES
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on the PFD.
If no failure message exists, check the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page and compare the information for GPS1 and GPS2.
Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
14
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GPS Selection
Softkeys
SBAS Softkey Selected
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
RAIM Softkey
Selected
Figure 1-8 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
The ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page provides the following information:
AFCS
• Constellation
Satellites currently in view are shown at their respective positions on a sky view diagram. The sky view is
always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the horizon, the inner circle representing
45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the position directly overhead.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e., satellite
identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by solid ovals.
• Satellite Status
APPENDICES
This box provides information regarding signal status. The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is calculated
using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution of Precision (DOP), and horizontal and vertical figures
of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a circle centered on an estimated horizontal position in
which actual position has 95% probability of laying. EPU is a statistical error indication and not an actual
error measurement.
INDEX
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15
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are relative to
each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy. HFOM and VFOM,
measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95% confidence horizontal and
vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are displayed
below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
• GPS Status
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the active GPS
receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page. When the receiver
is in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses satellite orbital data
(collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine the satellites that should be
in view. ‘Acquiring’ is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number of satellites have been acquired for
computing a solution.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is indicated as the
solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation System)
indicates ‘Inactive’. When acquisition is complete, the solution status indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS
indicates ‘Active’.
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux’ Page Group (see Section 1.4 for information on navigating MFD
page groups).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) To change the selected GPS receiver press the desired GPS Softkey.
AFCS
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT Key.
• RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) Prediction (RAIM Softkey is selected)
APPENDICES
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected approach
may be outside the SBAS coverage area and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM prediction for the intended
approach.
INDEX
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a consistency
check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows the receiver to
calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for oceanic and enroute, 1.0
nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of
flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and time. RAIM
computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and time.
16
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190-02477-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not available. The
system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not available. If RAIM is
not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does not become active, as indicated
by the messages ‘Approach is not active and ‘RAIM not available from FAF to MAP’. If RAIM is not available
when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure must be flown.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
EIS
3) Push the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and press the ENT Key.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints (the FPL list is populated
only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or User waypoints, if
required.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system automatically fills in the
identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
Predicting RAIM availability at present position:
APPENDICES
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Push the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
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17
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM availability is computed, one of
the following is displayed:
• ‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date combination
• ‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
• ‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and date
EIS
• ‘RAIM not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and date
SBAS Selection (SBAS Softkey is selected)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage area, it may
be desirable to disable EGNOS, WAAS or MSAS (although it is not recommended). When disabled, the
SBAS field in the GPS Status box indicates Disabled. There may be a small delay for the GPS Status box to be
updated upon WAAS and MSAS enabling/disabling.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
3) Push the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or ‘WAAS’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
• GPS Satellite Signal Strengths
AFCS
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor satellite
coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength bar is displayed
for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or 120-138 for WAAS) below
each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as indicated by signal bar appearance:
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
- Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
- Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
- Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
- Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
- “D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
INDEX
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is hollow) before
the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.4 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
EIS
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the softkey
level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to select the appropriate softkey.
There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an annunciator on the softkey
label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects among several options, indicated by
the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option.
The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also,
these softkeys revert to the previous level after 45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled,
the softkey label is subdued (dimmed)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Softkey On Softkey Subdued
Softkey Names
(displayed)
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (press)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-9 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
PFD SOFTKEYS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions, including
GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back Softkey which can be
pressed to return to the previous level. If messages remain after acknowledgement, the Message Softkey
is black on white. The Messages Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the
transponder (XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
Level 2
Level 3
CAS
CAS Down
Map/HSI
Map Off
Inset Map
HSI Map
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INDEX
Layout
Description
Displays the scroll keys. Only displayed when the number of CAS messages
exceeds the capacity of the display window.
Scroll up CAS messages (Accessible only when the CAS Softkey is
displayed).
Scroll down CAS messages (Accessible only when the CAS Softkey is
displayed).
Displays the PFD Map display settings softkeys.
Displays the PFD Map selection softkeys.
Removes the PFD map from display (Inset or Traffic).
Displays the Inset Map.
Displays the HSI Map.
APPENDICES
CAS Up
Level 4
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Level 1
AFCS
The following table describes PFD Softkey functions. Softkeys which display another set of softkeys are
indicated in the table by showing the given set as an increased level. For example, the Map/HSI softkey is
shown in the Level 1 column. When pressed, the Map/HSI softkey will display another set of softkeys and
these softkeys are explained in the Level 2 column. If a softkey on Level 2 provides yet another set of softkey
functions, those new available softkeys are then explained in the Level 3 column, etc.
19
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Inset Trfc
HSI Trfc
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Detail
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Traffic
TER
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WX
LEGEND
NEXRAD
METAR
Lightning
Datalink
WX Radar
AFCS
TFC Map
PFD Opt
SVT
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pathways
Terrain
HDG LBL
APT Sign
Wire
Wind
Off
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
INDEX
Description
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Replaces the HSI Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Selects desired amount of map detail:
All (No Declutter): All map features visible
Detail 1: Declutters land data
Detail 2: Declutters land and SUA data
Detail 3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan
Displays traffic information on PFD Map.
Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes) and
elevation scale on PFD Map.
Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers,
lakes) and elevation scale.
REL: Displays relative terrain information.
Off: No terrain information shown.
Displays relative terrain information on the PFD Map.
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on PFD Map (optional).
LTNG Off
20
Level 4
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (optional).
Adds/removes the display of SiriusXM lightning information on PFD Map
(optional).
Disables lightning function on PFD Map. The softkey annunciator is green
when the lightning function is off.
Selects the data link weather source for the PFD Map (optional).
Displays airborne weather radar information on the HSI Map only. Not
available if Inset Map displayed.
Replaces the PFD Map with a dedicated traffic display.
Displays second-level softkeys for additional PFD options.
Displays additional SVT overlay softkeys.
Displays Pathway Boxes on the Synthetic Vision Display.
Enables synthetic terrain depiction.
Displays compass heading along the Zero-Pitch line.
Displays position markers for airports within approximately 15 nm of the
current aircraft position. Airport identifiers are displayed when the airport
is within approximately 9 nm.
Displays power lines on the Synthetic Vision Display.
Displays the wind option softkeys.
Wind information not displayed.
Headwind/Tailwind and crosswind components.
Wind direction arrow and speed.
Wind direction arrow with direction and speed.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 2
Level 3
DME
Bearing 1
ALT Units
OBS
XPDR
On
ALT
Activates transponder (transponder replies to identification interrogations).
Altitude Reporting Mode (transponder replies to identification and altitude
interrogations).
0-7
Ident
Message
APPENDICES
TMR/REF
Nearest
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
BKSP
Automatically enters the VFR code (1200 in the U.S.A. only).
Displays transponder code selection softkeys 0-7.
Use numbers to enter code.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Removes numbers entered, one at a time.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Activates the Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse for 18 seconds,
identifying the transponder return on the ATC screen.
Displays ‘References’ Window.
Displays ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
AFCS
VFR
Code
Ident
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displays the transponder selection softkeys.
Selects transponder Standby Mode (transponder does not reply to any
interrogations).
Standby
Ident
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CDI
DME
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
STD Baro
EIS
Meters
IN
HPA
Description
Displays ‘DME Information’ Window (optional).
Cycles the ‘Bearing 1 Information’ Window through NAV1, NAV2, FMS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency,
and Off.
Cycles the ‘Bearing 2 Information’ Window through NAV1, NAV2, FMS/
waypoint identifier and GPS-derived distance information, ADF/frequency, and
Off.
Displays softkeys to select altitude unit parameters.
When enabled, displays altimeter in meters.
Press to display the BARO setting as inches of mercury.
Press to display the BARO setting as hectopascals.
Sets barometric pressure to 29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric units are
selected).
Selects OBS mode on the CDI when navigating by GPS (only available with
active leg). When OBS is on, the softkey annunciator is green.
Cycles through FMS, NAV1, and NAV2 navigation modes on the CDI.
Displays/removes ‘DME Tuning’ Window (optional; may appear as blank or
DME depending on installation).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Bearing 2
Level 4
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Level 1
INDEX
Displays the ‘Messages’ Window when pressed. System generated
messages cause the Messages Softkey label to change to a flashing white
with black text label. Pressing the Message Softkey acknowledges the
message, and the softkey reverts to the black label with white text.
Table 1-2 PFD Softkeys
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21
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD SOFTKEYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic,
and weather (optional). There are many softkey functions available on the MFD depending on the page group
and screen selected.
EIS
The following table provides an example of the MFD Softkey functions accessed from the Navigation Map
screen. Further information concerning softkeys providing more navigation and flight planning functions
may be found in the Flight Management Section. Terrain, traffic, and weather softkey descriptions may
be found in the Hazard Avoidance Section. Further description of optional equipment and corresponding
softkey functions may be found in the Additional Features Section.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Level 1
Engine
Level 2
Level 3
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DEC Fuel
INC Fuel
RST Fuel
Map Opt
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Traffic
Inset
AFCS
Off
VSD
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TER
INDEX
APPENDICES
AWY
Description
Displays ‘EIS - Engine’ Page and second-level engine softkeys; press again
to exit page (see the EIS Section for more information)
Decreases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Increases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Resets displayed fuel remaining to maximum fuel capacity for aircraft and
fuel used to zero
Displays the second level map options softkeys.
Displays traffic information on ‘Navigation Map’ Page.
Displays inset window second level softkeys.
Removes VSD inset from ‘Navigation Map’ Page.
Displays VSD profile information of terrain/obstacles along the current track,
vertical track vector, and selected altitude.
Auto: Automatically displays either VSD profile information for
active flight plan information or along current track with no
active flight plan.
FPL: Displays VSD profile information for active flight plan.
TRK: Displays VSD profile information along current track.
Displays terrain on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No terrain information shown on MFD Map.
Topo: Displays topographical data (e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers,
lakes) and elevation scale on MFD Map.
REL: Displays relative terrain information on the MFD Map.
Displays airways on the map; cycles through the following:
Off: No airways are displayed.
On: All airways are displayed.
LO: Only low altitude airways are displayed.
HI: Only high altitude airways are displayed.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 2
Stormscope
Detail
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Checklist
AFCS
DP
STAR
APR
NOTAM
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SYNC
Info
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CHRT Opt
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Charts
Description
Adds or removes the display of Stormscope information on the Inset
Navigation Map. The softkey annunciator is green when the function is on.
When the function is off, the annunciator is gray.
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and coverage on ‘Navigation Map’ Page
(optional).
Displays XM lightning information on ‘Navigation Map’ Page (optional).
Displays METAR information on Inset Map (subscription optional).
Displays legends for the displayed XM Weather products (optional).
Displays airborne weather radar information on the HSI Map only. Not
available if Inset Map displayed.
Selects desired amount of map detail; cycles through the following levels:
Detail All: All map features visible.
Detail-1: Declutters land data.
Detail-2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Detail-3: Removes everything except for the active flight plan.
When available, displays optional airport and terminal procedure charts.
Displays chart display settings softkeys.
ROT CCW Rotates chart 90 degrees counter clockwise
ROT CW Rotates chart 90 degrees clockwise
Displays the complete chart on the scrren
All
Header Displays the chart heading
Displays only the diagram portion of the chart
Plan
Profile Displays only the descent profile on an approach chart
Minimums Displays only the approach minimums on an approach chart
Fit WDTH Changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
Full SCN Removes data window to display chart on screen.
Synchronizes chart to the selected chart
Displays airport information:
Info 1: Displays Chart Information Page
Info 2: Displays Airport Directory Page
Displays departure procedure chart.
Displays standard terminal arrival procedure chart.
Displays approach procedure chart.
Displays NOTAM information for selected airport, when available.
When available, displays optional checklists
EIS
XM LTNG
METAR
Legend
WX Radar
Level 3
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Level 1
Table 1-3 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
INDEX
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23
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MENUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This options list
allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically relate to the currently
displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus provide access to additional
submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus display ‘No Options’ when there are
no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used in association with all window/page group
operations are described in Section 1.2. Softkey selection does not display menus or submenus.
Navigating the Page Menu Window:
EIS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to the right of the window
when the option list is longer than the window).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pushing the FMS Knob also
removes the displayed menu.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on PFD
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Options with
FPL Window
Displayed on MFD
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 1-10 Page Menu Examples
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190-02477-00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
EIS
Active Page Title
Page Group
MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The page group and active
page title are displayed in the upper center of the screen, below the Navigation Data Bar. In the bottom right
corner of the screen, a page group window is displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are
displayed along the bottom of the window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs.
The current page group and current page within the group are shown in cyan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pages in
Current
Group
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Page Groups
Figure 1-11 Page Title and Page Groups
AFCS
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary depending
on the configuration of optional equipment.
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large FMS Knob until the
desired page group is selected
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
APPENDICES
There are several pages which may be selected by selecting the appropriate softkey at the bottom of the page
(or from the page menu). In this case, the active page title will change when a different page softkey is selected,
but the page will remain the same (i.e. the Radio and Info softkeys show different active page titles (‘Aux - XM
Radio’ and ‘Aux - XM Information’ respective) within the same page, ‘XM Radio’.
INDEX
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25
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Group
Map (Map Page Group)
Pages within Page Group
• Navigation Map
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• IFR/VFR Charts
• Traffic Map
• Radar (optional)
• Stormscope (optional)
EIS
• Weather Data Link (optional)
WPT (Waypoint Page Group)
• Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT (optional)/ TAWS-B (optional)
• Airport/Procedures/Weather Information Pages
- Airport Information (Info 1 Softkey)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Airport Directory Information (Info 2 Softkey)
- Departure Information (DP Softkey)
- Arrival Information (STAR Softkey)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Approach Information (APR Softkey)
- Weather Information (optional) (WX Softkey)
• Intersection Information
• NDB Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• VOR Information
• VRP Information
Aux (Auxiliary Page Group)
• User WPT Information
• Weight and Balance
• Trip Planning
AFCS
• Utility
• GPS Status
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• System Setup 1/2
• XM Radio
• XM Information
• System Status
APPENDICES
• ADS-B Status
• Connext Setup
• Databases
INDEX
• Satellite Phone (optional)
26
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Page Group
FPL (Flight Plan Page Group)
Pages within Page Group
• Active Flight Plan
- Wide View, Narrow View (View Softkey)
NRST (Nearest Page Group)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Flight Plan Catalog
- Stored Flight Plan (via New Softkey)
• SurfaceWatch
• Nearest Airports
• Nearest Intersections
EIS
• Nearest NDB
• Nearest VOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Nearest VRP
• Nearest User WPTS
• Nearest Frequencies
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS (Engine Instruments Page
Group)
• Nearest Airspaces
• Engine
Table 1-4 Page Group and Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu is
initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure Loading Page is
opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages
• Departure Loading
AFCS
• Arrival Loading
• Approach Loading
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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27
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SPLIT SCREEN FUNCTIONALITY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Chart pages may be viewed in split screen mode with either the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ or ‘FPL - Active
Flight Plan’ Page open. To activate the split screen functionality, press the Charts Softkey. Two display panes
are displayed on the MFD. If split screen is activated from the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, the page title will
show ‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’. If split screen is activated from the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, the
page title will change to show ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
MFD in Split Screen Mode (Narrow View)
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts is the
active display pane
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-12 Split Screen Mode
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CONTROLLING DISPLAY PANES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In split screen mode, the active display pane is outlined by a cyan box called the pane selector. Softkeys
and menu options will automatically change depending on which display pane is active. Display panes may
be displayed vertically in Narrow View, or horizontally in Wide View. In Narrow View, move the Joystick left
or right to move the pane selector. In Wide View, move the Joystick up and down to move the pane selector.
To change between Wide View and Narrow View, push and hold the Joystick.
MFD in Split Screen Mode (Wide View)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pane Selector Box
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts
is the active
display pane
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Move Joystick in
direction of cyan
arrows to move
display pane
- Push and hold
Joystick to change
Narrow/Wide view
Softkeys for the
active display pane
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-13 Split Screen in Wide View
For information on viewing Charts and the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page with the flight plan map, see the
Flight Management Section.
For more information on Charts and how to enable Charts Full Screen, see the Additional Features Section.
AFCS
Enabling/disabling split screen mode:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) From the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page press the Charts Softkey, or press
the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode On’. If necessary, press the CHRT Opt Softkey and press the Full SCN
Softkey to disable full screen mode.
2) To disable the split screen mode, press the Charts Softkey again or press the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode
Off’. The display returns to the base page, either the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight
Plan’ Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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29
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM SETTINGS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System settings and crew profiles are managed from the System Setup Pages. Fields shown in cyan text may
be edited. Managing crew profiles and editing the system time format, display units, arrival alerts, and audio
voice format settings are discussed in this section. For other system settings, see the reference given to their
respective sections.
If desired, the default system settings may be restored at any time.
Restoring system setup defaults:
EIS
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’, and press the ENT Key.
The message ‘Restore Setup X Page Defaults?’ is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Configure System
Time
Fields shown in Cyan may
be edited
Change Display
Unit Settings
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Configure arrival alert settings
- Enable / disable alert
- Set arrival alert trigger distance
AFCS
Restore System Defaults
Crew Profile
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Choose active profile
- Create new profile
- Edit, rename, and delete
existing profile (other than
default profile)
- Import / Export profile to
SD Card
Select System Setup Page
INDEX
- Setup 1
- Setup 2
Figure 1-14 System Setup 1/2 Pages
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CREW PROFILES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System settings may be saved under a crew profile. When the system is powered on, the last selected crew
profile is shown on the MFD Screen. The system can store up to 25 profiles; the currently active profile, the
amount of memory used, and the amount of memory available are shown at the top of the System Setup Page
in the box labeled ‘Crew Profile’. From here, crew profiles may be created, selected, renamed, or deleted.
Crew profiles may also be imported and exported via SD card.
EIS
Creating a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Create’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ Window is displayed.
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key. Crew profile names
cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to base the new profile.
Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default profile settings (initially based on Garmin
factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or other previously created profile settings.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Create’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Create & Activate’ and press the ENT Key to activate the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘Cancel’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Selecting an active profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the active profile field in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the crew profile list and highlight the desired profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The system loads and displays the system settings for the selected profile.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
INDEX
190-02477-00 Rev. A
APPENDICES
Renaming a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Rename’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Rename’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
31
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Deleting a profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
6) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
7) With ‘Delete’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the crew profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the Import Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Importing’ Window with ‘Import’ highlighted. Turn the large FMS Knob
to highlight the ‘Profile Name’ field, then scroll to the desired profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs,
then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘Import’ highlighted.
AFCS
5) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system displays an ‘Overwrite
existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace profile on the system with the profile
imported from the SD card, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
Crew Profile Importing window.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) If successful, the system displays ‘Crew profile import succeeded.’ in the window below. With ‘OK’ highlighted,
press the ENT or CLR Keys or push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page. The imported
profile becomes the active profile.
INDEX
Crew Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Crew Profiles Available for Import
from SD Card
Import Successful
Figure 1-15 Pilot Profile Import (Aux - System Setup Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Crew Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the Export Softkey. The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Exporting’ Window.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
EIS
4) To export the crew profile using the current selected profile, press the ENT Key with ‘Export’ highlighted. To
change the selected profile, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Profile Name’ field, then scroll to the
desired profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with
‘Export’ highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) If the selected profile to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the SD card, the system
displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on
the SD card with the profile to be exported, or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key
to return to the Pilot Profile Exporting window without exporting the profile.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) If successful, the window displays ‘Crew profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR
Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Aux - System Setup’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Export Successful
AFCS
Crew Profile Exporting Window, Enter
a Name to Use for Exported Profile
Figure 1-16 Pilot Profile Export on the Aux - System Setup Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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33
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PILOT PROFILE IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
‘No pilot profile plan files found to import.’
‘Overwrite existing profile?’
‘Profile name invalid. Enter a different
profile name.’
‘All available pilot profiles in use. Delete a
profile before importing another.’
‘Pilot profile import failed.’
‘Pilot profile import succeeded.’
‘Overwrite existing file?’
‘Pilot profile export failed.’
‘Pilot profile export succeeded.’
Displayed if the SD card does not have one or more valid pilot profile filenames.
Displayed if the profile name matches the name of existing profile.
Displayed if the profile name is invalid.
Displayed if the maximum number for pilot profiles has been reached.
Displayed if the importing operation fails for any other reason.
Displayed if the importing operation succeeds.
Displayed if the filename matches the name of an existing file on the SD card.
Displayed if the export operation fails.
Displayed if the export operation succeeds.
Table 1-5 Pilot Profile Import/Export Messages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DATE/TIME
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system obtains the current Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) date and time directly from the GPS
satellite signals (shown on the Aux - GPS Status Page). System time (displayed in the lower right corner of
the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local time is set by adding/
subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 1-17 System Time (UTC Format)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm selection. If local time
format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ field is highlighted.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 1-18 Date/Time Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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35
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
DISPLAY UNITS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system screens are listed on the System Setup Page.
The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set from here.
EIS
Category
Navigation Angle
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Distance and Speed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitude and Vertical
Speed
Temperature
AFCS
Fuel and Fuel Flow**
Weight
Position
Settings
Affected Quantities
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind direction (Trip Planning Page)
Metric
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Nautical*
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK fields (Navigation Status Box)
All distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
Feet*
All altitudes on MFD
Meters
All elevations on MFD
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
Gallons
Pounds
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
Fuel parameters (Trip Planning Page)
N/A
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
Exceptions
Airspeed Indicator
True Airspeed (PFD)
Wind speed vector
Map range (Traffic Page, Terrain
Proximity/TAWS Page)
CDI scaling (System Setup)
Fuel range calculation (EIS)
Altimeter
Vertical Speed Indicator
VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
Engine Indication System (EIS)
N/A
N/A
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
* Default setting
** Not configurable
Table 1-6 Display Units Settings (System Setup Page)
APPENDICES
Changing a display unit setting:
1) While on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
INDEX
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
BARO TRANSITION ALERT
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on setting the Baro Transition Alert.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AIRSPACE ALERTS
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on Airspace Alerts settings.
ARRIVAL ALERTS
EIS
The ‘Arrival Alert’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page allows the arrival alerts in the PFD ‘Messages’
Window to be turned ‘On/Off’ and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the ‘Messages’
Window and Navigation Status Box on the PFD. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message
upon reaching a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint
in a flight plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘On’, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint”
message is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]”
is displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘Off’, only the PFD Navigation Status
Box message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is
approximately ten seconds.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-19 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Enabling/disabling the arrival alert:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
APPENDICES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the distance field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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37
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SURFACEWATCH
See the Additional Features section for a discussion on SurfaceWatch settings.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT DIRECTOR
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion setting the Flight Director format.
MFD DATA BAR FIELDS
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on the MFD Data Bar Fields settings.
EIS
GPS CDI
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on setting the GPS CDI format.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM CONFIGURATION
See the Audio Panel & CNS section for a discussion on the COM Configuration for channel spacing.
NEAREST AIRPORT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on the Nearest Airport settings.
STABILITY & PROTECTION
See the AFCS section for a discussion on the Electronic Stability and Protection (Garmin ESP™).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AUDIO
The ‘Audio’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page allows the audio alert voice setting (male or female).
Changing the audio alert voice:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the voice field in the ‘Audio’ Box.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired voice setting and press the ENT Key.
CHARTS
INDEX
APPENDICES
See the Additional Features Section for a discussion on chart settings.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM UTILITIES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the ‘Aux - Utility’
Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer, and a record of the
time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and maximum groundspeeds—are
displayed from the time of the last reset.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 1-20 Utility Page
TIMERS
The system timers available on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page include:
• Stopwatch-like generic timers
AFCS
• Total-time-in-flight timer
• Time since departure
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the countdown
on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset before reaching zero on
a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting up when reset, the digits return
to zero.
Setting the generic timer:
APPENDICES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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39
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
4) If a starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to
‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
EIS
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that the
aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the flight timer.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
AFCS
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the time
to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can also be reset
to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is displayed is controlled from
the ‘System Setup’ Page.
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the field next to the departure time.
APPENDICES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the ENT Key.
Resetting the departure time:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these odometers can
be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip groundspeed. Maximum
groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
EIS
• Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
• Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
• Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The selected parameters are
reset to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SCHEDULER
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Change oil”,
“Switch fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”) in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display
based on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default setting),
or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to periodic alerting
automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When power is cycled, messages
are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Entering a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
AFCS
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty scheduler message naming field.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter the message text to be displayed in the PFD ‘Messages’ Window and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the field next to ‘Type’.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
• Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
APPENDICES
• One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
• Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
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INDEX
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value (HHH:MM:SS) from which to
countdown and press the ENT Key.
41
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
9) For event-based messages:
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MM-YYY) and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the next message.
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
EIS
2) Push the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the name field of the scheduler message to be deleted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the message is restored.
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Scheduler messages appear in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD and cause the Messages Softkey
label to change to a flashing white label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the ‘Messages’ Window
and acknowledges the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the black label. Pressing the Messages
Softkey again removes the ‘Messages’ Window from the display and the scheduler message is deleted from
the message queue.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 1-21 PFD ‘Messages’ Window
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1.5 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be adjusted
manually in one of two ways:
• Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
• Using the PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be
adjusted from the PFD. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from any remaining displays.
Adjusting display backlighting:
EIS
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup Menu’. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD Display’. If
desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to ‘MFD Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup Menu’. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted next to ‘PFD Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD Display’ or ‘MFD Display’, as desired.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD Key’ or ‘MFD Key’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘AUTO’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 1-22 PFD Setup Menu
INDEX
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
43
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Blank Page
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on selected flight
instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts, as they appear on the display
during certain AFCS flight director modes.
EIS
The system includes an easy-to-scan Primary Flight Display (PFD) that features a large horizon, airspeed, attitude,
altitude, vertical speed, and course deviation information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation,
communication, terrain, traffic, and weather information are also presented on the PFD and explained in other
sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
• Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
– Turn Rate Indicator
– True airspeed
– Bearing pointers and information windows
– Airspeed awareness ranges
– Navigation source
– Vspeed reference bugs
– Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
• Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
– DME Information Window (optional)
• Altimeter, showing
– HSI Map
• ADF/DME Tuning Window
– Barometric setting
• Timer/References Window, showing
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
– Trend vector
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
– Indicated airspeed
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Airspeed Indicator, showing
– Generic timer
– Selected altitude
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath
Indicators
• Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
• Wind data
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Outside air temperature (OAT)
– Barometric or temperature compensated
minimum descent altitude (MDA) or decision
height (DH)
AFCS
• Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
– Vspeed values
• International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
temperature deviation
The PFD also displays various alerts and annunciations.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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45
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
15
16
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
17
14
13
1
EIS
12
11
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2
10
3
9
4
8
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5
6
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7
1
Airspeed Indicator
10
Barometric Altimeter Setting
2
True Airspeed
11
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
3
Current Heading
12
Selected Altitude Bug
4
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
13
Altimeter
5
ISA Temperature Deviation
14
Selected Altitude
6
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
15
Navigation Status Box
7
Softkeys
16
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Selected Heading Bug
17
Attitude Indicator
9
Turn Rate Indicator
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
11
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
10
9
8
EIS
1
2
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7
3
5
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4
6
7
Selected Course
3
Wind Data Box
8
3
HSI Map
9
Required Vertical Speed
Indicator
Vertical Deviation Indication
4
Bearing Information Windows
10
VNV Target Altitude
5
Bearing Information Windows
11
Marker Beacon Annunciation
6
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height
AFCS
Selected Heading
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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47
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon line. The
Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
EIS
9
8
1
7
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2
6
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
4
5
1
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-3 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and numeric
labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚ increments, up to
25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the horizon line, minor pitch marks
occur every 2.5˚.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and minor tick
marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is indicated by the position
of the pointer on the roll scale. When the optional Electronic Stability and Protection System (Garmin ESP™)
system is installed and enabled, additional indications also appear on the roll scale; refer to the Additional
Features Section for more information about Garmin ESP.
INDEX
APPENDICES
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll pointer and
moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the turn) or skid (outside
the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer.
Figure 2-4 Slip/Skid Indication
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The amber symbolic aircraft on the Attitude Indicator changes appearance based on selection of AFCS Flight
Director Command Bar format (see the AFCS Section for details). The Command Bar format (single-cue or
cross-pointer) may be selected from the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Changing Command Bar format:
1) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the ‘Aux’ page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
4) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
EIS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Active’ in the ‘Flight Director’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
’Single Cue’ to display the aircraft symbol and Command Bars as a single cue.
Or:
’X Pointer’ to display the aircraft symbol and Command Bars as a cross-pointer.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cross-pointer
Single-cue
Figure 2-5 Flight Director Format
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
AFCS
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed is
displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the moving tape
are shown at intervals of 10 knots. The minor tick marks on the moving tape are shown at intervals of 5 knots.
Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is
displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains black until reaching never exceed speed (VNE), then it
becomes red.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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49
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
VYSE Blue
Line
Vspeed
Reference
Bugs
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Indicated
Airspeed
EIS
Low
Speed
Range
Red
Pointer
at VNE
VMCA Red
Line
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Speed
Ranges
True
Airspeed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-6 Airspeed Indicator Ranges
A color-coded (red, white, green, amber) speed range strip is located on the moving tape. The colors denote
flaps operating range, normal operating range, caution range, and never-exceed speed (VNE). A red range is also
present for low speed awareness.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded speed range
strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is anchored to the
tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down corresponding to the rate of
acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or deceleration, the moving end of the line
shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VNE,
the number in the indicated airspeed pointer changes to amber. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains
constant or if any data needed to calculate airspeed is not available due to a system failure.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The pilot can enable/disable the display of Vspeed Reference Bugs for F10, F25, F40, VX, VY , and VR. When
enabled, the Vspeed Reference Bugs appear in their respective positions to the right of the airspeed scale. When
the indicated airspeed is below 20 knots, enabled Vspeeds Reference Bugs and their numeric values appear in
a list at the bottom of the airspeed tape, ordered from highest to lowest. The pilot cannot change the values of
the Vspeed Reference Bugs.
Enabling/disabling individual Vspeed Reference Bugs:
APPENDICES
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the On/Off field for the desired bug.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
INDEX
4) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
References Window
References Window Menu
Figure 2-7 References Window and Menu
EIS
The pilot can also enable/disable all Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Enabling/disabling Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll as needed to highlight the desired selection.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the References Window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
ALTIMETER
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Altimeter displays 600 feet of barometric altitude values at a time on a moving tape rolling number gauge.
Numeric labels and major tick marks are shown at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at intervals of 20
feet. The indicated altitude is displayed inside the black pointer.
AFCS
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug symbol. A bug
corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape. If the Selected Altitude exceeds the range shown on the
tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. When the metric value is selected it is displayed
in a separate box above the Selected Altitude.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
A magenta Altitude Trend Vector extends up or down the left of the altitude tape, the end resting at the
approximate altitude to be reached in six seconds at the current vertical speed. The trend vector is not shown
if altitude remains constant or if data needed for calculation is not available due to a system failure.
Setting the altitude display units:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
APPENDICES
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘ALT, VS’ datafield in the ‘Display Units’ Window.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Feet(FT,FPM)’ or ‘Meters(MT,MPS)’ and press the ENT Key. This
setting affects altitude display system-wide, in addition to those shown on the PFD.
INDEX
190-02477-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
51
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Setting the Selected Altitude:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
T urn the ALT Knob to set the Selected Altitude. Turn the large knob for 1000-ft increments, small knob for 100ft increments. If set to Metric mode, the large knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 500-meter increments; the
small knob adjusts the Selected Altitude in 50-meter increments. When the altitude units overlays are enabled,
the increments alternate between a rounded value of feet or meters while turning the ALT SEL Knob. If set, the
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available for Selected Altitude.
If a Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value has been set, this altitude is also available for
the Selected Altitude.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Reference
Altitude
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Indicated
Altitude
Altitude
Trend
Vector
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Reference
Altitude
(Meters)
Indicated
Altitude
(Meters)
MDA/DH
Altitude
Bug
Barometric
Setting Box
(Hectopascals)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Barometric
Setting
Figure 2-8 Altimeter
AFCS
The pilot can chose to display overlays for the indicated altitude and Selected Altitude using alternate display
units. For example, if the Altimeter is displaying feet, the system can show a metric overlay for the indicated
and selected altitudes without changing the scale or display units of the Altimeter.
Displaying altitude in meters:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the Meters or Feet Softkey to enable/disable altitude overlays.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
INDEX
APPENDICES
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or hectopascals
(hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric pressure setting creates discontinuities
in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the
aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target
Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not operate properly
with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QHN altimeter setting for the height above mean sea level, or the
standard pressure setting, as applicable.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting standard barometric pressure (29.92 in Hg):
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the STD Baro Softkey.
3) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
EIS
Figure 2-9 Standard Barometric Setting
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in Hg).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
Press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the barometric
pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition Alert occurs when
climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The flight level Baro Transition
Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at 200 feet above this flight level.
The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the barometric pressure setting. The pilot
can enable/disable either Baro Transition Alert, and choose the altitude or flight level used to trigger the alerts.
AFCS
Setting the Baro Transition Alert:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) To enable/disable the Baro Transition Alert based on altitude, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or
‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition Alert Altitude in the BARO Transition Alert Box.
4) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Altitude On or Off.
APPENDICES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Altitude field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to change the altitude and press the ENT Key to accept or press the CLR Key to return to
the previous altitude selection.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition Alert Level.
INDEX
8) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Flight Level On or Off.
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Flight Level field.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
53
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
10) Use the FMS Knobs to change the Flight Level for the alert and press the ENT Key to accept or press the CLR
Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
11) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical guidance when
SBAS is available.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
A magenta chevron is displayed on the VSI to indicate the Required Vertical Speed for reaching a VNV target
altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has generated.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI; Figure 2-10) displays the aircraft vertical speed on a fixed scale with labels
at 1000 and 2000 fpm and minor tick marks every 500 fpm. Digits appear in the pointer when the climb or
descent rate is greater than 100 fpm. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 2000 fpm, the pointer appears at the
edge of the tape and the rate appears inside the pointer.
When Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used (Figure 2-10), the Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) appears
to the left of the altimeter and is displayed with a magenta ‘V’ at the top of the scale and a magenta chevron
indicating the baro-VNAV vertical deviation. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute”
alert. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight Management
Section for details on VNV features, and refer to Section 2.2, Supplemental Flight Data, for more information
about VNV indications on the PFD.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VERTICAL DEVIATION
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Glideslope Indicator (Figure 2-11) appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is
tuned in the active NAV field and the selected course and heading are within 107°. A green diamond acts as
the Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is tuned
and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Vertical
Speed
Scale
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VNV Target
Altitude
Glideslope
Indicator
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-10 Vertical Speed and
Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI)
Figure 2-11 Glideslope Indicator
LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, LP+V, Visual is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
•
LPV is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
•
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Glidepath Indicator is a vertical deviation scale for RNAV GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical
guidance (LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LNAV+V, LPV, LP+V, Visual). The Glidepath Indicator, a magenta diamond (Figure
2-12) appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the active waypoint, and FMS
is the selected navigation source. Full-scale deflection (two dots), is angular with upper and lower limits. The
upper limit is +/-492 feet (150 meters) and lower limits depend on approach service level.
If the approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the diamond.
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the
AFCS
active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC clearance, the aircraft may be
centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath Indicator appears.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: When the temperature is warmer than a standard day, the system-generated glidepath guidance for
a non-precision approach may cross below the FAF minimum altitude restriction.
APPENDICES
A hollow gray diamond represents a preview of the glidepath indicator. This is shown while inbound to the
FAF waypoint, but before the FAF waypoint is the next active waypoint. The preview is also shown when the
AFCS is coupled to the Vertical Path Tracking Mode (VPTH) while inbound to the FAF waypoint, until the
AFCS captures the glidepath; refer to the AFCS section for more information about Vertical Path Tracking Mode.
The hollow gray preview diamond changes to a solid magenta diamond to indicate the glidepath indicator is
active.
INDEX
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55
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Preview
Glidepath
Indicator
EIS
Glidepath Indicator
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-12 Glidepath Indicator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
While executing an SBAS approach with an LNAV/VNAV approach service level, and between the FAF and
MAP, the Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators appear as vertical white lines (Figure 2-13) indicating the area
where deviation exceeds allowable limits for the glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator provides
a scaled representation of +/- 75 feet of the calculated glidepath. The “window” between the lines represents
the area of acceptable deviation. The length of the lines change while progressing through the final approach.
When the Glidepath Indicator enters an excessive deviation area, the Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit
Indicators become amber.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicators
Glidepath
in area of
excessive
vertical
deviation
with
amber
indicators
Figure 2-13 Glidepath Indicator and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
APPENDICES
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
INDEX
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear on the
PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See the Flight
Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed from the PFD
according to the criteria listed in the table.
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Top of Descent Message
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
EIS
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Phase of
Flight
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-14 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VNV Indication Removed
Criteria
Required Vertical
Vertical
VNV Target
Speed (RVSI)
Deviation (VDI)
Altitude
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight plan change
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey pressed on MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed due to
unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight Management
X
X
X
Section)
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be reached within
X
X
maximum allowed flight path angle and vertical speed
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 2-1 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
APPENDICES
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
190-02477-00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
INDEX
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up orientation. Letters
indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at 10˚ intervals and minor
tick marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears on top of the HSI. The HSI also
presents turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and selected navigation source information. The HSI is available
in two formats: a 360˚ compass rose and a 210˚ HSI Map. The HSI Map is mutually exclusive with the Inset
Maps.
57
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling the HSI Map on the PFD:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Map Softkey to enable the HSI Map.
Or:
Press the Map Off Softkey to disable the HSI Map.
EIS
The HSI with the HSI Map disabled presents a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) with a Course Pointer, To/
From Indicator, and a sliding deviation bar and scale. The Course Pointer is a single line arrow (GPS, VOR1,
and LOC) or a double line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction of the set course. The To/
From Indicator rotates with the Course Pointer and appears when the system is receiving the active NAVAID.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
15
14
13
1
12
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2
3
11
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4
5
10
6
9
7
8
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
To/From Indicator
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
Course Pointer
11
4
Navigation Source
Course Deviation Indicator
(CDI)
12 Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
6
Lateral Deviation Scale
Turn Rate and Heading
Trend Vector
14 Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
15
8
OBS Mode Active
Lubber Line
INDEX
Figure 2-15 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay capabilities
such as topographical, weather, traffic, and land information. The HSI Map contains a Course Pointer, a
combined To/From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral deviation scale. Upon passing a
station, the To/From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft. Depending on the navigation source, the CDI
on the HSI Map can appear either as an arrowhead (GPS, VOR, OBS) as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight
Management Section for information about using HSI Map overlays.
Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunciation
Navigation Source
Course Pointer
EIS
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-16 HSI Map Enabled
• A sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and
deviation indicators are combined)
• OBS Mode/Suspend Mode Status
• Deviation scale
• Crosstrack Error (XTK)
• Navigation Source
• Back Course Annunciation (BC)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The following information appears above the Current Heading when the HSI Map is enabled:
• Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode Annunciation
AFCS
• Flight Phase
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
For the HSI Map, when a localizer is the active navigation source and the difference between the selected
course and current heading is greater than 107°, a ‘BC’ annunciation appears instead of the Flight Phase above
the selected course readout to indicate backcourse sensing is active. This annunciation does not apply to the
HSI when the HSI Map is disabled. In either case, when the system detects LOC BC guidance is active, the
localizer guidance behaves as if a front course were selected.
APPENDICES
Adjusting the Selected Heading:
Turn the HDG Knob to set the Selected Heading.
Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Adjusting the Selected Course:
Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of the active waypoint or
navigation station.
Current Track Indicator
Current Heading
Selected Heading
Selected Course
EIS
Selected Heading Bug
Figure 2-17 Heading and Course Indications
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag
Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page. When an approach referenced to
true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates an alert to remind the pilot to change the
navigation angle setting to ‘True’ at the appropriate time.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-18 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
AFCS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘NAV Angle’ in the ‘Display Units’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• True - References angles to true north (T)
INDEX
APPENDICES
• Magnetic - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral deviation
scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not valid, the CDI is not
displayed.
Navigation
Source
Crosstrack
Error
EIS
Flight
Phase
Scale
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
CDI
Figure 2-19 Course Deviation Indicator
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, FMS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current navigation
source, magenta for FMS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are defined by an FMSderived distance when coupled to the FMS. If the CDI exceeds the maximum deviation on the scale (two dots)
while navigating with FMS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed below the white aircraft symbol. When
navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-20 Navigation Sources
APPENDICES
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from FMS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan tuning box over the NAV1
standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
INDEX
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This places the cyan tuning box
over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to FMS.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
EIS
FMS
Selected
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
VOR2
Selected
Pressing the CDI Softkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-21 Selecting a Navigation Source
The system automatically changes from FMS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
• The final approach fix (FAF) is the active leg, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft is moving
toward the FAF
• A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• The FMS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
FMS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically changes to LOC until LOC capture, up
to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until FMS information becomes invalid. Activating a
Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source. FMS steering guidance is not
provided after the change.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix prior to the
FAF, it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically changes from FMS to
LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
Fix Prior to the FAF
INDEX
Glideslope Intercept Point
Figure 2-22 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
GPS CDI SCALING (FMS NAVIGATION SOURCE)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When FMS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in
magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the flight plan
is a heading leg, HDG LEG is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as System CDI on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page and
the full-scale deflection setting may also be selected (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page. If
the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is scaled
accordingly and the selected setting is displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
EIS
Changing the selected FMS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Push the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Format Allowed’ selection in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Enroute
(Oceanic if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
Terminal
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
Terminal
Missed
Approach
AFCS
Departure
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CDI Full-scale Deflection
When set to ‘Auto’ (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon the
current phase of flight (Figure 2-23, Table 2-2).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-23 Automatic CDI Scaling
• Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
APPENDICES
• The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
- The next leg in the departure procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF (see
Glossary for leg type definitions)
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INDEX
- After any leg in the departure procedure that is not a CA or FA
63
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
• At 30 nm from the departure airport, the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI scaling
changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure airport) or
the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is activated.
• If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the aircraft
and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (2.0 nm).
EIS
• Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from 2.0 nm
to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination airport,
the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0 nm to 1.0 nm
over a distance of 1.0 nm.
• During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (Figure 2-26 and Figure 2-27). This transition
normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling
automatically once the approach procedure is activated or if Vectors-To-Final (VTF) are selected.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of the
final approach segment course.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-24 Typical LNAV, LNAV+V, and Visual
Approach CDI Scaling
FAF
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
angle based
on database
information
course width
2 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
angle set
by system
350 ft
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and the preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
Figure 2-25 Typical LNAV/VNAV, LPV, and LP Approach
CDI Scaling
• When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
• The system automatically switches back to terminal mode under the following conditions:
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
INDEX
- The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not a CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
- After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not a CA or FA
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Approach
(Non-precision)
LNAV
VISUAL
L/VNAV
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
LPV
LP+V
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified course width, then
0.3 nm, depending on variables (Figure 2-25)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
Approach
(LPV)
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Approach
(LP)
Missed Approach
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet depending on
variables (Figure 2-24)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Approach
(LNAV/VNAV)
LNAV + V
EIS
Approach
(Non-precision with
Advisory Vertical
Guidance)
Automatic CDI Full-scale Deflection
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Annunciation*
DPRT
TERM
ENR
OCN
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Flight Phase
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
* Flight phase annunciations are normally shown in magenta, but when cautionary
conditions exist the color changes to amber.
AFCS
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OBS MODE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a GPS
flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current Active-to waypoint as the
navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. OBS is annunciated to the lower right of the aircraft
symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
EIS
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
While OBS is enabled, a course line is drawn through the Active-to waypoint on the moving map. If
desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled, the FMS flight
plan returns to normal operation, with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the course set in OBS
Mode. The flight plan on the moving map retains the modified course line.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
GPS
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Extended
Course
Line
OBS Mode
Enabled
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBS Mode
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBS Mode
Figure 2-26 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
AFCS
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Push the CRS Knob to synchronize the
Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
INDEX
APPENDICES
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. SUSP appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in Figure 2-27. Pressing the SUSP Softkey, deactivates
the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunciation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 2-27 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
TURN RATE INDICATOR
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
AFCS
Half Standard
Turn Rate
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Standard
Turn Rate
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left and right
of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend Vector shows the
current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6 seconds, based on the present
turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend vector stopping at the standard turn
rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from the current heading. At rates greater than
4 deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
Figure 2-28 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and FMS sources by
pressing the PFD Opt Softkey then either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey. The bearing pointers are cyan
and are single-line (BRG1) or double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the information window to
indicate the navigation source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI and are visually separated from
the CDI by a white ring. Bearing pointers may be selected but not necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
EIS
Tuning Mode
Frequency
Bearing 1
Pointer
Bearing 2
Pointer
Distance
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DME Information Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Distance to
Bearing Source
Bearing
Source
Pointer
Icon
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Station
Pointer
Identifier
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
Bearing
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
Figure 2-29 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
AFCS
When a bearing pointer is displayed, the associated information window is also displayed. The Bearing
Information windows (Figure 2-29) are displayed at the lower sides of the HSI and give the following
information:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Bearing source (NAV, FMS, ADF)
• Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double line)
• GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
• Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, FMS)
• Frequency (NAV)
APPENDICES
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is removed
from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced by the station
identifier when the station is within range. If FMS is the bearing source, the active waypoint identifier is
displayed instead of a frequency.
INDEX
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and dashes are displayed in the information window if the
NAV radio is not receiving a VOR station or if FMS is the bearing source and an active waypoint is not selected.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and information window
with a NAV source.
3) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to change the bearing source to GPS.
4) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey a third time to change the bearing source to ADF (note: ADF radio
installation is optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again.
EIS
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: DME radio installation is optional.
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window and shows the DME
label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance
is replaced by “–.– – NM”. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displaying the DME Information Window:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1 Information Window.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.2 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information, including a
generic timer, temperatures, wind data, and Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications.
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer can be accessed via softkeys on the PFD and allows for quick access for timing functions
(either counting up or down) for the pilot.
EIS
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (HH:MM:SS).
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the ENT Key. The Up/Dn field is now highlighted.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Up/Dn Window.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Start?’ is now highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘Stop?’. If the timer is counting down, it will start
counting up after reaching zero.
9) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to ‘Reset?’.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
10) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back to ‘Start?’ and the digits
are reset.
11) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and deviation from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) temperature
are displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD. Both temperatures are displayed in degrees Celsius (°C) or
Fahrenheit (°F), depending on the selected temperature units on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-30 Air Temperatures
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WIND DATA
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
EIS
Option 1
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Wind direction and speed in knots can be displayed relative to the aircraft in a window to the upper left of
the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or unavailable, the window
displays NO WIND DATA. Wind data can be displayed in three different ways.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 2-31 Wind Data
Displaying wind data:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
3) Press one of the numbered Option softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
• Option 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
AFCS
• Option 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
• Option 3: Wind direction arrow with headwind (H)/tailwind (T) and crosswind (X) components
4) To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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71
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.3 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following annunciations and alerting functions pertaining to flight instruments are displayed on the PFD.
Refer to Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
ALTITUDE ALERTING
Altitude Alerting provides the pilot with a visual alert when approaching the Selected Altitude. Whenever the
Selected Altitude is changed, the Altitude Alerter is reset. The following occur when approaching the Selected
Altitude:
EIS
• Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to black text on a cyan
background and flashes for five seconds.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude
changes to cyan text on a black background and flashes for five seconds.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the pilot flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the Selected
Altitude) an aural tone is heard. The Selected Altitude changes to amber text on a black background and
flashes for five seconds.
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-32 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: A Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available. This annunciation is only
AFCS
available when TAWS-B alerting has been inhibited.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical guidance,
a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet below the prescribed
altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber LOW ALT annunciation appears to the top left of the Altimeter, flashes
for several seconds, then remains displayed until the condition is resolved.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
TAWS Inhibited
Annunciation
Glidepath
Indicator
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Low Altitude
Annunciation
Figure 2-33 Low Altitude on GPS SBAS Approach
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer marker
reception is indicated in blue, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section
for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
Middle Marker
Inner Marker
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Outer Marker
AFCS
Altimeter
Figure 2-34 Marker Beacon Annunciations
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
APPENDICES
For altitude awareness, a barometric Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) can be set in
the References Window and is reset if the current approach is deleted, another approach is loaded, or the system
power is operated off then on. When active, the altitude setting is displayed to the bottom left of the Altimeter.
Once the altitude is within the range of the tape, a bug appears at the reference altitude on the Altimeter. The
following visual annunciations occur when approaching the MDA/DH:
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
• When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, the BARO MIN or COMP
MIN box appears with the altitude in cyan text. The bug appears on the altitude tape in cyan (or magenta for
COMP MIN) once in range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn white.
• Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text become amber and a “Minimums. Minimums” voice
alert occurs.
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
EIS
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selected
Altitude
Bug
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Barometric
Minimum
Box
Figure 2-35 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above the MDA.
If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA, once it reaches 50 feet above the MDA, alerting
is disabled. The function is reset when the power is cycled or a new approach is activated.
Setting the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) Press the TMR/REF Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
AFCS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select BARO or TEMP COMP. OFF is selected by default. Press the ENT Key or turn
the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) If TEMP COMP was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field and then
enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
APPENDICES
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the TMR/REF Softkey.
INDEX
Figure 2-36 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
2.4 GARMIN SVT (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and traffic avoidance.
SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not provide either the accuracy or reliability
upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
NOTE: Do not use the flight path marker as a flight director.
EIS
NOTE: Terrain alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South latitude. This is due
to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process the data representing
the affected areas.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is an optional visual enhancement to the system. SVT depicts a
forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The field of view is 29
degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. In Reversionary Mode, the field of view is 21.5 degrees to the
left and 35.5 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD), or on the
Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude,
heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arc-second database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant
features. The terrain data resolution is 4.9 arc-seconds, meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in
squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds on each side, is required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required
data, including temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled (although the softkeys will still
appear functional) until the required data is restored.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical map display),
large water features, towers, wind turbines, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are included in the obstacle
database. Cultural features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad tracks, cities, and state boundaries are
not displayed even if those features are found on the MFD map. The terrain display also includes a north–south
east–west grid with lines oriented with true north and spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation
relative to the terrain.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Terrain-SVT, which is included with the Garmin-SVT option, or the optional Terrain Awareness and Warning
System (TAWS) provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and obstacle threats relevant
to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow shading on the PFD.
Garmin-SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If SVT is enabled
when switching to Reversionary Mode, it will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD
display will be shown in the interim.
APPENDICES
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or fidelity on
which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must not be predicated
solely upon the use of the Garmin-SVT or TAWS-B terrain or obstacle data displays.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Figure 2-37 Synthetic Vision Imagery
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT OPERATION
AFCS
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD function
Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature softkeys. The softkeys
are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign. The Back Softkey returns to the previous level of
softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT feature may be activated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display. Pressing the
softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch attitude scale is reduced from 20
degrees up and down to 10 degrees up to 7.5 degrees down.
Pathways, HDG LBL, and APT Sign Softkeys are only available when the Terrain Softkey is activated (gray
with black characters). After activating the Terrain Softkey, the Pathways, HDG LBL, and APT Sign softkeys
may be activated in any combination to display desired features. On the next avionics power cycle, the last
selected state (on or off) of the Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and APT Sign Softkeys is remembered by the
system.
APPENDICES
• Pathways Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
• Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
• HDG LBL Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
INDEX
• APT Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the Terrain Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
EIS
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the Pathways Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the HDG LBL Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APT Sign Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
AFCS
Airport
Runway
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL) with
Compass
Heading
Marks
Flight
Path
Marker
APPENDICES
Synthetic
Terrain
Airplane
Symbol
INDEX
SVT
Softkeys
190-02477-00 Rev. A
Figure 2-38 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
77
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude deviation
information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AIRPORT SIGNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic terrain
display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately 15 nm from
an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the identifier until
the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are not shown behind the
airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by pressing the APT Sign Softkey.
Airport
Sign
without
Identifier
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airport
Sign with
Identifier
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 2-39 Airport Signs
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
APPENDICES
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at groundspeeds
above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft accounting for wind speed
and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM represents the
direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display, while the airplane symbol
represents the aircraft heading.
INDEX
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired altitudes
and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is aligned inside the
pathway boxes as shown.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant terrain or
obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the FPM could indicate
a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by Terrain-SVT or the optional TAWS system discussed in
the Hazard Avoidance section. However, decisions regarding terrain and/or obstacle avoidance should not be
made using only the FPM.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Wind
Vector
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-40 Flight Path Marker and Pathways
AFCS
HORIZON HEADING
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of compass
heading in 30‑degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and digits appearing
on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display. Horizon Heading is used
for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing the HDG LBL Softkey.
PATHWAYS
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
INDEX
190-02477-00 Rev. A
APPENDICES
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as colored
rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan. The box
size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight phases. During
an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI, whichever is less. The
height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less. The altitude at which the
pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the selected altitude or the VNV altitude
programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
79
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of flight and
navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by magenta boxes
that correspond to the magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes that correspond to a
green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by gray boxes corresponding to a white line
drawn on the navigation map indicating an inactive leg.
EIS
Selected
Altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Programmed
Altitudes
AFCS
Figure 2-41 Programmed and Selected Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and
some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and should not be used
independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator. They are removed from the
display when the selected navigation information is not available. Pathways are not displayed beyond the
active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that
would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong direction.
APPENDICES
Departure and Enroute
INDEX
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with pointers at
each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not displayed for the first leg
of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first segment displaying pathways is the
first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg of the flight plan route is outside the SVT
field of view, pathways will not be visible until the aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching
the center of the active leg and prescribed altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum
of four.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance. Flight
plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft at the altitude
selected or programmed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Descent and Approach
During an approach, Pathways be can shown for the programmed descent, level transition flight, and
at the Selected Altitude within the approach segments. When an approach providing vertical guidance is
activated, the corresponding approach glideslope or glidepath will be displayed using a color corresponding
to the selected navigation source and conditions.
EIS
White Pathways represent the next segment of the approach that is not yet active. Magenta Pathways
represent the active segment with GPS as the navigation source. Green Pathways indicate the ILS/LOC
navigation source. During the arrival/approach phases of flight, gray pathways indicate the anticipated
preview glidepath/glideslope. The gray Approach Preview Pathways will be displayed beginning at the start
of the segment leading to the FAF waypoint. With active approach vertical guidance, the selected altitude
will be displayed as a level gray Pathway if the Selected Altitude is lower than the glidepath/glideslope.
The gray Selected Altitude Preview Pathways are displayed until they converge with the green glideslope
or magenta glidepath pathways. If approach vertical guidance is not yet active, pathways at the Selected
Altitude will be displayed in magenta throughout the arrival/approach.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment altitudes
if GPS is the selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer inbound with the
LOC selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in green along the localizer and
glideslope. VOR, LOC, BC, and ADF approach segments that are approved to be flown using GPS are
displayed in magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or
VOR final approach courses are not displayed.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
TOD
EIS
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-42 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
Missed Approach
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point (MAHP) and
are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected altitude, whichever is
the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA) leg, the pathways boxes will
be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial missed approach leg is defined by
a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for that segment. In this case, the pathways
displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view and will be visible when the aircraft has turned
in the direction of that leg.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals that are
part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a MAHP unless a
defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FAF
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Descent displayed
by pathway
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
by pathway
EIS
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
MAHP
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 2-43 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
RUNWAYS
WARNING: Do not use SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining the proximity of the aircraft
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path angle during landing.
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these runways are not
displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding terrain. All
runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database. In some situations,
where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be layered. As runways are
displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in white. Other runways will be gray
in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that runway will appear brighter and be outlined
with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer
to the runway, more detail such as runway numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Other
Runway
on Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Airport
Runway
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 2-44 Airport Runways
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TRAFFIC
NOTE: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or may appear as a partial
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
symbol.
EIS
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic systems.
Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting closer, and smaller
when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not be displayed on the SVT
display. The SVT traffic symbols and colors are the same as the traffic symbols and colors shown on maps,
with the exception of ADS-B symbols. The SVT display shows non-directional traffic symbols for traffic with
ADS-B information. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not be displayed on the SVT display. For
more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard Avoidance section.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TERRAIN ALERTING
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA)
alerts, and corresponds to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading for a warning alert
on the navigation maps and ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Pages. For more detailed information
regarding Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B, refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on the
synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of the aircraft.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain
Annunciation
AFCS
Potential
Impact
Area
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-45 Terrain Alert
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower or wind
turbine symbols found on map displays. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with relative height
above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the map displays, which color obstacles relative to the
aircraft’s altitude, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change colors to warm of potential conflict
with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than
1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown. Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude
displays.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Obstacle
Cautions
AFCS
Figure 2-46 SVT with Obstacle Cautions
ZERO PITCH LINE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the terrain
horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the terrain
horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high altitudes.
APPENDICES
WIREAWARE POWER LINE OBSTACLES
NOTE: The WireAware obstacle database does not contain all known power lines. And as such, obstacle
avoidance is the sole responsibility of the flight crew.
INDEX
To enhance safety. SVT incorporates Garmin’s WireAware wire obstacle technology. WireAware database
information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power lines which are typically high
voltage transmission lines depicted on the VFR Sectional charts, and are considered of special interest to
pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers, valleys, canyons, or be in close proximity to
airports/heliports. For wire obstacles present in the obstacle database, the system shows these on the maps
as well as the Synthetic Vision display; see Hazard Avoidance section for more information about WireAware
alerting.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. Two dashed lines forming
a V‑shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area shown on the PFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Configuring field of view:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
EIS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the Map Group options to ‘Field of View’.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Push the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and Field of View
enabled.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Lines
Depict
PFD Field
of View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SVT View on the PFD
Field of View on the MFD
AFCS
Figure 2-47 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.5 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
EIS
The annunciations listed in the following table can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur.
Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
Location
GPS LOI
Right of HSI
GPS
INTEG OK
Right of HSI
Description
Loss of Integrity Monitoring–GPS integrity is insufficient for the current
phase of flight
Integrity OK–GPS integrity has been restored to within normal limits
(annunciation displayed for 5 seconds)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Lower left of aircraft
symbol if HSI Map Dead Reckoning–System is using projected position rather than GPS
is disabled, or on position to compute navigation data and sequence active flight plan
aircraft icon if HSI waypoints
Map enabled
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 2-3 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Figure 2-48 Example HSI Annunciations
APPENDICES
In Dead Reckoning Mode the CDI is removed from the display when FMS is the selected navigation source.
The following items on the PFD are then shown in amber:
• Current Track Bug
• Wind Data
• Ground Speed
INDEX
• Distances in the Bearing Information Windows
• FMS bearing pointers
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode as they become increasingly
inaccurate over time.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SVT is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs. SVT is
disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid SVT data, the
PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
• Attitude data
• Heading data
• GPS position data
EIS
• 4.9 Arc-second Terrain data
• Obstacle data
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
• The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
SVT IN REVERSIONARY MODE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled when switching
to Reversionary Mode, SVT will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard, non-SVT PFD display will
be shown in the interim.
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn of extreme
pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚ below the horizon
line.
Nose High
Nose Low
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 2-49 Pitch Attitude Warnings
INDEX
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89
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During an excessively high pitch attitude, the Synthetic Terrain display (if enabled) uses a solid blue bar to
represent the sky, and a solid brown bar to represent the earth. During an excessively low pitch attitude, a
solid blue bar represents the sky, while the terrain continues to be displayed. This prevents losing sight of the
horizon during extreme pitch attitudes.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed. The
Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on the display
and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during such situations. The
following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled when the aircraft experiences
unusual attitudes:
• Traffic Annunciations
• System Time
• AFCS Annunciations
• PFD Setup Menu
• Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
• Inset Map
• Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
• Windows displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD:
• Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
• ISA temperature deviation
– References Window
• Altimeter Barometric Setting
• Wind data
– Nearest Airports
• Selected Altitude
• Selected Heading readout
– Flight Plan
• VNV Target Altitude
• Selected Course readout
– Messages
• Ground Speed
• Transponder Status Box
– Procedures
• True Airspeed
SVT UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
AFCS
During an excessively high pitch attitudes, the Synthetic terrain display (if enabled) uses a solid blue bar to
represent the sky, and a solid brown bare to represent the earth. During an excessively low pitch attitude, a
solid blue bar represents the sky, while the terrain continues to be displayed. This prevents losing sight of the
horizon during extreme pitch attitudes.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Blue Band
INDEX
APPENDICES
Terrain
Completely
Fills Display
Figure 2-50 Blue Sky Bar with Full Display Terrain
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS)
NOTE: Refer to the current version of the pertinent flight manual for limitations.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically monitoring critical
system parameters during all phases of flight using the following:
• The Engine Indication System (EIS) displays electrical, fuel, engine, and flight control information on the
left side of the Multi Function Display (MFD). EIS information can also be fully expanded to an entire page by
pressing the Engine Softkey or turning the large FMS Knob to select the ‘EIS - Engine’ Page.
EIS
In combination with the EIS, aural alerts, additional avionics messages, and master indicators are used to
inform the crew of aberrant flight conditions.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS Display
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-1 MFD with EIS Display (Normal Mode)
APPENDICES
Green bands on the instruments indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate caution
and warning, respectively. White or uncolored bands indicate areas outside of normal operation not yet in the
caution or warning ranges. When unsafe operating conditions occur, the corresponding displays flash to indicate
cautions and warnings. If sensory data to an instrument becomes invalid or unavailable, an “X” is displayed across
the instrument.
INDEX
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91
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3.1 EIS DISPLAY
1
2
EICAS
EIS
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4
5
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6
7
8
9
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
10
11
12
AFCS
13
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-2 EIS Display
1 Engine Manifold Pressure
APPENDICES
Gauge
Figure 3-3 EIS when Engine Page is
Displayed
Displays manifold pressure in inches of Mercury (in Hg) to indicate engine
power
2 Tachometer
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm)
3 Propeller Sync Indicator
Points towards the higher-speed propeller when the propellers are out of sync
4
Turbine Inlet Temperature Displays the temperature for the right and left turbine inlets in °F
Indicator (TIT °F)
Displays fuel flow in gallons per hour (gph)
INDEX
5 Fuel Flow Indicator
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Displays oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
7 Oil Temperature Indicator
Displays oil temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
8 Alternator Current
Displays each alternator current in amperes
9 Voltage
Displays the bus voltage
10 Battery Current
Displays the battery current in amperes
11 Fuel Quantity Indicator
Displays the amount of fuel in gallons (gal) for each side of a standard fuel
tank
12
Displays flap position in degrees
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6 Oil Pressure Indicator
EIS
13 Landing Gear Status
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flap Position
Displays landing gear status
Down and Locked
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Warning
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In Transition
Up and Locked
Invalid
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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93
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.2 ENGINE PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ‘EIS - Engine’ Page displays all engine, fuel, fuel calculation, and electrical indications. To access this page,
press the Engine Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob and select the ‘EIS - Engine’ Page.
Level 1
Level 2
DEC Fuel
INC Fuel
RST Fuel
Displays Engine Page and second-level engine softkeys; press again to exit page
Decreases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Increases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
Resets displayed fuel remaining to maximum fuel capacity for aircraft and fuel used to
zero
CO RST
Resets the CO Detector (optional)
EICAS
EIS
Engine
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Description
15
14
13
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1
2
3
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4
5
12
6
AFCS
8
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7
9
11
10
APPENDICES
Figure 3-4 Engine Page
1 Engine Manifold Pressure
INDEX
Gauge
2 Tachometer
Displays propeller speed in revolutions per minute (rpm)
3 Propeller Sync Indicator
Points towards the higher-speed propeller when the propellers are out of sync
4
94
Displays manifold pressure in inches of Mercury (in Hg) to indicate engine
power
Turbine Inlet Temperature Displays the temperature for the right and left turbine inlets in °F
Indicator
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
6 Oil Pressure Indicator
Displays oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
7 Oil Temperature Indicator
Displays oil temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (°F)
8 Flap Position
Displays flap position in degrees
9 Landing Gear Status
Displays landing gear status
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displays fuel flow in gallons per hour (gph)
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5 Fuel Flow Indicator
EIS
Down and Locked
Invalid
Displays oxygen in pounds per square inch, vacuum in inches of Mercury, and
propeller heat in amperes. The pulse oximeter display shows a measurement
of blood oxygen as a percentage and heart rate in beats per minute when a
finger has been inserted into the pulse oximeter.
12 Engine Hours
Displays the total time in hours the engine has been in service
13 Cylinder Head
Cylinder head (CHT) temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit are displayed for
each cylinder using bar graphs and digital displays. Head temperatures are
shown in °F; a display for each cylinder is shown at the top of the graph. A
cylinder with a normal range CHT appears as a white bar, while a warning
range is shown as a red bar.
Displays alternator and battery currents in amperes, and bus voltage
15 Fuel Quantity Gauges
Displays the total amount of fuel and the amount of fuel in gallons (gal) for
each side of a standard fuel tank
APPENDICES
14 Electrical Group
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
11 Systems Group
AFCS
Displays calculated fuel used (GAL USED), endurance (ENDUR), and range (in
nautical miles, (RANGE NM), and fuel efficiency (in nautical miles per gallon,
NMPG) based on the displayed fuel remaining (GAL REM) and the fuel flow
totalizer
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
10 Fuel Calculations Group
Temperatures
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Warning
In Transition
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Up and Locked
INDEX
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95
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
FUEL CALCULATIONS
NOTE: Fuel calculations do not use the aircraft fuel quantity indicators and are calculated from the last time
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
the fuel was reset.
Fuel used (GAL USED), endurance (ENDUR), range (in nautical miles, RANGE NM), and fuel efficiency (in
nautical miles per gallon, NMPG) are calculated based on the displayed fuel remaining (GAL REM) and the fuel
flow totalizer. The calculated range also takes into account the aircraft’s heading and the wind direction and
speed.
EICAS
EIS
ADJUSTING THE FUEL TOTALIZER QUANTITY:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Press the Engine Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob and select the ‘EIS - Engine’ Page. Use the DEC Fuel and
INC Fuel Softkeys to obtain the desired fuel remaining (GAL REM).
RESETTING THE FUEL TOTALIZER:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the Engine Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob and select the ‘EIS - Engine’ Page. Select the RST Fuel
Softkey; this resets displayed fuel remaining (GAL REM) to the maximum fuel capacity for the aircraft and fuel
used to zero.
Set Fuel Remaining
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Calculated Fuel Used
Calculated Endurance
Calculated Range
AFCS
Fuel Efficiency
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 3-5 Fuel Calculations Group
APPENDICES
A map feature related to the EIS Fuel Calculations is the Fuel Range Ring, which graphically illustrates the
aircraft’s remaining range based on the endurance (ENDUR), heading, groundspeed, and wind direction and
speed. The solid green circle represents the range until all the remaining fuel is depleted. The dashed green
circle indicates the aircraft range until only reserve fuel remains. Once on reserve fuel, the range is indicated
by a solid amber circle.
The Fuel Range Ring shifts position in relation to the aircraft according to wind effects. For example, more
fuel is required for flying into a headwind, and the aircraft’s decreased range in that direction is indicated by the
Fuel Range Ring shifting toward the tail of the aircraft symbol.
INDEX
The amount of reserve fuel (only for purposes of the Fuel Range Ring) is set on the Navigation Map Page,
Setup Menu in terms of remaining flight time. When enabled the Fuel Range Ring appears on the Navigation
Map Page, the Weather Data Link Page, and PFD Inset Map. (Refer to Flight Management for more information
on the Fuel Range Ring).
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3.3 EIS DISPLAY (REVERSIONARY MODE)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Should a system detected failure occur on the MFD, the PFD automatically enters reversionary mode. Should a
system detected failure occur on the PFD, reversionary mode must be activated manually, if desired. Refer to the
System Overview section for more information.
In reversionary mode, the EIS display is identical to the normal EIS Display on the MFD.
EIS Display
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 3-6 Reversionary Mode
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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97
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EICAS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Blank Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4.1 OVERVIEW
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panel, communication radios,
navigation radios, and Mode S transponder. The System Overview Section provides a block diagram description
of the Audio Panel and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• Audio Panel
• Multifunction Display (MFD)
• Mode S Transponder
EIS
• Primary Flight Display (PFD)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio selection.
The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and passengers, a marker beacon
system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft radios is reduced by a feature called
Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected, MASQ processing further reduces the amount of
background noise from the radios.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Mode S Transponder is controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary Flight Display
(PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The data box displays the active
four-digit code, mode, and a reply status (Figure 4-1).
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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99
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
9
10
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
11
12
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and Nearest Airports Window
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and station ID. The
frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The selected and
decoded COM transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between COM1 and
COM2.
7
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press and hold this key
for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically into the active frequency
field.
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic squelch on
and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
Nearest Airports Window – Display by pressing Nearest Softkey.
10
ENT Key – Validates or confirms an Auto-tune selection.
11
FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes and Auto-tune entries
when NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor on and off. The large
knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects individual characters for the highlighted
cursor location.
12
Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and ident status
for the applicable transponder.
AFCS
4
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow between NAV1 and NAV2.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
EIS
2
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code identifier audio on
and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a percentage.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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101
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
17
PA Annunciation
18
19
20
21
22
Volume/Squelch
Annunciations
24
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
23
25
26
GMA 1360
AFCS
Figure 4-2 Audio Panel Controls
1
COM1 MIC – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard. COM2 receive can be
added by pressing the COM2 Key.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard.
3
COM2 MIC – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected when
this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard. COM1 receive can be
added by pressing the COM1 Key.
4
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: When a GMA 1360 Key is selected, the in-key annunciation is illuminated.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
9
ADF – Turns optional ADF receiver audio on or off.
10
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
11
PILOT ICS – Controls the pilot intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable Bluetooth recording mode.
12
TEL – When selected, audio from the satellite telephone can be heard.
13
COPLT ICS – Controls the copilot intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable Bluetooth recording
mode.
14
MUS1 – Selects/Deselects the MUS1 audio source and assigns the Bluetooth device to the MUS1 audio. Press
the MUS1 key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE
to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The
Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time for each audio panel. Once the Bluetooth audio
is assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and
WHITE.
15
PASS ICS – Controls the passenger intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable Bluetooth recording
mode.
16
MUS2 – Selects/Deselects the MUS2 audio source and can assign the Bluetooth device to the MUS2 audio.
Press the MUS2 key until the annunciator turns blue. The in-key annunciator will cycle from OFF to WHITE
to BLUE. WHITE selects the wired audio source and BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. NOTE: The
Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time for each audio panel. Once the Bluetooth audio
is assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and
WHITE.
17
SPKR/PA – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker. The selected COM transmitter is deselected when the
SPKR/PA Key is pressed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
AFCS
8
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DME – Turns optional DME audio on or off.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
AUX – Reserved for optional audio.
EIS
6
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUX MIC – Reserved for optional audio.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5
Press and hold SPKR/PA for 2 seconds to select the PA system. When the PA is active the annunciation to
the right of the SPKR/PA softkey will be illuminated. The annunciator will flash when PA mode is active
and the PTT is pressed.
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker beacon receiver
audio. Unmutes automatically when new marker beacon audio is received. Also, stops play of recorded
COM audio.
19
HI SENS – Press to increase marker beacon receiver sensitivity. Press again to return to low sensitivity.
APPENDICES
18
INDEX
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103
20
PLAY – Press once to play the last recorded COM audio. Press again while audio is playing and the
previous block of recorded audio is played. Each subsequent press plays each previously recorded block.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play.
21
MAN SQ – Enables manual squelch for the intercom. When the intercom is active, press the VOL/SQ
Knob to illuminate the squelch annunciation. Turn the VOL/SQ Knob to adjust squelch.
22
Volume/Squelch Indicator – Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
23
Volume/Squelch (VOL/SQ) Control Knob – Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the
selected source (indicated by the flashing white or blue annunciator). When the volume control cursor is not
active press to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume control cursor is active, press twice (once to cancel
the cursor, twice to activate Blue-Select mode). Press and hold for five seconds to enable the audio panel as
discoverable for pairing. The Bluetooth Annunciator will flash to indicate that the unit is discoverable. The
unit will remain discoverable for 90 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once a successful pair is
established, the audio “Bluetooth paired” is played.
24
Cursor (CRSR) Control Knob – Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or blue annunciator) to the desired
source.
25
Bluetooth® Connection Annunciator – A flashing cyan annunciator indicates the unit is discoverable. A solid
blue annunciator indicates an active Bluetooth connection.
26
DISPLAY BACKUP Button – Manually selects Reversionary Mode.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TUNING BOXES
2
3
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1
5
4
7
EIS
6
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 4-3 COM Tuning Box Indications
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used and the active
COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
3
Standby Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the right. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
4
Frequency Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which COM transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field.
5
Automatic Squelch Indication – Indicates that Automatic Squelch is disabled. Automatic Squelch quiets
unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing good sensitivity to weak COM
signals. When Automatic Squelch is disabled, COM audio reception is always on. Continuous static noise
is heard over the headsets and speaker, if selected.
APPENDICES
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which COM transciever is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2
AFCS
Active Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
left. An active COM frequency is displayed in green and indicates that the COM transceiver is selected
on the Audio Panel (COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key). Both active COM frequencies appearing in white
indicate that no COM radio is selected for transmitting (PA Key is selected on the Audio Panel).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1
INDEX
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105
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
6
Transmit and Receive Indications – During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the active COM
frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow. During COM signal reception, a white RX appears by
the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow.
7
Frequency Spacing – The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or
8.33-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When
8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in
the complete 3040-channel list.
8
COM Volume – COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of the MFD and PFD.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large knob for MHz; small knob for
kHz).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
• ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’ Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
• ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (PFD)
• ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
on the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency. Pressing the Frequency
Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of 25 nearest airport
identifiers and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
EIS
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active Frequency Field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the Nearest Softkey to Open
the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
Figure 4-4 Nearest Airports Window
APPENDICES
INDEX
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107
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
From certain pages in the NRST or WPT page groups, COM Frequencies can be automatically loaded into
any of the standby or active locations on the COM Frequency Box. If a frequency is loaded into an Active
COM location, the previously active frequency will be transferred into the standby location. Hightlighting
a frequency that can be auto-tuned and pressing the ENT Key will display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
Pressing the ENT Key again will Load the frequency into a Standby location, or Transfer/Load the frequencies
in the Active locations.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Selecting an Active COM Location will
transfer the current frequency into the
standby location as well as load the new
frequency into the Active location.
Figure 4-5 Auto-Tuning a COM Frequency ‘Load Frequency’ Window
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or
pressing the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency field.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the selected COM frequency field.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu .
AFCS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency field.
INDEX
APPENDICES
7) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the selected COM frequency field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
EIS
Nearest Airports Menu
Figure 4-6 Nearest Pages Menus
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
On the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing
the FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. The frequency can be transferred to the desired COM field
by pressing the ENT Key. to bring up the ‘Load Frequency’ Window, selecting the desired COM field, and
pressing the ENT Key again.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Runway Information
AFCS
Press ENT Key to
display the ‘Load
Frequency’ Window.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press INFO 1 Softkey
for AIRPORT,
RUNWAYS, and
FREQUENCIES
Windows
APPENDICES
INDEX
Turn the FMS Knob to
select the desired COM
field location. Press the
ENT Key again to load
the frequency into the
selected location.
Figure 4-7 ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Screen COM Auto-Tune
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’, ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’,
and ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or
MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FREQUENCY SPACING
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000
to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected,
all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
EIS
COM channel spacing is set on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
1) Select the ‘AUX – System Setup 1’ Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the ‘COM Configuration’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
While the ‘COM Configuration’ Box is selected, the softkeys are blank.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
INDEX
Figure 4-8 ‘Aux – System Setup 1’ Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV TUNING BOXES
3
4
5
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2
1
6
EIS
7
4
NAV Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio standby frequency fields with the Frequency
Transfer Arrow. Indicates which NAV transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby Field. Moving the Frequency
Tuning Box is accomplished by pressing the NAV knob on the PFD.
5
VOR/LOC Morse Code Audio Indication – When the Morse code Identifier audio is on for a NAV radio,
a white ID replaces the Frequency Transfer Arrow to the left of the active NAV frequency. In order to
listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID
Knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only in the radio with the NAV Tuning Box. To turn on/off both
NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing the small NAV Knob and
pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
6
Decoded Morse Code Station Identifier – The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code
station identifier that is received from the navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station
identifier can be accomplished by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing
the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
7
NAV VOLUME – NAV radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ Knob.
Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise decreases volume.
When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby frequencies. Volume level indication
remains for two seconds after the change.
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INDEX
Active Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies are on the
right. An active NAV frequency is displayed in green. The active NAV radio is selected by pressing the
CDI softkey on the PFD. Both active NAV frequencies appearing in white indicate that no NAV radio is
selected.
APPENDICES
3
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with the Frequency
Tuning Box. Indicates which NAV transciever is selected for frequency transfer between the Standby and
Active fields.
AFCS
2
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Standby Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby frequencies are on
the left. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or gray. The standby frequency in
the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-9 NAV Tuning Box Indications
111
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active NAV
frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects NAV1 as the
navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation radio. Pressing the
CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles back to NAV1.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for tuning,
the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active NAV frequency
color changes to green.
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The active
frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or LOC1
is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
• VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or LOC2 is
displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• FMS – If FMS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and neither NAV
radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the previously selected NAV
standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and using VOR
or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier can be accomplished by selecting the
corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
AFCS
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the MFD and PFD.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Turn the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
APPENDICES
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
INDEX
• ‘WPT – Airport Information’ Page
• ‘WPT – VOR Information’ Page
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airports’ Page
112
• ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’ Page
• ‘NRST – Nearest Frequencies’ Page (FSS, WX)
• ‘NRST – Nearest Airspaces’ Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from the NRST and WPT page groups. During enroute
navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field. During approach
activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
From certain pages in the NRST or WPT page groups, NAV Frequencies can be automatically loaded into
any of the standby or active locations on the NAV Frequency Box. If a frequency is loaded into an Active
NAV location, the previously active frequency will be transferred into the standby location. Hightlighting
a frequency that can be auto-tuned and pressing the ENT Key will display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
Pressing the ENT Key again will Load the frequency into a Standby location, or Transfer/Load the frequencies
in the Active locations.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting an Active NAV Location will
transfer the current frequency into the
standby location as well as load the new
frequency into the Active location.
Figure 4-10 Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency ‘Load Frequency’ Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by pressing the FMS Knob or the
appropriate softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the cursor on the NAV
frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
AFCS
6) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
Or:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD Controller to display the page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob.
APPENDICES
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Load Frequency’ Window.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV frequency field.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the selected NAV frequency field.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
EIS
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-11 Nearest Pages Menus
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The FMS Knob
or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the FREQ Softkey,
the ‘Load Frequency’ Box is displayed with the ENT Key, and the frequency loaded into the NAV Tuning Box
with the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
List of nearest
VORs.
VOR
Information
Press ENT Key to
display the ‘Load
Frequency’ Window.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Press FREQ
Softkey to place
the cursor in the
‘Frequency’ Field
Turn the FMS Knob to
select the desired NAV
field location. Press the
ENT Key again to load
the frequency into the
selected location.
INDEX
Figure 4-12 Loading the NAV Frequency from the ‘NRST – Nearest VOR’ Page
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST – Nearest Airports,
WPT – Airport Information, WPT – VOR Information, and NRST – Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer approach.
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated while navigating by GPS, the system automatically
EIS
switches to LOC as the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of the FAF). See the Flight
Management Section for details.
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically transferred
to a NAV frequency field as follows:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1 active
frequency field. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 active frequency field is transferred to
standby.
• If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the NAV1
standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the standby
frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and cannot be turned
AFCS
off.
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and detects
any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker beacon
annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
APPENDICES
Figure 4-13 Marker Beacon Keys
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INDEX
The Audio Panel provides three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and Deselected.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key annunciator indicates when
marker beacon audio is selected.
115
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not affect the
marker annunciations. The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The MKR/MUTE Key
Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the next marker beacon signal
is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O, M, I indication) while marker beacon
audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI SENS
function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a marker during an
approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower marker dwell while over a
station.
EIS
DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 for use, the system remembers the last frequency used for DME tuning
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The system tunes the optional DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF
NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The ‘DME Tuning’ Window is located to the right of the HSI in the lower right corner of the PFD. The DME
transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the DME Tuning Window. Pressing the DME
Softkey switches the ‘DME Tuning’ Window on and off.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DME Tuning
Mode
Figure 4-14 DME Tuning Window
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
• NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
• HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV frequency.
APPENDICES
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the DME Softkey to display the ‘DME Tuning’ Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
INDEX
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the tuning entry and reverts
back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates the cursor in
the ‘DME Tuning’ Window.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME information window.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.4 GTX 335 OR GTX 345 MODE S TRANSPONDER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The GTX 335 and GTX 345 (optional) Mode S Transponders provide Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S interrogation
and reply capabilities. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode S) capability includes the following features:
• Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
• Surveillance identifier capability
• Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as either the
aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
EIS
• Altitude reporting
• Airborne status determination
• Transponder capability reporting
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification address.
The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose of acquisition
squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic Avoidance System (TAS) to
recognize the presence of Mode S-equipped aircraft for selective interrogation.
• Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as altitude
(barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended squitter is to provide
aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs) and other aircraft.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
AFCS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection, and
Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is selected, the Mode Selection softkeys appear: STBY, ON,
ALT, VFR, CODE, IDENT, BACK.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the CODE Softkey is selected, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, IDENT, BKSP,
BACK. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Selecting the numbered softkeys in sequence enters
the transponder code. If an error is made, selecting the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the
previous digit. Selecting the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous digit.
Selecting the BACK Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Selecting the BACK
Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
APPENDICES
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on either PFD. Code entry must be completed with either
the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Selecting the IDENT Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to the
top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
INDEX
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117
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-15 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Ground and Altitude Modes) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The STBY, ON, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by selecting the XPDR Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selecting a transponder mode:
1) Select the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Select the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
AFCS
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the Standby Softkey. In Standby, the transponder is
powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted. When Standby is selected,
a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Figure 4-16 Standby Mode
APPENDICES
MANUAL ON MODE
INDEX
On Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the On Softkey. An On indication will appear in the
mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting On mode enables transmission of transponder replies and
squitters, but transmissions will not include altitude information. The On indication and transponder code
in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and white while on the ground. When the
transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode
S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic systems of other aircraft.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
On-Ground On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airborne On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
EIS
Figure 4-17 On Mode
ALTITUDE MODE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ALT Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ALT Softkey. When ALT mode is selected,
an ALT indication will appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting ALT mode enables
transmission of transponder replies and squitters. Transmissions will include pressure altitude information.
The ALT indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and
white while on the ground. When the transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable
replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic
systems of other aircraft.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
On-Ground ALT Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airborne ALT Mode
AFCS
Figure 4-18 Altitude Mode
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in the
reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
Reply to Interrogation
APPENDICES
Figure 4-19 Reply Indication
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit entry.
EIS
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the next softkey in sequence
must be pressed within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled and restored to the previous code. Pressing the
BKSP Softkey moves the code selection cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been
entered, the transponder code becomes active.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Entering a Code
Figure 4-20 Entering a Code
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
1) Press the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and restores the
previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code automatically.
AFCS
VFR CODE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by pressing the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR Softkey.
When the VFR Softkey is pressed, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed in the code field
of the Transponder Data Box. Pressing the VFR Softkey again restores the previous identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required, contact a
Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
APPENDICES
VFR Code
INDEX
Figure 4-21 VFR Code
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The indication
distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s screen. The Ident Softkey
appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is pressed, a green Ident indication is
displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a duration of 18 seconds.
After the Ident Softkey is pressed while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the top-level softkeys.
EIS
Ident Indication
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Select the Ident Softkey to
Initiate the ID Function
Figure 4-22 Ident Softkey and Indication
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT ID REPORTING
NOTE: If the Flight ID is required but the system is not configured for it, contact a Garmin-authorized service
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
center for configuration.
When the Flight ID must be entered before flight operation, the identifier is placed in the ‘References’ Window
on the PFD. The Flight ID is not to exceed seven characters. No space is needed when entering Flight ID.
When a Flight ID contains a space, the system automatically removes it upon completion of Flight ID entry. If
configuration is set to “SAME AS TAIL” the aircraft tail number will always be displayed.
AFCS
Entering a Flight ID:
1) Select the TMR/REF Softkey to display the ‘References’ Window.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the selection cursor, if not already activated.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll down to the Flight ID.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the desired Flight ID.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete Flight ID entry. The word “updating” appears until the new entry is completed.
APPENDICES
If an error is made during Flight ID entry, pressing the CLR Key returns to the original Flight ID entry. While
entering a Flight ID, turning the FMS Knob counterclockwise moves the cursor back one space for each detent
of rotation. If an incorrect Flight ID is discovered after the unit begins operation, reenter the correct Flight ID
using the same procedure.
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panel performs a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel annunciator lights
illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of the settings are restored to
those in use before the unit was last turned off.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
EIS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use with the system
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While this does
not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left channel in both ears.
If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other passenger using a stereo headset hears
audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR/PA Key selects and deselects the
cabin speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed. Certain aural alerts and warnings (autopilot,
traffic, altitude) are always heard on the speaker, even when the speaker is not selected.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The speaker volume is adjustable within a nominal range. Contact a Garmin-authorized service center for
volume adjustment.
PASSENGER ADDRESS MODE (PA MODE)
AFCS
Press and hold the SPKR/PA Key for 2 seconds to initiate the Passenger Address Mode. Active PA Mode is
annunciated by the PA Annunciator on the audio panel. When in PA Mode the crew can use the PTT “Pushto-Talk” button to deliver announcements over the speaker, to the passenger headsets, or both depending on
configuration.
SPLIT-PA MODE
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
During Split-PA Mode the pilot can continue to use the radio(s) while the copilot delivers PA announcements.
To initiate Split-PA Mode, first enter Split-COM mode by pressing the COM1 MIC Key and the COM2 MIC
Key simultaneously, then press and hold the SPKR/PA Key for 2 seconds.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
INTERCOM
The GMA 1360 includes an intercom system, two MUSIC inputs, and one telephone/entertainment input for
the pilot, copilot and passengers. The intercom provides Pilot, Copilot, and Passenger audio isolation.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-23 Intercom Controls
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Press the PILOT ICS, COPLT ICS, and/or the PASS ICS Key to enable intercom audio for the selected
position. If the annunciators are lit, those positions will share intercom audio. If an annunciator is NOT lit
that position is isolated from the others.
The color of the an ICS annunciation while in an “On” state will be blue if an active Bluetooth connection
is made to a recording device. Otherwise, the “On” state annunciation will be white.
INTERCOM MODES
Copilot Hears
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger Hears
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
AFCS
or
Pilot Hears
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Audio Panel
or
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Pilot Hears
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot Hears
Selectd Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Passenger Hears
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Passenger Mic
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Selected Radios
Aural Alerts
Pilot MIC
Passenger MIC
Pilot MIC
Copilot MIC
Passenger MIC
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Audio Panel
Table 4-1 ICS Isolation Modes
INTERCOM VOLUME AND SQUELCH
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The VOL/CRSR Knob controls selection and volume or manual squelch adjustment for audio sources that
may not be adjustable anywhere else in the system. The small knob controls the volume or squelch. Turning
the large knob activates and/or moves the cursor (flashing white annunciator or flashing blue annunciator in
Blue-Select Mode) to select the audio source to adjust. The cursor will time-out after a few seconds and the
position of the cursor will always default back to the CREW Key. Pressing the small knob cancels the cursor.
Manual Squelch Annunciator
Off for Automatic Squelch, On for
Manual Squelch
AFCS
Manual Squelch Key
Off for Automatic Squelch,
On for Manual Squelch
Volume/Squelch Indicator
Indicates volume/squelch setting
relative to full scale
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Volume Annunciation
Squelch Annunciation
APPENDICES
VOL/SQ Control Knob
Turn to adjust Squelch when
SQ Annunciation is lit, Volume
when VOL Annunciation is lit.
CRSR Control Knob
Turn to move the cursor (flashing
annunciator) to the desired
source
INDEX
Figure 4-24 Volume/Squelch Control
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
BLUE-SELECT MODE (TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT DISTRIBUTION)
The music and telephone (TEL, MUS1, and MUS2) audio are distributed using the Blue-Select Mode. The
following example indicates that the pilot, copilot, and passengers will all hear the telephone audio.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 4-25 Blue Select Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pressing the small knob when the volume control cursor (flashing white
annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, press the small knob twice. The first press will
cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select Mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The annunciator over the TEL Button will be flashing blue. Any combination of the annunciators over the
PILOT ICS, COPLT ICS, and PASS ICS buttons may be blue. Select the desired button to turn the blue
annunciator on or off to distribute the telephone audio to selected crew/passenger positions. Turn the large
knob to select MUS1 or MUS2, and select the crew/passenger positions to receive the music audio.
AFCS
Selecting any button other than PILOT ICS, COPLT ICS, PASS ICS, TEL,MUS1, or MUS2 will cancel BlueSelect Mode. Pressing the small knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After approximately ten seconds with
no input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel.
ADJUSTING INTERCOM VOLUME
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the cursor is on PILOT ICS, COPLT ICS, or PASS ICS, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the intercom
volume for the listener.
ADJUSTING SPEAKER VOLUME
APPENDICES
When the cursor is on SPKR, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the speaker volume of the selected sources
(COM, NAV, AUX, MKR). Alert volumes are not affected by the speaker volume control knob.
ADJUSTING MKR, MUS1, OR MUS2 VOLUME
When the cursor is on MKR, MUS1, or MUS2 the Volume Control Knob adjusts the individual volume of
the selected source.
INDEX
ADJUSTING MANUAL SQUELCH
When the cursor is on MAN SQ, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the ICS Squelch Threshold (the volume
level that must be exceeded to be heard over the intercom).
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
NOTE: Pressing the play key on the pilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Pilot. Pressing the play
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
key on the Copilot’s Audio Panel plays recorded audio to the Copilot.
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that continually records up to 2.5 minutes of the
selected COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks, starting from
the oldest block.
EIS
The PLAY Key controls the play function. The PLAY annunciator remains lit to indicate when play is in
progress. The PLAY annunciator turns off after playback is finished.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded memory block and then returns to normal operation.
Pressing the PLAY Key again during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is detected
during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the PLAY Key twice within one-half second while audio is playing plays the previous block of
recorded audio. Each subsequent two presses of the PLAY Key within one-half second backtracks through the
recorded memory blocks to reach and play any recorded block.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
3D AUDIO
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3D Audio is useful when multiple COM audio sources are present. By using different responses in each ear,
3D audio processing creates the illusion that each COM audio source is coming from a unique location in the
horizontal plane.
Because this feature uses different signals for left and right channels, it requires wiring for stereo intercom
and stereo headsets. If 3D audio is activated when mono headsets are in use, the listener will still hear all audio
sources; however, there is no benefit from location separation.
AFCS
With a single COM selected and 3D Audio enabled, the listener hears the audio source at the 12 o’clock
position. If both COMs are selected, the listener hears COM1 at 11 o’clock and COM2 at the 1 o’clock position.
All other audio inputs are processed so that the listener hears the audio source at the 12 o’clock position.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
BLUETOOTH®
NOTE: Pairing is only necessary during the first attempt to connect a Bluetooth device to the audio panel.
APPENDICES
Once paired, the audio panel and the device will connect automatically.
PAIRING A BLUETOOTH DEVICE WITH THE AUDIO PANEL
INDEX
Press and hold the inner knob for two seconds. The Bluetooth Annunciator flashes to indicate the unit
is discoverable and the aural message “Bluetooth discoverable” is heard. The audio panel will remain
discoverable for 90 seconds or until a successful pair is established. Once paired, the Bluetooth Annunciator
turns steady blue and the aural message “Bluetooth paired” is heard.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ASSIGNING AN AUDIO SOURCE TO THE BLUETOOTH DEVICE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the TEL, MUS1, or MUS2 key until the annunciator turns blue (the audio from the Bluetooth source
will not be heard until this step is complete). The key annunciator cycles OFF-WHITE-BLUE. WHITE
selects the wired audio source. BLUE selects the Bluetooth audio source. The BLUE source assignment will
persist through Bluetooth audio connection disruptions.
NOTE: The Bluetooth audio can only be assigned to one source at a time. Once the Bluetooth audio is
assigned to an audio source, the remaining entertainment audio sources will only cycle between OFF and
WHITE.
EIS
Bluetooth audio will maintain a separate volume level and Blue Select distribution from the wired audio
source. If the Bluetooth connection is supporting a phone call, all intercom positions listening to that source
can also speak on the call through the headset MICs.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ADDITIONAL BLUETOOTH CONTROL FUNCTIONS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the Audio Panel detects a recording device as the Bluetooth connected device, the Pilot ICS
Annunciator will turn blue. All audio heard by the Pilot will be recorded. Press and hold the PILOT ICS Key
to enable/disable Bluetooth recording mode.
TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs:
• The TEL Key, the MUS1 Key and the MUS2 Key control a telephone or entertainment device connected to
the rear of the audio panel or connected using Bluetooth.
• SiriusXM Radio audio, if equipped, is wired to the MUS1 and MUS2 inputs.
AFCS
Distribution of the entertainment inputs are configured in Blue-Select Mode.
Telephone and Entertainment Muting
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Telephone and entertainment muting is configured at installation. Regardless of configuration, telephone
and entertainment audio is always muted during alerts.
SiriusXM Radio Entertainment
APPENDICES
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers simultaneously
(optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional Features Section for
more details on the Data Link Receiver.
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.6 AUDIO PANEL PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume control knob,
verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the headsets are at maximum volume
setting. On single‑pilot flights, verify that all other headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the
audio system.
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot and copilot. If
EIS
manual squelch is set to full open (SQ annunciated and the knobs turned counterclockwise) background
noise is heard in the ICS system as well as during COM transmissions.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
After powering up the system, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well as
preventing pilot and copilot induced issues. The system will retain the audio settings from the last power up;
however, these preflight procedures can be performed each time a pilot boards the aircraft to ensure awareness
of all audio levels for the Audio Panel and radios.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the MAN SQ Key so that the in-key annunciation is illuminated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn CRSR Control Knob to select the intercom audio source to be adjusted. Once selected, turn VOL/SQ
Control Knob to set the intercom audio level for that position.
AFCS
Manually Adjusting the Squelch and Volume Settings:
6) Press the MAN SQ Key so that the in-key annunciation is no longer illuminated. Auto Squelch will now be
active.
2) Verify manual squelch is set to full open.
3) To enable the intercom selection(s) press the PILOT ICS, COPILOT ICS, and/or PASS ICS Keys so that the inkey annunciation(s) are illuminated.
5) Turn CRSR Control Knob to select the COM/NAV radios and each remaining audio source to be adjusted. Once
selected, turn VOL/SQ Control Knob to adjust the volume level for that position.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind the notes
above.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Abnormal operation of the G1000 includes equipment failures of the G1000 components and failure of
associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
STUCK MICROPHONE
If the push-to-talk (PTT) Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds
of continuous operation. An alert appears in the Alerts Window on the PFD to advise the crew of a stuck
microphone.
EIS
The COM1 MIC or COM2 MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains
stuck.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
COM TUNING FAILURE
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically tuned in
the radio in which the tuning failure occurred.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset and microphone directly
to the COM1 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker during Fail-safe operation.
REVERSIONARY MODE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The red DISPLAY BACKUP Button selects the Reversionary Mode. See the System Overview Section for
more information on Reversionary Mode.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This section of
the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
EIS
The most prominent part of the system are the two full color displays: one Primary Flight Display (PFD) and
a Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft using the GPS sensors is
displayed on the PFD and the MFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight plan phase
(e.g., Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V,
LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels are only available with
SBAS.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Inset Map and HSI Map are small versions of the Navigation Map. The Inset Map is displayed in the lower
left corner of the PFD (lower right during reversionary mode), and the HSI Map is displayed in the center of
the HSI. The Inset Map and the HSI Map may each be referred to as the PFD Map. A PFD Map is displayed by
pressing the Map/HSI Softkey, pressing the Layout Softkey, then pressing either the Inset Map or HSI Map
Softkey. Pressing the Map Off Softkey removes the PFD Map.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data (e.g.,
cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard data (e.g.,
traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the Inset Map can be reduced by pressing the Map/
HSI Softkey on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey. The amount of displayed data for the Navigation Map
can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the MFD. The Navigation Map can be oriented three different
ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or Heading Up (HDG UP).
AFCS
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated present position.
The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations. The basemap upon which
these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative position of the aircraft to map features
is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown is shown as a magenta line on the navigation
map. The other legs are shown in white.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. To change the map
range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or clockwise to zoom out (+,
increasing).
APPENDICES
The ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘Flight Plan’ Window, the ‘Procedures’ Window, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed in detail later in
the section.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation Status Box
Current Track Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Location of:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD (Inset Map)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Mode
Current Track
Indicator
AFCS
HSI Map
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD HSI Map
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Navigation Data Bar
Display Title
Map Orientation
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation Map
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
• Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn right to
021˚ in 8 seconds’)
• Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD within 1 minute’)
AFCS
The symbols used in the PFD status box are:
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure Turn
Right DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure Turn
Left DME Arc/Radius to Fix Leg
APPENDICES
Left Holding Pattern
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Active Leg
Right Holding Pattern
Table 5-1 PFD Status Box Symbols
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Navigation Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one of the
following items:
• BRG
(Bearing)
• FOB
• DEST
(Destination airport identifier)
• FOD (Fuel over destination)
• DIS
(Distance)
• GS
(Groundspeed)
• DTG
(Distance to go to destination)
• ISA
(Temperature at standard pressure)
• DTK
(Desired tack)
• LDG (ETA at final destination)
• END
(Endurance)
• MSA (Minimum safe altitude)
• ENR
(ETE to final destination)
• TAS
(True airspeed)
• ESA
(Enroute safe altitude)
• TKE
(Track angle error)
• ETA
(Estimated time of arrival)
• TRK
(Track)
• ETE
(Estimated time enroute)
• VSR
(Vertical speed required)
• FLT
(Flight timer)
• XTK
(Cross-track error
(Fuel on board)
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the MFD Data Bar Fields Box
on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS, DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the ‘MFD Data Bar Fields’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the desired data.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the Defaults Softkey returns all fields on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page to the
default settings.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
• Map Pointer information (distance and bearing
to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other
pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
• Terrain
• Topography data
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways, land data
(highways, cities, lakes, rivers, borders, etc.)
with names
• Map range
• Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present position)
• Obstacle data
• Topography scale
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system maps
can display the following information:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
• All Map Group Pages (‘Map’)
• All Nearest Group Pages (‘NRST’)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (‘WPT’)
• Direct To Window
• ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page (‘Aux’)
• PFD Maps
• Flight Plan Pages (‘FPL’)
• Procedure Loading Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining aircraft
position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are relative to where
the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the upper left corner of the map.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
INDEX
• North up (NORTH UP) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
• Track up (TRK UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
• Heading up (HDG UP) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The Auto North Up setting configures the map to switch automatically to a north up orientation when the
map range reaches a minimum range.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the map does not
show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. Any other displays that
EIS
show navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map Group Selection
Orientation Field
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
North Up Above Field
Figure 5-8 Map Settings Menu - Map Group
APPENDICES
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Map Settings’ Window.
INDEX
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now highlighting the ‘Orientation’ Field.
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5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
6) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
EIS
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘North Up Above’ Field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the range field.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
MAP RANGE
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. Range is indicated in the upper left
quadrant of the range ring shown around the aircraft icon. This indicated range is the range from the aircraft
icon to the range ring, and roughly half the range to the top edge of the displayed map. When the map range
is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to accurately represent the map, a magnifying
glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change the map range turn the Joystick counter-clockwise
to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the range.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Auto Zoom On
APPENDICES
Figure 5-9 Map Range
AUTO ZOOM
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INDEX
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly showing the
active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick, and remains until
the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off, or the manual override times
out (timer set on ‘Map Settings’ Window). Auto zoom is suspended while the map pointer is active.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map range
clearly showing the potential impact areas. If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any navigation map displaying
traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly showing the traffic advisory. When
terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto zoom range based on the active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of the ranges
at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look forward’ times (set on the
‘Map Settings’ Window for the ‘Map’ Group). These settings determine the minimum and maximum distance
to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
EIS
• Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many details on
the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to a value that limits
the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where situational
awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a value that limits the auto
zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational awareness.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and decrease as
waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/ minimum times can be
adjusted.
• The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the Map Group) determines how long
auto zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of this time, the auto
zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual override to never time out.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum range
available (1000 nm).
• When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Configuring automatic zoom:
AFCS
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) If necessary, turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ On/Off Field, and select ‘Off’ or ‘On’ using the small FMS
Knob.
APPENDICES
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Auto Zoom’ display selection
Field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max Look FWD’ Field.
Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
INDEX
9) Use the FMS Knobs to set the time. Press the ENT Key.
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10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99 minutes).
11) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MAP PANNING
Map panning allows the pilot to:
• View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
• Highlight and select locations on the map
• Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
EIS
• Designate locations for use in flight planning
• View airspace and airway information
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When the panning function is selected by pushing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map display.
A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position of the pointer,
the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the elevation of the land at the
position of the pointer.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned and there has
been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to centered on the aircraft position
and the flashing pointer is removed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map Pointer
Information
AFCS
Map Pointer
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
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INDEX
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name was
not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map display, pertinent
information is displayed.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Information about Point
of Interest
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace information
is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet above Mean Sea Level
(MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Panning the map:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
AFCS
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer and place the
Map Pointer on a waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the Information Page for the selected waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the Information Page and return to the ‘Map Navigation Map’ Page.
Viewing information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
APPENDICES
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer. Place the
Map Pointer on the boundary of an airspace. Information about the airspace is displayed on the map next to
the map pointer.
2) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and center the map on the aircraft.
Or:
INDEX
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer. Place the Map
Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an airspace.
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
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3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Information’
Window for the selected airspace.
4) Press the CLR or ENT Key to exit the ‘Information’ Window.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
EIS
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation map may be
calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page menu. The bearing
and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to aid in graphically identifying
points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for the Measure Pointer is provided in a
window at the top of the navigation map.
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the MENU Key (with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed).
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present position.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing and distance are displayed
at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes
the starting point for measuring.
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, push the Joystick; or select ‘Stop Measuring’ from the Page Menu
and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Measurement
Information
Pointer Lat/Long
AFCS
Measurement Line
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
TOPOGRAPHY
INDEX
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation, similar
to aviation sectional charts. Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following
procedures. Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable profile map at the bottom of the navigation
map.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following procedures. Topographic data
can also be displayed on the selectable VSD Inset at the bottom of the navigation map. In addition, the
Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand side of the map) showing a
scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
EIS
Navigation Map
Black Background
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Topographic Data
on VSD Inset
TOPO On
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TOPO Off
Absolute Terrain On
Terrain Off
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 5-14 PFD Inset Map - Absolute Terrain Data
Maximum Displayed Elevation
APPENDICES
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map - Topo Scale
Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation maps:
INDEX
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
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Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Inset Map or the HSI Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data from the navigation map.
When topographic data is removed from the page, all navigation data is presented on a black background.
Displaying/removing topographic data using the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ ‘Page Menu’ Window:
EIS
1) Press the MFD MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map
Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ Field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range field. Ranges are from 1 nm to 1000 nm.
AFCS
6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
APPENDICES
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ Field.
INDEX
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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MAP SYMBOLS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This section discusses the types of land, aviation, and airspace symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type
of symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The decluttering
of the symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
EIS
Land Symbols
Symbol
User Waypoint
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
25
40
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Highways and Roads
50
400
International Highway (Freeway)
50
400
US Highway (National Highway)
15
150
State Highway (Local Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads
7.5
25
Large City (> 200,000)
100
1000
Medium City (> 50,000)
Small City (> 5,000)
50
25
400
100
State/Province
400
1000
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/Longitude (LAT/LON)
1
1000
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Interstate Highway (Freeway)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Local Road (Local Road)
N/A
INDEX
APPENDICES
Table 5-2 Land Symbol Information
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AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Symbol
1000
150
1.5
5
7.5
150
N/A
25
N/A
40
Non-directional Beacon (NDB)
25
50
VOR
50
250
Visual Reporting Point (VRP)
25
1000
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
250
1000
VNAV Constraints
1000
1000
See Additional Features
Runway Extension
Missed Approach Preview On/Off (Missed APPR)
Intersection (INT)
N/A
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
25
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
400
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
50
EIS
Large Airport (Longest Runway ≥ 8100 ft)
Medium Airport (8100 ft > Longest Runway ≥ 5000 ft, or
Longest Runway < 5000 ft with control tower)
Small Airport (Longest Runway < 5000 ft without a control
tower)
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
Maximum
Range (nm)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Aviation Symbols
Default
Range
(nm)
100
Table 5-3 Aviation Symbol Information
AFCS
AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
*
Class C Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
*
*
Class D Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling)
*
*
Class B/Terminal Manoeuvring Area** and surrounding
Airways** (CL B/TMA/AWY)
50
150
Class C Airspace/Control Area
(CL C/CTA)
50
100
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INDEX
*
APPENDICES
Class B Airspace Altitude Label (ceiling/floor)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Airspace Symbols
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airspace Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
Class D Airspace/ Class A Airspace
(CL A/D)
10
100
Restricted and Prohibited Areas
(Restricted)
50
100
Military Operations Areas
(MOA (Military))
50
250
50
250
ADIZ, Alert, Danger, and Warning
(Other)
(see below)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ADIZ
Alert
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Danger/Warning
* Label placement and range is determined by the system for best display and minimal clutter
** Applies to European airspace only
Table 5-4 Airspace Symbol Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SYMBOL SETUP
AFCS
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway extensions,
railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which items appear on the
display. For example, enabling “Runway Extension” displays a dashed line on the map extending from each
runway of an airport in the flight plan when the range is set at or below the value of the map settings option.
Setting up the ‘Land’, ‘Aviation’ or ‘Airspace’ group items:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
APPENDICES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
INDEX
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map information.
The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu Option.
Item
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Data Link Radar Precipitation
Data Link Lightning
Graphical METARs
Airports
Safe Taxi
Runway Labels
TFRs
Restricted
MOA (Military)
User Waypoints
Latitude/Longitude Grid
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
VRPs
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
Class B Airspaces/TMA/AWY
Class C Airspaces/CTA
Class A/D Airspaces
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
Obstacles
Cities
Roads
Railroads
State/Province Boundaries
Detail 1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Detail 2
EIS
Detail 3
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The following table lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents map items
decluttered for each level of detail.
Table 5-5 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
Decluttering the MFD navigation map:
APPENDICES
Press the Detail Softkey with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The current declutter level is shown.
With each softkey press, another level of map information is removed.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed.
INDEX
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key to apply the next declutter level and return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Decluttering the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection, another level of map
information is removed.
AIRWAYS
EIS
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in places
other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low Altitude Airways
(Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend up to 18,000 feet mean sea
level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before the airway number.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to 45,000 feet
MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are drawn
in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of Low Altitude
Airways.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and Intersections) are
also displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
AFCS
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Figure 5-16 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
INDEX
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY Softkey
selections, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The Airway range
can also be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below a specific
number.
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OVERVIEW
The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Airways Symbols
Symbol
Default
Maximum
Range (nm) Range (nm)
50
100
High Altitude Airways (J Routes and Q Routes)
50
100
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Low Altitude Airways (V Routes and T Routes)
Table 5-6 Airways Symbol Information
EIS
Displaying/removing airways:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (‘AWY LO’).
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (‘AWY HI’).
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed (‘AWY Off’).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or the ‘High ALT Airways’ On/Off Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
AFCS
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’ range field.
APPENDICES
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
INDEX
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ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION MAP ITEMS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for information on displaying obstacles (Point and Wire Obstacles) on the
map.
Navigation maps can display some additional items. These items (e.g. Selected Altitude Intercept Arc, Track
Vector, Wind Vector, Fuel Range Ring, and SVT Field of View) can be displayed/removed individually.
Setting up additional ‘Map’ Group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’
option.
EIS
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
If it is a data field, use the FMS Knob to select the range or time value.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map.
TRACK VECTOR
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Navigation Map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track
vector is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is
selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the track
vector. The track vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time settings. It is always
a straight line for the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
APPENDICES
Track Vector
INDEX
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map -Track Vector
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the selected
altitude. The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or descending.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Selected Altitude Intercept Arc is not displayed on any Waypoint Page Group maps, Procedure Page
maps, or the Stored Flight Plan Page map.
EIS
Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WIND VECTOR ON MFD
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the MFD. Wind vector information
is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for wind speeds greater
than or equal to 1 kt.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
AFCS
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the Waypoint
Information pages.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FUEL RANGE RING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green circle
indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance range. If only
reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
Time to Reserve Fuel
Range to Reserve Fuel
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Total Endurance Range
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of view. The
field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map. This
is only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
AFCS
NOTE: Field of View will not be depicted on the NRST Page Group maps.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
INDEX
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Field of View
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.3 WAYPOINTS
Waypoint Identifier Symbol
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
EIS
Identifier Entry Field
Facility Entry Field
City Entry Field
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and are
used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint Information
(WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window (on PFD). This auto-tuning feature
simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS section for details on auto-tuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by entering
the city name. See the System Overview Section for detailed instructions on entering data in the system. As
a waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the system scrolls through the database, displaying
those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to that point. A direct-to navigation leg to the
selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on any of the waypoint pages.
Entered Waypoint on Map
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Waypoint Location
Figure 5-22 Waypoint Information Window
AFCS
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by continuing
to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an identifier, a ‘Duplicate
Waypoints’ Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Identifier with
Duplicates
APPENDICES
Duplicate
Waypoints
INDEX
Duplicate Message
Figure 5-23 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AIRPORTS
NOTE: ‘North Up’ orientation on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page cannot be changed; the pilot needs
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
to be aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page Map.
EIS
The ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page is the first page in WPT group and allows the pilot to view airport
information, load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument procedures
that may be involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information on loading
frequencies (auto-tuning). After engine startup, the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page defaults to the airport
where the aircraft is located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the destination airport. On a
flight plan with multiple airports, it defaults to the airport which is the current active waypoint.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled ‘Airport’, ‘Runways’, and ‘Frequencies’.
For airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This information is viewed on
the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page by pressing the Info Softkey until ‘Info 1’ is displayed.
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Runway Information
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
Airport/Runway
Diagram
AFCS
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Figure 5-24 Airport Information Page
APPENDICES
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page:
• Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
• Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water
• Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled lighting)
INDEX
• COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information available)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Airport Information
Airport Directory
Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-25 Airport Directory Page Example
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The airport directory information is viewed on the ‘WPT - Airport Directory’ Page by pressing the Info
Softkey until ‘Info 2’ is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if available)
on the ‘WPT - Airport Directory’ Page:
Runways: Headings, Length,
Width, Facility Obstructions, Surface,
Condition, Clearance Slope
FBO: Name/Type, Frequencies,
Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit Cards,
Phone/Fax, Hours Internet, Courtesy
Car
Weather Contacts: Service Type
and Frequencies/Phone (AWOS/
ASOS)
Approaches: Types
Aircraft Businesses/Clubs:
Name, Type (sales, training,
servicing), Frequencies/Phone/Fax,
Credit Cards, Internet, Services
Obstructions: General Airport
Obstructions
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
Restaurants: On the Field and
Nearby
Attractions: Hotels, Museums,
Raceways, Golfing, etc.
NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier,
Frequency, Radial, Distance
Elevation: Airfield Elev (ft)
Mag Var: Airfield Mag Var
(degrees)
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INDEX
Special Operations at Airport:
Helicopters, etc.
General Information and/or
Notes: Fees, Airport Notes, local
area information
Transportation: Taxi Services, Car
Rentals, Type and Availability (public,
shuttle, limo, etc.)
Charts: VFR Sectional
APPENDICES
Flight Service Station (FSS):
FSS Name, Phone Numbers
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Attendance: Annual, weekly, daily,
hours
Pattern Altitudes: Aircraft Class/
Altitude
AFCS
Control Tower: Full/Part-time
Hours, Days Open
Noise Abatement: Flying
Procedures
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airport: Identifier, Type, Name,
City, State, Map
Facility Lighting and Beacon:
Hours operating, Type and Location,
CTAF, beacon colors
Airport Manager: Phone
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
The ‘Frequencies’ Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Communication Frequencies
Approach * Control
Pre-Taxi
Arrival *
CTA *
Radar
ASOS
Departure * Ramp
ATIS
FSS
Terminal *
AWOS
Gate
TMA *
Center
Ground
Tower
Class B *
Helicopter
TRSA *
Class C *
Multicom
Unicom
Clearance
Other
Navigation Frequencies
ILS
LOC
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-7 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
See the Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be selected for
display (see the Hazard Avoidance Section for details about weather).
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey), press the FMS Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location within the ‘Airport’ Box.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Selecting a runway:
AFCS
1) With the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway designator.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the selected airport.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Viewing a destination airport:
APPENDICES
From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) press the MENU Key. Select ‘View Destination
Airport’. The Destination Airport is displayed.
NEAREST AIRPORT
INDEX
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest airport
information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The ‘Nearest Airports’ Window displays a list
of up to 25 of the nearest airports. If there are more than three they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there
are no nearest airports available, “None Within 200nm” is displayed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Bearing/Distance to Airport
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-26 ‘Nearest Airports’ Window on PFD
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the ENT Key displays the PFD ‘Airport Information’ Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing
the ENT Key again returns to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list.
Continued presses of the ENT Key sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest
Airports list.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airport Information
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
Airport Information
AFCS
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
- Lat/Long
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-27 ‘Airport Information’ Window on PFD
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey to display the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window. Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
APPENDICES
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the ‘Airport Information’
Window.
INDEX
3) To return to the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on ‘Back’) or press the CLR
Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key
moves through the airport list, alternating between the ‘Nearest Airports’ Window and the ‘Airport Information’
Window.)
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD ‘Nearest Airports’ Window.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential use
in the event of an in-flight emergency. The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white
line is drawn on the navigation map from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. The currently selected
airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the page displays
nearest airport information in five boxes labeled ‘Nearest Airports’, ‘Information’, ‘Runways’, ‘Frequencies’, and
‘Approaches’. If there are more than can be shown in the given box, each list can be scrolled. If there are no
items for display in a boxed area, text indicating that fact is displayed.
EIS
See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for approaches.
Nearest Airports
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
Nearest Airport
- Facility/City/Elevation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
AFCS
Window Selection
Softkeys
Approaches Available
Figure 5-28 Nearest Airport Page
LD APR Softkey (only
available if an approach is
highlighted)
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page (it is the first page of the group, so it may
already be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, “None within 200NM” is displayed.
APPENDICES
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Airport Window’ and
press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list
is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves to the next airport).
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
INDEX
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight
‘Select Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ‘Nearest Airports’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page defines the minimum runway length and
surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
Page. A minimum runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small runways or
runways that are not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are 3000 feet (or meters) for
runway length and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
Selecting nearest airport surface and minimum runway length matching criteria:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
EIS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Runway Surface’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, or Hard/ Soft).
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Minimum Length’ Field in the ‘Nearest Airport’ Box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
WAYPOINT INFORMATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-Airport Waypoints are considered to be Intersections, VORs, NDBs, VRPs, and User Waypoints. For
each of these waypoints, their respective information pages will show a map of the currently selected waypoint,
the waypoint identifier, and location. Additionally, intersections will show the nearest VOR while both the
VOR and NDB waypoints will show their frequency and the nearest airport. User Waypoint information also
provides the waypoint type (radial/radial, radial/DME, or latitude/longitude), temporary status, comments,
and a User Waypoint list.
AFCS
The ‘VOR Information’ Page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS signals (since ILS signals
can be received on a NAV receiver), or to quickly tune a VOR or ILS frequency. If a VOR station is combined
with a TACAN station it is listed as a VOR-TACAN on the ‘VOR Information’ Page and if it includes only DME,
it is displayed as VOR-DME. Also, the VOR class (Low Altitude, High Altitude, and Terminal) will be shown
in the VOR ‘Information’ Box.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created from
any map page (except PFD Inset Map, ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a position
on the map using the Joystick, or from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page by referencing a bearing/
distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and longitude. Once
a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user waypoints are erased
upon system power down.
APPENDICES
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the ‘WPT - Intersection Information’ Page is the nearest VOR, not necessarily
the VOR used to define the intersection.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Selected Waypoint:
Intersection
(as seen here)
NDB
VOR
VRP, or
User Waypoint
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-29 Non-Airport Waypoint Information Page (Intersection Example)
NDB Identifier/Type
VOR Identifier/Type
NDB Information
VOR Information
NDB Frequency
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Nearest Airport Info
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
AFCS
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
User Waypoint Info
VRP Identifier/Symbol
- VRP Name
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
VRP Information
User Waypoint Comment
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
Reference Waypoint Info
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
User Waypoint List
APPENDICES
- Identifier/ Comment
Figure 5-30 Non-Airport Waypoint Information Pages (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User Waypoint)
Viewing Non-Airport Waypoints:
INDEX
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT - (Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPT) Information’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the Intersection, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User Waypoint Box.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
5) Press the ENT Key, if needed.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEAREST NON-AIRPORT WAYPOINTS
EIS
The Nearest pages can be used to quickly find waypoints close to the aircraft. The system will display
a scrollable list of up to 25 nearest waypoints with bearing and distance from the aircraft, a map of the
surrounding area, and additional information particular to the type of waypoint chosen. A white arrow before
the waypoint identifier/name indicates the currently selected waypoint shown on the map, with its associated
information in the lower box or boxes:
- The ‘NRST - Nearest Intersection’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest INT’, ‘Information’, and a
‘Reference VOR’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- The ‘NRST - Nearest NDB’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest NDB’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NDB ‘Information’ Box will show a Compass Locator if the NDB is associated with either a Locator
Outer Marker (LOM) or Locator Middle Marker (LMM).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- The ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest VOR’, ‘Information’, and ‘Frequency’.
The NAV frequency from a selected VOR station can be loaded from the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page via the
FREQ Softkey. See the Audio & CNS Section for more information.
- The ‘NRST - Nearest VRP’ Page will show two boxes labeled ‘Nearest VRP’ and ‘Information’. Information
will contain the VRP Name, Country and latitude/longitude.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- The ‘NRST - Nearest User WPTS’ Page will show three boxes labeled ‘Nearest User’, ‘Information’, and
‘Reference Waypoints’. Information will include any Comments and the latitude/longitude. The ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box will provide a reference NAVAID with a radial/DME that coincides with the User Waypoint.
AFCS
The nearest waypoint list will only include waypoints within 200nm. If there are no waypoints in the list,
text indicating that there are no nearest waypoints will be displayed, and the information and frequency fields
(if applicable) will be dashed.
Nearest Intersections
Showing Nearest
Intersection
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- White arrow indicates
the selected waypoint
shown.
Navigation Map
Intersection NDB VOR VRP User Waypoint -
APPENDICES
Nearest Non-Airport
Waypoint:
Intersection Info
- Lat/Long
INDEX
Reference VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Figure 5-31 Nearest Intersection Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Nearest NDB
Nearest VOR
- VOR Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- NDB Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to NDB
from aircraft position
NDB Information
VOR Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
NDB Frequency
VOR Frequency
Nearest VRP
Nearest User Wpt List
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- VRP Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Reference Wpt Info
APPENDICES
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-32 Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints (NDB, VOR, VRP, and User WPTS)
INDEX
Viewing Nearest Non-Airport Waypoints:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Intersections, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User WPTS’ Page.
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OVERVIEW
3) Press the FMS Knob to display the flashing cursor in the ‘Nearest INT, NDB, VOR, VRP, or User’ Box,
Or:
If the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page is displayed, to display the flashing cursor:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the VOR Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key
b) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
EIS
4) If needed, press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob as needed to select an identifier.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
CREATING USER WAYPOINTS
User waypoints can be created from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page in the following ways:
Creating user waypoints from the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new waypoint.
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
AFCS
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
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3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new User Waypoint AAAAAA?’ is
displayed.
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4) With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
EIS
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
1) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page is displayed with the captured position.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens upon pressing
the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of initiating a new waypoint,
2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’ or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new
waypoint is initiated with the default name being the selected map item.
AFCS
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two reference waypoint
identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
APPENDICES
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the reference waypoint identifier,
the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude and longitude into
the ‘Information’ Window using the FMS Knobs.
INDEX
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by moving the cursor to
“Temporary” and pressing the ENT Key to check or uncheck the box.
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OVERVIEW
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Once a user waypoint has been created, it may be edited, renamed, or deleted. A system generated
comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing, and distance. If a
system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
EIS
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the ‘WPT — User Waypoint
Information’ ‘Page Menu’ Window. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power
cycle.
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box, if required, and press the ENT Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page.
AFCS
DELETING USER WAYPOINTS
Deleting a single user waypoint:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’
Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Press the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘YES’ is highlighted in the confirmation window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’
Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
INDEX
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Deleting all user waypoints:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints.’
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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5.4 AIRSPACES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B, TMA, and Airways surrounding TMA, Class
C, CTA, Class A, Class D, Restricted (Prohibited), MOA (Military), and other airspace provided by the navigation
database. Some examples of typical airspaces are depicted below. See Table 5-3 for the maximum ranges for
each type of airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace area. Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) are
discussed in the Hazard Avoidance Section.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
Class C Airspace
Alert Area
(Other)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Airspace Altitude
Label
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Class D Airspace
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
MOA (Military)
APPENDICES
ADIZ
(Other)
Warning Area
(Other)
INDEX
Figure 5-33 Airspaces
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Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace’ Group, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace ALT LBL’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ to display labels and ‘Off’ to remove labels.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
EIS
NEAREST AIRSPACE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SETTING AIRSPACE ALERTS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box (‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page) on the MFD allows the pilot to turn the controlled/
special-use airspace message alerts on or off. This does not affect the alerts listed on the ‘NRST - Nearest
Airspaces ‘ Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. It simply turns on/
off the message provided in the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD when the aircraft is approaching or near an
airspace.
Pressing the PFD Message Softkey displays the ‘Messages’ Window on the PFD. The following airspace
alerts may be displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Message
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less than
10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and ahead.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than 2 nm.
Comments
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft penetrates the airspace
within 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
AFCS
Table 5-8 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an airspace. For
example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below an airspace, an
alert message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an airspace and projected
to enter it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Enabling/disabling airspace alerts:
APPENDICES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
INDEX
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude Buffer’ Field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
EIS
The ‘Arrival Alert’ Box on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page allows the ‘Messages’ Window arrival alerts to be
turned ‘On/Off’ and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the ‘Messages’ Window and
the PFD Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a message upon reaching
a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or the last waypoint in a flight
plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘On’, and the set distance is reached, an “Arrival at waypoint” message
is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is
displayed in the ‘Messages’ Window. When Arrival Alerts is set to ‘Off’, only the PFD Navigation Status Box
message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and it is displayed when the time to the final destination is
approximately ten seconds.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-34 Arrival Alert Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Enabling/disabling the Arrival Alert:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to turn the alert Off.
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
APPENDICES
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Distance’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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VIEWING NEAREST AIRSPACE INFORMATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page can be used to quickly find airspaces close to the flight path. In
addition, a selected frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’
Page. In addition to displaying a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the ‘NRST - Nearest
Airspaces’ Page displays airspace information in four boxes labelled ‘Airspace Alerts’, ‘Airspace Agency’,
‘Vertical Limits’, and ‘Frequencies’.
EIS
Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’
Page. The Alerts and FREQ Softkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey is enabled
only if one or more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Nearest Airspace
Information
Airspace Alerts Info
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Airspace Alert 1
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Inside of Airspace
Airspace/Agency Info
Airspace Alert 2
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace within 2nm
Airspace Vertical Limits
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
AFCS
Figure 5-35 Nearest Airspaces Page
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the Alerts Softkey on the MFD; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Alerts
Window’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
SMART AIRSPACE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The
function does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the
airspace. If the current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace
boundary is shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of
the airspace, the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
NOTE: Smart Airspace function will not de-emphasize airspaces on the HSI Map when the MFD is in reversionary mode.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Smart Airspace Off
Smart Airspace On
Figure 5-36 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
AFCS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The ’Map Settings’ Window is displayed
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace On or counterclockwise to turn smart airspace Off.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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5.5 DIRECT-TO-NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the ¯ Key on either the MFD Controller or the
PFD, is quicker to use than a flight plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present position to the
selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced with a new direct-to or
flight plan, or cancelled.
NOTE: When flying Direct-to the Final Approach Fix (FAF), the system will suspend (SUSP) leg sequencing if
EIS
the approach intercept angle exceeds 45 degrees.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from
the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is based on barometric
altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The ‘Direct To’ Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The ‘Direct To’ Window displays
selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Desired Course
AFCS
Location of Destination
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Bearing/Distance
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-37 ‘Direct-To’ Window - MFD
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OVERVIEW
Direct-to Point Info
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
EIS
Activation Command
Figure 5-38 ‘Direct To’ Window - PFD
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the ‘Direct To’ Window. Also, any waypoint
contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the ‘Direct To’ Window, the ‘FPL Active Flight Plan’ Page, or the active ‘Flight Plan’ Window.
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD “Flight Plan” or
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
“Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into
the flight plan.
Waypoint Submenu
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
AFCS
Figure 5-39 Waypoint Submenu
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The ‘Direct To’ Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to
navigation. If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the active
flight plan waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any WPT page
defaults to the displayed waypoint.
APPENDICES
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The course
to a destination can also be manually selected using the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field on the ‘Direct To’ Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan waypoint as the default
selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
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INDEX
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it counter-clockwise brings
up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the
facility name, or city field and turn the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate
entries exist for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the small FMS
Knob during the selection process.
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3) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the active
flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window with a list of flight plan
waypoints.
EIS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD), and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the
desired waypoint.
3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan destination as the default
selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display the waypoint submenu window.
AFCS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired waypoint.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected waypoint as the direct-to destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
INDEX
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports ‘Page on
the MFD and press the FMS Knob.
2) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
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3) Press the ¯ Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘CRS’ or ‘Course’ Field.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired course.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the ¯ Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed.
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. If no
airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named ‘MAPWPT’ is
automatically created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) From a navigation map page, push the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, VRP, or user waypoint, the waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected point entered as the direct-to destination.
AFCS
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
APPENDICES
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active, the system resumes
navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
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INDEX
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path) from the
aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the waypoint, or at the
specified distance along the flight path if VNV offset distance has been entered. Direct-to navigation is discussed
in the Vertical Navigation portion of Flight Management. Offset distances (along track offsets) are discussed in the
Flight Planning portion of Flight Management. .
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5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time, adding
waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed. The system allows
flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight plan is displayed on maps using
different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the segment of the flight plan currently being
flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
EIS
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
AFCS
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A Roll Steering Path is displayed for: transitions between two disconnected legs (i.e. holding), some procedure turn
segments, parallel track segments, or transitions after some fly-over waypoints (discussed later in this section).
‡ A Roll Steering Path that is beyond the next leg will appear as a Future Roll Steering Path. When a Future Roll Steering Path
becomes the next leg, it appears as a Roll Steering Path.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 5-9 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
INDEX
APPENDICES
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. Upon power up, the
previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft position is at the origin airport
and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not within 5 nm of the origin airport, on the ground,
or if more than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification, the previously active flight plan
is not retained. One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes the active flight plan. The active flight
plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When storing flight plans with an approach, departure,
or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information from the current database to define the waypoints. If the
database is changed or updated, the system automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been
modified. If an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the
affected stored flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that
one or more stored flight plans need to be edited.
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OVERVIEW
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of approach,
departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line describing the instrument
procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan remains active (unless an instrument
procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded from
the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the sequence of
waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the database is updated). The
update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway waypoints are changed to regular
(non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
EIS
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
• Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no longer on
the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
• Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘Flight Plan’ Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
• ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Active FPL Waypoint List
AFCS
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Active Flight
Plan Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Vertical Navigation Profile
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
APPENDICES
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Target
- Vertical Deviation
Figure 5-40 Active Flight Plan Page
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan
Waypoint List
EIS
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 5-41 Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window on PFD
Catalog
Contents
- # Used
- # Empty
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight Plan List
- Comment
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
AFCS
Selected FPL
Info
Figure 5-42 Flight Plan Catalog
- Departure
- Destination
- Total Flight Plan
Distance
- Enroute Safe
Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: The system supports AFCS lateral guidance for all leg types (using NAV or FMS APPR mode). The
system does not support course deviation for any heading leg types (VA, VD, VI, VM, or VR).
APPENDICES
Auto-designation will determine the most likely airport of origin and auto-populate the Active Flight Plan.
Once determined, the airfield identifier automatically appears in the ‘Origin’ Field and the line immediately below
‘Origin’ while keeping the runway (‘RW’) Field empty. The line below the Origin line serves as the first point in
the flight plan.
Auto-designation occurs between 15 and 60 seconds after display power-up under the following conditions:
• Aircraft position is known
INDEX
• Aircraft is on the ground
• Nearest airport is within 200NM
• Flight plan is empty
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If the pilot manually enters the origin, or any other leg of the flight plan before auto-designation occurs, nothing
gets inserted automatically. The automatic insertion logic only runs once, so the pilot can edit the origin if the
nearest airport is not the desired origin.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the pilot enters a different airport into the first point of the flight plan, the Origin will change to this entry,
and the pilot will be prompted to enter the departure runway.
Both the Origin airport/runway and the first point of the flight plan will be the same unless a departure is
entered and a manual leg is inserted at the beginning of the loaded departure. Loading a departure locks in the
origin information.
EIS
NOTE: In some cases, Origin and Destination airports may not be displayed in the PFD“Flight Plan” or
“Recent” submenu or the MFD ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page until the airport waypoint is loaded into
the flight plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Flight plan information can be viewed in different locations and formats. The ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’
Page format can be modified in several ways; and the MFD Split Screen feature can provide different display
configurations of the flight plan, navigation map and charts. For flight plan profile information see the Flight
Management, Vertical Situation Display section.
NOTE: ETE can be displayed as either HH+MM (ETE greater than 60 minutes) or MM:SS (ETE less than 60
minutes).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
AFCS
The ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page can be configured to show cumulative distance over the length of the
flight plan or the distance for each leg of the flight plan; and it can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In
the wide view, additional information is displayed: Fuel Remaining (‘Fuel REM’), Estimated Time Enroute
(‘ETE’), Estimated Time of Arrival (‘ETA’), and Bearing to the waypoint (‘BRG’).
Changing the flight plan view:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the View Softkey to display the Wide, Narrow, Leg-Leg, and CUM Softkeys.
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the Leg-Leg Softkey to view leg-to-leg
waypoint distance.
APPENDICES
4) Press the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or press the Narrow Softkey to display the narrow view.
5) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys..
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SPLIT SCREEN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Charts may be viewed alongside the active flight plan in split screen mode. The chart will coincide with
the active flight plan leg. Pressing the Charts Softkey from the ‘FPL- Active Flight Plan’ Page will remove
the active flight plan map to display a Charts Pane alongside the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane. The Display Title
will change to ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’. The active flight plan map can be re-displayed. However,
displaying the map in split screen on the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane limits the flight plan content which can be
displayed. For example, displaying the Flight Plan Map while in split screen narrow view removes the ‘Active
VNV Profile’ Box. See the following figures depicting the different split screen displays with the active flight
plan.
EIS
For more information on Charts, see the Additional Features Section.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Display Title shows ‘Chart + Active Flight Plan’
Split Screen Narrow View
Split Screen Wide View
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 5-43 Split Screen Mode Narrow and Wide View
Split Screen Narrow View with Flight Plan Map
Split Screen Wide View with Flight Plan Map
Figure 5-44 Split Screen Mode with Flight Plan Map
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Viewing charts and ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page in split screen mode:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the Charts Softkey. If necessary, press the CHRT Opt Softkey and press the Full SCN Softkey to disable
full screen mode. Split screen mode is now enabled showing two display panes. The Chart Pane is highlighted
by a cyan box indicating it is the active pane.
3) To quickly view the chart corresponding to the active flight plan leg, press the SYNC Softkey.
Displaying the flight plan map on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page in split screen mode:
EIS
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) If necessary, press the CHRT Opt Softkey and press the Full SCN Softkey to disable full screen mode. Split
screen mode is now enabled showing two display panes. The Chart Pane is highlighted by a cyan box indicating
it is the active pane.
3) Move the Joystick to select the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Pane as the active display pane.
4) Press the MENU Key. ‘Show Flight Plan Map’ is highlighted. Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the Flight Plan Map, press the MENU Key and select ‘Hide Flight Plan Map’. Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CREATING A FLIGHT PLAN
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The active flight plan is listed on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, and in the ‘Flight Plan’
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is shown on
the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, and are available for
activation (becomes the active flight plan).
AFCS
The following procedure is intended to provide an overview of basic flight plan creation. It will create a flight
plan from the origin runway to the destination runway, and includes enroute waypoint selection. The following
procedure does not include airways or terminal procedures. For instructions on how to add airways to a flight
plan, see the Flight Plan Waypoint and Airway Modifications discussion later in this Flight Planning Section.
For information on departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches see the Procedures Section.
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key. Press the small FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on PFD).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) If the system correctly auto-designated (populated) the Origin, proceed to Step 3.
Or:
Select the origin airport and runway as follows:
APPENDICES
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field highlighted.
INDEX
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
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3) Select the destination airport and runway by highlighting the field below the Destination header and completing
steps 2b - 2e.
4) Select the enroute waypoints.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item).
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
EIS
5) Repeat step number 4 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove to deactivate the cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Creating a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key to
display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
4) Select the origin airport and runway.
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier using the FMS Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the origin
waypoint.
c)
Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field highlighted.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway.
e) Press the ENT Key to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
AFCS
5) Select the destination airport and runway by highlighting the field below the Destination header and completing
steps 4b - 4e.
6) Select the enroute waypoints.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute header is selected, the
new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new
waypoint will be placed ahead of the selected item.)
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint.
APPENDICES
c) Press the ENT Key. The stored flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
INDEX
8) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
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FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINT AND AIRWAY MODIFICATIONS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active and stored flight plans can be edited at any time. Waypoints and airways can be added, modified, or
removed from any flight plan. Edits made to an active flight plan affect navigation as soon as they are entered.
Modifications to flight planned departures, arrivals, approaches, and missed approaches are discussed later in
the Procedures portion of Flight Management.
FLIGHT PLAN WAYPOINTS
EIS
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan, select
the desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. Flight
plans are limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and procedures). If the number of
waypoints in the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.”
appears and the new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Adding Waypoints
NOTE: Manually adding waypoints to a flight plan after a MANSEQ leg creates a lateral gap in the flight
plan. Time, fuel, and distance values for legs beyond the gap do not include the distance across the gap.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window has duplicates, a ‘Duplicate Waypoint’
Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: If the flight plan is successfully edited in the ‘Flight Plan’ Window from PFD while the MFD ‘FPL - Active
Flight Plan’ Page is in the process of being edited, the ‘Flight Plan Modified By Other User’ Window will appear
on the MFD. Press the ENT key to return to the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page with the accepted changes.
AFCS
Origin Header
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Enroute Header
Enroute Waypoints
APPENDICES
Destination Header
INDEX
Figure 5-45 Active Flight Plan Waypoints
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Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Select the point in the flight plan before which to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly
in front of the highlighted waypoint.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan using the map pointer:
1) Press the FPL Key
2) Press the FMS Knob for the MFD to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Push the Joystick for the MFD to activate the panning function on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page and pan
to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint.
Adding a waypoint to an existing stored flight plan:
5) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The user waypoint
is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next available in sequence) and is added to the active flight plan.
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
AFCS
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select “EDIT” and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed directly in front of the
highlighted waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it clockwise displays a blank
‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with
a waypoint selection submenu allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
INDEX
APPENDICES
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the submenu of waypoints
and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the flight plan.
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OVERVIEW
Removing Waypoints
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Individual waypoints can be removed from a flight plan. Some waypoints in the final approach segment
(such as the FAF or MAP) can not be removed individually. Attempting to remove a waypoint that is not
allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification’.
NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the end waypoint of
the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and activated.
Removing an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint to be removed.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Removing an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ window is displayed.
AFCS
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Fly-Over Waypoint Designation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Waypoints entered in the enroute segment of the flight plan may be treated as either fly-by or fly-over
waypoints. A fly-by waypoint is a waypoint that marks the intersection of two straight paths, with the
transition from one path to another being made by the aircraft using a precisely calculated turn that “flies
by” but does not vertically cross the waypoint.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-By Waypoint
AFCS
Figure 5-46 TOP Fly-By Waypoint
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
APPENDICES
Enroute Segment
- TOP as Fly-Over
Waypoint
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
INDEX
Figure 5-47 TOP Fly-Over Waypoint
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A fly-over waypoint is a waypoint that must be crossed vertically by the aircraft. If the system determines
that the flight plan leg geometry cannot support fly-by navigation for a waypoint sequence in the current
flight plan, it will change a fly-by waypoint to a fly-over waypoint automatically. A roll steering path or
future roll steering path may be displayed after the fly-over waypoint until the roll steering path aligns with
the course leg connecting the fly-over waypoint and the following waypoint in the flight plan. This system
generated fly-over waypoint will not display the fly-over symbol.
Fly-Over Waypoint
- No fly-over symbol
EIS
Roll Steering to next leg
- Roll Steering until path aligns
with course leg (PNH to ILOZA)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-48 PNH Fly-Over Waypoint
Active Leg to PNH
- Geometry cannot support fly-by
to the following leg (PNH to ILOZA)
A fly-over waypoint may also be manually designated by the pilot, in which case, the fly-over waypoint
symbol is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Designating a fly-over waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan, press the FPL Key and press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
Or:
AFCS
For a stored flight plan, highlight the desired flight plan on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page and press the
Edit Softkey.
2) Highlight the desired waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-Over Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a
fly-over waypoint?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
5) To change the waypoint back to a fly-by waypoint, highlight the desired waypoint. Press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Set Fly-By Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set <waypoint> to be a fly-by waypoint?’ Window
is displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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FLIGHT PLAN AIRWAYS
Within flight plans, airways can be added, removed and collapsed/expanded.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Adding Airways
EIS
Airways can be added to any flight plan. An airway can only be added if there is an existing entry
waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an arrival or approach
procedure. The system anticipates the desired airway based on the selected waypoint and the flight plan.
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airways Available
at TOP
Preview of
Selected Airway
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
AFCS
Figure 5-49 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Airway Entry Waypoint
Selected Airway
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selected Exit Point
Preview of
Selected Airway
APPENDICES
Selected Airway Exit
Point
INDEX
Airway Exit Points
Available
Figure 5-50 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
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OVERVIEW
Adding an airway to the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor below the airway entry waypoint for the insertion point. If there
is no valid airway entry waypoint in the flight plan, one must be entered first.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey (MFD only), or press the MENU
Key for the and select “Load Airway”(PFD or MFD). The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu item is
available only when a valid airway entry waypoint has already been entered in the flight plan.
EIS
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways
are shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is
highlighted.
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted.
Adding an airway to a stored flight plan:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight “EDIT” and press
the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor below the airway entry waypoint for the insertion point. If there
is no valid airway entry waypoint in the flight plan, one must be entered first.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey (MFD only), or press the MENU
Key and select “Load Airway”. The LD AIRWY Softkey or the “Load Airway” menu item is available only when
a valid airway entry waypoint has already been entered in the flight plan.
AFCS
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key. Low altitude airways
are shown first in the list, followed by “all” altitude airways, and then high altitude airways.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is
highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway inserted
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway “A2” in Europe has a
directional restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction.
APPENDICES
For example, airway “UR975” in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the
list of airway waypoints. That is, each waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to another
waypoint.
In the US, airways that are “one-way” for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These airways
are always bidirectional in the system database.
INDEX
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the
flight plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
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Removing Airways
Removing an entire airway from the active flight plan:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the header of the airway to be removed.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
EIS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Removing an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be removed.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <airway name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Collapsing Airways
AFCS
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded. When airways have
been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway heading.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit waypoint
reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display. The DTK value
is inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
INDEX
APPENDICES
The active flight plan will always keep the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint, “To”
waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden in a
collapsed airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next” waypoint is
automatically expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded to facilitate flight
plan review.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
All Airways
Collapsed View
V4.SLN Airway
Expanded View
EIS
Figure 5-51 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the ENT Key. The airways are
collapsed/expanded.
FLIGHT PLAN OPERATIONS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
This section will discuss activating a flight plan leg and conducting enroute operations such as creating an
along track offset, parallel track, closest point from a reference point and user defined holding. For information
on departures, arrivals, and approaches refer to the Procedures portion later in the Flight Management Section.
ACTIVATING A FLIGHT PLAN LEG
The flight plan leg which is currently being used for navigation guidance is referred to as the ‘active leg’.
The system automatically sequences from one active leg to the next as defined by the active flight plan.
AFCS
Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the end waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’, and press the ENT Key.
A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
APPENDICES
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press
the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
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INDEX
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a flight
plan. Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used to make the
system reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan waypoint. Offset distances
can be entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a negative offset distance results in an along
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track offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint, whereas entering a positive offset distance results
in an along track offset waypoint inserted after the selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the along-track
distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected waypoint is the
active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active waypoint. Assigning an
along track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along track offset is not allowed at
or after the final approach fix of an approach.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance must be
changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be removed and a new one created with the new offset
distance.
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Figure 5-52 Along Track Offset
AFCS
Entering an along track offset distance:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK Offset Waypoint’, and
press the ENT Key.
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by leg distances).
APPENDICES
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
6) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
INDEX
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the altitude field (‘VNV’ or ‘ALT’).
3) Enter the desired altitude.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport, an additional choice
is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
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OVERVIEW
5) The cursor is now flashing in offset distance field.
6) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
8) Press the ENT Key to activate.
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
EIS
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a reference
waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a chosen reference
waypoint.
Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A window appears with the
reference waypoint field highlighted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint and press the ENT Key. The system displays the bearing (BRG) and
distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference waypoint and creates a user waypoint
at this location. The name for the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference waypoint.
PARALLEL TRACK
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Parallel Track feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right of the current
flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages shows the parallel
course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier. Activation of parallel track will
apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that does not meet the criteria for parallel
track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track at the beginning of that leg.
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the activation
prompt is displayed, but disabled.
AFCS
The following will inhibit activation of a parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to the selected waypoint.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track with
the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’.
• If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp turn of
more than 120 degrees), the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because
of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’).
APPENDICES
• If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status indicates that
the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the active leg type
(‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’).
INDEX
If there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. The following will
cancel the parallel track:
• Initiating a direct-to, to a waypoint.
• Initiating a hold at the present position.
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• If a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a result of the course change.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• No legs are remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active. Initiating a hold at
a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is required to fly to the hold
waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the parallel track will be resumed.
Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be resumed upon exiting the hold.
EIS
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Parallel Track
Waypoints
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Original Track
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Parallel Track
Figure 5-53 Parallel Track Active
AFCS
Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with the ‘Direction’ Field highlighted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘Distance’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Parallel Track’ is
highlighted.
APPENDICES
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to cancel the parallel track
activation.
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
INDEX
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel Track’ Window is displayed
with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
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USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position, or at a
direct-to waypoint.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Waypoint
Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Hold Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
(Time or Distance)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Leg Length Mode Button
Leg Length
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
AFCS
Map of Hold Location
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Expect Further Clearance Time
INDEX
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-54 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time or Distance)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Map of Hold Location
APPENDICES
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
INDEX
Hold At Direct To
Waypoint selection
Figure 5-55 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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OVERVIEW
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears with
the course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
EIS
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears
with the course field highlighted.
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold waypoint at the aircraft
present position and activate the hold.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a ¯ Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, then select ‘Hold?’ when finished.
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-defined hold defined at
the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the active flight plan, ‘HOLD’ is inserted into the active
flight plan. If the direct-to waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is created.)
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Editing a user-defined hold:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Edit Hold’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’ Window appears with the
course field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
EIS
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Update?’ is highlighted to update the hold.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern to the inbound course
and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
‘HOLD’ in the flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
AFCS
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active flight plan. Select ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the holding pattern.
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press a ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
APPENDICES
MANAGING FLIGHT PLANS
The pilot can manage flight plans by importing/exporting via SD Card or mobile device, and by storing,
copying, inverting, and deleting. Also, the comment field (name) of each flight plan can be changed to
something that is useful for identification and sorting.
INDEX
IMPORTING AND EXPORTING FLIGHT PLANS
Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Wireless Transceiver. Transfer of a flight
plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device. When a mobile device is attempting to transfer a
flight plan to the system, the pending flight plan may be ignored, previewed, stored, or activated by the pilot.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
Pending Flight Plan
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Store? or Activate?
Selection
Store Softkey
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Delete Softkey
Activate Softkey
Figure 5-56 Preview Flight Plan Page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pending Connext Action
Annunciator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pending Flight Plan
AFCS
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Preview Softkey
Ignore Softkey
Figure 5-57 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
APPENDICES
Ignoring a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a ‘PENDING FLIGHT PLAN’ pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the Display Title.
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan will
still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
INDEX
Or:
Press the Ignore Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan
will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
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Previewing a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a ‘PENDING FLIGHT PLAN’ pop-up alert appears
in the lower right corner of the MFD, and an Connext annunciation appears to the right of the Display Title.
Or:
Press the Preview Softkey to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
EIS
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Preview Flight Plan’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Storing a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
c) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the Store Softkey to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store?’.
AFCS
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
Or:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the pending annunciation
is removed.
APPENDICES
Activating a pending flight plan transferred from a mobile device:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
INDEX
4) Press the Activate Softkey. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ window is displayed.
EIS
5) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to activate the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan becomes
the active flight plan and is removed from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
5) Press the Delete Softkey. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Press the CLR Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’.
AFCS
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. The pending flight plan is removed
from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
APPENDICES
3) Press the MENU Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All Pending’.
5) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
6)
INDEX
With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel the request, press the
CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Alternatively, flight plans may be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
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Under certain conditions, some messages may appear when a flight plan is imported or exported.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight Plan Import/Export Results
‘Flight plan successfully imported.’
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
‘File contained user waypoints only.’
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
EIS
‘File contained user waypoints only. User
waypoints imported successfully. No
stored flight plan data was modified.’
‘No flight plan files found to import.’
‘Flight plan import failed.’
‘Flight plan partially imported.’
‘Some waypoints not loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
‘Too many points. Flight plan truncated.’
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
‘User waypoint database full. Not all
loaded.’
‘One or more user waypoints renamed.’
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
‘Flight plan successfully exported.’
‘Flight plan export failed.’
Description
A flight plan file stored on the SD card was successfully imported as a stored flight
plan.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
These waypoints have been saved to the system user waypoints. No flight plans
stored in the system have been modified.
The SD card contains no flight plan data.
Flight plan data was not successfully imported from the SD card.
Some flight plan waypoints were successfully imported from the SD card, however
others had errors and were not imported. A partial stored flight plan now exists in
the system.
The file stored on the SD card did not contain a flight plan, only user waypoints.
One or more of these waypoints did not import successfully.
The flight plan on the SD card contains more waypoints than the system can
support. The flight plan was imported with as many waypoints as possible.
The flight plan on the SD card contains one or more waypoints that the system
cannot find in the navigation database. The flight plan has been imported, but
must be edited within the system before it can be activated for use.
The flight plan file on the SD card contains user waypoints. The quantity of stored
user waypoints has exceeded system capacity, therefore not all the user waypoints
on the SD card have been imported. Any flight plan user waypoints that were not
imported are locked in the flight plan. The flight plan must be edited within the
system before it can be activated for use.
One or more imported user waypoints were renamed when imported due to
naming conflicts with waypoints already existing in the system.
The stored flight plan was successfully exported to the SD card.
The stored flight plan was not successfully exported to the SD card. The SD card
may not have sufficient available memory or the card may have been removed
prematurely.
Table 5-10 Flight Plan Import/Export Messages
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name of a waypoint
APPENDICES
already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the imported waypoint with those of
the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the imported waypoint is automatically renamed by
adding characters to the end of the name.
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
INDEX
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
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OVERVIEW
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be displayed.
Or:
EIS
If an existing flight plan is selected, an “Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or Cancel” prompt is displayed.
Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan and see the list of available flight plans on the
SD card. If overwriting the existing flight plan is not desired, select “Cancel” using the FMS Knob, press the
ENT Key, select another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Exporting a flight plan to an SD Card:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Export Flight Plan”.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the left to highlight the
name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new name, and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
INVERTING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
A flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure point. Inverting and
activating stored flight plans is discussed within the Stored Flight Plan Functions portion of this section.
APPENDICES
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert Active Flight Plan?’
confirmation window is displayed.
INDEX
3) Highlight ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’
and press the ENT Key.
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DELETING THE ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. Additionally, the system allows
the pilot to delete the active flight plan, which suspends navigation by the system.
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the Active ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete all waypoints in flight
plan?’ window is displayed.
EIS
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
STORED FLIGHT PLAN FUNCTIONS
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. Details about each stored flight plan
can be viewed on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page and on the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
A stored flight plan may be viewed or edited. The system also allows copying a flight plan into a new
flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without affecting the original flight plan. This can be used to
duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating a modified version of the original stored flight plan.
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being activated.
Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and replaces it with the
flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Lastly, individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
Stored Flight Plan Selected
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
INDEX
Figure 5-58 Stored Flight Plan Page
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Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
4) Information is displayed in the ‘Flight Plan Info’ Box showing departure, destination, total distance, and enroute
safe altitude information for the selected flight plan.
5) Press the Edit Softkey to open the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page and view the waypoints in the flight plan.
EIS
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
Storing an active flight plan from the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window:
1) Press the MENU Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available position in the flight
plan list on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the Activate Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’,
and press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
AFCS
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
Copying a stored flight plan to another flight plan memory slot, on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Copy Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Copy
to Flight Plan XX?’ window is displayed.
INDEX
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
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Deleting a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan.
3) Press the Delete Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan #?’ window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
EIS
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
Deleting all stored flight plans:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation window is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
CHANGING A FLIGHT PLAN COMMENT (NAME)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
the comment field.
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
APPENDICES
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
INDEX
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The system supports vertical guidance and altitude constraints for the following leg types: AF, CD, CF,
CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in stored flight plans.
EIS
The system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and terminal
phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or to a direct-to
waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is provided as a linear
deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two waypoints with specified
altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical waypoints are integrated into the
active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are supported.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vertical navigation is available for flight control operations when valid VNV data is entered in flight plan, and
the ENBL VNV Softkey is pressed (softkey label changes to ‘Cncl VNV’ once enabled) on the ‘FPL - Active Flight
Plan’ Page. Refer to the AFCS Section for more information on utilizing vertical navigation for aircraft control.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page
allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV direct-to
waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan from current
position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with
altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight plan
waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent (TOD)
point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ), and
time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) and
Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ, and TOD items
displayed in the Active VNV Profile box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until manually enabled. Vertical
guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Enabling and Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL- Active Flight Plan’ Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical
navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the waypoint shown in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box
(defaults first waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation (e.g., FALUR)).
3) To Disable VNV guidance, press the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and
press the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is disabled.
INDEX
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Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Disabled (fields dashed)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cncl VNV Softkey
ENBL VNV Softkey
Figure 5-59 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
CONSTRAINTS
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from the
published altitudes in the navigation database.
AFCS
Altitude Constraint
Examples
System Calculated
Advisory Altitude (White Text)
Edited Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text with Pencil Icon)
Designated Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
Cross AT 2,300 ft
APPENDICES
White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
Temperature
Compensated
INDEX
Figure 5-60 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
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OVERVIEW
White Text
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
Altitude retrieved from the navigation database. White line
above or below indicates the type of constraint.
These altitudes are provided as a reference, and are not
designated for vertical guidance.
The system cannot use this altitude in determining vertical
guidance because of an invalid constraint condition.
EIS
Altitude is designated for vertical guidance. A pencil icon
indicates manual designation or manually modified data entry.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Advisory altitude calculated by the system estimating the
altitude of the aircraft as it passes over the navigation point.
5OOOFT
Table 5-11 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
An altitude constraint may be manually designated by activating and moving the cursor to the desired
altitude on the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Page, turning the small FMS Knob and pressing the ENT Key. An altitude
constraint may be manually designated only if it is available for vertical guidance. Altitudes that are not
available for vertical guidance are shown in white text and cannot be selected by the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: If the Garmin AFCS is installed, the FAF altitude constraint may be modified and set above or below
the published FAF altitude.
For all designated altitudes, the system will automatically calculate advisory altitudes prior to the designated
altitude constraint. These advisory altitudes are not auto-designated and are displayed as white text.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated”. Pressing the CLR
Key with the altitude constraint highlighted on the ‘Active Flight Plan’ Page removes the altitude constraint
designation. The altitude will not be used for vertical guidance and the text displayed will be shown in
white. The system will recalculate advisory altitudes (white text) when any altitude constraint is designated,
modified, or un-designated.
AFCS
An altitude constraint may be entered as a flight level (FL), height above mean sea level (MSL), or height
above ground level (AGL). AGL format is only available for airport waypoints.
NOTE: All designated altitudes (cyan text) will be displayed in the active flight plan without restriction bars
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
regardless of what is shown on the published procedure.
A designated altitude constraint may be rendered invalid if any of the following are true:
• Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be exceeded
APPENDICES
• Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
• The climb constraints are not sequentially ascending, or the descent constraints are not sequentially
descending.
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INDEX
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. If an altitude
constraint is removed and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for the lateral waypoint, the
system will display that altitude restriction in white text. The system also provides a way to revert a published
altitude constraint that has been modified.
209
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Entering or modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight level, turn the small
FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the first character, and the system automatically
changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter
the three digit flight level.
EIS
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an airport without a runway
selected, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or ‘AGL’, and press the
ENT Key to accept the altitude.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Removing an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint (‘ALT’).
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude?’ confirmation window is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database value:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’ confirmation window is
displayed.
4) Select ‘Revert’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation database value.
AFCS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VERTICAL SPEED AND FLIGHT PATH ANGLE CONSTRAINTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (‘VS TGT’) and/or
flight path angle (‘FPA’) in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile Window’, and press the ENT
Key. The cursor is now located in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
INDEX
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page. The
terrain, obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active flight plan
information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNV profile, TOD/BOD, and
destination runway) can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode. See the Hazard Avoidance
section for information about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on the VSD.
EIS
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track mode.
When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation map indicated
range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD altitude range automatically
changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant ratio of altitude range to horizontal
range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been met. At ranges above the maximum, the
altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on the vertical
scale is close to the top for a descent phase and in the middle for a cruise phase or if the phase is unknown.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure any text,
one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint is displayed as
darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO waypoint, (2) waypoint
with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough for the
terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown subdued if the terrain is selected Off on the Navigation Map).
See the Hazard Avoidance Section for symbol information and display of point obstacles on the Navigation Map.
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon the
highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution, within a
predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft present position and the end of the map range
or active flight plan. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase.
AT
(Designated Altitude Constraint)
3OOOFT
5OOOFT
3OOOFT
INDEX
AT or ABOVE
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
AT or BELOW
(Un-designated Altitude Constraint
derived from the database)
Altitude Constraint Icon
APPENDICES
Numeric Representation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Constraint Type
AFCS
The numeric constraint values are displayed below the waypoint label, using the same color and format as on
the Active Flight Plan Screen. Database derived altitude restrictions are shown in white. Any altitude constraint
that has been designated for use in vertical navigation is shown in cyan. The following table shows the numeric
representation and the graphical representation of the constraints. The tip of each constraint symbol triangle is
placed at the corresponding constraint barometric altitude.
Table 5-12 Altitude Constraint Icons
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNV descents because the lateral distance of
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNV profile for any legs that have no vertical path guidance.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selected Alt. (9000ft)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
VSD Mode (AUTO FPL)
Current VNAV Profile
Active FPL Waypoints
Altitude Constraints
Destination Runway
Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
Absolute Terrain
VSD Mode Buttons
Obstacle
Figure 5-61 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VSD Mode Displayed
Button
Mode
AUTO FPL
Auto
AFCS
AUTO TRK
FPL Criteria
- FPL
- TRK
- Auto
Items available on VSD
Available active FPL & aircraft
within FPL swath
(1) Active FPL available &
aircraft not within FPL swath,
or (2) Active FPL not available
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
selected altitude
Terrain/obstacles along the active flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information
Flight Plan
FPL
Active FPL not available
Only shows message 'Flight Plan Not Available'
Terrain/obstacles along the current track, vertical track vector, and
Track
TRK
NA
selected altitude
Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNV profile, TOD/BOD, and
destination runway
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Active FPL available
INDEX
Table 5-13 VSD Modes
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VSD MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Message
‘Flight Plan Not Available’
‘Flight Plan mode unavailable because aircraft off
course and active leg over 200 NM’
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
‘VSD Data is old, disable and enable VSD’
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
‘VSD Not Available’
EIS
‘Aircraft Beyond Active Leg’
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
‘Loading...’
Description
VSD is loading data due to a range change, full/half switch, or first being
selected for display.
Flight Plan mode is selected and there is not a flight plan loaded with at
least one leg.
All of the following are true:
- Flight Plan mode is selected
- The active leg is greater than 200 nm
- The aircraft is outside the swath
Flight Plan mode is selected and the aircraft’s position, as projected on
the flight plan, is past the end of the active leg.
At least one of the following is true:
- Valid terrain database not available
- GPS MSL altitude not available
- Current barometric altitude not available
- Neither current track nor current heading available
- GPS position not available
- Map range setting is less than 1 nm
The system has encountered a delay and VSD data has failed to update
for 2 seconds or more. This message may be momentarily displayed and
then removed as the delay is overcome.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 5-14 VSD System Messages
Width of Swath
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
AFCS
Flight Phase
Approach, Departure
Terminal
En Route, Oceanic
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 5-15 Swath Width
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Enabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable the Vertical Situation Display.
5) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Or:
EIS
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the Map Opt Softkey
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Disabling the Vertical Situation Display:
5) Press the Inset Softkey
6) Press the VSD Mode softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the Inset Softkey
4) Press the Off Softkey.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
VERTICAL NAVIGATION DIRECT TO
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an altitude
constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV ¯ Softkey on the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’
Page allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude constraint at the VNV
direct-to waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is spread along the flight plan
from current position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the leg for the direct-to waypoint.
A direct-to with altitude constraint activated by pressing the ¯ Key also provides vertical guidance, but
would bypass flight plan waypoints between the current position in the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint.
A top of descent (TOD) point is computed based on the default flight path angle; descent begins once the
TOD is reached. All VNV altitudes prior to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan
upon successful activation of a direct-to destination that is part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes
following the direct-to waypoint are retained.
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the FPL Key for the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired waypoint.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to be used. If not,
the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is selected.
3) Press the VNV ¯ Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’, and press the ENT Key. An
‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’ confirmation window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Removing a VNV direct-to altitude constraint:
1) Press the ¯ Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
AFCS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
5.8 PROCEDURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals (STARs),
and non-precision and precision approaches (APRs) are stored within the navigation database and can be loaded
using any Procedures (PROC) Key.
NOTE: The charts database may contain Special Procedures. Prior to flying these procedures, pilots must
EIS
have specific FAA authorization, training, and possession of the corresponding current, and legitimatelysourced chart (approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special Procedure in the charts database DOES NOT
imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
NOTE: Some airports may have published instrument approach procedures not contained within the navigation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
database. These procedures may be available for preview from the charts database, but are not available for
navigation guidance. See the Additional Features Section for more information on previewing Charts.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No waypoints are
required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and destination airport are already
loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport, saving some time selecting the correct
airport on the ‘Procedure Loading’ Page. Furthermore, only one procedure for each type of procedure (DP, STAR,
APPR) can be loaded at a time in a flight plan.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure in the
navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’, that indicates
a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading leg in the flight plan
displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the pilot to manually initiate
sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
INDEX
Figure 5-62 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group):
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
Or.
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on
the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
Or.
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed
on the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor. To select another airport, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired procedure. The procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through the available procedures. Press the ENT Key to select the procedure.
The cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure is previewed on the map.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the FMS Knobs, as required, to highlight a runway or transition. Press the ENT Key to select the runway
or transition. The cursor moves to the next box. The procedure is previewed on the map.
6) Repeat Step 5, until desired information has been viewed for the chosen procedure.
7) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure can be
loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in the active flight
plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by selection of a departure, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
AFCS
Available Procedure Actions
Departure Airport
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Departure Preview
Loaded Procedures
Figure 5-63 Departure Selection
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Departure Choices
217
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Loaded Departure
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-64 Departure Loading
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Highlight ‘Select Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Loading a departure into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group), press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport information’ Page.
APPENDICES
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different departure, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Departure. The departure is previewed on the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available departures. Press the ENT Key to select the departure. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
INDEX
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The cursor
moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The departure is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The departure is previewed on the map.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Departure’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure into the active flight plan.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
EIS
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Departure”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight plan.
AFCS
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Removing a departure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
APPENDICES
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the departure:
INDEX
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the departure.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Departure’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ARRIVALS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one arrival can
be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in the active flight
plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the transition
waypoints, and a runway.
Destination Airport
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Available Procedure Actions
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival Choices
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-65 Arrival Selection
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selected Arrival
Loaded Arrival
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-66 Arrival Loading
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan from the ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (first page in the ‘WPT’ Page Group), press the STAR Softkey.
The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to the airport displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page.
APPENDICES
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/facility name/city, and
press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
3) Select a different arrival, if desired.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the arrival. The arrival is previewed on the map.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available arrivals. Press the ENT Key to select the arrival. The cursor
moves to the ‘Transition’ Box (only if there are available transitions). The arrival is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to select the transition. The
cursor moves to the ‘Runway’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runways. Press the ENT Key to select the runway. The
cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box. The arrival is previewed on the map.
EIS
4) Press the MENU Key to display the Arrival Information ‘Page Menu’ Window.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load Arrival’.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure into the active flight plan.
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
AFCS
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
APPENDICES
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
INDEX
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Removing an arrival from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the arrival:
EIS
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the arrival.
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove
Arrival’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
APPROACHES
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
INSTRUMENT APPROACH
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published approach procedures
for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available approaches.
AFCS
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides guidance
for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach procedures.
Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when another approach
is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach. The route is defined by
selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the procedure
can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation, meaning the GPS
receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver cannot be used for
primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected approach (e.g., VOR or
ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown by tuning the NAV receiver to
the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
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INDEX
The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service levels
according to the published chart. LNAV+V is an LNAV with advisory vertical guidance provided for assistance
in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach. This guidance is
displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a magenta diamond. In all cases
where LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV minima are used.
223
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
NOTE: The system requires 30 seconds of valid SBAS integrity monitoring prior to selecting an approach that
SBAS vertical guidance.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The active approach service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the following table:
Approach
Service Level
(as shown on HSI)
EIS
LNAV
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
LNAV+V
L/VNAV
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
LP
(available only if
SBAS available)
LP+V
(available only if
SBAS available)
LNAV/VNAV or
If SBAS unavailable prior to 1 minute to FAF,
LNAV Minima
approach switches to:
Available:
Description
GPS approach using published
LNAV minima
GPS approach using published
LNAV minima. Advisory
vertical guidance is provided
GPS approach using published
LNAV/VNAV minima
GPS approach using published
LP minima
GPS approach using published
LP minima. Advisory vertical
guidance is provided
AFCS
LPV
GPS approach using published
(available only if
LPV minima
SBAS available)
LNAV
N/A
LNAV
LNAV+V (Baro VNAV)
LNAV/VNAV
LNAV
Neither
LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV)
LNAV
Approach Aborted
LNAV
*LNAV
No LNAV
*Approach Aborted
LNAV
LNAV
No LNAV
Approach Aborted
LNAV/VNAV
LNAV
Neither
**LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV)
**LNAV
**Approach Aborted
Approach Service Level
- LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
*LP Approach Downgrade: If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an LP approach, LP will be
shown in amber to indicate that a downgrade is imminent. At one minute to the FAF, the LP approach will downgrade to an
LNAV approach (magenta LNAV replacing the amber LP), the CDI will be removed, and a system message will be generated.
The CDI will reappear when the system message is acknowledged. If SBAS becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF,
the LP approach will abort.
**LPV Approach Downgrade: If SBAS becomes unavailable prior to one minute to the FAF on an LPV approach, LPV will be
shown in amber to indicate that a downgrade is imminent. At one minute to the FAF, the LPV approach will downgrade, based
upon the available minima, to either LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV) or LNAV:
1) LNAV/VNAV (Baro VNAV): L/VNAV is initially shown in amber, a system message will be generated, and the VDI will show
No GP or No GS. When the system message is acknowledged, L/VNAV will change to magenta, and the VDI will change
to a magenta Baro VNAV symbol (pentagon); or
2) LNAV: LNAV is shown in magenta, the VDI will show No GP or No GS, and a system message will be generated. If SBAS
becomes unavailable after one minute to the FAF, the LPV approach will immediately downgrade to an LNAV approach,
with no system message generated.
Table 5-16 Effects of SBAS Unavailability on GPS Approaches
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPROACH SELECTION AND REMOVAL
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either ‘Load’ or ‘Activate’ is given. ‘Load’ adds the approach
to the end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows continued
navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure available for
quick activation when needed. ‘Activate’ also adds the procedure to the end of the flight plan but immediately
begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
In many cases, it may be easiest to load the full approach while still some distance away, enroute to the
destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps below to select ‘Activate Vector-To- Final’ — which
makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
EIS
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FOR GPS -’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV
receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
NOTE: When there is no arrival procedure in the flight plan, loading an approach after a destination airport
Available Procedure Actions
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
has already been entered will result in a duplicate destination airport waypoint being added to the end of
the enroute segment.
Destination Airport
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Approach Preview
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Loaded Procedures
Approach Choices
APPENDICES
Figure 5-67 Approach Selection
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Loaded Approach
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 5-68 Approach Loading
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
AFCS
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
5) Minimums
a) To set approach minimums, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’ and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
INDEX
To skip setting minimums, select ‘OFF’ and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page:
1) Select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest airport. The airport is
previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’, and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The
‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed with the ‘Transition’ Field highlighted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’, ‘TEMP COMP’, or ‘RAD ALT’ and press the
ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the temperature field. Turn the small FMS Knob to
select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. The ‘Load?’ field is highlighted.
AFCS
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight ‘Activate?’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the approach procedure.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
APPENDICES
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored
Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Approach”, and press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC
- Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor
to the Approach ‘Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key to accept the approach
channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
EIS
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Activating a previously loaded approach:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’ highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the ‘Procedures’ Window.
2) Highlight ‘Activate Vector-to-Final’ and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Select Approach’ and press the ENT Key.
3) From the ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page, press the MENU Key for the MFD. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is
displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
AFCS
4) Press the ENT Key.
When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘- NOT APPROVED FOR GPS GPS guidance is for monitoring only. Load approach?’ is displayed. With ‘Yes’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When a visual approach is selected, the message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is
displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
INDEX
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
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OVERVIEW
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the flashing cursor.
Removing an approach from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be edited.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the ENT Key. The ‘FPL Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Highlight and remove the approach:
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the approach.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
b) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window and turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
b) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove <procedure name> from flight plan?’ window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘Cancel’ and
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
MISSED APPROACH
AFCS
The system is capable of providing guidance for the approach as well as the missed approach. Once the
missed approach is activated, MAPR will be displayed on the HSI next to the CDI. If the missed approach is
activated prior to the Missed Approach Point (MAP), waypoint sequencing will continue along the approach
to the missed approach. If the missed approach is not activated prior to the MAP, the system will enter SUSP
Mode once the aircraft crosses the MAP until the missed approach is activated or SUSP Mode is disabled. See
the Flight Instruments, Course Deviation Indicator section for more information on SUSP Mode.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
See the Using Map Displays, Map Symbols discussion previously given in this section for information on
displaying the missed approach preview on the navigation map.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the PA-34-220T Seneca
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APPENDICES
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case ‘6600ft’) is
not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which guides the aircraft along
the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first turn toward the MAHP is exceeded.
This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be below, equal to, or above the published
minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet)
after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of
6,600 feet is reached. After reaching 6,600 feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case
ADANE). If the aircraft altitude is above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established
to the published fix (ADANE) to begin the missed approach procedure.
229
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Course to Altitude Leg
Figure 5-69 Course to Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published procedure.
For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to the Missed Approach
Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if
the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is established on a Course to Altitude leg
when the missed approach procedure is activated.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key or the Go-Around Button. Prior to the MAP, the aircraft will continue to laterally navigate to
the MAP before executing the missed approach. Otherwise, the aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
AFCS
Or:
Fly past the MAP, and press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
VISUAL APPROACH
APPENDICES
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches are not
defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the system calculates
the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach waypoints based on runway
position and course as specified in the navigation database.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRAIGHT) and the Vectors-toFinal transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial fix (STRGHT), the
final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree glide path is calculated from
the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended straight-in path.
INDEX
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore, when
a visual approach is selected, the message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches” is
displayed on the approach selection page and must be acknowledged before the visual approach is loaded
into the flight plan.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-70 Loading Visual Approach
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
AFCS
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a manual temperature input
at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C, the system increases
the approach altitudes accordingly, and the snowflake icon ( ) is displayed next to those altitudes.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Manually inputting the temperature for compensation is explained in the following procedures. However,
if the Garmin AFCS is installed, the system already automatically offsets the lateral position of the baro-VNAV
bottom of descent without manual input. Once calculated, the VNAV function seamlessly applies the lateral
adjustment to the baro-VNAV descent path so that a smooth transition onto the approach vertical path occurs.
For example, on a day with temperatures colder than ISA, the baro-VNAV path will typically be below the
actual approach descent path. The system will automatically adjust for this by calculating a lateral distance
prior to the FAF which is applied to ensure the baro-VNAV path intersects the approach descent path.
APPENDICES
NOTE: When the Garmin AFCS is installed, manually specifying temperature compensation for an approach
will disrupt the system from automatically creating a lateral offset of the VNAV function in use.
INDEX
NOTE: When the Garmin AFCS is installed, initiating the VNAV direct-to function or manually specifying
an FPA at the FAF will disrupt the VNAV function from creating a lateral offset. Thus, temperature is not
compensated for and the baro-VNAV path and may not intersect the approach descent path.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Manually setting temperature compensation for approach loaded altitudes:
1) From the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed with the temperature highlighted.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to change the ‘Temperature at <airport>’ Field. The compensated altitude is computed
as the temperature is selected.
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window on the
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
MFD, or in the ‘References’ Window on the PFD. There is only one compensation temperature for the system,
therefore, changing the temperature will affect both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums.
Refer to the Flight Instruments Section for information about applying temperature compensation to the
MDA/DH.
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight plan.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cancelling temperature compensation setting for approach loaded altitudes:
1) From the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key.
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes does not select/
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/deselecting temperature
compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated approach altitudes.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected
Temperature
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
EIS
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Figure 5-71 Manually Setting Temperature Compensation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Compensated
Altitudes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 5-72 Temperature Compensation set for approach loaded altitudes
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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5.9 TRIP AND WEIGHT PLANNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information for
a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data. Weight
planning is also available, based on manually entered fuel data and the active flight plan (to estimate remaining
fuel).
TRIP PLANNING
EIS
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’.
Selected Flight Plan Segment
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
- Automatic/Manual
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-73 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs (manual page
mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
APPENDICES
AFCS
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
• Calibrated airspeed - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of information
is GPS ground speed.
• Departure time - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are from the
aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
INDEX
• Indicated altitude - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of information is
GPS altitude.
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OVERVIEW
TRIP STATISTICS
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM) selected,
the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
EIS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan (REM)
selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
active flight plan.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected, the
‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan, these
default to the endpoints of the active leg).
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has already
been flown.
• Desired Track (DTK) - DTK is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected waypoints. It
displays dashes unless only a single leg is selected.
• Distance - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is shown as
minutes:seconds.
• Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the destination.
- If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
AFCS
- If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the departure time
all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the
ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the current leg
being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the current leg up to and
including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of
the flight plan was selected.
• Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
APPENDICES
• Destination sunrise and sunset times - These times are shown as hours:minutes and are the local time at
the destination.
INDEX
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FUEL STATISTICS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip planning
inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics display dashes when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
• Fuel efficiency - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the current fuel flow.
• Time of fuel endurance - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is obtained by dividing the
amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
EIS
• Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg - This value is calculated by taking the amount of fuel
onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the selected leg.
• Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg - This value is calculated by taking the time of fuel
endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the selected leg.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Fuel required for trip - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by the fuel flow.
• Total range at entered fuel flow - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of fuel endurance by the
ground speed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning inputs.
• Density altitude
• True airspeed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The pilot may select Auto or Manual mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs) mode. In Auto Mode,
only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/WPTs selection).
Selected Flight Plan NN -
Selected Leg(s)
AFCS
00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 5-74 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
APPENDICES
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
INDEX
Figure 5-75 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
Select the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
Select the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints
Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
EIS
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the flight plan number field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Inset Map also displays the selected data.
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Select the WPTS Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The
cursor is positioned in the waypoint field directly below the FPL field.
2) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set WPT to Present Position’
if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The statistics for the selected leg
are displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the pilot, in addition to flight
plan and leg selection.
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
AFCS
1) Select the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’ from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor
may now be positioned in any field in the top right two boxes.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the DEP TIME field and enter the desired value. Press the ENT Key.
The statistics are calculated using the new value and the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all
desired values have been entered.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
WEIGHT PLANNING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ‘Aux - Weight and Fuel Planning’ Page is available to manage actual weight, estimated weight, and fuel
quantity.
NOTE: All weight planning page data fields display data rounded to the nearest 10 pounds.
A/C Payload Calculator
Fuel Weight Calculator
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Estimated Landing Wt Calculation
- Estimated Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry Basic Operating Wt Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Text visible when Fuel on
Board has not yet been
entered
Empty WT Softkey
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(selects Basic Empty Weight)
Figure 5-76 Weight and Fuel Planning Page
AFCS
The following three fuel calculations can be completed when a destination waypoint has been entered into the
flight plan and one of the following has occurred: 1) the aircraft is in the air, or 2) the aircraft is on the ground
with the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page fields completed in Manual Mode. Otherwise, these three fuel fields will
display invalid values consisting of four dashes:
• Est Landing Weight = Zero Fuel Weight + Estimated Landing Fuel Weight.
• Est Landing Fuel = Fuel on Board Weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Excess Fuel = Estimated Landing Fuel Weight - Fuel Reserves Weight
WEIGHT WARNING CONDITIONS
APPENDICES
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight is
displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the estimated
landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the
following values are displayed in amber:
INDEX
• Est Landing Fuel
• Excess Fuel
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in amber:
• Estimated fuel at landing weight
• Excess fuel weight
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WEIGHT COMPILATIONS
The basic operating weight is calculated by adding the basic empty weight and the pilot and stores weight.
The total weight of passengers is calculated by multiplying the number of passengers by the average passenger
weight. The ‘Zero Fuel Weight’ is calculated by adding the basic empty, pilot and stores, passenger, and cargo
weights.
EIS
Entering basic empty weight:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the Empty WT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT
Key to select the ‘Basic Empty Weight’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Entering a pilot and stores weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Pilot & Stores’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering the number of passengers:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Passengers #’ Field.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Entering the average passenger weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the passenger weight field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
Entering the cargo weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Cargo’ Field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel on Board’ Field.
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserve:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel Reserves’ Field.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
5.10 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The Inset Map is removed from the PFD any time aircraft pitch is greater than +30° or less than –20°,
or when a 65° bank angle is reached.
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of flight. In all other
EIS
phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION” annunciation on the map and the system
stops using GPS.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable to
calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR Mode, the
system uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and heading data (when
available) to calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become increasingly
unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode airspeed and/or heading data
is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of accurately tracking estimated position and,
consequently, the system may display a path that is different than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated
position information displayed by the system through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available
should not be used for navigation.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite measurements
needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound the relative inaccuracy
of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must be relied upon for position
awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
AFCS
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over the ‘own
aircraft’ symbol on the navigation map. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI slightly
above and to the right of t he aircraft symbol on the CDI. The CDI deviation bar remains, but is removed from the
display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled in DR mode as long as the deviation info
is available (20 min.). Lastly, but at the same time, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD. Normal
navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is restored.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated position and
is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information as shown in the
following figure. If the VSD Inset is selected for the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be displayed.
APPENDICES
While the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the accuracy of all
nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace alerts continue to
function, but with degraded accuracy.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Distance &
Bearing
Current
Track
Indicator
EIS
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Course Deviation
Indicator
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Bearing
Pointer/
Distance
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Nav Data Bar
AFCS
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Subdued Aircraft
Symbol
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 5-77 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Hazard avoidance features available for the system are designed to aid situational awareness and provide advisory
information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather, terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
• GDL 69/69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
• GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
• Flight Information Services-Broadcast (Optional)
EIS
• GWX 75 Airborne Color Weather Radar (Optional)
®
• L-3 Stormscope WX-500 Lightning Detection System (Optional)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Terrain Avoidance
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVT (included with Garmin SVT option)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic
• Traffic Information Service (TIS)
Garmin GTS 825 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Garmin GTX 345R Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic (Optional)
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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6.1 DATA LINK WEATHER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather. Information contained within data link weather products may not accurately depict current
weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of the weather
EIS
information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays inherent in gathering and processing
weather data for data link transmission, the weather information shown by the data link weather product
may be older than the indicated weather product age.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Data Link Weather feature enables the system to receive weather information from a variety of weather
sources, depending on the equipment installed in the aircraft. These sources may include SiriusXM Weather,
Garmin Connext Weather, and Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather. For each source, a groundbased system processes the weather information collected from a network of sensors and weather data providers.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The SiriusXM Weather service, available with the optional Garmin GDL 69A or GDL 69 SXM SiriusXM Datalink
Receiver and an active service subscription, updates its weather data periodically and automatically, and transmits
this information to the aircraft’s receiver via satellite on the S-Band frequency. This service provides continuous
reception capabilities at any altitude throughout North America.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The FIS-B Weather service, available when equipped with a capable transponder or data link receiver which
can receive 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data, delivers subscription-free weather information
periodically and automatically to the aircraft. FIS-B uses a network of FAA-operated Ground-Based Transceivers
(GBTs) to transmit the information to the aircraft’s receiver. Reception is limited to line-of-sight, and is available
below 24,000 feet MSL in the United States. FIS-B broadcasts provide weather data in a repeating cycle which
may take approximately ten minutes to transmit all available weather data. Therefore, not all weather data may
be present immediately upon initial FIS-B signal acquisition. FIS-B is a component of the Automatic Dependent
Surveillance (ADS-B) system, which offers both weather and traffic data; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later
in this section for a more detailed discussion of the ADS-B system and its capabilities.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Garmin Connext Weather service, available when equipped with the optional Garmin GSR 56 Iridium
Transceiver and an active service subscription, provides data link weather information to the aircraft after the pilot
defines a geographic area and subsequently selects a manual or automatically recurring Connext Data Request.
The transceiver then contacts the Garmin Connext Weather service using the Iridium Satellite telephone system
and retrieves the weather data for the specified area. The Garmin Connext Weather service offers worldwide
weather coverage, but the availability of individual weather products, such as radar precipitation, varies by region.
NOTE: To check the availability of Garmin Connext weather products offered in a particular region, visit
INDEX
http://www.flygarmin.com.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ACTIVATING DATA LINK WEATHER SERVICES
ACTIVATING THE SIRIUSXM WEATHER SERVICE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s customer
service the coded ID(s) unique to the installed data link receiver. The Data Radio ID must be provided
to activate the weather service. An Audio Radio ID, if present, enables the receiver to provide SiriusXM
Radio entertainment. If the GDL 69A SXM receiver is installed, these IDs may be identical. To view this
information, refer to the following locations:
• The ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page on the MFD
EIS
• The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
• The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display weather data and/
or provide audio entertainment programming through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather data) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
These IDs may be the same.
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website, www.siriusxm.com.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition to payment information,
and the desired weather product subscription package.
After SiriusXM has been contacted, it may take approximately 15 minutes until the activation occurs.
Verifying the SiriusXM Weather service activation:
AFCS
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) View the list of supported Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an unavailable weather
product; a green filled box appears next to an available weather product. During activation, it may take several
minutes for weather products in the selected subscription package to become available.
NOTE: Not all weather products offered by SiriusXM are supported for display on this system. This pilot’s
APPENDICES
guide only discusses supported weather products.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM Satellite
Radio)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Weather Products
(Available Products for
Service Class Indicated
in Green)
Press to Display XM
Information page
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-1 XM Information Page
ACTIVATING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Garmin Connext weather service requires an active Iridium satellite telephone and
weather data subscription. Registration begins by first obtaining the serial number(s) for the
installed Iridium Satellite Transceiver (GSR 1), and the System ID. Then go to the website
www.flygarmin.com and follow the instructions for establishing an account for Garmin Connext data services.
Note additional information about the airframe may be required. After an account has been established,
Garmin provides an access code that must be entered on the system and successfully transmitted to the
Garmin Connext service via the Iridium satellite network.
AFCS
Obtaining the LRU serial numbers and System ID:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the LRU Softkey.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll the cursor until ‘GSR 1’ is visible in the ‘LRU Information’ window.
4) Note the serial number displayed for ‘GSR 1’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
5) Press the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System ID Number
Iridium Transceiver
Serial Number
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-2 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) Go to www.flygarmin.com. Locate the information for subscribing to Garmin Connext Satellite Services on the
website.
2) Choose a desired service which includes weather data and enter the requested information about the aircraft.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Note the Access Code provided during the registration process and any additional instructions received.
4) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the
Map page group.
AFCS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page. If another data link weather
source such as ‘XM’ or ‘FIS-B’ is displayed in the page title, it will be necessary to change the data link weather
source to CNXT before continuing. Refer to ‘Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page’ procedure to change
the data link source to prior to registration.
6) If the system displays the Connext Registration Window, proceed to step 8. Otherwise, press the MENU Key.
The page menu window is now displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
8) Press the ENT Key. The Connext Registration Window appears as shown in Figure 6-3.
APPENDICES
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FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-3 Enter Access Code
9) Enter the access code provided by Garmin in the ‘Access Code’ field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
10) Press the ENT Key. ‘Register’ is highlighted.
11) Press the ENT Key. The system contacts Garmin through the Iridium network. System registration is complete
when the Current Registration Window displays the correct information for the Airframe, Tail Number, Airframe
Serial Number, and Iridium Serial Number.
AFCS
12) When finished, push the FMS Knob to remove the Connext Registration Window.
WEATHER PRODUCT AGE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Unlike real-time weather information collected directly from weather sensors on-board an aircraft, such as an
airborne lightning detection system, data link weather by contrast relies on service providers to collect, process,
and transmit weather information to the aircraft. This information can come from a variety of sources such as
government agencies. Due to the time it takes to collect, process, and distribute data link weather information,
it is imperative for pilots to understand that data link weather information is not real-time information and may
not accurately depict the current conditions.
INDEX
APPENDICES
For each data link weather product which can be displayed as a map overlay, such as METAR flags, the system
can also show a weather product age. This age represents the elapsed time, in minutes, since the weather service
provider compiled the weather product and the current time. It does not represent the age of the information
contained within the weather product itself. For example, a single mosaic of radar precipitation is comprised
data from multiple radar sites providing data at differing scan rates or intervals. The weather service provider
periodically compiles this data to create a single composite image, and assigns one time to this image which
becomes the basis of the product age. The service provider then makes this weather product available for data
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
link transmission at the next scheduled update time. The actual age of the weather data contained within the
mosaic is therefore older than its weather product age and should never be considered current.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SiriusXM and FIS-B weather products are broadcast automatically on a repeating cycle without pilot
intervention. The Garmin Connext weather service requires the pilot to select a manual or automatic (recurring)
weather data request in order to receive weather data updates.
EIS
Each data link weather product age has an expiration time. The weather product age is shown in white if it
is less than half of this expiration time, otherwise it is shown in amber until reaching its expiration time. After
a weather product has expired, the system removes the expired weather product from the displays, and shows
white dashes instead of the age. If the data link receiver has not yet received a weather product ‘N/A’ appears
instead of the age to show the product is currently not available for display. This may occur, for example, after
powering on the system but before the data link receiver has received a complete weather data transmission. It
could also indicate a possible outage of a weather product.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For PFD
maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
Enabling/disabling the weather product age for PFD Maps:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the WX LGND to show/remove the weather product age information for PFD maps.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Tables 6-1 and 6-2 show the weather product symbols, the and expiration times for SiriusXM Weather and
FIS-B Weather, respectively. The FIS-B broadcast rate represents the interval at which the FIS-B Weather service
transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated weather product information. It does not represent
the rate at which the weather information is updated or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. The
service provider and its weather data suppliers define and control the data update intervals, which are subject
to change.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
30
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
30
Cell Movement
30
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
METARs
90
City Forecast
90
Surface Analysis
60
Freezing Levels
120
Winds Aloft
90
County Warnings
60
Cyclone Warnings
60
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
Air Report(AIREP)
90
Turbulence
180
Radar Coverage Not Available
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
No product image
30
60
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
No product image
60
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
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NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
METARs
90
5
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
10
Winds Aloft
90
10
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
5
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
Symbol
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
FIS-B Weather Product
EIS
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
(TAF)
No product symbol
60
10
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
No product symbol
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No Radar Coverage
Table 6-2 FIS-B Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The following table shows the Garmin Connext Weather product symbols, the expiration times and the
refresh rates. The refresh rate represents the interval at which Garmin Connext weather service makes available
the most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rate at which the service receives
new data from various weather sources. The pilot chooses how often to contact the Garmin Connext weather
service in order to retrieve weather data through the Connext Data Request.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
U.S.: 3*
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15ˆ
30
Infrared Satellite
60
30
Datalink Lightning
30
Continuous
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
Continuous
METARs
90
Continuous
Winds Aloft
90
Continuous
Pilot Weather Report (PIREPs)
90
Continuous
Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)
60
Continuous
60
Continuous
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Radar Precipitation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Symbol
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Garmin Connext Weather Product
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Terminal Aerodrome Reports TAFs)
no product image
AFCS
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3 minutes, but individual radar sites may take between 3 and
10 minutes to provide new data.
†
Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment Canada.
ˆ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
Table 6-3 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
DISPLAYING DATA LINK WEATHER PRODUCTS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
INDEX
APPENDICES
The Weather Data Link Page is the principal map page for viewing data link weather information. This page
provides the capability for displaying the most data link weather products of any map on the system. The
‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page also provides system-wide controls for selecting the data link weather source,
if more than one source has been installed. The page title indicates the selected data link weather source (e.g.,
“XM”, “CNXT”).
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NEXRAD Weather
Product Display
Enabled Icon
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD Weather
Product Age (US)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-4 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Viewing the Weather Data Link Page and changing the data link weather source, if applicable:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page. The currently selected
data link weather source appears in the page title.
3) If the page title does not contain the desired weather source, press the MENU Key.
AFCS
a) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’, or ‘Display Connext Weather’ (choices may vary
depending on the installed equipment).
b) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-5 Changing the Data Link Weather Source
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The system presents the softkeys for the selected source on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page, and for map
overlays used throughout the system. The following figures show the softkeys for the ‘Map - Weather Data Link’
Page based on the selected source.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE SOFTKEYS
NOTE: Only softkeys pertaining to data link weather features are shown in the following tables.
EIS
Level 1
NEXRAD
Level 2
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Echo Top
CLD Top
XM LTNG
Cell MOV
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
More WX
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Cyclone
SFC
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
FRZ LVL
Wind
254
Level 3
Description
Enables/disables the NEXRAD weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Echo Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cloud Tops weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Lightning weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Cell Movement weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level SiriusXM Weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the Cyclone weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkey for enabling/disabling the Surface Analysis and
City Forecast weather product and selecting a forecast period.
Disables the Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather product overlay.
Displays the Surface Analysis for the current time period overlay.
Off
Current
12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, These softkeys display a Surface Analysis and City Forecast overlay for the
selected future time period.
48 HR
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the Freezing Level weather product overlay.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting winds from Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the chosen altitude.
the Surface (SFC) to Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
42,0000 feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
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Level 2
Level 3
Back
ICNG
AFCS
AIREPS
PIREPS
County
Back
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the AIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the County Warnings weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Back
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PREV
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting Turbulence
altitude from 21,000
feet to 45,000 feet
Next
Legend
Shows the next level of Icing weather product softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Displays softkeys for enabling/disabling the Turbulence weather product
overlay.
Shows the previous level of Turbulence altitude softkeys.
Disables the Turbulence weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 21,000 feet to
45,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TURB
Enables/disables the Icing weather product overlay from 1,000 feet to
30,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
EIS
Softkeys available for
selecting winds from
the Icing altitude from
to 1,000 to 30,000 feet
Next
Legend
Description
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Displays altitude softkeys for the Icing weather product overlay.
Shows the previous level of Icing altitude softkeys.
Disables the Icing weather product.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PREV
Off
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Level 1
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT) PAGE SOFTKEYS)
Level 1
PRECIP
Level 2
Level 3
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
IR SAT
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
EIS
More WX
Wind
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
PREV
Off
Softkeys available for
selecting winds from
the Surface to 42,0000
feet
Next
Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Back
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
altitude.
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
PIREPs
Back
Description
Enables/disables the Precipitation weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Infrared Satellite weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level Connext Weather product softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
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SYSTEM
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WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B) PAGE SOFTKEYS)
Level 1
NXRD
Level 2
Level 3
Description
Cycles through NEXRAD display modes with each press:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Off: No NEXRAD is shown.
US: Displays NEXRAD data for the Continental US (CONUS).
REG: Displays regional NEXRAD data.
Wind
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
PIREPs
Back
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
More WX
EIS
IR SAT
SIG/AIR
METAR
Legend
All: Displays regional NEXRAD data where available, and CONUS NEXRAD
data in other coverage areas.
Enables/disables the Infrared Satellite weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the METAR weather product overlay.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Displays second-level Connext Weather product softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/disabling the Winds Aloft weather
product and selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
PREV
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product overlay.
Off
Softkeys available for Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather product for the surface (SFC)
selecting winds from through 15,000 feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
the Surface to 42,0000 altitude.
feet
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude softkeys.
Next
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends Window. Softkey available
Legend
for selection when at least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The ‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page can display a legend for each enabled weather product.
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the ‘Map -Weather Data Link’ Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the window.
4) To remove the Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the CLR Key, or press the FMS
Knob.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Additional information about the following weather products can be displayed by panning the Map Pointer
over the following products on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page:
• Echo Tops
• METARs
• Cloud Tops
• County Warnings
• Cell Movement
• TFRs
• SIGMETs
• AIREPs
• AIRMETs
• PIREPs
EIS
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NEXRAD Weather
Product Display
Enabled Icon
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NEXRAD Weather
Product Age (US)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Selected for
Display
Figure 6-6 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
APPENDICES
Certain weather products, such as METARs or TFRs have associated full text. When a weather product is
selected with the Map Pointer, press the ENT Key. The system displays the full text for the selected weather
product in a window. To remove the window, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
INDEX
The Weather Data Link Page also has a page menu that can be accessed by pressing the MENU Key. It has
controls for enabling/disabling the weather products as an alternative to using the softkeys.
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CUSTOMIZING THE WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page includes controls for selecting the maximum map range to display
each weather product on the page. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range,
the system removes the weather product from the map. If more than one data link weather source has been
installed, the system uses the same maximum map range for the comparable weather product of another
source.
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page.
EIS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: ‘Product Group 2’ is only applicable to SiriusXM and Garmin Connext Weather.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page with the changed settings.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
AFCS
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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WEATHER PRODUCT MAP OVERLAYS
Cloud Top
+
Echo Top
+
Infrared Satellite
+
Data Link Lightning
+
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Cell Movement
Winds Aloft
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
METARs
Flight Plan Pages
+
Nearest Page
Group
+
Weather
Information Page
Weather Data
Link Page
+
‘Aux - Trip
Planning’ Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NEXRAD/Radar Precipitation
Navigation Map
Page
EIS
Data Link Weather Product
PFD Maps
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Other PFD and MFD maps and pages can display a smaller set of data link weather products. The following
table shows which data link weather products can be displayed on specific maps, indicated with a ‘+’ symbol.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Surface Analysis & City Forecast
+
Freezing Levels
+
+*
+
+
County Warnings
+
Cyclone Warnings
+
Icing Potential
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence (TURB)
+
No Radar Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
+
+
+
TAFs
APPENDICES
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
Winds Aloft data is not available inside the VSD when FIS-B is the active data link weather source.
Table 6-4 Weather Product Display Maps
Displaying Data Link Weather Products on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
INDEX
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the softkey to enable/disable the desired weather product.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also can display legends for weather products enabled on this map with
the Legend Softkey. This softkey is subdued if no weather products are enabled.
Showing/removing the weather legend on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Legend Softkey to show the weather legends window.
4) When finished, press the Legend Softkey again, or press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the window.
EIS
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also allows the pilot to select the maximum map range to display weather
products. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the system removes
the weather product from the map. The system uses this setting for all navigation maps, including those
displayed on the PFD.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
The system can also display data link weather information on the PFD navigation maps.
AFCS
Displaying Data Link Weather products on the PFD:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of data link products on the PFD map.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
On the MFD maps, the weather product icon and age appear automatically when a weather is enabled and
the range is within the maximum display limits. On PFD maps, this information is available using the PFD
softkeys.
Enabling/disabling the weather product icon and age display (PFD maps):
APPENDICES
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the WX LGND Softkey to enable/disable the weather product age, source, and icon box display on PFD
Maps.
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INDEX
The setup menus for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the map
range settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger
than the weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed from the map.
261
SYSTEM
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The page menus also provide an alternative to using the softkeys to enable/disable data link weather product
overlays on maps.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
NOTE: Data requests are not applicable to the SiriusXM Weather or FIS-B Weather services.
EIS
The Connext Data Request Menu provides the pilot with the options to define the requested weather coverage
area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or cancel weather data
requests. A Request Status Window inside the menu shows the status of the Connext Data Request.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Before a Connext Data Request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all
currently available Garmin Connext Weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the aircraft’s
present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’ coverage field)
must be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window indicates ‘INVALID COVERAGE
AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be specified
prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these option(s) until a
flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
Manually Requesting Garmin Connext Weather information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT Key to show or hide a
green check mark to select one of more of the following coverage selections (Figures 6-8, 6-9):
• Present Position – Requests data based on current location.
AFCS
• Destination – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To destinations excluded).
See the Flight Management section for more information about entering and activating flight plans.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one currently exists. Turn the small FMS Knob to select
the desired flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘Remaining FPL’ to request weather data for
the remainder of the flight plan), then press the ENT Key.
• Waypoint – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large and small FMS
Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘Diameter / Route Width’ distance field and turn the small FMS Knob
to select the desired diameter and route width of the request, then press the ENT Key.
INDEX
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted. Press the ENT Key to initiate the request
immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page without requesting
weather data.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-7 Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Menu
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-8 Connext Data Request Window
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
Figure 6-9 Garmin Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Data Displayed
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
During a Connext Data Request, the Request Status Window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”. Once
a connection is established, the Request Status Window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time Remaining:” with
an estimated data transfer time (either minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext Data Request Menu may
be removed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the data request will continue
to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between 1 to 4 minutes to complete
depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area, the amounts of weather activity present, and the
Iridium signal strength.
APPENDICES
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext Weather products within the selected coverage area during
an initial Connext Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for display. On
subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs and TAFS) if it has
not expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and all graphical weather data
is transferred to the aircraft during every data request.
INDEX
At the completion of a successful weather data request, the Request Status Window indicates ‘OK’ if the
Connext Data Request menu is still within view.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Cancelling a Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Cancel Request’ field and press the ENT Key. The request status box
indicates ‘Request Cancelled’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
EIS
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Automatic requests remain
enabled until the flight crew them, or the system power is removed. The Request Status Window indicates the
number of minutes or seconds until the next automatic data request occurs.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system entering Reversionary Mode,
the automatic weather data requests will continue in Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data
Request Window and its associated options will not be available in Reversionary Mode.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Update Rate’ field. Then turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min), then press
the ENT Key.
AFCS
6) The ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the ‘Request Status’ Window
based on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT Key to immediately send an immediate Connext
Data Request.
Or:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map -Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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WEATHER PRODUCT OVERVIEW
The following is an overview of data link weather products the system can display.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Datalink weather radar information cannot be displayed at the same time as relative terrain, echo
tops, icing, or turbulence data.
EIS
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider compiles the available
individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when
it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual images--gathered from
each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The
data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current radar synopsis
and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather product should never be used as a
basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
Figure 6-10 NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity image.
This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various altitudes. For radar
sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from the lowest antenna tilt angle,
known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the intensity of the echoes
and the type of precipitation, if known.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on the Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
EIS
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown for the selected region (US or Canada).
The pilot can change the region on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
Changing the NEXRAD coverage region:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Region datafield.
AFCS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ (Canada) and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected. Areas
where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not being collected
are indicated in gray shade of purple.
APPENDICES
The system can animate a loop of NEXRAD information. The animated view is available on the Weather
Data Link (XM) Page, and on navigation maps with the exception of the HSI Map. Animation begins after
the system has received at least two recent NEXRAD images since the avionics power cycle. When NEXRAD
animation is enabled, a timeline appears in the upper-right corner of the map, except for the PFD Inset Map.
A pointer on the timeline indicates the relative position of the displayed frame of animation, from oldest to
newest. The NEXRAD weather product age corresponds to the displayed frame. The system can show up
to six frames of NEXRAD animation when the USA coverage option is selected, and up to three frames of
animation when Canada is selected.
INDEX
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Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
3) With ‘Product Group 1’ selected, turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’, then press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
EIS
The pilot enables/disables the NEXRAD animation feature for navigation maps from the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page.
Displaying Time-Lapse NEXRAD Animation on navigation maps:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Animation On/Off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ or ‘Off’ and press the ENT Key.
7) To remove the menu, push the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Reflectivity
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
AFCS
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-11 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
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NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
• Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
EIS
• Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar beam
overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site, the radar beam
is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any precipitation occurring
below the beam at this distance and altitude.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• At smaller map ranges, the smallest square block on the display represents an area of approximately
four square kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the highest level of radar
reflectivity sampled within the area.
• Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
• Ground clutter
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEXRAD Limitations (Canada)
• Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Any precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless of
actual precipitation type.
EIS
• If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of actual
precipitation type.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No Coverage
Above 55°N
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Precipitation
Above 52°N
Always Displays
as Mixed
Figure 6-12 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
AFCS
NEXRAD (FIS-B)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain.
NOTE: Pilots are encouraged to check additional NOTAM sources to supplement FIS-B NOTAMs. NOTAMs
older than 30 minutes will not be displayed by FIS-B. For additional information refer to InFO 18008 and AC
00-63.
APPENDICES
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation RADar)
system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD network provides
centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and selected overseas locations. The
maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
INDEX
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar site may
arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to FIS-B compiles
the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and assigns a single time
to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD weather product. Individual
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images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed NEXRAD
weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this
information during the next designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the displayed
weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar synopsis and may not
depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be used as a basis for maneuvering
in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the information it contains.
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
EIS
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-13 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
AFCS
The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher resolution,
updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution, updated less
frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display on the same map.
When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display precedence where data is available,
and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional NEXRAD coverage area.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the NXRD Softkey. Each selection cycles though a coverage option displayed in cyan on the softkey (‘Off’,
‘US’, or ‘REG’, or ‘All’).
Or:
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1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) To enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information for the continental United States, turn the small FMS
Knob to highlight the NEXRAD On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of NEXRAD for the continental United
States or ‘Off’ to disable.
b) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
4) To enable/disable the display of Regional NEXRAD information, turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
Regional On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of Regional NEXRAD or ‘Off’ to disable.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
b) Press the ENT Key.
5) When finished, push the FMS Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Continental
USA NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
AFCS
No radar coverage
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-14 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-15 Weather Data Link (FIS-B)
Page Menu
Figure 6-16 Weather Data Link (FIS-B)
Page Setup Menu
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
3) To change the type of NEXRAD displayed, press the MENU Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
AFCS
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘CONUS’ (continental United States), ‘RGNL’ (regional), or ‘Combined’,
then press the ENT Key. This selection also affects display of NEXRAD on the PFD Maps.
8) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
APPENDICES
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received from
ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white spiked boundary
encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being displayed. The
system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this boundary area.
If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey enabled),
the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of the
information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be viewed
on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page. For the NEXRAD legend, press the Legend Softkey when the
NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
No radar coverage
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-17 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar data
is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during initial FIS-B signal
acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system may display areas of no radar
coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is received. It may take up to approximately ten
minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when adequate reception is available.
AFCS
Reflectivity
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the NEXRAD
display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous
weather can be very complex.
INDEX
APPENDICES
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
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The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). NEXRAD
measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NEXRAD Limitations
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
EIS
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional version
of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm tall. For the
continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5 nm wide by 5 nm
wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected within that area.
• The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of latitude.
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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PRECIPITATION (GARMIN CONNEXT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar coverage areas.
This information comes from Findividual weather radar sites and weather data sources such as government
agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates and times. Periodically, the
Garmin Connext Weather service compiles the available information to form a composite image, and assigns
a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the Precipitation weather product.
Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ in age, and are always older than the displayed
Precipitation weather product age.
EIS
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain data.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the current
radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather product should
never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Precipitation
Weather Product
Icon and Age
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Boundary of
weather data
request
Precipitation
Weather Product
enabled
APPENDICES
Figure 6-18 Precipitation Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for PFD maps, press the Map/HSI or Map Opt Softkey). This step is not necessary
on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
INDEX
2) Press the PRECIP Softkey.
The system displays either base or composite radar imagery, depending on the region.
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Radar Reflectivity Type
United States
Composite Reflectivity
Canada, Europe, Australia
Base Reflectivity
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Region
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The base reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a single
antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the highest radar energy
received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to indicate the
intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
EIS
All weather product legends can be viewed on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page. For the
Precipitation legend, press the Legend Softkey when Precipitation is selected for display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
No radar coverage
Boundary of
weather data
request
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-19 Precipitation Weather Product Legend
AFCS
The display of radar coverage is enabled active when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray shade of
purple. A white boundary line depicting the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request encloses the
precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
Reflectivity
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the Precipitation
display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to hazardous weather
can be very complex.
APPENDICES
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of weather
reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an indication of the
weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection, while dry hail does not. Both
wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z). Weather
radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver (designated by the
letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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Precipitation Limitations
Radar images may have certain limitations:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Radar composite reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet snow, wet
hail, and rain.
• An individual radar site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information about
storms directly over the site.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
• At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of radar data are viewable. Each block of radar information
represents approximately four square kilometers and depicts the highest level of reflectivity detected
within that area.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-20 Precipitation Weather Product at 10 NM Map Range
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
• Ground clutter
• Strobes and spurious radar data
APPENDICES
• Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
• Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
INDEX
• Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
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OVERVIEW
ECHO TOPS (SIRISUXM)
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar echo. The
highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the highest altitude at
which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Altitude for
selected Echo Top
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-21 Echo Tops Weather Product
AFCS
Displaying Echo Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are removed.
APPENDICES
No Radar Coverage
INDEX
Figure 6-22 Echo Tops Legend
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
CLOUD TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver is installed, the broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is approximately every
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
30 minutes. As with all SiriusXM Weather products, the product age becomes amber when it reaches half
of the expiration time, which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops. Therefore, this weather product age may be
amber during routine operation due to a less frequent broadcast rate compared to other data link weather
products.
Figure 6-23 Cloud Tops Weather Product
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Press the CLD Top Softkey.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these weather
products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-24 Cloud Tops Legend
DATA LINK LIGHTNING (SIRIUSXM, GARMIN CONNEXT)
EIS
NOTE: Lightning from a data link source cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as information
from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The Data Link Lightning weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning
strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact location
of the lightning strike is not displayed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Lightning
Strikes
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-25 SiriusXM Lightning Weather Product
APPENDICES
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on Weather Data Link Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
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To display the Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link Page, press the Legend Softkey when Data Link
Lightning is selected for display.
281
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-26 Data Link Lightning Legend
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
EIS
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the Datalink Softkey.
4) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CELL MOVEMENT (SIRIUSXM)
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Cell Movement weather product shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified by the
ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement indicated with
short, orange arrows.
Storm Cells
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Additional
information for
selected Storm Cell
Figure 6-27 Cell Movement Weather Product
INDEX
On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated Cel MOV
softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69 SXM or 69A SXM data link receiver is installed.
In this case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the map pointer selects a storm cell.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Displaying Cell Movement information on the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the Cell MOV Softkey.
EIS
Figure 6-28 Cell Movement Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the NEXRAD
Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map Settings menu
of the Navigation Map Page.
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation maps:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When set to ‘On’, Cell Movement
is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement
is not displayed on navigation maps.
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to remove the menu.
AFCS
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling the
NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the NEXRAD
Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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INFRARED SATELLITE (GARMIN CONNEXT)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite imagery.
Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-29 Infrared Satellite Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
Displaying Infrared Satellite information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
2) Press the IR SAT Softkey.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-30 Infrared Satellite Legend
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OVERVIEW
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological Information)
are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for hazardous convective
weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a significant weather condition
occurring at a localized geographical position.
NOTE: If SiriusXM Weather is the active data link weather source and a GDL 69A SXM receiver installed, the
SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless at least one SIGMET or AIRMET has been
received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
EIS
NOTE: For Garmin Connext Weather only, the entire SIGMET or AIRMET is shown on the map as long as any
portion of it is issued within the selected coverage area of the Connext Data Request.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIRMET for
Turbulence
AIRMET for IFR
conditions
AIRMET for
Icing conditions
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
SIGMET
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-31 SIGMET/AIRMET Data
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the ‘Map- Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT or FIS-B)’ Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows sample SIGMET text.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
EIS
Convective SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-32 SIGMET/AIRMET Text and Legend
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except for in the United
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are reported in Celsius.
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service area.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the temperature,
dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric pressure at an airport or
observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation amounts, lightning, and other critical
data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates include the code “SPECI” in the report.
METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide them.
Additional Information on Weather
Feature Selected
with Map Pointer
INDEX
APPENDICES
METAR flag
selected with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-33 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24- hour period,
and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather phenomena, and sky
conditions using METAR codes.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR and TAF data is displayed
first in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional
information not found in the decoded version.
Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page, press the METAR Softkey.
EIS
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR text must be completely
scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Press the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that the METAR text must
be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
METAR Text for the
Selected Airport
APPENDICES
TAF Text for the
Selected Airport
INDEX
Figure 6-34 METAR and TAF Text on the ‘WPT - Weather Information Page’
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OVERVIEW
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, press the Legend Softkey when METARs
are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the available information‑.
EIS
Figure 6-35 METAR Legend
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MF.D.
The system shows a solid METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR. Hollow
METAR flags appear next to flight plan waypoints which are not directly associated with a METAR, but a
METAR exists within 30 NM of the flight plan waypoint. When this occurs, additional information appears
with the METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page indicating the origin and relative location of the source
METAR.
Displaying original METAR text on the ‘Map - Active Flight Plan’ Page:
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated with a METAR flag next
to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit the Active Flight Plan
Page.
AFCS
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map pointer
is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
3) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on the map.
INDEX
APPENDICES
4) When finished, press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
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OVERVIEW
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST (SIRIUSXM)
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather conditions.
Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-36 Current Surface Analysis Data
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
AFCS
3) Press the SFC Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48 HR. The SFC Softkey
label changes to show the forecast time selected.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-37 Surface Analysis Legend
FREEZING LEVEL (SIRIUSXM)
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and location at
which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data for that altitude
has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New data appears when it
becomes available.
Figure 6-38 Freezing Level Data
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
INDEX
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-39 Freezing Levels Legend
EIS
WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and at selected
altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up to 42,000 feet MSL.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If the FIS-B option is installed and FIS-B is the active data link weather source, the Winds Aloft weather
product also displays temperatures aloft next to the winds aloft arrows on the ‘Map -Weather Data Link
(FIS-B)’ Page.
Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Wind Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Press the Next or Prev Softkey
to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label changes to reflect the altitude selected.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 6-40 Winds Aloft Data at 12,000 Feet
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-41 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on the
Navigation Map Page when the SiriusXM or Garmin Connext Weather service is the active data link weather
source. The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track, but not to aircraft speed.
Winds Aloft Data Age
Wind Component
Velocity and Direction
Arrows
AFCS
Altitude Scale
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-42 Navigation Map Page with Winds Aloft Data on Profile View
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the right,
as shown in the following table.
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Headwind Symbol
5 knots
10 knots
EIS
50 knots
Table 6-5 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
AFCS
Winds Aloft data inside the VSD is enabled by default when the VSD is displayed on the Navigation Map
Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
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COUNTY WARNINGS (SIRIUSXM)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The County warning weather product provides specific public awareness and protection weather warnings
from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes, severe thunderstorms,
and flood conditions.
EIS
Flood
Warnings
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Thunderstorm
Warning
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Additional
Information
on Flood
Warning
Selected
with Map
Pointer
Figure 6-43 County Flood Warning
AFCS
Displaying County Warning information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the County Softkey.
INDEX
Figure 6-44 County Warnings Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CYCLONE (SIRIUSXM)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms,
and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of
DD/HH:MM.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cyclone
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-45 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
AFCS
3) Press the Cyclone Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-46 Cyclone Legend
APPENDICES
NOTE: If a GDL 69 SXM or GDL 69A SXM receiver is installed, the Cyclone weather product is not available
unless at least one cyclone or tropical storm has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’
when no cyclone or tropical storm has been received.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
ICING (CIP & SLD) (SIRIUSXM)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the current icing environment.
Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not specific to aircraft
type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current conditions at the time of the
analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively large,
super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat areas are depicted
as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
EIS
Displaying Icing data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to
cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selected.
AFCS
Light Icing Potential
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Moderate Icing
Potential
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-47 Icing Data at 18,000 Feet
Figure 6-48 Icing Potential Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TURBULENCE (SIRIUSXM)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air mass
associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes between 21,000
and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs, SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
Displaying Turbulence data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
EIS
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 feet up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or PREV Softkey to cycle
through the altitude softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes to indicate the altitude selection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-49 Turbulence Weather Product at 21,000 Feet
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-50 Turbulence Legend
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
PIREPS AND AIREPS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots. When significant
weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are required to solicit PIREPs.
A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight visibility, icing conditions, wind shear,
and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or Urgent (UUA).
NOTE: AIREPs are only available with the SiriusXM Weather service.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AIREP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Urgent PIREP
PIREP selected with
Map Pointer
AFCS
Figure 6-51 PIREPs and AIREPS on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the PIREPS or AIREPS Softkey. (Note the AIREPS Softkey is only available with the SiriusXM Weather
service.)
APPENDICES
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear around the weather report
when it is selected.
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text. The data is first displayed
in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain additional information
not present in the decoded version.
INDEX
6) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Decoded PIREP Text
EIS
Original PIREP
Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-52 PIREP Text on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
AFCS
Figure 6-53 AIREPs & PIREPs Legend
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TFRS
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) information.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service Stations or Air Traffic Control.
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where flight is
restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national security, law enforcement,
natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any time, and TFR data displayed on the
system is only intended to supplement official TFR information obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS),
and air traffic control.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system displays
‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Information for
selected TFR
Figure 6-54 TFR Data on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Displaying TFR Data:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page or Navigation Map’ Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system displays TFR summary
information above the map.
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key. The system displays the
TFR Information window.
INDEX
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-55 Full Text for Selected TFR
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The setup menus for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page control the map range settings above which TFR data
is decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is selected, the
TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
AFCS
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be displayed:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range settings.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
APPENDICES
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’
Page.
Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
EIS
On the ‘Map Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature, which
includes all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B Weather’, and press the ENT Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 6-56 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on the ADS-B Status Page
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Available
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process and display FIS-B weather products.
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled.
No FIS-B weather data received from the transponder.
FIS-B weather data is available for display for the weather product.
Not Available
FIS-B weather data is not available for the weather product, and/or the system is not
receiving the FIS-B weather service.
Awaiting Data
The system is receiving the FIS-B weather service, and is waiting to receive the
weather product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Weather Products:
AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD
METAR
METAR Graphical
NOTAM/TFR
PIREP
Regional NEXRAD
SIGMET
TAF
Winds/Temp Aloft
Description
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
FIS-B Weather Status:
FIS-B Processing
Status
Message
Enabled
Disabled
----------------
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADS-B Status Page Item
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 6-6 ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS FOR GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the Request
Status Window.
Weather Request
Status Message
Auto requests inhibited
Send manual request to
reset.
Auto update retry: ##
Seconds
Connext Comm Error [1]
Connext Comm Error [2]
Description
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to an error(s). Automatic weather
data requests have stopped. Send a manual weather data request to resume automatic updates.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
The system will attempt another automatic weather data request after an error occurred during the
previous request. Timer counts down until the next automatic request occurs.
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
A communications error has occurred with an Integrated Aviations Units. The system should be
serviced.
Connext Comm Error [3] A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Connext Comm Error [4] This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have recently failed, or a GIA is off-line.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Connext Comm Error [5] The Iridium or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal strength. If this
error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6] A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [7] A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal strength and re-send the data request.
Connext Comm Error [8] A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
Connext Comm Error [9] An error occurred while reading or writing data. If the error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Login Invalid
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Connext Server Temp
Inop
Connext Server Inop
Invalid Coverage Area
The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least one of the following: a
waypoint, a flight plan, or a flight plan destination. Verify at least one of the coverage options is
enabled (checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data request.
No Connext
Subscription
The system is not be currently subscribed to Garmin Connext services or the access code is
incorrect. Verify the access code. If information is correct, contact Garmin Aviation Support using
the information at www.flygarmin.com.
The size of the received weather data has exceeded system memory limits. Reduce the size of the
coverage area and issue another Connext Data Request to ensure all available weather data has
been received.
The user has cancelled a Connext Data Request.
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
Reduce Request Area
Request Canceled
Request Failed - Try
Again
INDEX
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. Verify information entered matches the
information provided from Garmin during registration. If this error persists, contact Garmin Aviation
Support using the information at www.flygarmin.com.
The Garmin Connext Weather data server is temporarily out of service, but is expected to return to
service in less than 30 minutes.
The Garmin Connext Weather data server will be out of service for at least 30 minutes.
Table 6-7 Abnormal Garmin Connext Data Request Status Messages
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be displayed
on the PFD maps will be available for display (see Table 6-4 for a list of weather products and their associated
map availability).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If manual Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new weather data
will be retrieved while operating in Reversionary Mode. If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior
to Reversionary Mode operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary Mode
(provided automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.2 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Garmin GWX 75 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a solid-state pulsed-Doppler radar with forty watts
of output power. It combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with high-definition target
displays. The effective pulse length is 27.31 microseconds (µs), and the system optimizes the pulse length to
maximize resolution at each range setting. This reduces the targets smearing together on the displays for better
target definition at close range.
EIS
The PA-34 uses a 10-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of pitch and roll.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of
20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze radar tops, gradients, and cell buildup
activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return echo with
intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Turbulence Detection (optional) presents areas of turbulence associated with precipitation using the color
white.
• WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of short-range
cell activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense precipitation
(or large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully depict the weather occurring behind a storm.
• Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges beyond
the currently selected map range.
• Altitude-Compensated Tilt (ACT) management which automatically adjusts the antenna tilt as the aircraft
altitude changes.
AFCS
• Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) (optional) removes the majority of ground clutter from the displays.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NOTE: Garmin recommends the user obtain instruction in the effective operation of airborne weather radar.
PRINCIPLES OF AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
APPENDICES
The term RADAR is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by transmitting
a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar receiver as a return
echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the most intense energy in the
center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving.
INDEX
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to travel
out and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to make the round
trip if a target is ten nautical miles away.
The airborne weather radar has the capability to detect the velocity of precipitation moving toward or away
from the radar antenna. As the radar pulse beam strikes a moving object, the frequency of the returned echo
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shifts in relation to the speed at which the object is moving. This effect is analogous to the audible pitch change
observed when an emergency vehicle’s siren gets closer or moves away. Doppler radar employs this effect to
detect areas of precipitation moving at a high rate of speed (indicative of turbulence), and to determine when
an object, such as the ground, is stationary. The system can use this information to suppress the display of
ground clutter.
EIS
Airborne weather radar should be used to avoid severe weather. The decision to fly into an area of radar targets
depends on target intensity, spacing between the targets, aircraft capabilities, and crew experience. Airborne
weather radar is efficient at detecting wet precipitation such as rain, wet snow, and water coated hail, however
it will not detect clouds or mist. The display may indicate clear areas between intense returns, but this does not
necessarily mean it is safe to fly between them, as these areas may contain severe turbulence or other hazards
such as hail. In addition, Doppler radar measurement of precipitation velocity only occurs when rain or hail
is moving along the radar beam and either toward or away from the antenna. Airborne weather radar systems
cannot detect Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) as there are no particulate for the radar to detect.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to detect and
provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel is a
logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of power
against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar, or the radar
reflectivity ratio.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Although both radar systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, the thresholds and
colors are not interchangeable. Airborne color radar values from the installed weather radar system must not
be confused with NEXRAD radar values. In addition, NEXRAD depicts lower intensity returns than airborne
weather radar. Airborne weather radar return images will not appear the same as NEXRAD return images.
AFCS
Convective weather activity is known to develop rapidly, with cell growth capable of exceeding several
thousand feet per minute. Airborne weather radar provides the flight crew with real-time weather avoidance
information for precipitation detected within the airborne weather radar’s beam. NEXRAD information is not
real-time. It is intended to assist the flight crew with hazardous weather avoidance planning. NEXRAD images
are comprised of individual radar scans arriving at a network at different rates and times, which are periodically
compiled into a mosaic (the NEXRAD weather product) and transmitted via data link. Due to inherent delays in
this process, it is common for the displayed NEXRAD images to be significantly older than the current weather
situation, and may also differ from information the airborne weather radar presents.
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APPENDICES
Because NEXRAD operates from an extensive network of ground-based radar antennas performing 360º
scans, it is capable of providing information on large-scale weather patterns such as precipitation associated
with significant frontal activity from multiple radar locations. The airborne weather radar can perform up to
90º scan, but is more affected by distance and precipitation attenuation discussed earlier in this section. Other
factors including curvature of the earth (particularly at map ranges greater than 150 miles), antenna tilt setting,
and aircraft altitude may also cause the airborne weather radar’s antenna beam to miss areas of precipitation
which are detected by NEXRAD. In addition, since the airborne weather radar’s beam often produces ground
returns, it may be difficult to distinguish precipitation from ground returns, especially stratus rain when the
aircraft is above the precipitation.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Both airborne weather radar and the NEXRAD system can detect a radar top of a storm cell. Airborne weather
radar can display this information in vertical scan mode, while NEXRAD radar top information appears in the
Echo Tops SiriusXM Weather Product (Refer to Section 6.1 for more information about SiriusXM Weather).
Because airborne weather radar and NEXRAD use different detection thresholds, a radar top from airborne
weather radar may appear 5,000 feet or more below the NEXRAD-derived Echo Top. Furthermore, radar top
information provided from either source is not the actual or true top of the storm, which is only observable with
the eyes in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top detected by either system.
EIS
Because airborne weather radar and NEXRAD present information using similar (but not interchangeable
colors), only one radar source may be shown on a map Display Pane at a time. Pilots should carefully consider
information from airborne and data link weather sources, in addition to other available resources to avoid flight
into hazardous weather conditions.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Radar beams are much like the beam of a flashlight, in that they will illuminate targets within the beam. Just
as with a flashlight, the further the beam travels, the wider it becomes and the less effective it is at illuminating
targets. The certified beam width contains 90% of the energy of the radar signal, with the strongest part of
the beam in the center. Pointing the center of the beam at targets to investigate provides the best returns for a
particular target.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The remaining 10% of beam energy (outside the certified beam) has sufficient strength and the antenna has
the sensitivity to display highly reflective targets, including additional weather and ground returns. Weather
returns from this portion of the beam energy will most likely be under representative of the true intensity of
the hazards, because they are so far from the center of the beam (and outside of the certified beam width).
The strong reflective nature of terrain features will cause the display of ground clutter well short of where the
certified beam width intersects the ground. For the 10-inch antenna this additional beam energy represents
approximately four additional degrees at the top and bottom of the certified beam width of 10 degrees.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The following figure depicts the radar beam as seen from the side, with both the certified beam width and the
additional beam energy illustrated. With the aircraft at 30,000 ft. AGL and a radar tilt angle of zero degrees,
ground clutter may be observed starting at approximately 30 NM. The cell located 20 NM from own ship
would be over-scanned by the beam, and as a result would not be represented on the radar display. The cell
located 80 NM from own ship displays radar tops of 22,000 ft. AGL which is relatively close to the beam center,
so this cell would be represented on the display. However, utilizing a lower radar tilt angle would better depict
the precipitation intensities of this cell. The cell located at approximately 190 NM displays radar tops of 28,000
ft. AGL, while the center of the beam is at about 65,500 ft. AGL (due to the Earth’s curvature at that distance).
While this particular cell may appear on the display due to being within the certified beam width, it would most
likely be under-represented due to being so distant from the beam center. The radar tilt angle would need to
be adjusted downwards to properly explore this cell’s precipitation intensity.
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AUDIO PANEL
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Figure 6-57 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth from a 10 inch Antenna
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the radar signal
is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This weakening, or
attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Distance attenuation occurs due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is inversely proportional
to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles away that fills the radar beam
is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles away. This would appear to the operator
that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer. Internal signal processing within the equipped
weather radar system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
AFCS
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more intense. As the
radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back to the antenna. However,
much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a large area, the signal may not
reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar system cannot distinguish between an
attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal has been fully attenuated, the radar displays
a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much
further. A cell containing heavy precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it
from being displayed on the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy
precipitation is being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature of the installed weather radar system can help to identify these shadowed areas. Areas in
question appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help
detect radar shadows.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest amount
of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and system inefficiency.
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RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Precipitation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the earth or solid structures, are
detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds, thunderstorms, or turbulence
directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds, thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar
signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The
size of the precipitation droplet is the most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a
small concentrated area are characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong
return. Ice crystals, dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and
often are not displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog
or drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-58 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
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Figure 6-59 Precipitation Reflectivity by Temperature as Related to Altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
When using the airborne weather radar to explore a more intense thunderstorm cell, it is critical to
understand where radar returns can be expected to be intense, and where they can be expected to decrease
to a point where no returns will be displayed. Since wet precipitation reflects radar energy far better than dry
precipitation, strong radar returns can be expected at lower altitudes, with the strongest radar returns found
near the melting level. At higher altitudes, precipitation becomes frozen, and reflectivity is significantly
reduced. At a certain altitude within in a thunderstorm cell, returns will begin to diminish. This is the “echo
top” of a cell, where radar can no longer detect the frozen precipitation, but this is not the actual top of the
cell, which could extend significantly further into the atmosphere. Since it is difficult to detect the actual
tops of a thunderstorm cell with radar, and invisible bow waves may extend beyond visible tops, overflight
of thunderstorms should never be attempted.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Ground Returns
APPENDICES
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes the
ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be adjusted so
shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well defined. Increasing the gain too much causes the display to fill
in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
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Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good returns,
small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the aircraft approaches
and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly reflective regular lines and
edges of the city become more defined.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not provide good
returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy being returned. They
can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a better reflector and provides
stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind. However,
over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the mountain passes or off
canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no return signal is received from this
area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could indicate a pass where no pass exists.
EIS
Ground Clutter Suppression (Optional)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) enhances the flight crews ability to differentiate precipitation returns
from ground clutter, by suppressing most, but not all, returns from ground objects. The optional feature
is most effectively used by first obtaining the desired tilt and range settings, and then activating GCS. For
normal surveillance of an air mass, tilt angle and range should be adjusted to obtain minimal ground clutter
prior to activation of the GCS feature. This ensures that the radar beam is functioning and tilt is set to observe
the air above the ground clutter before that clutter is suppressed. The same holds true for investigating
suspected precipitation returns. Tilt angle and range should be set to maximize the precipitation return
image prior to activation of GCS to suppress clutter.
Angle of Incidence
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure illustrates
the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of illumination, and the intensity
of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar system a smaller detectable range and
lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the radar energy.
Figure 6-60 Angle of Incidence
INDEX
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target display shows
a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a low incident angle, the
resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
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SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
the MPEL boundary.
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5 GHz for
general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular 20-68B for more
information on safe distance determination.
EIS
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVEL (MPEL)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the semicircular
area of at least 10 feet from the 10-inch antenna. All personnel must remain outside of this zone. With a
scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL boundary is significantly reduced.
MPEL
Boundary
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
9.16’ for 10” antenna
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 6-61 MPEL Boundary
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
BASIC ANTENNA TILT AND RANGE SETUP
APPENDICES
Proper antenna tilt management techniques are a major factor for the successful use of any airborne weather
system. If the antenna tilt angle is set too low, the radar display will show excessive ground returns, making it
difficult for the pilot to distinguish adverse weather phenomena from ground clutter. If the antenna tilt angle is
set too high, the radar beam will overscan the top of the adverse weather. In either of these examples, the flight
crew would be unable to adequately recognize critical weather information.
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The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most situations.
It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this method does provide
good overall parameters for the monitoring of intense weather threats. Correct application of tilt angle is
directly dependent on the storms height and intensity and its relative distance from own ship. Adjusting the
airborne weather radar tilt angle setting until minimal ground clutter is displayed is the simplest setup method
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for general surveillance of precipitation returns. For ranges of up to 80 NM this ground clutter should appear
on the outer portion of the radar display. At ranges greater than 80 NM, the displayed ground clutter will move
lower on the radar display due to the curvature of the earth. By displaying a minimal amount of ground clutter
on the installed weather radar system the flight crew can ensure the system is operating and that the air mass
above the ground clutter is being scanned.
When a strong a weather return is detected within the ground clutter it must be further investigated to
determine the source of this return. Further tilt angle adjustment of the airborne radar may be required to
explore this return. Adjusting the radar tilt angle upwards can reveal the radar tops of this return, while
adjusting the tilt angle downwards may be necessary to investigate the strongest intensity of a particular return.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Effective airborne weather radar range management during all phases of flight should be based on the volume
of air to be scanned for returns ahead of own aircraft, to allow sufficient time needed to investigate, analyze,
decide, and tactically maneuver around these hazardous weather returns. Longer ranges may be used to
tactically identify intense weather returns that may warrant further investigation, and closer ranges may be used
during the investigation process.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
There is no one tilt or range setting that works for all situations. It is best to remember that active tilt and
range management is necessary to identify and then investigate returns.
NOTE: When a strong weather return is displayed on the weather radar, the tilt angle may be adjusted to
explore return intensities at various altitudes to aid in determination of radar tops.
NOTE: It is the sole responsibility of the flight crew to avoid areas of hazardous weather by adequate
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
margins.
MANAGING TILT ANGLE AND RANGE
AFCS
There are many factors to be considered in order to become proficient at using airborne weather radar in
all situations. The following setup provides a good starting point for the practical application of radar tilt
management.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Radar tilt management can easily be remembered by use of the 1-10-1000 rule. The summary of this rule is
the fact that when the flight crew changes the radar tilt angle by 1 degree the resulting change will displace the
center of the beam 1000 feet vertically at a range of 10 nautical miles. Applying the 1-10-1000 rule to various
distances provides the flight crew with the ability to determine how much a 1-degree change in tilt will
move the beam vertically. The radar tilt angle is capable of being adjusted in one-quarter degree increments,
allowing for greater accuracy in the placement of the beam center at desired altitudes.
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2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
3000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
Change in Antenna Tilt
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
4000
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-62 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The 10-inch phased array antenna has a certified beam width of 10 degrees, which means that the beam
is approximately 10,000 feet in height (and width) at 10 NM and approximately 100,000 feet in height (and
width) at 100 NM.
• At 20 NM range the beam height changes by 2,000 ft. per degree of tilt change.
• At 40 NM range the beam height changes by 4,000 ft. per degree of tilt change.
• At 100 NM range the beam height changes by 10,000 ft. per degree of tilt change.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Additionally, setting the tilt to UP 4.00 degrees places the bottom of the certified beam at the same altitude
as the aircraft, which is a technique used to determine whether radar tops reach your current altitude.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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INSTRUMENTS
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Phase of Flight
Taxi
Tilt Angle
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Range Setting
20 NM
Notes
Activate weather mode when clear
of ramp area.
Takeoff / Initial
Climb
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Up 5.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Tilt to Minimize
Clutter
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Tilt to Minimize
Clutter
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
Up 7.50° to
10.00°
Altitude
Compensated Tilt
On
60 NM
If precipitation is observed in
the departure path, gain can be
reduced to aid in identification of
intense returns.
60 - 80 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviations.
60 - 120 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviations. Tilt angle set to
show minimal ground clutter.
60 - 120 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviation.
40 - 60 NM
Range setting is dependent upon
ground speed and time available
for deviation. Tilt angle set to show
ground clutter in outer 1/3 of radar
display.
20 NM
These settings allow for observation
of the approach area and the
missed approach holding area.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
10,000 Ft. AGL
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Cruise
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Descent To
10,000 FT
AFCS
Descent Below
10,000 FT
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Approach
APPENDICES
Table 6-8 Typical Tilt Settings by Phase of Flight
INDEX
NOTE: Garmin recommends the user obtain instruction in the proper operation of airborne weather radar.
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ALTITUDE COMPENSATED TILT (ACT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Altitude Compensated Tilt feature enables the equipped weather radar system to automatically adjust
the antenna beam tilt angle setting based on changes of the aircraft’s altitude. For example, if the ACT feature
is enabled and the aircraft climbs, the system compensates by adjusting the tilt downward. As the aircraft
descends with ACT enabled, the system adjusts the antenna tilt upward. The system uses the ground as a
reference for adjusting the antenna tilt angle setting with ACT enabled.
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
EIS
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote precipitation
intensity and rates shown in the table.
Intensity (in dBz)
< 23 dBZ
23 dBZ or 24 dBZ
25 dBZ or 26 dBZ
27 dBZ or 28 dBZ
29 dBZ or 30 dBZ
31 dBZ or 32 dBZ
33 dBZ or 34 dBZ
35 dBZ or 36 dBZ
37 dBZ or 38 dBZ
39 dBZ or 40 dBZ
41 dBZ or 42 dBZ
43 dBZ or 44 dBZ
45 dBZ or 46 dBZ
47 dBZ or 48 dBZ
49 dBZ to 50 dBZ
51 dBZ to 53 dBZ
> 54 dBZ
TURB- Turbulence Detection uses the
color white to show areas of rain or hail
that may also contain turbulence
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
White
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Weather Mode Color
Black
Green
Green
Green
Green
Green
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Red
Red
Red
Red
Magenta
Magenta
Magenta
APPENDICES
Table 6-9 Precipitation Intensity Levels GWX-75
In addition, when Turbulence Detection feature, the system uses the color white to show areas of rain or
hail which likely contain turbulence.
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Thunderstorms
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the drafts, the
greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the following interpretations
can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these areas by an extra wide margin.
• In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of precipitation),
the turbulence (areas of white) is considered severe.
• Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances suggest
irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
EIS
• Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail, as well as heavy precipitation. While areas of
turbulence will be displayed as white. Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary
to identify areas of maximum intensity.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different stages
of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing clouds not having
enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong updrafts or downdrafts.
Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without severe turbulence.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or scalloped
edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta areas and should
be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or magenta.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Squall Line
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-63 Cell Irregularities
INDEX
APPENDICES
Thunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When displaying
shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing further out. That can
help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one end by convective weather.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 6-64 The Blind Alley - Horizontal Scan
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management to
examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Blind Alley at Close Range
The Large Storm Behind
Figure 6-65 The Blind Alley
AFCS
Tornadoes
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However, tornadoes
may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
• A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 in the southern hemisphere),
especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant in the southern
hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
APPENDICES
• V-shaped notches.
• Doughnut shapes.
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INDEX
These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these characteristics.
Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes different from those of a
normal thunderstorm display.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hail
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of a
thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Frozen hail is a very poor reflector of radar
energy, which makes it difficult to detect. When investigating a thunderstorm for return tops, pilots must
understand that hail and extreme turbulence are likely to exist above the return tops.
EIS
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. At lower altitudes, hail may
have a film of water on its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet.
Because of this film of water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets, thunderstorms
with large amounts of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some hail shafts are extremely
narrow (100 yards or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper regions of a cell where ice particles
are dry (no liquid coating), target returns are less intense.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped cloud
edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite suddenly along
any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of seconds, making vigilant
monitoring essential.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
WEATHER RADAR OPERATION
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or objects are within
the MPEL boundary.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CAUTION: In Standby Mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good idea to put the
radar in Standby Mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna from bouncing on the bottom stop
and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
AFCS
NOTE: Garmin recommends the user obtain instruction in the effective operation of airborne weather radar.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The airborne weather radar allows the flight crew to show weather radar information on multiple Display
Panes, and to customize each display independently. For example, if three radar displays are shown (including
navigation map overlays or ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page), the flight crew may select Standby Mode for the first
display, Weather Mode with a vertical scan for the second display, and Ground Mode with a horizontal scan
for the third display. The weather radar updates each display as it performs a scan with the given parameters
for that display. If more than one display has identical scan parameters, the system uses information from one
antenna sweep to update the applicable displays simultaneously. Otherwise, the antenna performs multiple
scans, one at a time, in a repeating cycle. This results in longer duration between scans for a given display
until the next available scan refreshes that display.
INDEX
For discussion purposes, it may be helpful to think of the weather radar system as having up to four
separate radars. Each radar has an independent display and controls, therefore, operating independently of
one another. All radar functions and operations may be performed on any, or all radar displays. As stated
previously, since scanning is “shared” between radar displays, the greater the number of radars displayed, the
slower the scan update for each display.
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When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically places
the radar in Standby Mode on landing.
Radar Mode
Areas of
Attenuated
Signal
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Radar
Feature
Status
Indications
Scan Line
EIS
Bearing Line
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Tilt and
Bearing
Settings
Radar Legend
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-66 Weather Radar Page with a Horizontal Scan
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Displaying weather on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page in the Map Page Group with the FMS Knob.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select the Mode Softkey.
3) While on the ground, select the Standby Softkey.
a) Select the Weather Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight YES and press the ENT Key to continue radar activation.
Or:
EIS
If the aircraft is airborne, select the Weather Softkey. The radar begins transmitting.
4) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) The horizontal scan is initially displayed. If desired, select the Vertical Softkey to change to vertical scanning.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-67 Confirming Activating Radar
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft wings level to avoid constant
AFCS
adjustment of the Bearing Line.
1) While in the Horizontal Scan view, select the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the Bearing field and
displays the Bearing Line.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Bearing
Line. Press the ENT Key.
2) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line on the desired storm cell or other area to be vertically
scanned.
4) Select the Vertical Softkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is now displayed (Figure 6-63).
5) The small FMS Knob may be used to move the scanned bearing line a few degrees right or left.
6) Turn the Joystick to adjust the range.
INDEX
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
8) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, select the Horizon Softkey to return to the Horizontal Scan view
and repeat the previous steps.
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The RANGE Knob can also be used to adjust bearing from left to right.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-68 Weather Radar Display with Vertical Scan Mode Selected
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Adjusting Antenna Tilt Angle
AFCS
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the wet
part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is just
below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan feature. The
antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a more accurate
view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Horizontal Scan display:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the Tilt field.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired antenna tilt angle.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
APPENDICES
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt up and down.
Adjusting antenna tilt on the Vertical Scan display:
1) Select the Tilt Softkey to activate the cursor in the TILT field and display the Tilt Line. If the Tilt Line is not
displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select Show Tilt Line. Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the antenna tilt angle. The selected tilt angle is implemented when Horizontal
Scan is again selected.
The Joystick can also be used to adjust tilt.
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Altitude Compensated Tilt (ACT) Angle Adjustment
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Attitude Compensated Tilt feature enables automatic management of the antenna tilt angle as the
aircraft altitude changes. With ACT enabled, the antenna beam position remains centered at the set position
for the current map range. The system automatically decreases the tilt angle as the aircraft climbs, and
increases the tilt angle as the aircraft descends. The ACT feature is available in the Horizontal Scan Mode
when the system is operating in Weather Mode, and requires the system to be operating with the GPSderived altitude.
Enabling/Disabling Altitude Compensated Tilt (ACT):
EIS
1) On the Weather Radar Page, select the Features Softkey.
2) Select the ACT Softkey. When ACT is enabled, ‘Altitude Comp Tilt On’ is annunciated in upper right corner of
the Weather Radar Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
1) On the Weather Radar Page, press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Altitude Compensated Tilt On’ or ‘Altitude Compensated Tilt Off’, then press the
ENT Key.
Enabling/disabling manual gain adjustment:
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the actual intensity of
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation intensity to be displayed as a color
not representative of the true intensity.
1) Select the Gain Softkey to activate the cursor in the Gain field.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desirable level. The gain setting is visible in the Gain field
as a movable horizontal bar in a flashing box. The line pointer is a reference depicting the calibrated position.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Select the Gain Softkey again to return to the calibrated gain setting. ‘Calibrated’ is displayed in the Gain field.
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Calibrated Gain Setting
Manual Gain set higher than Calibrated Gain Setting
Figure 6-69 Gain Calibration
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Enabling/disabling Sector Scanning:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, select the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line and place the cursor in the
Bearing field. If the Bearing Line is not displayed, press the MENU Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select
Show Bearing Line.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to place the Bearing Line in the desired position. The location of the Bearing Line
becomes the center point of the Sector Scan.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Sector Scan field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired scan. Selecting ‘Full’ enables a 90º scan.
AFCS
6) If desired, readjust the Bearing Line as discussed previously to change the center of the Sector Scan.
7) Select the BRG Softkey again to remove the Bearing Line and cursor. The bearing reference is reset to 0º.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-70 40° Sector Scan
TURBULENCE DETECTION (OPTIONAL)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Turbulence Detection feature identifies areas of turbulence associated with precipitation using the color
white during a horizontal scan. These white areas represent precipitation moving at a high rate of speed
either toward or away from the radar antenna, using Doppler radar measurements. This feature cannot detect
areas of Clear Air Turbulence.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The Turbulence Detection feature is only available in Weather Mode while a horizontal scan is selected.
The system can detect turbulence up to 40 nm in front of the aircraft. At radar ranges of less than 200 nm,
the system displays turbulence information when the feature is enabled. While Turbulence Detection is
enabled, if a vertical scan is selected, the system automatically removes turbulence information and shows a
‘TURB Detection Inactive’ annunciation on the Weather Radar Page and the Turbulence Detection Softkey
is subdued on the MFD. If the system is missing information needed to detect turbulence, a ‘TURB Detection
Unavailable’ annunciation appears on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
Enabling/disabling the Turbulence Detection feature:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page, select the Features Softkey.
APPENDICES
2) Select the TURB Softkey to enable/disable the Turbulence Detection feature.
INDEX
3) Select the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
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WEATHER ATTENUATED COLOR HIGHLIGHT (WATCH™)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While in horizontal scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies
in displayed intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The
radar energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation,
and distance. Issues with the radome also attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return. Accuracy of
the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make maneuvering decisions with
this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be employed to determine the extent
of attenuation in a shaded area.
EIS
Enabling/disabling the WATCH feature:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page, select the Features Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Select the WATCH Softkey to enable/disable the WATCH feature.
3) Select the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Areas of
Attenuated Signal
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-71 Horizontal Scan with WATCH Enabled
Weather Alert Bands and PFD Alert
APPENDICES
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80 and 320
nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alerts are displayed as red bands along the outer
range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is enabled,
the system also displays an alert on the PFD in the Alerts Window.
INDEX
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To avoid
unwanted weather alerts from being displayed on the PFD, deselect the WX ALRT Softkey.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Weather Alert
Bands
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-72 Weather Alert Bands on the Weather Radar Page
The pilot can enable or disable the Weather Alert Bands and the Weather Alerts which appear in the Alerts
Window on the PFD.
Enabling/disabling the Weather Alerts Bands and Alerts Window Message:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
2) Select the Features Softkey.
3) Select the WX ALRT Softkey to enable/disable the Weather Alert Bands and Alerts Window message for severe
weather head.
AFCS
4) Select the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
Enabling/disabling the Weather Alerts Bands and Alerts Window Message on the PFD.
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
3) Press the WX Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
4) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
APPENDICES
5) Press the Features Softkey.
6) Press the WX ALRT Softkey to enable/disable the Weather Alert Bands and Alerts Window message for severe
weather head.
INDEX
7) Press the Back Softkey three times to return to the top-level softkeys.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 6-73 Weather Alert on PFD
REMOVING GROUND CLUTTER
NOTE: The ground clutter suppression feature is optional.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The system can distinguish between reflected ground returns (such as terrain features and buildings) and
airborne weather phenomena when operating in Weather display mode. Ground clutter may increase when
using a low antenna tilt angle, or when approaching mountainous terrain.
When Ground Clutter suppression is enabled, the system removes ground clutter from the display.
Enabling/Disabling Ground Clutter Suppression:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
2) To enable or disable the ground clutter suppression feature, select the GCS Softkey. Ground clutter suppression
is enabled when softkey annunciator is green; ground clutter suppression is disabled when annunciator is gray.
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool for
verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that can be
used as a supplement to the navigation map.
AFCS
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to represent
the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table below. Use of
the Gain and Tilt controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be recognized more easily.
As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the aircraft affects the intensity
displayed.
Ground Map
Mode Color
Light blue
Yellow
Magenta
Blue
Intensity
< 0 dB
0 dB to < 9 dB
9 dB to < 8 dB
18 dB to < 27 dB
27 dB and greater
APPENDICES
Black
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode upon landing.
INDEX
Table 6-10 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
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Operation in Ground Map Mode
1) Press the Mode Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the Ground Softkey to place the radar in Ground Map mode.
3) Press the Back Softkey.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the TILT field.
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns at the desired distance.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
AFCS
Figure 6-74 Weather Radar Page with Ground Mapping Mode Enabled
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
ADDITIONAL RADAR DISPLAYS
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed simultaneously on the Navigation Map Page with
weather radar information.
APPENDICES
The ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar information.
Airborne weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page. The airborne
weather radar is also available on the HSI Map with independent weather radar controls for each PFD, allowing
for different settings and modes for each display. The radar range increases or decreases automatically as the
map range increases or decreases.
INDEX
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled on a navigation map, a weather radar information box
appears on the map. It indicates the selected radar mode, radar range, antenna tilt angle, and gain setting.
The navigation map overlay uses a horizontal scan. The GWX 75 allows either horizontal or vertical scan to
be selected on the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page, and shows a horizontal scan on the navigation maps with the
weather radar overlay.
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The pilot may enable airborne weather radar information with other map overlays on navigation maps, such
as traffic, absolute terrain information, and aviation data. However, relative terrain and data link weather radar
(such as NEXRAD) cannot be enabled simultaneously with airborne weather radar information on the same
navigation map. If relative terrain or data link radar is enabled, the system automatically disables the airborne
weather radar overlay for the selected map.
NOTE: When viewing airborne weather radar information overlay on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page,
selecting a Heading Up navigation map orientation may be desired, since it is identical to the orientation on
the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
EIS
Weather Radar Mode
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Weather Radar Range
Antenna Tilt Angle
Gain Setting
Scan Line
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Tilt and
Bearing
Legend
Figure 6-75 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/disabling Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
AFCS
1) Select the ‘Map- Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Select the WX Radar Softkey.
Or:
1) On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the product selections and highlight the ‘Weather Radar’ overlay
selection (‘On’ or ‘Off’). Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or CLR Key.
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Weather radar controls on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range,
bearing, and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map Ranges
between 1.5 and 500 nautical miles. At map ranges beyond these limits, the system removes the weather radar
information from the map. Adjusting the range on the Navigation Map Page simultaneously adjusts the range
of the weather radar proportionally. This radar range is annunciated in the weather radar information box that
appears when the overlay is enabled. When the radar range is adjusted on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page’,
system synchronizes the same range to the Weather Radar Page.
EIS
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page using the
Joystick when the overlay is enabled. The bearing line appears on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page as a white
dashed line, and is displayed during and momentarily after adjustment.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page using
the Joystick. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the antenna
tilt angle.
Adjusting the bearing and antenna tilt angle on the Navigation Map Page:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Move the Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick up to adjust the
antenna tilt angle upward.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) With the weather radar overlay enabled, push the Joystick twice. The bearing and tilt legend is displayed in
the lower-left corner of the map.
If the aircraft is in the air, PFD softkeys control the airborne weather radar overlay for the HSI Map. These
softkeys are subdued if the aircraft is on the ground. The pilot and copilot can select a weather radar mode
for each PFD (Standby, Weather, Ground), make adjustments to antenna gain, antenna tilt angle, or enable/
disable antenna stabilization or Altitude Compensated Tilt features. Weather radar settings on the HSI Map are
independent for each PFD. For example, the pilot’s PFD may have Weather Mode selected while the copilot’s
PFD may have Standby Mode selected. The GWX 75 weather radar performs multiple scans as necessary to
accommodate displays of weather radar data among the PFDs and MFD.
AFCS
3) Move the Joystick left or right to adjust the bearing line in the desired direction. A dashed bearing line is
displayed during and momentarily after adjustment.
NOTE: The aircraft must be in the air in order for HSI Map airborne weather radar softkeys to become
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
available.
Controlling of weather radar information on the HSI Map:
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
APPENDICES
2) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
3) Press the Wx Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
4) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
5) To select a weather radar mode, press the Mode SEL Softkey
INDEX
a) Press a softkey for the desired mode: Off, Standby, Weather, or Ground.
b) When finished, press the Back Softkey.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6) Press the Gain- Softkey to decrease the gain setting or press the Gain+ Softkey to increase the gain setting in
increments of 0.5 with each press, or press and hold the softkey for continuous adjustment. A gain setting of
0.0 is equivalent to the calibrated gain setting.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) Move the PFD Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward, or move the Joystick down to adjust
the antenna tilt angle upward.
8) Press the WX Alert Softkey to enable/disable the display of Weather Alerts.
9) Press the ACT Softkey to enable/disable the Altitude Compensated Tilt feature.
10) Press the GCS Softkey to enable/disable the optional Ground Clutter Suppression feature.
EIS
11) Press the TURB Softkey to enable/disable the optional Turbulence Detection feature.
12) When finished adjusting the HSI Map display of the airborne weather radar, press the Back Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Adjusting gain on the HSI Map:
1) If necessary, enable the HSI Map on the PFD.
2) Press the Wx Radar Softkey to enable/disable the airborne weather radar HSI Map overlay.
3) Press the RDR Opt Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press either the Gain - or Gain + Softkey once to decrease/increase the gain in increments of 0.5, or press and
hold the softkey to continue adjustment while the softkey is held. A manual setting of ‘0.0’ is equivalent to the
calibrated gain setting.
5) When finished adjusting the HSI Map display of the airborne weather radar, press the Back Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate the
intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather alert bands
is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and relative terrain present
information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the navigation amps disables
the display of the data link radar and relative terrain information for this page.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-76 HSI Map with Airborne Weather Radar Overlay and Softkeys
INDEX
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SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page.
Additional information may be displayed in the center of the ‘Map - Weather Radar’ Page as a center banner
annunciation. Refer to the following tables for a list of annunciations and their locations for airborne weather
radar.
EIS
Radar Mode
Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Center Banner
Annunciation
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-77 Radar System Status on the Weather Radar Page
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Box
Center Banner Annunciation
Standby
STANDBY
STANDBY
STANDBY
Weather
WEATHER
None
Ground Mapping
GROUND
None
Off
OFF
OFF
Radar Failed*
FAIL
RADAR FAIL
* See Table 6-13 for additional failure annunciations
APPENDICES
Table 6-11 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
INDEX
The system displays the status of the weather radar features in the upper-right corner of the Weather Radar
Page.
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STAB INOP
Description
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The antenna
stabilization feature is inoperative.
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected on.
ALTITUDE COMP TILT OFF
The altitude-compensated tilt feature is selected off.
GND CLTR SUPPRESS ON
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected on.
GND CLTR SUPPRESS OFF
The ground clutter suppression feature is selected off.
The ground clutter suppression feature is enabled, but the radar is in a
mode which cannot support ground clutter suppression (e.g. vertical scan
or sector scan).
The turbulence detection feature is selected on.
TURB DETECTION OFF
The turbulence detection feature is selected off.
Turbulence detection is inactive when a radar is in a mode which cannot
support turbulence detection.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TURB DETECTION UNAVAILABLE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The radar is missing data needed to suppress ground clutter.
TURB DETECTION ON
TURB DETECTION INACTIV
EIS
GND CLTR SUPPRESS UNAVAILABLE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ALTITUDE COMP TILT ON
GND CLTR SUPPRESS INACTIVE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Radar Feature Status
The radar is missing data needed to detect turbulence.
Table 6-12 Radar Feature Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
Description
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar should be serviced.
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar should be serviced.
RADAR FAIL
The system is not receiving valid data from the radar unit. The system should be serviced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
BAD CONFIG
AFCS
Weather Radar
Pane Center Banner
Annunciation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the weather radar unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown as a banner in the center
of the Weather Radar Page.
Table 6-13 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
APPENDICES
INDEX
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6.3 STORMSCOPE LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the sole basis for
hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the system to display inaccurate
or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the lightning detection system manufacturer for
detailed information about the system.
NOTE: Stormscope lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same map as lightning
EIS
information from data link lightning sources.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The system can display L-3 WX-500 Stormscope lightning detection system information on the ‘Map Stormscope®’ Page, and as an overlay on navigation maps. The system uses the symbols shown in the following
table to depict lightning strikes and cells based on the age of the information.
Lightning Age
Symbol
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Strike is less than 6 seconds old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-14 Lightning Age and Symbols
AFCS
USING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
On the ‘ Map - Stormscope®’ Page, lightning information can be displayed at the ranges of 25 nm, 50 nm, 100
nm, and 200 nm.
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-78 Stormscope Page with Cell Mode Selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
3) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Press the Mode Softkey. The Cell and Strike softkeys are displayed.
AFCS
3) Press the Cell Softkey to display ‘CELL’ data or select the Strike Softkey to display ‘STRIKE’ data. ‘CELL’ or
‘STRIKE’ is displayed in the mode box in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level softkeys for the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
Or:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Select the ‘Map- Stormscope®’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Stormscope Page Menu. Either ‘Cell Mode’ or ‘Strike Mode’ is highlighted
in cyan to indicate the mode to be selected.
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode and remove the menu. To remove the menu without changing
modes, press the MENU Key or the CLR Key, or push the FMS Knob.
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each turn . This
is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the nose of the aircraft.
Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays on the system.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Manually clearing Stormscope cell or strike information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the Clear Softkey.
Or:
a) On the ‘Map - Stormscope®’ , press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Lightning Data’, then press the ENT Key.
Or:
EIS
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope® Lightning’, then press the ENT Key.
Displaying Stormscope information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
Displaying Stormscope information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
SETTING UP STORMSCOPE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
Setting up Stormscope options on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
AFCS
1) On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Weather’,
and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move between the product selections.
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
APPENDICES
6) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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OVERVIEW
The following options are available:
• Stormscope On/Off field – Enables/disables the display of Stormscope lightning symbols.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Stormscope maximum display range – Selects the maximum map range to display Stormscope symbols.
Stormscope data is removed when a map range greater than the STRMSCP SMBL value is selected.
• Stormscope Mode – Selects the Cell or Strike mode of lightning activity. Cell mode identifies clusters or cells
of electrical activity. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning strikes.
CELL AND STRIKE MODE ON THE NAVIGATION MAP
EIS
On the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity. Stormscope identifies
clusters of electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning
strikes.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Stormscope Mode
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Stormscope Navigation Map
Overlay Enabled Icon
AFCS
Figure 6-79 Navigation Map Page with Stormscope Lightning Data
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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6.4 TERRAIN DISPLAYS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for maintaining separation
from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data from third party sources and cannot
independently verify the accuracy of the information.
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain database coverage
EIS
area.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability to process
the data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting requires the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B option. No terrain or obstacle
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
alerting occurs for the Terrain Proximity feature.
The terrain system increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and
obstacles.
One of the following terrain systems is installed on this aircraft:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Terrain Proximity
• Terrain-SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option when the Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class-B
(TAWS-B) is not installed; refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information about Garmin SVT.)
• TAWS-B (optional)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The installed terrain system provides color indications on map displays when terrain or obstacles are within
a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B furthermore provide advisory visual
annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence of threatening terrain or obstacles relevant to the projected
flight path. This alerting capability is not present in the Terrain Proximity feature. Compared to Terrain-SVT
alerting, TAWS-B uses more sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles. The
TAWS-B system includes more alerting capabilities than the Terrain-SVT system.
The terrain system requires the following for proper operation:
• Valid 3-D GPS position
APPENDICES
• Valid terrain and obstacle databases
The terrain system uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government sources. Terrain information
is based on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain inaccuracies. Individual obstructions may
be shown if available in the database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content. However, the
displayed information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may still contain inaccuracies.
INDEX
The terrain system uses information provided from the GPS receiver to provide a horizontal position and
altitude. GPS altitude is derived from satellite measurements. GPS altitude is then converted to the height above
geodetic sea level (GSL), which is the height above mean sea level (MSL) calculated geometrically. The system
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
uses GSL altitude to determine alerts for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems. GSL altitude accuracy is affected
by satellite geometry, but is not subject to variations in pressure and temperature that normally affect pressure
altitude sensors. GSL altitude does not require local altimeter settings to determine MSL altitude. It is a widelyused MSL altitude source. Therefore, GSL altitude provides a highly accurate and reliable MSL altitude source to
calculate terrain and obstacle alerts.
EIS
The terrain and obstacle databases used by the terrain system are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS position
and GSL altitude, terrain system displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles relative to the
position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, for the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, the system uses the
GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in relation to the surrounding
terrain and obstacles. In this manner, the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems can provide advanced alerts of predicted
dangerous terrain conditions.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local atmospheric
conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently updating the altimeter
setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because actual atmospheric conditions
seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where
pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read
from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing
from the baro-corrected altitude.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The terrain system uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and obstacles (with heights greater than 200
feet above ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The system dynamically
adjusts these colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
AFCS
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the aircraft
altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown on the OnGround Legend. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain information using red,
yellow, green, and black, as shown on the In-Air Legend. As the aircraft transitions from on-ground to in-air, or
from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. For
Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, if an alert occurs, the relative terrain colors transition to the In-Air Legend if
the On-Ground Legend was shown in order to provide the pilot with the most information possible.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 6-80 Relative Terrain Legend
341
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The following figure shows the relative terrain coloring for the Terrain Proximity system.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
EIS
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-81 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The following figure shows relative terrain coloring for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems.
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
AFCS
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-82 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Systems
NOTE: The Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset Window shows terrain at least 2000 feet below the aircraft
INDEX
APPENDICES
altitude as gray.
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OVERVIEW
The following tables show the relative obstacle coloring used by the terrain systems.
Unlighted Obstacle
Lighted Obstacle
< 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL < 1000’ AGL > 1000’ AGL
Obstacle Location
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the
aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below
the aircraft altitude
EIS
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft
altitude
Wire Obstacle
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Table 6-15 Relative Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Wire Obstacle Location
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Red wire obstacle is at or above the aircraft altitude
Yellow wire obstacle is between the aircraft altitude to within 250 feet below the aircraft
altitude
White wire obstacle is more than 250 ft below the aircraft altitude
Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Lighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 6-16 Relative Wire Obstacles and Colors
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
AFCS
Red obstacle is above or within 100 ft below the aircraft altitude
Yellow obstacle is between 100 ft and 1000 ft below the aircraft altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
White obstacle is more than 1000 ft below aircraft altitude
Table 6-17 Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
APPENDICES
INDEX
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems show potential impacts areas for terrain and obstacles using yellow and
red as shown in the following table.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Potential Impact
Area Examples
Alert Type
Warning
EIS
or
Caution
Example Annunciation
TAWS-B Warning
PULL UP
Terrain-SVT Warning
TERRAIN
TERRAIN
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
or
Table 6-18 Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’ or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is the principal map page for
viewing terrain information. Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following maps and
pages:
• PFD Maps
• Trip Planning Page
• ‘Map - Navigation Map Page’
• Flight Plan Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page
Displaying terrain and obstacle information (MFD maps other than the terrain page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the Map/HSI Softkey).
2) Press the TER Softkey until REL is shown to display terrain and obstacle data.
AFCS
When relative terrain is selected on maps other than the terrain page, an icon to indicate the feature is enabled
for display and a legend for the relative terrain colors are shown.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/disabling
display of terrain and obstacles. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and
obstacle data are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the
data is removed from the map.
APPENDICES
Terrain information can be selected for display independently of obstacle data; however, obstacles recognized
by Terrain Proximity as yellow or red are shown when terrain is selected for display and the map range is within
the setting limit.
INDEX
Maps besides the Terrain Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The maximum
display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the Navigation Map. If
the maximum range for obstacle display on the Navigation Map is adjusted to below 20 nm, the highest obstacle
display range settings on the other applicable maps are also adjusted proportionally.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Customizing terrain and obstacle display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
EIS
• Terrain Display – Turns the display of relative (‘REL’) terrain data on or off and sets maximum range at which
terrain is shown
• Obstacle Data – Turns the display of obstacle data on or off and sets maximum range at which obstacles are
shown
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The map
panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the Joystick. If the
map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map Pointer.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Additional
Information on
Obstacle Selected
with Map Pointer
Yellow Terrain Area
(Between 100’ and
1000’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Lighted Obstacle
Selected with Map
Pointer
AFCS
Red Lighted
Obstacles
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Red Terrain Area
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Terrain Display
Enabled Icon
Terrain Legend
APPENDICES
Figure 6-83 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TERRAIN PAGE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’, or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’, or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is specialized to show terrain,
and obstacle in relation to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. This page is the
principal page for viewing terrain information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other NAVAIDs) can be
enabled for reference.
For Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems only, this page also shows potential impact areas. If an obstacle and
the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display automatically adjusts to a map range if necessary to
emphasize the display of the potential impact area.
EIS
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading, in which case the
orientation is track up. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 250 feet to 1000 nm, which is indicated
on the map range arc.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Displaying the terrain page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity Page/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Showing/hiding aviation information on the terrain page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Select ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Black Terrain
(More than 1000’
Below the Aircraft
Altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or Within
100’ Below Aircraft
Altitude)
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
Below Aircraft Altitude)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
Altitude
Map Orientation
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ Below
the Aircraft
Altitude)
APPENDICES
Red Terrain
(Above or Within
100’ Below the
Aircraft Altitude)
Terrain Legend
INDEX
Figure 6-84 Terrain Proximity Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
WIRE OBSTACLE INFORMATION AND ALERTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For additional safety, the terrain system incorporates Garmin’s WireAware™ wire obstacle information. For
wire obstacles such as power lines present in the obstacle database, the system shows these on the maps as well
as the Synthetic Vision display; see the Flight Instruments section for more information about Synthetic Vision
displays of power lines. For the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B only, this system can also issue cautions or warnings
for potential impact with wire obstacles.
EIS
WireAware database information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power lines which
are typically high voltage transmission lines depicted on VFR Sectional charts, and are considered of special
interest to fixed-wing pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers, valleys, canyons, or be in close
proximity to airports/heliports.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
It is important to note the obstacle database does not contain all power lines. In fact, WireAware database
coverage is mostly limited to HOT power lines, such as the especially tall transmission lines and their associated
support structures. It does not typically have information for the more prevalent smaller utility poles or lines,
such as those found in residential areas. Furthermore, WireAware obstacle database coverage exists mainly in
the United States; with limited coverage in portions of Canada and Mexico. In addition, the height of the wire
obstacles is commonly estimated and should not be relied upon for maneuvering decisions.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: Wire obstacle symbols are not depicted in the Vertical Situation Display (VSD).
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles in an
inset window on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. Although the VSD does not display Terrain-SVT or
TAWS-B alerts and potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors and symbols as these
systems to depict relative terrain and obstacles within the VSD.
Enabling/Disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
AFCS
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable or disable the VSD.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
APPENDICES
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page also control the display of this information in the VSD.
INDEX
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VSD DISPLAY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low
enough or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain will be shown
in gray if the TER Softkey is selected off on the Navigation Map Page).
EIS
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain based upon
the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain database resolution,
within a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present position and the end of the
map range. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as annunciated on the HSI, and is widest
during enroute or oceanic phases.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Flight Phase
Approach
Departure
Terminal
Enroute
Oceanic
Total VSD Width
0.6 nm
0.6 nm
2.0 nm
4.0 nm
4.0 nm
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 6-19 VSD Terrain Width Varies with Phase of Flight
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the top-left corner
of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan, and if no active
flight plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In Track Mode, the contour
is based on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based on the active flight plan, when
available, otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
Selecting a VSD Mode:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
AFCS
2) Press the Inset Softkey.
3) Press the VSD Softkey displaying the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey cycles through a mode
selection: FPL (flight plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the VSD is adjusted
to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the Navigation Map range is
adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical mile. When Navigation Map range
is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in the Terrain Legend) or obstacles
from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the VSD; only an outline of the terrain will be
displayed in black in the VSD Inset Window.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Navigation Map Range
Profile
View Path
Enabled
Terrain Enabled Icon
EIS
Terrain Legend
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Altitude Scale
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Profile View Total
Distance
Distance Scale
Figure 6-85 VSD on the Navigation Map Page with Relative Terrain Information
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude scale.
The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s height AGL
is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for especially tall obstacles), a vertical
line appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle symbol at its height AGL, as
shown in the following figure.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 6-86 VSD with Tall Obstacles
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The boundary is
shown as a white rectangle on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and is only available when the VSD is enabled
in Track Mode. White range markers on both edges of the Track Mode Boundary rectangle match the range
markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window whenever the profile range is at least four
nautical miles (or 7.5 km if configured for metric units).
The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the Navigation Map range at which the Profile
Path is removed from map display can be changed.
EIS
Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘VSD’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• TRK Mode BNDRY – Enables/disables the display of the Track Mode Boundary and sets maximum range at
which Track Mode Boundary is shown.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off range settings).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
TERRAIN-SVT AND TAWS-B ALERTING DISPLAYS
AFCS
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B software
algorithms. Terrain alerts typically employ a CAUTION or a WARNING alert severity level, or both. When an
alert is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are simultaneously issued.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The terrain alert annunciation appears
to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and bottom left on the MFD. If the terrain page is not
displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
• Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
INDEX
APPENDICES
• Press the ENT Key (accesses the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Pop-up
Alert
Alert Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 6-87 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Potential Impact
Area
AFCS
Terrain Legend
Alert Annunciation
Figure 6-88 Navigation Map Page
(After TAWS-B Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The following table lists the possible Terrain-SVT alerts.
PFD/TerrainSVT Pane Alert
Touchscreen Controller
Pop-Up Alert
Voice Alert
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
TERRAIN
WARNING - TERRAIN
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Warning (ITI)
TERRAIN
WARNING - TERRAIN
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
TERRAIN
WARNING - OBSTACLE
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle Impact Warning (IOI)
TERRAIN
WARNING - OBSTACLE
“Warning; Obstacle, Obstacle”
Reduced Required Line Clearance
Warning (RLC)
TERRAIN
WARNING - WIRE
“Warning; Wire, Wire”
Imminent Line Impact Warning (ILI)
TERRAIN
WARNING - WIRE
“Warning; Wire, Wire”
Reduced Required Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - TERRAIN
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution (ITI)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - TERRAIN
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
TERRAIN
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
TERRAIN
CAUTION - WIRE
“Caution; Wire, Wire”
TERRAIN
CAUTION - WIRE
“Caution; Wire, Wire”
TERRAIN
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
“Caution; Obstacle, Obstacle”
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Alert Type
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Imminent Terrain Impact Caution
(ILI)
Required Reduced Line
Clearance Impact Caution (RLCI)
Imminent Obstacle Impact Caution (IOI)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Table 6-20 Terrain SVT Alerts Summary
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The following table lists the TAWS-B alerts.
PULL UP
TERRAIN - PULL-UP
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up, Pull Up”
WIRE AHEAD - PULL-UP
“Wire Ahead; Pull Up, Pull Up”
PULL UP
WARNING - WIRE
“Wire, Wire; Pull Up, Pull Up”
PULL UP
TERRAIN AHEAD - PULL-UP
“Terrain Ahead, Pull Up; Terrain Ahead,
Pull Up”
PULL UP
OBSTACLE - PULL-UP
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull Up, Pull Up”
PULL UP
OBSTACLE AHEAD - PULL-UP
“Obstacle Ahead, Pull Up; Obstacle Ahead,
Pull Up”
TERRAIN
CAUTION - TERRAIN
“Caution, Terrain; Caution, Terrain”
TERRAIN
TERRAIN - AHEAD
“Terrain Ahead; Terrain Ahead”
TERRAIN
CAUTION - WIRE
“Caution, Wire; Caution, Wire”
TERRAIN
WIRE AHEAD
“Wire Ahead; Wire Ahead”
TERRAIN
CAUTION - OBSTACLE
“Caution, Obstacle; Caution, Obstacle”
TERRAIN
OBSTACLE AHEAD
“Obstacle Ahead; Obstacle Ahead”
TERRAIN
TOO LOW - TERRAIN
“Too Low, Terrain”
None
None
“Five-Hundred”
TERRAIN
SINK RATE
“Sink Rate”
TERRAIN
DONT SINK
“Don’t Sink”
Imminent Line Impact
Warning (ILI)
Reduced Required LIne
Clearance Warning (RLC)
Imminent Terrain Impact
Warning (ITI)
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Warning (ROC)
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Warning (IOI)
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Caution (RTC)
Imminent Terrain Impact
Caution (ITI)
Required Reduced Line
Clearance Impact Caution
(RLC)
Imminent Line Clearance
Impact Caution (ILI)
Reduced Required Obstacle
Clearance Caution (ROC)
Imminent Obstacle Impact
Caution (IOI)
Premature Descent Alert
Caution (PDA)
Altitude Voice Callout
(VCO) “500”
Excessive Descent Rate
Caution (EDR)
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
PULL UP
APPENDICES
Reduced Required Terrain
Clearance Warning (RTC)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
“Pull Up”
AFCS
PULL-UP
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PULL UP
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Excessive Descent Rate
Warning (EDR)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Voice Alert
EIS
MFD Pop-Up Alert (except
TAWS-B Page)
Alert Type
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
PFD/TAWS-B
Page Alert
Annunciation
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INDEX
Table 6-21 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
353
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B compares the projected
flight path as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and obstacle databases.
The system issues FLTA alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain or obstacles.
EIS
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of the
projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when the ground
speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to the nearest runway
along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight path becomes narrower until
the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle Clearance (RTC or ROC respectively)
and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle Impact (ITI or IOI respectively).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Level (FT)
Descending (FT)
800
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
AFCS
Figure 6-89 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the destination
runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between runway ends.
ADDITIONAL TAWS-B ALERTING
INDEX
APPENDICES
In addition to the FLTA alerting discussed previously, TAWS-B provides the following additional types of
alerts.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The purpose of the Excessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide notification when the aircraft is
determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain a rate that is calculated to be excessive relative to height
above terrain.
6000
5500
4500
INK
n: “S
4000
”
RATE
EIS
io
Caut
3500
3000
2500
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
5000
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
Descent Rate (FPM)
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
500
Figure 6-90 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
AFCS
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination airport and
ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
800
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
600
500
400
300
APPENDICES
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
100
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
INDEX
Distance to Destination (NM)
Figure 6-91 PDA Alerting Threshold
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After Takeoff”)
provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon terrain) after takeoff.
The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual annunciations. NCR alerting is
only active when departing from an airport and when the following conditions are met:
• Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
• Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
• Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
EIS
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
1000
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
900
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
200
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Figure 6-92 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1000
800
700
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
EIS
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-93 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FIVE-HUNDRED VOICE ALERT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The purpose of the TAWS-B “Five-hundred” voice alert is to provide an advisory alert of when the aircraft
descends to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is within 5 nm of an
airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold elevation. When the aircraft
is more than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the height above terrain
(as determined by the GPS altitude and Terrain Database).
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alert.
INHIBITING ALERTING
Terrain-SVT System
AFCS
The pilot can manually inhibit FLTA alerts. If TAWS-B is installed, PDA alerts are also inhibited with FLTA
alerts.
TAWS-B System
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 6-94 Alerting is Inhibited when Annunciation is displayed
APPENDICES
Inhibiting/enabling TAWS-B or Terrain-SVT Alerting:
1) Select the terrain page.
2) Press the Inhibit Softkey. Alerting is inhibited when softkey annunciator is green.
Or:
INDEX
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired inhibit or enable option and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM STATUS
TERRAIN-SVT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice
alert is issued at test completion.
Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain
System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’ alert annunciation.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums.
Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the
annunciation ‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ Page. The
voice alert “Terrain System Not Available” is generated. When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the
aircraft is within the database coverage area, the voice alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
PFD/MFD† Alert
Annunciation
Terrain-SVT Page Center
Banner Annunciation
Voice Alert
TER TEST
TERRAIN TEST
None
None
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
TER INH
None
None
No GPS position
TER N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TER N/A
None
“Terrain System Not Available”*
TER FAIL
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAIL
None
Alert Type
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
System Test in Progress
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
System Test Pass
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Excessively degraded GPS
signal; or Out of database
coverage area
Terrain System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System
audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid, and Terrain-SVT
operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
INDEX
† Annunciation is shown on Terrain-SVT Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area
re-entered.
Table 6-22 Terrain-SVT System Status Annunciations
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAWS-B
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An voice alert
is issued at test completion. The pilot can also manually select a TAWS-B system test. The system test option
is unavailable when the ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
Manually testing the TAWS-B System:
1) Select the ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
EIS
3) Select ‘Test TAWS System’ and press the ENT Key to confirm the selection.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware status,
and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System Failure” is
generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS TEST
None
None
None
“TAWS System Test Test OK”
TAWS-B FLTA Alerting Inhibited
TAWS INH
None
None
No GPS position
TAWS N/A
NO GPS POSITION
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS N/A
None
“TAWS Not Available”
TAWS FAIL
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System Failure”
None
TERRAIN DATABASE FAIL
None
System Test pass
Excessively degraded GPS
signal; or Out of database
coverage area
TAWS-B System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid; Invalid
software configuration; or
System audio fault
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or invalid.
TAWS operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle databases
APPENDICES
TAWS TEST
System Test in progress
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Voice Alert
AFCS
TAWS-B Page Center
Banner Annunciation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
PFD/MFD* Alert
Annunciation
Alert Type
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums. Should
the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage area, the system
displays the ‘TAWS N/A’ annunciation, and issues the “TAWS Not Available” voice alert. When the GPS
signal integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the system issues the voice alert,
“TAWS Available” .
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INDEX
† Annunciation is shown on TAWS-B Page and the Navigation Map Page when Terrain is enabled.
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage area reentered.
Table 6-23 TAWS-B System Status Annunciations
359
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.5 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable terminal radar
EIS
site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to both Traffic Advisory Systems (TAS) and TIS.
Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb descent
indication.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Mode-S TIS is disabled if a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) or Automatic Dependent Surveillance-
Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic is installed.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS uses
the Mode S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground stations, and is
updated every 5 seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic targets within a 7.5-nm radius, from 3000 feet
below to 3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. The system displays TIS traffic with the symbology shown in
the following table.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TIS Symbol
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Traffic Advisory (TA)
AFCS
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-24 TIS Traffic Symbols
Traffic Advisories (TA) alert the crew to intruding aircraft. When traffic meets the advisory criteria for the TA,
a solid yellow circle symbol appears. A TA which is detected but is outside the range of the map on which traffic
is displayed are indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map.
APPENDICES
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°. Traffic
information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in the center of the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
on which traffic can be displayed.
INDEX
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/below the
traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the altitude separation
appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below. Altitude trend is displayed as
an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the target symbol. Traffic
symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear without altitude separation or climb/descent
information.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
• PFD Inset Map
• ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page
• ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
• Nearest Pages
• ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page
• Flight Plan Pages
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic TIS is
operating:
EIS
• ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Terrain-SVT option is installed and enabled.
See the Additional Features Section for details.
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the feature is
enabled for display.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Traffic Advisory,
500’ Below,
Climbing
Non-Threat
Traffic, Not
Reporting
Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
TA Off Scale
Banner
Annunciation
Traffic System
Status Banner
Annunciations
APPENDICES
Figure 6-95 TIS Traffic on Navigation Map Page
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INDEX
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/
disabling display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data
(symbols and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is
selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on those
selected for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
361
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Enabling/disabling traffic information on the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
Customizing traffic display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
EIS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Alerts only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the option to turn off)
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the changed settings.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
AFCS
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s
current position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is always
heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2 to 12 nm, as
indicated by the map range rings.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. When the aircraft is
on the ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from Standby
to Operating Mode and the system begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System Status discussion
for more information.
APPENDICES
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
INDEX
Press the TIS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Traffic Mode Annunciation
“Non-Bearing” Traffic
(System Unable to
Determine Bearing)
Distance is 4.0 nm,
1100’ Above,
Descending
Range
Marking
Rings
EIS
Traffic Advisory, 500’
Below, Climbing
Non-Threat
Traffic, 1200’
Above,
Descending
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
“TIS Not Available”
Voice Alert Status
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory
400’ Below, Level
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select
to Mute
“TIS Not
Available”
Voice Alert
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciations
Figure 6-96 Traffic Map Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following occur:
• A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
AFCS
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the top left of the Attitude Indicator on the PFD, flashing for 5 seconds
and remaining displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated only
when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual annunciation
are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are generated. If a second
TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then subsequently increases, another
voice alert is generated.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
Figure 6-97 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is out of
range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an adjacent site.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about 3000
feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar coverage in all
directions.
• Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
AFCS
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA muting
status is shown in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the TNA Mute Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
INDEX
APPENDICES
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SYSTEM STATUS
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The system performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters Standby
Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an annunciation is shown
in the center of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Description
Data is not being received from the transponder*
NO DATA
EIS
Data is being received from the transponder, but a failure is detected in the data
stream*
DATA FAILED
The transponder has failed*
FAILED
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
UNAVAILABLE
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-25 TIS Failure Annunciations
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Mode
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
TIS Operating
OPERATING
OPERATING
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
AFCS
TIS Standby
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is on the
ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map while Standby
Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever TIS has failed). Once
the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is displayed. The mode can be
changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
STANDBY
(also shown in white in center of page)
TIS Failed*
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
FAIL
* See Table 6-25 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-26 TIS Modes
APPENDICES
Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Standby or Operate Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is displayed in the upper left corner
of the Traffic Map Page.
INDEX
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
EIS
TA X.X ± XX ↕
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
AGE MM:SS
TRFC COAST
TRFC RMVD
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds
If after another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the display
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the age increases
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this message is displayed
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds since last message)
Traffic may exist within the selected display range, but it is not displayed
Traffic data has failed
TRFC FAIL
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Description
NO TRFC DATA
Traffic has not been detected
TRFC UNAVAIL
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Table 6-27 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.6 GTS 825 TRAFFIC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
EIS
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
NOTE: Pilots should be aware of TAS system limitations. TAS systems require transponders of other aircraft
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
to respond to system interrogations. If the transponders do not respond to interrogations due to phenomena
such as antenna shading or marginal transponder performance, traffic may be displayed intermittently, or
not at all. Aircraft without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb
descent indication. Pilots should remain vigilant for traffic at all times.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: Mode-S TIS is disabled when TAS installed.
NOTE: If a Garmin GTX 345R transponder is installed with this traffic system, refer to the ADS-B traffic
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic displays.
The optional Garmin GTS 825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). It enhances flight crew situational awareness
by displaying traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The system also provides visual annunciations
and voice traffic alerts to assist in visually acquiring traffic.
AFCS
The GTS 825 is capable of tracking up to 45 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A or C transponders, and
up to 30 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode S transponders. A maximum of 30 aircraft with the highest
threat potential can be displayed simultaneously. No TAS surveillance is provided for aircraft without operating
transponders.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
THEORY OF OPERATION
APPENDICES
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system interrogates the transponders of intruding aircraft
while monitoring for transponder replies. The system uses this information to derive the distance, relative
bearing, and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft within its surveillance range. The
traffic system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on the projected Closest Point of Approach
(CPA). If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual
annunciations and voice alerts.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAS SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The GTS 825 TAS surveillance system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude. Under
ideal conditions, the system scans transponder traffic up to 22 nm in the forward direction. The range is
somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional interrogation signal patterns. In
areas of greater transponder traffic density or when TCAS II (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II)
systems are detected, the GTS 825 automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power (and therefore
range) in order to limit potential interference from other signals.
NOTE: The TAS traffic system does not display traffic determined to be on the ground, including Mode C
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
transponder equipped aircraft operating below 300’ AGL that is not climbing. However, if own aircraft has
ADS-B In capability, and is receiving traffic information from an ADS-B source (including ADS-R, ADS-B,
TIS-B), the system does display this traffic while operating in SURF Mode. Refer to the ADS-B Traffic Section
for more information.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
In addition, if a 1090 MHz extended squitter transponder is installed, and the traffic system detects airborne
traffic providing 1090 MHz Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) information, the system
will display the TAS traffic using the ADS-B symbology. Refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion later in this
section for more information.
TAS Symbol
Description
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Non-Threat Traffic
Proximity Advisory (PA)
Traffic Advisory (TA)
AFCS
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-28 TAS Symbol Description
Traffic Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
APPENDICES
Proximity Advisory with ADS-B directional information. Points in
the direction of the aircraft track.
Other Non-threat traffic with ADS-B directional information. Points
in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
INDEX
Table 6-29 Traffic with ADS-B Symbology (GTX 335 Transponder)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
EIS
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper
bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the
ground.
Table 6-30 ADS-B Traffic Symbology with GTX 345R Transponder
AFCS
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a yellow circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially hazardous
intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A Traffic Advisory
that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of the screen
at the relative bearing of the intruder.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding aircraft
is within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat.
A Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond 6 nm
that is neither a TA or PA.
APPENDICES
A solid white rounded arrow indicates either a PA or Non-Threat traffic with ADS-B directional information,
but the position of the traffic is shown with degraded accuracy.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol in
hundreds of feet. When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus sign ‘-’
indicates traffic is below own aircraft.
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INDEX
The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in
either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol.
369
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Relative Altitude
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-98 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
EIS
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, a motion vector line extending beyond the
traffic symbol in the direction of the track may also be displayed when either absolute or relative motion
vectors are enabled.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vector Line indicates
intruder aircraft track
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-99 Intruder Traffic with ADS-B Directional Information and Track
TA ALERTING CONDITIONS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The traffic system automatically adjusts its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of nuisance TA
alerting during flight phases likely to be near airports. The system applies Level A TA sensitivity when the
groundspeed is less than 120 knots; Level B TA sensitivity applies in all other conditions.
AFCS
Yes
A
No
B
Yes
B
No
APPENDICES
A
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Sensitivity Intruder Altitude
Level
Available
TA Alerting Conditions
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 600 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is within 600 feet.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of separation.
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of horizontal separation and vertical
separation is within 800 feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is within 800 feet.
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
INDEX
Table 6-31 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
TAS ALERTS
When the GTS 825 detects a new TA, the following occur:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the bearing,
relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table 6-23). For example,
the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the traffic is in front of own
aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
• A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the right of the airspeed on the PFD, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area (Figure 6-69).
EIS
• The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center of the
Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will indicate
“TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if known.
A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that initially triggered the TA are no
longer present.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
AFCS
Figure 6-100 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock”
or “No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
APPENDICES
Relative Altitude
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Bearing
Table 6-32 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM TEST
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when performing a system
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
test during flight.
EIS
The GTS 825 provides a system test mode to verify the TAS system is operating normally. The test takes ten
seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on the Traffic
Map Page. If the system test passes, the system announces, “TAS System Test Passed” Otherwise the system
announces, “TAS System Test Failed.” When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters Standby
Mode.
Testing the traffic system:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
3) Turn the Joystick to set the range to 2/6 nm to allow for full test pattern to be displayed during test.
4) Press the Test Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS knob to select ‘Test Mode’.
2) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TAS Test Mode
INDEX
Figure 6-101 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic system automatically transitions from Standby to Operating mode eight seconds after
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
takeoff. The system also automatically transitions from Operating to Standby mode 24 seconds after
landing.
When the avionics system initially receives power on the ground, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The
system must be in Operating Mode for traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Changing traffic system modes on the Traffic Map Page:
EIS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Press the Operate or TAS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic. ‘OPERATING’ is displayed in the TAS Mode
window.
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to place the system in the Standby mode. ‘STANDBY’ is displayed in
the TAS Mode window.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Or:
1) With the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS knob to highlight the desired mode.
3) Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
AFCS
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position
and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Aircraft
orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick
(up to 40 nm) as indicated by the map range rings.
The system annunciates the traffic mode and altitude display mode in the upper right corner of the ‘Map Traffic Map’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TAS Operating
Mode Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 below,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
EIS
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ above,
descending
Traffic Display
Range Rings
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Proximity
Advisory, 1200’
feet below,
descending
Figure 6-102 Traffic Map Page
Altitude Display Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic is
displayed. If traffic meets the criteria for a TA, it is also displayed even if it is outside of the selected volume
of airspace.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
AFCS
2) Select one of the following Softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900
feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
APPENDICES
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
3) To return to the Traffic Page, press the Back Softkey.
INDEX
Or:
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following (see softkey description in the previous step 2):
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
•
3) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
Traffic Map Page Display Range
The pilot can adjust the range of traffic displayed on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. Range indications
appear on rings shown on the page. A maximum map range of 40 nautical miles is available.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting the Traffic Map Display Range:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Turn the Joystick as needed to select the desired map range.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic information
can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD when the traffic unit
is operating:
• ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page
• ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page
• Nearest Pages
• ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page
• Flight Plan Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• PFD Inset Map
AFCS
• ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) option
is installed and enabled. See the Additional Features Section for details.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD maps other than the Traffic Map Page):
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Select the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the map.
APPENDICES
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, the system shows a traffic status icon to
indicate traffic is enabled for display.
INDEX
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FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Proximity
Advisory
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Traffic Advisory
Traffic
Advisory OffScale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic overlay
enabled icon and
Altitude Display
Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-103 TAS Traffic on Navigation Map
Customizing the traffic display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
AFCS
• Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
- All Traffic - Displays all traffic
- TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
- TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
• Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
APPENDICES
• Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
INDEX
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu controls the map
range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than
the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use
settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
A Traffic Map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map will appear in
heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic and optional
datalink weather information on navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling traffic information on the PFD Inset Map:
EIS
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset Map or HSI Map.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TEST
Traffic System Test
Initiated
(‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page))
Operating
OPERATING
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
STANDBY
Standby
(also shown in white in center of page)
Traffic System Failed*
FAIL
* See Table 6-34 for additional failure annunciations
AFCS
Table 6-33 Traffic Modes
Traffic Map Page Center
Annunciation
Description
DATA FAILED
APPENDICES
Data is not being received from the TAS unit
NO DATA
FAILED
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the ‘Map Traffic Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Data is being received from the TAS unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the TAS unit
Table 6-34 TAS Failure Annunciations
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
EIS
TA X.X ± XX ↕
TRFC FAIL
NO TRFC DATA
Description
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TAS unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 6-34 TAS Traffic Status Annunciations
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
6.7 ADS-B TRAFFIC
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance maneuvering.
The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories and does not under any
circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all of the traffic
EIS
information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception, and/or inaccurate
information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not represented on the display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The optional Garmin GTX 345R transponder sends and receives Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
(ADS-B) traffic information on the 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) frequency. It receives ADS-B traffic
and data link weather information on the 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) frequency. The system
provides visual annunciations and voice traffic alerts to help the pilot visually acquire potentially conflicting
traffic. This discussion covers the traffic features of the GTX transponder; refer to the Flight Information ServiceBroadcast (FIS-B) Weather section for more information about the UAT data link weather features of the GTX 345.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ADS-B is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic control system and is comprised of three segments:
ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R (Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ADS-B is the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters on fixed
objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call Sign, Tail Number,
ICAO registration number, etc), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude, and emergency status.
AFCS
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
1090 ES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Mode A/C
ATC
UAT
UAT
APPENDICES
RADAR
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Figure 6-104 ADS-B System
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of aircraft or
system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the capability to receive
ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B information. ADS-B participating
refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out,
or both ADS-B capabilities may also be referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-REBROADCAST (ADS-R)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the 1090
MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other. ADS-R is the
rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by taking data from one link
and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, two aircraft are in the service volume for a ground station,
and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other on 978 MHz, the ground station retransmits the data
from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two aircraft can “see” each other.
Because the GTX 345R transponder sends and receives ADS-B traffic reports on the 1090 ES frequency,
but only receives traffic reports on the 978 MHz UAT frequency, the presents of an ADS-R ground station is
necessary for an aircraft with only UAT capabilities to ‘see’ the aircraft with the GTX 345R transponder.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
TIS-B provides the bridge between the radar-based ATC system and the ADS-B-based system. When an
ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B ground station, the ground
station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is then included in the list of
aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in Secondary Surveillance
Radar coverage, and the other aircraft is also in Secondary Surveillance Radar coverage, and is transmitting
its altitude.
AFCS
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15 NM of the
participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B broadcasts occur once every
three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the ground station providing the TIS-B service.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTX 345R-equipped aircraft according to
the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
APPENDICES
Other Aircraft Equipment
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped Aircraft
1090ES Out Equipped
Yes
UAT Receive Only Capable
No
UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S Transponder
Yes*
* Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar coverage, or own
INDEX
aircraft is equipped with a TAS system and traffic is within the TAS surveillance range.
Table 6-36 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADS-B WITH TAS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
When an optional active traffic system, such as a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) is installed and operating
with an optional GTX 345R transponder, the transponder receives traffic from the active traffic system and
attempts to match (or “correlate”) this traffic with ADS-B traffic the transponder is tracking. When a correlation
is made, the only the traffic with the most accurate information is displayed to the flight crew. Any traffic that
is not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the other) is also displayed for the flight crew. This
correlation of traffic by the transponder improves the accuracy of the traffic displayed, while reducing the
occurrence of the same aircraft being displayed twice.
EIS
NOTE: When operating on the edges of ATC radar coverage or when using an optional active traffic system
providing intermittent traffic data, a single aircraft may be briefly or periodically depicted as two aircraft on
the display.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: The optional TAS system issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using TAS alerting criteria. The ADS-B
system issues alerts for traffic it is tracking using the Conflict Situational Awareness & Alerting (CSA) criteria.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting similar to
the TAS system discussed previously.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When a TA occurs with is equipment, the displays a ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation and provides a voice alert. This
annunciation and voice alert is the same as the alerts issued by the Garmin GTS 825 TAS discussed previously.
NOTE: ADS-B traffic voice alerts are suppressed when below 500 feet.
AFCS
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize nuisance
alerts. Radar Altitude (if available), Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to
adjust the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm in accordance with the following table:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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Height Above
Terrain (HAT)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
Any
Any
Unavailable
Any
>1000
<=2350
Unavailable
Unavailable or
>2350
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Sensitivity
Level
EIS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
7
Unavailable or
>2350
8
Unavailable or
>2350
9
Unavailable or
>2350
10
Unavailable or
>2350
GPS Phase of Flight
Any
Any
Approach
Any
Any
Terminal
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Not approach and not
Terminal (including
unavailable)
Vertical
Protected
Own Altitude Look-ahead
Threshold for Volume
(Feet)
time (sec)
Alert (feet)
(NM)
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
20
850
0.20
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
25
850
0.20
Any
<=5000
25
30
850
850
0.20
0.35
>5000
<=10,000
40
850
0.55
>10,000
<=20,000
45
850
0.80
>20,000
<=42,000
48
850
1.10
> 42,000
48
1200
1.10
Table 6-37 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
AFCS
AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The optional GTX 345R can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are
two ADS-B applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational Awareness
(SURF). The system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five nautical miles and 1,500 feet above the nearest
airport. When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is airborne.
APPENDICES
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five NM and less than 1,500 feet above field elevation.
When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the ground traffic. At a Traffic Map
Page range of one nm or less, the airport environment (including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to
traffic. The airport displays are derived from the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for
more information about SafeTaxi displays.
INDEX
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of traffic, especially
when runways are in close proximity to each other.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic symbols
may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic to be displayed
in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while SURF is on. Availability for
AIRB and SURF is depicted on the ‘Aux-ADS-B Status’ Page, discussed later in this section.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SURF Application
On
Ground-based
vehicle
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Aircraft on the
ground
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-105 Traffic Map Page with SURF Mode On
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
TRAFFIC DESCRIPTION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The symbols used to display ADS-B traffic are shown in the following table. Above or below the traffic symbol
is the traffic identifier, and altitude. A small up or down arrow next to the traffic symbol indicates that the traffic
is climbing or descending at a rate of at least 500 feet per minute.
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
EIS
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
AFCS
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own
aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic with ADS-B directional information. Pointed end indicates direction of travel. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-38 ADS-B Traffic Symbology
APPENDICES
OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
INDEX
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current position and
altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading.
Map range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AIRB Application On
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000 below,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
Traffic Display
Range Rings
EIS
No-bearing
Traffic Advisory,
4.0 nm away,
1100’ above,
descending
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Proximity
Advisory, 1200’
feet below,
descending
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-106 Traffic Map Page
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Select the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-B Off’.
AFCS
b) Press the ENT Key.
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test pattern display.
3) Ensure the ADS-B Softkey is disabled. Otherwise the test mode is not available.
4) If the optional TAS is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
APPENDICES
5) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
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INDEX
c) Press the ENT Key.
385
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes about ten seconds
to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on any displayed traffic
maps. The test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing TA is shown to the west, level
Other Non-Threat traffic is shown to the northwest, and a descending Proximity Advisory is in the northeast,
relative to own aircraft.
The system announces, “Traffic System Test”. When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters
Standby Mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
ADS-B Test Mode
Figure 6-107 System Test in Progress with Test Pattern
AFCS
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is displayed.
TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, select the ALT Mode Softkey.
2) Select one of the following softkeys:
• Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9900 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
APPENDICES
• Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 2700 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
• Below: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to 9900 feet
below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below the aircraft.
INDEX
3) To return to the Traffic Map Page, select the Back Softkey.
Or:
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options:
Above
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
•
3) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict the
traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors
extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own aircraft. These vectors
are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s track and ground speed. These two
values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely with respect to own aircraft, and provide a
forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own aircraft, in the near future. If the system does not have
sufficient information to calculate motion vectors, they are not shown.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Absolute
Motion Vectors
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Absolute Motion Vectors
selected
APPENDICES
Figure 6-108 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
INDEX
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387
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Relative Motion
Vectors
Relative Motion Vectors
selected
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 6-109 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Select the Motion Softkey.
AFCS
3) Press one of the following softkeys:
•
Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
Off:
Disables the display of the motion vector.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map -Traffic Map’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion Vector Off’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
APPENDICES
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the ‘Map -Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
3) Press the Duration Softkey.
INDEX
4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
5) When finished, select the Back Softkey to return to the ‘Map -Traffic Map’ Page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Displaying Additional Traffic Information
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may
include the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft, service
vehicle, unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV)), course, track, groundspeed), and other information.
Showing additional traffic information:
1) Select the ‘Map -Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob. The first selected traffic symbol is highlighted in cyan. Additional information appears in
a window in the upper-right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
EIS
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob to move the cyan bracket until the selected aircraft
traffic symbol is highlighted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
Traffic Map Page Display Range
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The pilot can adjust the range of traffic displayed on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. Range indications
appear on rings shown on the page. The minimum map range is 750 feet. A maximum map range of 40
nautical miles is available.
Selecting the Traffic Map Display Range:
1) Select the ‘Map -Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Turn the Joystick as needed to select the desired map range.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous TAS discussion
for information about these additional traffic displays.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Mode Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
Traffic Map Page Center
Banner Annunciation
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B: AIRB
None
ADS-B: SURF
None
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
ADS-B TRFC N/A
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
ADS-B Mode
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
Traffic Display Status Icon
(Other Maps)
* See Table 6-41 for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-39 ADS-B Modes
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Traffic Map Page displays a white antenna icon to indicate the successful reception of ADS-B traffic
services from a ground station. A white-X over this icon indicates reception of ADS-B services is unavailable.
AFCS
ADS-B Ground Station Reception Status
Receiving ADS-B traffic services from a ground
station
Not receiving ADS-B traffic services from a
ground station
Traffic Map Pane Icon
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Table 6-40 ADS-B Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the Traffic Map
Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
APPENDICES
Traffic Map Page Center
Annunciation
NO DATA
DATA FAILED
FAILED
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but the unit is self-reporting a failure
Incorrect data format received from the traffic unit
INDEX
Table 6-41 Traffic Failure Annunciations
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NOTE: If the GTX 345R transponder has failed, the GTS 825 TAS enters failure mode, and the system will not
display traffic information.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
TA OFF SCALE
NO TRFC DATA
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending incorrectly formatted
data)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
TRFC FAIL
Description
EIS
TA X.X ± XX ↕
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left corner of
maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-42 Traffic Status Annunciations
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’
Page.
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B’ Status Page.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Figure 6-110 Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status on ADS-B Status Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADS-B Status Page
Item
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface (SURF),
Airborne Alerts (CSA)
Status Message
Description
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is available, and it meets
performance requirements.
Traffic application is not currently active, but application is ready to run when
condition(s) determine the application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is available, but it does
not meet performance requirements.
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is not available or the
application has failed.
Traffic application is not available, because it has not been configured. If this
annunciation persists, the system should be serviced.
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA ground station.
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
The GTX 345R is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GTX 345R is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS position source.
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink from a ground station
occurred. If no uplink has been received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear
instead of a number of minutes.
Available to Run
Not Available
EIS
Fault
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Not Configured
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TIS-B/ADS-R Coverage
GPS Status: GPS
Source
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Ground Uplink Status:
Last Uplink
---------------Available
Not Available
--------------External #1
External #2
--------Number of minutes, or
‘------’
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Table 6-43 ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7.1 AFCS OVERVIEW
NOTE: The current pertinent flight manual always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
• GDU 1050 Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) (3)
• GSA 80 AFCS Servos (3) (4 optional with Yaw
Damper)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• GDU 1054/1055 Multi-Function Display (MFD) (1 )
(optional)
EIS
The digital Garmin Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is fully integrated within the system's avionics
architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this system description. AFCS
functionality in the Piper PA-34-220T Seneca is distributed across the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
• GSM 86 Servo Gearboxes (4)
• GIA 64W Integrated Avionics Units (IAUs) (2)
The Garmin AFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Flight Director (FD) — The Piper PA-34-220T Seneca flight director commands are displayed on both PFDs.
The flight director provides:
– Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
– Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
– Autopilot communication
• Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos adapter. It also
provides servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering commands,
Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and airspeed.
AFCS
• Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn coordination
in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed (optional).
• Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim capability
when the autopilot is not engaged.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed description
follows in the Autopilot and Yaw Damper Operation section.
APPENDICES
• Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit.
Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to hold the
current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case, ‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will
be annunciated.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
• Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will smoothly
pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director modes remain
unchanged.
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Autopilot Disengagement — The most common way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the
AP DISC Switch, which is located on each control wheel. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and
annunciated on the PFD. Other ways to disconnect the autopilot include:
–
Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
–
Operating the MEPT Switch (located on the each control wheel)
–
Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker
In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP DISC Switch will disconnect the
autopilot and remove all power to the servos.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
AFCS CONTROLS
The following dedicated AFCS keys are located on the bezel of the MFD:
AP Key
FD Key
Engages/disengages the autopilot
2
Activates/deactivates the flight director only
Pressing once turns on the flight director in the default pitch and roll modes. Pressing
again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command Bars. If the autopilot
is engaged, the key is disabled.
3 NAV Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
4 ALT Key
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
5 VS Key
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
6 FLC Key
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
7 YD Key
If installed, engages/disengages the yaw damper
8 HDG Key
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
9 APR Key
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
10 VNV Key
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight control
11 NOSE UP/NOSE Control the mode reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change
modes
DN Keys
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1
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2
8
3
9
4
10
EIS
5
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
1
11
6
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 7-1 Dedicated AFCS Controls
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the controls on the MFD:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AP DISC Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
EIS
CWS Button
(Control Wheel
Steering)
Disengages the autopilot and flight director and interrupts pitch trim operation
An AP DISC Switch is located on each control wheel.
This switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the
associated aural tone.
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged and
synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch (if
not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll Hold
Mode)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
A CWS Button is located on each control wheel.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
TO/GA Switch
(Go Around)
Upon release of the CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll
references, depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation
details are discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go Around (in air) Mode
If an approach procedure is loaded this switch also activates the missed approach when
the selected navigation source is FMS or when the navigation source is VOR/LOC
and a valid frequency has been tuned.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The TO/GA Switch is located on the throttle.
MEPT Switch
Used to command manual electric pitch trim. A MEPT Switch is located on each
(Manual Electric control wheel.
Pitch Trim)
This composite switch is split into left and right sides. The left switch is the ARM
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
contact and the right switch controls the DN (forward) and UP (rearward) contacts.
Pushing the MEPT ARM Switch disengages the autopilot, if currently engaged. The
MEPT ARM Switch may be used to acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and
mute the associated aural tone.
INDEX
APPENDICES
LVL Button
Level Mode
Manual trim commands are generated only when both sides of the switch are operated
simultaneously. If either side of the switch is active separately for more than three
seconds, MEPT function is disabled and ‘PTRM’ is displayed as the AFCS Status
Annunciation on the PFDs. The function remains disabled until both sides of the
switch are inactivated.
The LVL Button engages the autopilot in Level Mode for pitch and roll.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the PFDs.
With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the Command Bars.
Maximum commanded pitch (-15°, +20°) and roll (25°) angles, vertical acceleration, and roll rate are limited to
values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides commands to the autopilot.
ACTIVATING THE FLIGHT DIRECTOR
Modes Selected
APR Key
Approach**
HDG Key
Heading Select
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
AFCS
Navigation**
TO/GA Switch
ROL
ROL
ROL
TO
GA
ROL
ROL
ROL
FMS
VOR
LOC
BC
FMS
VOR
LOC
HDG
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NAV Key
FD Key
AP Key
CWS Button
Vertical
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
Takeoff (on ground)
TO
Go Around (in air)
GA
Altitude Hold
ALT
Vertical Speed
VS
Vertical Path Tracking* VPTH
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ALT Key
VS Key
VNV Key
Lateral
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
Roll Hold (default)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Control Pressed
EIS
An initial press of a key listed in the table below (when the flight director is not active) activates the pilot-side
flight director in the listed modes. The flight director may be turned off and the Command Bars removed from
the displays by pressing the FD Key again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS
course before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
Table 7-1 Flight Director Activation
APPENDICES
AFCS STATUS BOX
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INDEX
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active. Flight
director selection and autopilot statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Lateral flight director
modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed modes are displayed in white and active in
green.
397
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Autopilot
Lateral Modes Status
Armed
Active
Yaw
Damper
Status
Active
Vertical Modes
Selected
Altitude
Armed
EIS
AFCS Status Box
Selected
Altitude
Command
Bars
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vertical
Speed
Reference
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FMS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
AFCS
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless otherwise
specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of specific mode selection,
the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll mode.
APPENDICES
Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation,
when the control for the active flight director mode is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode for
the axis. Automatic transition from armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation
moving to the green active mode field and flashing for 10 seconds.
INDEX
If the information required to compute a flight director mode becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight
director automatically reverts to the default mode for that axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and
annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or navigation data (VOR, LOC, FMS, VNV, SBAS) required to
compute commands. When such a loss occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters
Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The
flashing annunciation stops when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If
after 10 seconds no action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Figure 7-3 Loss of VOR Signal
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the default flight
director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
COMMAND BARS
EIS
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a single
cue or cross pointers. The Aircraft Symbol (in yellow) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format;
the Command Bars do not override the Aircraft Symbol. In the following figure, the single-cue Command
Bars move together vertically to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Command Bars displayed as a cross pointer below move independently to indicate pitch (horizontal bar) and
roll (vertical bar) commands. Both PFDs show the same Command Bar format. If a compatible lift computer
is installed, the cross-pointer option will be unavailable.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Command Bars
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Aircraft Symbol
Figure 7-4 Single-cue Command Bars
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Command Bars
AFCS
Aircraft Symbol
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-5 Cross-pointer Command Bars
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Changing Command Bar format:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the 'AUX - System Setup' Page on the MFD.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Active’ in the ‘Flight Director’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
’SNGL CUE’ to display Command Bars as a single cue (Above Figure).
Or:
EIS
’X-POINTER’ to display Command Bars as a cross-pointer (Following Figure).
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the Command Bars
are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚
or bank exceeds 65˚.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
7.3 AFCS MODES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The AFCS is capable of operating in a variety of independent Lateral Modes, Vertical Modes and Combination
of both the Lateral and Vertical Modes.
VERTICAL MODES
Description
Pitch Hold
Vertical Speed
-15° to
+20°
0.5°
nnnn fpm
-3000 to
+1500 fpm
100 fpm
nnn kt
80 to
204 kts
1 kt
PIT
*
ALTS
ALT Key ALT nnnnn ft
VS Key
VS
FLC Key FLC
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Flight Level Change, IAS Hold
(default)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Selected Altitude Capture
Altitude Hold
Holds the current aircraft pitch
attitude; may be used to climb/
descend to the Selected Altitude
Captures the Selected Altitude
Holds the current Altitude Reference
Maintains the current aircraft vertical
speed; may be used to climb/descend
to the Selected Altitude
Maintains the current aircraft
airspeed while the aircraft is
climbing/descending to the Selected
Altitude
Reference
Change
Increment
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Vertical Mode
Reference
Control Annunciation
Range
EIS
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations. The mode
reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level
Change modes. The NOSE UP and NOSE DN Keys can be used to change the vertical mode reference while
operating under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode. Increments of change and acceptable
ranges of values for each of these references using the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Keys are also listed in the table.
AFCS
* ALTS armed automatically when PIT, VS, FLC, TO, or GA active, and under VPTH when Selected Altitude is to be captured
instead of VNV Target Altitude
Table 7-2 Flight Director Vertical Modes
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PITCH HOLD MODE (PIT)
APPENDICES
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed), Pitch Hold Mode is selected by default. Pitch
Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the ‘PIT’ annunciation. This mode may be used for
climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter), since Selected Altitude Capture Mode
is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is activated.
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INDEX
In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch reference. The pitch
reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If the aircraft pitch attitude
exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director commands a pitch angle equal to
the nose-up/down limit.
401
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Changing the Pitch Reference
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Using the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Keys
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then releasing the
CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
EIS
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selected
Altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Figure 7-6 Pitch Hold Mode
SELECTED ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
• Pitch Hold
• Go Around
• Vertical Speed
• Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude
is to be captured instead of the VNV Target
Altitude)
• Flight Level Change
APPENDICES
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed . The ALT SEL Knob
on the MFD is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) until Selected Altitude Capture
Mode becomes active.
INDEX
As the aircraft nears the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude
Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green ‘ALTS’
annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The Selected
Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
At 50 feet from the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude
Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes
green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
EIS
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 7-7 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing the Selected Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob on the MFD to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude Capture
Mode is active causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with Selected Altitude Capture Mode
armed for the new Selected Altitude.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ALTITUDE HOLD MODE (ALT)
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the current
aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude Reference,
shown in the AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the Altimeter.
Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status Box.
AFCS
Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude Capture Mode.
Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when the altitude error is
less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s Altitude Reference.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Changing the Altitude Reference
NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected Altitude, but not the
flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
APPENDICES
The Altitude Reference (shown in the AFCS Status Box) may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP/NOSE DN Keys
• Pressing the CWS Switch, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Altitude Reference, then releasing the
CWS Switch at the desired altitude (the new altitude is now the Altitude Reference)
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Altitude
Reference
Selected
Altitude
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 7-8 Altitude Hold Mode
VERTICAL SPEED MODE (VS)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference. Current
aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the moment of Vertical
Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Vertical Speed Mode is
selected.
AFCS
When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS
Status Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference. The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the
Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is
shown on the indicator.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the Vertical Speed Indicator)
may be changed by:
• Using the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Keys
APPENDICES
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference, then releasing
the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
INDEX
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selected
Altitude
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Vertical
Speed
Reference
EIS
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 7-9 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE (FLC)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains the
Airspeed Reference while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter). When
Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors Selected Altitude, airspeed, and
altitude.
AFCS
The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is
indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed
Reference is also displayed directly above the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the
Airspeed Reference along the tape.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude corresponding
to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed Reference. The flight director
maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed Reference are adjusted and does not
allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected Altitude.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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405
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Airspeed
Reference
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Airspeed
Reference
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 7-10 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed Indicator) may be
adjusted by:
• Using the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Keys
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then releasing the CWS
Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is not changed.
AFCS
To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed again after the Selected
Altitude is reached.
LATERAL MODES
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and annunciation. Refer
to the combination modes section for information regarding Go Around and Takeoff modes.
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Description
Control Annunciation
Roll Hold
Heading Select
Navigation, FMS Arm/Capture/Track
ROL
25°
HDG
25°
FMS
NAV
Key
VOR
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
LOC
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
EIS
Captures and tracks the selected
Navigation, VOR Enroute Arm/Capture/Track navigation source (FMS, VOR,
LOC)
Navigation, LOC Arm/Capture/Track
(No Glideslope)
Maximum Roll
Command Limit
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Holds the current aircraft roll
attitude or rolls the wings level,
(default)
depending on the commanded
bank angle
Captures and tracks the Selected HDG
Heading
Key
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Lateral Mode
Table 7-3 Flight Director Lateral Modes
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or Approach
Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of the CWS Button.
ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls wings level.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the bank
angle condition.
Flight Director Response
Rolls wings level
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 25°
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Bank Angle
< 6°
6 to 25°
> 25°
AFCS
Figure 7-11 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Table 7-4 Roll Hold Mode Responses
APPENDICES
Changing the Roll Reference
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired bank angle, then
releasing the CWS Button.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and maintains
the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a cyan bug on the HSI and in the box to the upper
left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
EIS
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob. Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying
the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Heading upon release of the CWS Button.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even if the bug is turned
more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the right). However, Selected Heading
changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn reversals.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Heading Select
Mode Active
Selected
Heading
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 7-12 Heading Select Mode
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NAVIGATION MODES (FMS, VOR, LOC, BC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS course for the
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
NOTE: When intercepting a flight plan leg, the flight director gives commands to capture the active leg at
approximately a 45° angle to the track between the waypoints defining the active leg. The flight director
does not give commands fly to the starting waypoint of the active leg.
EIS
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front course.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected navigation
source (FMS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows FMS roll steering commands when FMS is the selected
navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director creates roll steering
commands from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be used to fly non-precision
SBAS and LOC approaches where vertical guidance is not required.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Backcourse Navigation Mode is selected when the localizer front course is greater than 105° from the aircraft
heading. Backcourse Navigation Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The
annunciation ‘BC’ in the AFCS Status Box indicates Backcourse Navigation Mode.
If the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the
selected mode is armed. If the CDI is less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically captured when the
NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the active roll mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 7-13 FMS Navigation Mode Active
AFCS
When the CDI has automatically switched from FMS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, FMS Navigation
Mode remains active, providing FMS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured. LOC Navigation
Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the APR Key is not pressed
prior to the automatic source switch.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode
(wings rolled level):
• Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
• Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
APPENDICES
• During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in FMS Navigation Mode after the automatic
navigation source switch from FMS to LOC
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Changing the Selected Course
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Pressing the CWS Switch and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or FMS flight plan) when
the CWS Switch is released.
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer, or OBS Mode has been enabled when using FMS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FMS Navigation
Mode Active
FMS is Selected
Navigation Source
Selected
Course
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track FMS Course
AFCS
Figure 7-14 Navigation Mode
COMBINATION MODES (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA)
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The following table lists the modes that operating by using both Vertical and Lateral Modes with their
corresponding controls and annunciations.
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Description
VNV Target Altitude Capture
Backcourse Arm/Capture/Track
VPTH
ALTV
GP
GS
Takeoff
VAPP
25° Capture
10° Track
LOC
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level on the
ground in preparation for
takeoff
Commands a constant pitch
angle and wings level in the
air
TO
10°
GA
7°
TO/GA
Switch
AFCS
Go Around**
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation source APR Key
(FMS, VOR, LOC)
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Approach, ILS Arm/Capture/Track
(Glideslope Mode automatically
armed)
25° Capture
10° Track
25° Capture
10° Track
FMS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Approach, VOR Arm/Capture/Track
25° Capture
10° Track
BC
Approach, FMS Arm/Capture/Track
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Glideslope
Reference
Range
EIS
Glidepath
Captures and tracks descent
legs of an active vertical VNV Key
profile
Captures
the
Vertical
Navigation (VNV) Target
*
Altitude
Captures and tracks the
SBAS glidepath on approach
APR Key
Captures and tracks the ILS
glideslope on approach
Captures
and
tracks
a localizer signal for NAV Key
backcourse approaches
Annunciation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Vertical Path Tracking
Control
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Mode
Maximum
Roll
Command
Limit
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
* ALTV is armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of Selected Altitude.
**Go Around mode disengages the autopilot unless a compatible lift computer is installed.
APPENDICES
Table 7-5 Flight Director Combination Modes
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active. Refer to the Flight Management
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Section for more information on VNV flight plans.
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent operations
when VNV flight planning is available. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
EIS
• The selected navigation source is FMS.
• A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD).
• Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
• Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft altitude.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a climb.
The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered manually or loaded
from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The appropriate VNV flight
control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined by the vertical profile. Upon
reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and
cancels any armed VNV modes.
VERTICAL PATH TRACKING MODE (VPTH)
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected, Vertical Path
AFCS
Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the CWS Button.
INDEX
APPENDICES
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or Glideslope Mode
is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed modes. If applicable, the
appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected
Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Figure 7-15 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft altitude
by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path Tracking Mode,
acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Pressing the VNV Key
• Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within 1 minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted. If
the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed and the
descent is not captured.
EIS
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation Status
Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical deviation, and
vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
VNV Target
Altitude
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selected
Altitude
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
AFCS
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
APPENDICES
Figure 7-16 Vertical Path Capture
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking becomes
active and tracks the descent profile. An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or ‘ALTV’) is armed as appropriate.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Vertical Path
Tracking Active
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
VNV Target
Altitude
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Figure 7-17 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path (without
commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in VNV vertical
deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes for the aircraft to reestablish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude,
the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical constraint.
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
AFCS
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight director to
revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
• Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
• Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in the
vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by flight plan
changes that affect the vertical profile.
• Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
APPENDICES
• A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
INDEX
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode become
armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Non-Path Descents
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is
selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude capture mode to
allow profile re-capture.
Figure 7-18 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
EIS
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
• At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet
Pressing the VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually exclusive. However,
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated) whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture
Mode is armed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed automatically
after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted before the Selected Altitude.
The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be captured. VNV Target Altitudes are
shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be entered manually or loaded from a database
(see the Flight Management Section for details). At the same time as “TOD within 1 minute” is annunciated
in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target Altitude is displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator.
AFCS
NOTE: When the Selected Altitude is set to the VNV Target Altitude, Selected Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)
will be armed even though the altitude value is part of the active VNAV flight plan.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV Target
Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated by the green
‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT” annunciation. The
VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’ annunciation and remains displayed
above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) is removed once VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
APPENDICES
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INDEX
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV Target
Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode becomes active, the
white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate
the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path Tracking, allowing upcoming
descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
415
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
EIS
Figure 7-19 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel the mode.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is active causes the
flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and the appropriate altitude capture mode
are armed in preparation to capture the new VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending on
which altitude is to be intercepted first.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the Flight Management Section
for details).
APPROACH MODES (FMS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS course for the
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
flight director to enter Approach Mode.
AFCS
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the
selected navigation source (FMS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the selected
navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR Key when
the CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to the left of the
active lateral mode). If the CDI is less than one dot, the LOC is automatically captured when the APR Key
is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation Mode.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Selecting VOR Approach Mode:
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
APPENDICES
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
INDEX
When FMS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Selecting FMS Approach Mode without a Glidepath:
1) Ensure a SBAS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan
(cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the NAV Key.
EIS
Figure 7-20 FMS Approach Mode Armed
Glidepath Mode (GP)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Glidepath Mode is used to track the WAAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Selecting FMS Approach Mode with a Glidepath:
1) Ensure a SBAS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LP+V, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan. The active waypoint must be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Some RNAV (SBAS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
AFCS
approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV). Approaches
that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V are considered Nonprecision Approaches (NPA) and
are flown to an MDA even though vertical glidepath (GP) information may be provided.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
WARNING: Do not rely on the autopilot to level the aircraft at the MDA/DH when flying an approach with
vertical guidance. The autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the
altitude preselect.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Figure 7-21 Glidepath Mode Armed
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture and
track the glidepath.
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
• The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
EIS
• Vertical deviation is valid.
• The CDI is at less than full scale deviation
• Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
Glidepath
Mode Active
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FMS Approach
Mode Active
AFCS
FMS is Selected
Navigation
Source
LPV Approach
Active
Glidepath
Indicator
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-22 Glidepath Mode
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Glideslope Mode (GS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC
Approach Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if the
difference between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode without a Glideslope:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
EIS
3) Press the NAV Key.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
4) Press the APR Key.
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode. The autopilot
guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When
Glideslope Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral
flight director mode.
Selecting LOC Approach Mode with a Glideslope:
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
AFCS
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Ensure that FMS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through navigation sources if
necessary).
APPENDICES
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
INDEX
Figure 7-23 Glideslope Mode Armed
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the
glideslope, the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the glideslope.
Approach
Mode Active
Glideslope
Mode Active
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Indicator
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 7-24 Glideslope Mode
Once the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level):
• Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
• Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
AFCS
• During a LOC/ILS approach FMS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the automatic
navigation source switch from FMS to LOC
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using FMS, the Selected
Course is controlled using the CRS Knob.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Course while in
Approach or Backcourse Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Course (or FMS flight
plan) when the CWS Button is released.
APPENDICES
Intercepting And Flying A DME Arc
INDEX
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan provided that FMS
Navigation Mode is engaged, FMS is the active navigation source on the CDI, and the DME arc segment is
the active flight plan leg. It is important to note that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on FMS.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Thus, even if the APR key is pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e. ATC provides
vectors to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or Roll Mode, the AFCS will not
automatically intercept or track the arc unless the pilot activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms FMS
Navigation Mode. The AFCS will not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the
beginning of the arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot deselects
FMS Navigation Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
In Takeoff and Go Around modes, the flight director commands a constant set pitch attitude. The TO/GA
Switch is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the flight director depends on whether the aircraft
is on the ground. Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when the aircraft is at least 400 feet
below the Selected altitude at the time Takeoff or Go Around Mode is selected.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected only
while on the ground by pushing the TO/GA Switch. The flight director Command Bars assume a wings-level,
pitch-up attitude. Autopilot engagement while Takeoff Mode is active is inhibited while the aircraft is on the
ground.
Pressing the TO/GA Switch while in the air activates the flight director in a wings-level, pitch-up attitude,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Attempts to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e.,
with the NOSE UP and NOSE DN Keys or CWS Button) result in reversion to Pitch Hold Mode.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Go Around
Mode Active
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Figure 7-25 Go Around Modes
INDEX
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.4 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the current pertinent flight manual for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
The Piper PA-34-220T Seneca autopilot and optional yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to
provide automatic flight control. The autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands
received from the flight director. Pitch autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any
sustained effort required by the pitch servo. Autopilot operation is independent of the yaw damper for the Piper
PA-34-220T Seneca.
EIS
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of the
autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to 6 deg/sec
by the yaw damper.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT CONTROL
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw damping
is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and torque. The servo
gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the servos to be overridden in case
of an emergency.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director maneuvers.
Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper control, and sent
to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and provides this signal to the
pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the average pitch servo effort.
AFCS
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
ROLL AXIS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers. The
flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and sent to
the roll servo motor.
APPENDICES
YAW AXIS
INDEX
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response. It also
uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns. Yaw damper operation is independent of autopilot engagement.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/disengagement. Use
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the autopilot remains active.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot and flight director (if not already active) are activated and the
annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and flight director are illuminated. The flight
director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Yaw
Damper
Engaged
EIS
Autopilot
Engaged
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 7-26 Autopilot And Yaw Damper Engaged
Autopilot status is displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated by green ‘AP’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot and the yaw
damper annunciator light is illuminated.
Autopilot and yaw damper status are displayed in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Engagement is indicated
by green ‘AP’ and ‘YD’ annunciations, respectively.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot. Pressing and
holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control surfaces and allows the
aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized to the aircraft attitude during
the maneuver.
AFCS
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS maneuvers.
Control Wheel Steering
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 7-27 CWS Annunciation
APPENDICES
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to flight
director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
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DISENGAGEMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The autopilot may be manually disengaged by pushing the AP DISC, GA, MEPT Switch, or the AP Key on
the AFCS Control Unit. Manual disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘AP’ annunciation
and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert. The AP DISC or MEPT Switch may be used to cancel the
aural alert.
EIS
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by the
autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or MEPT Switch.
Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
• System failure
• Stall warning
• Invalid sensor data
• Inability to compute default flight director modes
(FD also disengages automatically)
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• Roll Trim input
Figure 7-28 Automatic Autopilot Disengagement
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The YD Key, MEPT and AP DISC Switches can be used to disengage the yaw damper (the autopilot, if
engaged, also disengages when the AP DISC Switch is pressed). The ‘YD’ and ‘AP’ annunciations turn yellow
and flash for 5 seconds upon disengagement.
Figure 7-29 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation. Automatic yaw
damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a parameter also affecting
the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some cases where the autopilot
automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or invalid sensor data also cause yaw
damper disengagement.
Figure 7-30 Automatic Autopilot and
Yaw Damper Disengagement
APPENDICES
LEVEL MODE
INDEX
Level Mode is a coupled pitch and roll mode and is annunciated as both the vertical and lateral modes when
active. Pressing the LVL Button (located on the instrument panel) engages the autopilot (if the autopilot is
disengaged and the aircraft is within the autopilot engagement limitations) in level vertical and lateral modes.
While Level Mode does not track altitude or heading, it will adjust the pitch angle to maintain zero vertical
speed. When the LVL Button is pressed, all armed and active modes are cancelled and the autopilot and flight
director revert to LVL mode for pitch and roll. While in level mode, all other modes are available by pressing
the corresponding button.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Roll
Pitch
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Command Bars Indicate
Level with the Horizon
Figure 7-31 Level Mode Annunciation
UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system is
installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum established
airspeeds.
When aircraft airspeed decreases to 80 kts, a flashing yellow ‘MINSPD’ annunciation will appear above the
airspeed indicator.
AFCS
When the airspeed trend vector reaches a predetermined airspeed (specific to each flap setting), a single
aural “AIRSPEED” will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 7-32 MINSPD Annunciation
INDEX
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection becomes active. How Underspeed Protection
functions depends on which vertical flight director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the
vertical flight director modes can be divided into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain
altitude for as long as possible (altitude-critical modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial
(non-altitude critical modes).
ALTITUDE-CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
When the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change from
active to armed, and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the wings to level.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
Figure 7-33 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red “USP ACTIVE” annunciation will appear
to the right of the Vertical Speed Indicator. The pitch down force will continue until the aircraft reaches a
pitch attitude at which IAS equals the IAS at which stall warning turns off, plus two knots.
Figure 7-34 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciation
AFCS
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning turns
off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference and
the vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
NON-ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (PIT, VS, VNAV, IAS)
INDEX
APPENDICES
When the aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red “USP
ACTIVE” annunciation will appear to the right of the Vertical Speed Indicator. The vertical flight director
mode will change from active to armed, and the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch down until reaching
a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Figure 7-35 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to an IAS above the minimum commandable
autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical reference and
the vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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7.5 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
AFCS STATUS ALERTS
The annunciations in the following table (listed in order of increasing priority) can appear on the PFDs above
the Airspeed and Attitude indicators. Only one annunciation may occur at a time, and messages are prioritized
by criticality.
EIS
AFCS Status
Annunciation
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
AFCS
Figure 7-36 AFCS Status Annunciation
Alert Condition
Annunciation
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Elevator Mistrim Down
Pitch servo providing sustained force in the indicated direction
Elevator Mistrim Up
Pitch Trim Failure
PTRM
If AP engaged, take control of the aircraft and disengage AP
If AP disengaged, move MEPT switches separately to unstick
Roll Failure
ROLL
Roll axis control failure; AP inoperative
Pitch Failure
PTCH
Pitch axis control failure; AP inoperative
System Failure
AFCS
AP and MEPT are unavailable; FD may still be available
PFT
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and preflight system tests
as this may cause the preflight system test to fail or never to start (if servos fail
their power-up tests). Power must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
PFT
Preflight system test failed; aural alert sounds at failure
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
(or stuck MEPT Switch)
Preflight Test
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Description
Table 7-6 AFCS Status Alerts
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
APPENDICES
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in Altitude Hold, Glideslope or Glidepath modes.
INDEX
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture mode is
active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Pitch commands are not changed until overspeed protection
becomes active. Overspeed protection is provided in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and
maintain the mode reference for the selected vertical mode without exceeding Vne.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
When an autopilot overspeed condition occurs, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed
Indicator, flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch reference
adjusted to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is resolved.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Airspeed
Indicator
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 7-37 Overspeed Annunciation
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.6 ABNORMAL OPERATION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SUSPECTED AUTOPILOT MALFUNCTION
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as specifics that may
supplement or amplify this procedure.
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the following steps:
EIS
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
2) Press and hold the AP DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed from the trim motor.
Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged solenoids. Note the visual and aural alerting
indicating autopilot disconnect.
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid components.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) Release the AP DISC Switch.
OVERPOWERING AUTOPILOT SERVOS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied to the pitch controls
when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or force on the pitch controls can cause the autopilot
automatic trim to run to an out-of-trim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to the
controls should be avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to run, resulting in an outof-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is prolonged. In this case, larger than anticipated
control forces are required after the autopilot is disengaged.
AFCS
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to carry another
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
source of charts on-board the aircraft.
Additional features of the system include the following:
• SiriusXM® Satellite Radio entertainment
• FliteCharts® and Chartview electronic charts
• Flight Data Logging
• AOPA™ or AC-U-KWIK® Airport Directory
• Electronic Checklists
• Satellite telephone and SMS messaging services
• Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™)
• SurfaceWatch™
• Connext®
EIS
• SafeTaxi® diagrams
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports in the
United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up view of the
airport layout can be seen.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The optional ChartView and FliteCharts provide on-board electronic terminal procedures charts. Electronic
charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information.
The AOPA and AC-U-KWIK Airport Directories offer detailed information for a selected airport, such as available
services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The optional SurfaceWatch feature provides voice and visual annunciations to aid in maintaining situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions during ground and air operations in the airport environment.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver handles
more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers more entertainment choices
and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
AFCS
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
Electronic checklists allow a pilot to quickly find the proper procedure for a particular phase of flight.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system discourages aircraft operation outside the normal flight
envelope.
Connext allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth connection between
the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 SAFETAXI
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range. The
maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close enough to
show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport Hot Spots, and airport
landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent features. Resolution is greater at
lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport
provides enhanced position awareness.
EIS
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways, and/or complex
ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport surface where positional
awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are defined with a magenta circle or
outline around the region of possible confusion.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the maximum
configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
• Navigation Map Page
• VOR Information Page
• Inset Map (PFD)
• User Waypoint Information Page
• Weather Datalink Page
• Trip Planning Page
• Airport Information Page
• Nearest Pages
• Intersection Information Page
• Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• NDB Information Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and airport
features. In the example shown, the aircraft is on taxiway Bravo inside the High Alert Intersection boundary
on KSFO airport. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features such as
runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Airport
Features
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Taxiway
Identification
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Aircraft
Position
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Detail Softkey
Removes
Taxiway
Markings
Figure 8-1 SafeTaxi Depiction on the Navigation Map Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Detail Softkey (declutter) label advances to Detail All, Detail 3, Detail 2 and Detail 1 each time the softkey
is selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Selecting the Detail All Softkey removes the taxiway
markings and airport feature labels. Selecting the Detail 3 Softkey removes VOR station ID, the VOR symbol,
and intersection names if within the airport plan view. Selecting the Detail 2 Softkey removes the airport runway
layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route structure. Selecting the Detail 1 Softkey cycles back
to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter Levels in the Flight Management Section.
AFCS
Configuring SafeTaxi range:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map Settings’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Aviation’ Group options to SafeTaxi.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
APPENDICES
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display range.
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.2 CHARTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
When the databases for both chart types are purchased and loaded in the system, the desired charts brand, or
source, can be selected for viewing. The active chart source for a particular procedure is shown on the information
pane under Source.
Electronic charts that resemble the paper versions of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts (FliteCharts)
and Jeppesen terminal procedures charts (ChartView) can be displayed on the MFD.
Selecting preferred charts source:
EIS
1) While viewing a chart press the MENU Softkey to display the Page Menu options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ menu option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Preferred Charts Source’ option.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the available options (FliteCharts, ChartView).
Preferred Charts Source Option
AFCS
Chart Setup Option
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-2 Preferred Charts Source
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Chart Source
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-3 Chart Source
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
CHARTVIEW
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are displayed
in full color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the moving map in the
planview of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The georeferenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes are not considered within the chart boundaries.
Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft symbol is removed
from the display.
AFCS
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey shading
is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display. These off-scale
areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of
this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview,
not to the off-scale area.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Inset Box
Off-Scale
Area
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Off-Scale
Areas
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-4 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the georeferenced aircraft symbol.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Airport Diagrams
• Departure Procedures (DP)
• NOTAMs
• Approaches
AFCS
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
Selecting terminal procedures charts:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page,
press the Charts Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
APPENDICES
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to Charts.
INDEX
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Navigation Map Page Options Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu
Figure 8-5 Option Menus
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner Chart Not Available appears on the screen.
The Chart Not Available banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability of a
particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-6 Chart Not Available Banner
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner Unable To Display Chart is then displayed.
AFCS
Figure 8-7 Unable To Display Chart Banner
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When a chart is not available by pressing the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
APPENDICES
The chart shown is one associated with the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting a chart:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
Page, press the Charts Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Approach’ Box. (Press the APR
Softkey if the ‘Approach’ Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
EIS
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Approach’ Box.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Select Desired
Approach Chart
from Menu
Chart Scale
APPENDICES
Figure 8-8 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
INDEX
While the Approaches Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart page can be scrolled using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The aircraft symbol is shown on the chart only if the chart is to scale and the aircraft position is within the
boundaries of the chart. The aircraft symbol is not displayed when the Aircraft Not Shown Icon appears. If
the Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE, the aircraft symbol is not shown. The Aircraft Not
Shown Icon may appear at certain times, even if the chart is displayed to scale.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Pressing the Chart Softkey switches between the ChartView diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the Chart Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ page.
EIS
Pressing the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart. If
the displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey has no effect. The aircraft position is
shown in magenta on the ChartView diagrams when the location of the aircraft is within the chart boundaries.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Another source for additional airport information is from the Info Box above the chart for certain airports.
This information source is not related to the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey. When the Info Box is selected using the
FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. The Charlotte, NC airport has five additional charts offering information;
the Airport Diagram, Take-off Minimums, Class B Airspace, Airline Parking Gate Coordinates, and Airline
Parking Gate Location. (The numbers in parentheses after the chart name are Jeppesen designators.)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Aircraft
Current
Position
Figure 8-9 Airport Information Page, Info View, Full Screen Width
APPENDICES
In the example shown in following figure, the Class B Chart is selected. Pressing the ENT Key displays the
Charlotte Class B Airspace Chart.
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FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-10 Airport Information Page, Class B Chart Selected from Info View
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
- Pressing the SYNC Softkey displays the database linked chart associated with the current phase of flight.
- Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
- Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
- Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
AFCS
- Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, and includes weather data such
as METAR and TAF from the SiriusXM Data Link Receiver, when available. Weather information is available
only when a SiriusXM Data Link Receiver is installed and the SiriusXM Weather subscription is current.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Recent NOTAMS applicable to the current ChartView cycle are included in the ChartView database. Pressing
the NOTAM Softkey shows the local NOTAM information for selected airports, when available. When
NOTAMS are not available, the NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled. The NOTAM
Softkey may appear on the Airport Information Page and all of the chart page selections. Pressing the
NOTAM Softkey again removes the NOTAMS information.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
NOTE: Only NOTAMs applicable to specific information conveyed on the displayed Jeppesen chart are
INDEX
available when the NOTAM Softkey is pressed. There may be other NOTAMs available pertaining to the flight
that may not be displayed. Contact Jeppesen for more information regarding Jeppesen database published
NOTAMs.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
CHART OPTIONS
Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
Pressing the All Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Complete
Chart
Shown
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure 8-11 Approach Information Page, All View
- Pressing the Header Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
AFCS
- Pressing the Plan Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
- Pressing the Profile Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
- Pressing the Minimums Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of the
approach chart.
- If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, pressing the Fit WDTH Softkey changes
the chart size to fit the available screen width.
- Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
APPENDICES
INDEX
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OVERVIEW
Selecting additional information:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
1) While viewing the Airport Diagram, press the Full SCN Softkey to display the information windows (Airport,
Info).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Airport, Info, Runways, or Frequencies Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired
choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
EIS
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Pressing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys. The full screen
view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Full Screen Off’ Option and press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-12 Chart Setup Option
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
APPENDICES
Selecting day, night, or automatic view:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
INDEX
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
Figure 8-13 Page Menu Chart Setup
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, and ‘Night’ Options.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-14 Arrival Information Page, Day View
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-15 Arrival Information Page, Night View
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The georeferenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are georeferenced. These charts will display an
Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
AFCS
Figure 8-16 Aircraft Not Shown Icon
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas are
indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These off-scale areas
appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted geographical position of
this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic position. Therefore, when the
aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position indicated is relative to the chart planview,
not to the off-scale area.
APPENDICES
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
• Arrivals (STAR)
• Approaches
• Airport Diagrams
INDEX
• Departure Procedures (DP)
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Off-Scale
Areas
Off-Scale
Area
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-17 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the georeferenced aircraft symbol.
APPENDICES
FLITECHARTS SOFTKEYS
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INDEX
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the Navigation Map Page, Nearest
Airports Page, or Flight Plan Page, pressing the Charts Softkey displays the available terminal chart and
advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT Opt, Chart, Info, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and Go
Back. The chart selection softkeys appear on the Airport Information Page.
445
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Pressing the Go Back Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: All, Fit WDTH, Full SCN, and Back.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
While viewing the CHRT Opt Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the chart
selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is disabled.
TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHARTS
EIS
Selecting terminal procedures charts:
While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST - Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page,
press the Charts Softkey.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to ‘Charts.’
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
On the Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu, select the desired chart and press the ENT Key
to display the chart.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner No Available Charts appears on the screen.
The No Available Charts banner does not refer to the FliteCharts subscription, but rather the availability of a
particular airport chart selection or procedure for a selected airport.
AFCS
Figure 8-18 No Available Charts Banner
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an individual chart), the
banner Unable To Display Chart is then displayed.
Figure 8-19 Unable To Display Chart Banner
APPENDICES
When a chart is not available by pressing the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu Option, charts may
be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan Pages.
INDEX
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active flight plan, the chart
appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not flying to a direct-to destination, pressing
the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the nearest airport, if available.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The chart shown is one associated with the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ page. Usually this is the airport
runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off Minimums or Alternate Minimums are
available, that page appears. If Airport Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport
is shown.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Selecting a chart:
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’
Page, press the Charts Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart is displayed on the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page.
EIS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Approach’ Box. (Press the APR
Softkey if the Approach Box is not currently shown).
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Approach’ Box.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-20 Selecting a Chart
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While the Approach Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank. Once the desired chart
is selected, the chart scale can be changed and the chart can be panned using the Joystick. Pressing the
Joystick centers the chart on the screen.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The aircraft symbol is not shown on FliteCharts. The Chart Scale Box displays a banner NOT TO SCALE,
and the Aircraft Not Shown Icon is displayed in the lower right corner of the screen.
Pressing the Chart Softkey switches between the FliteCharts diagram and the associated map in the WPT
page group. In the example shown, the Chart Softkey switches between the Gainesville, FL (KGNV) Airport
Diagram and the navigation map on the ‘WPT – Airport Information’ page.
EIS
Pressing the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey returns to the airport diagram when the view is on a different chart.
If the displayed chart is the airport diagram, the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey has no effect.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Another source for additional airport information is from the Info Box above the chart or to the right of the
chart for certain airports. This information source is not related to the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey. When the Info
Box is selected using the FMS Knob, the softkeys are blank.
Pressing the ENT Key displays the IFR Alternate Minimums Chart.
Pressing the DP Softkey displays the Departure Procedure Chart if available.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the STAR Softkey displays the Standard Terminal Arrival Chart if available.
Pressing the APR Softkey displays the approach chart for the airport if available.
Pressing the WX Softkey shows the airport weather frequency information, when available, and includes
weather data if a data link weather receiver is installed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting additional information:
1) While viewing the Airport Diagram, press the WX Softkey to display the information windows.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Info’ Box.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Info’ Box choices. When the ‘Info’ Box is selected the softkeys are blank.
If multiple choices are available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to
complete the selection.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Pressing the Go Back Softkey reverts to the previous page (Navigation Map Page or Flight Plan Page).
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-21 Selecting Additional Information
CHART OPTIONS
Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options level.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Pressing the All Softkey shows the complete chart on the screen.
Pressing the Fit WIDTH Softkey fits the width of the chart in the display viewing area. In the example
shown, the chart at close range is replaced with the full width chart.
Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the right.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Pressing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection softkeys.
The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu Options.
AFCS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 8-22 Page Menu Chart Setup
449
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the ‘Full Screen’ and ‘Color Scheme’ Options.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the ‘On’ and ‘Off’ Full Screen Options.
Figure 8-23 Chart Setup Option
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
DAY/NIGHT VIEW
FliteCharts can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing. The Day View offers
a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View gives a better presentation for viewing in a
dark environment. When the Chart Setup Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Selecting day, night, or automatic view:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu ‘Options.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
AFCS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, and ‘Night’ Options.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
5) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use the small FMS Knob to
change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/night crossover point based on the percentage of
backlighting intensity. For example, if the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display
backlight reaches 15% of full brightness.
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may be accomplished by
selecting another page or changing the display range.
APPENDICES
6) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu.
IFR/VFR CHARTS
INDEX
The system can display GPS navigation information on a VFR chart, a low altitude IFR chart, or a high altitude
IFR chart, if installed. The information overlaid on the IFR/VFR Charts is selected and setup on the Navigation
Map, but the IFR/VFR charts will not display some of the selected items. Only the following items will be
overlaid on the chart:
• Map Pointer (distance and bearing to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other pertinent information)
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
• Map Range (17 range choices from 1 nm to 150 nm)
• Map Orientation (always North Up for IFR/VFR Charts)
• Aircraft Icon (representing present position)
• Wind Direction and Speed
• Icons for enabled map features (Traffic only)
• Flight Plan Legs
• Track Vector
• Runway Extension
• Missed Approach Preview
• Intersections (only as part of active flight plan)
• Visual Reporting Points
• VNAV Constraints
• Selected Altitude Intercept Arc
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Map panning on the IFR/VFR Charts works the same as on the Navigation Map. Map range selected on either
the Navigation Map or the IFR/VFR Charts applies to both. However, if the range selected on the Navigation
Map it is not a valid chart range, the chart is shown with a range of 2.5 nm.
When different VFR charts exist for the same area the chart type will automatically display according to the
range chosen. For example, in an area where both a Sectional and a Terminal Area Chart (TAC) are available, a
range of 5 nm or more will show the Sectional chart. Once the range is decreased below 6 nm, the system will
automatically change the displayed chart from the Sectional to the TAC.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Due to the potential error involved with the electronic depiction of maps, charts will display a ‘gray circle of
uncertainty’ centered upon the aircraft icon. The aircraft’s actual position can be anywhere within the range of
the gray circle. The range of the circle will change based on the chart displayed and current zoom range.
AFCS
The georeferenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the current
position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are georeferenced. IFR/VFR charts may be viewed
by selecting the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Map Orientation
VFR Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
EIS
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Gray Circle of
Uncertainty
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-24 GPS Navigation Information on the VFR Chart
Selecting IFR Low, IFR High, VFR Charts:
1) Select the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Press the VFR, IFR Low, or IFR High Softkey to display the desired chart.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Select ‘Display VFR’, ‘Display IFR Low’ or ‘Display IFR High’ to display the desired chart.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
IFR Low Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
EIS
Gray Circle of
Uncertainty
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Navigation Data Bar
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-25 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR Low Altitude Chart
Navigation Page Title
IFR High Altitude
Chart
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Map Orientation
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
AFCS
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Gray Circle of
Uncertainty
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-26 GPS Navigation Information on the IFR High Altitude Chart
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.3 AIRPORT DIRECTORY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) and optional AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory databases
offer detailed information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more. This information is
viewed on the Airport Information Page by selecting the Info Softkey until Info 2 is displayed.
Both Airport Directories are available for downloading at flygarmin.com. However, copy only one of the
databases to the Supplemental Data Card. The system cannot recognize both databases simultaneously.
Selecting the Airport Directory:
EIS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the WPT page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Airport Information Page. Initially, information for the airport closest to
the aircraft’s present position is displayed.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) If necessary, select the Info softkey until Info 2 is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-27 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
INDEX
APPENDICES
Airport Directory information appears in blue and yellow text. The Effective date appears in blue when data is
current and in yellow when the current date is before the effective date. The Expires date appears in blue when
data is current and in yellow when expired. Not Available appears in blue in the Region field if Airport Directory
data is not available on the database card. An expired Airport Directory database is not disabled and will continue
to function indefinitely.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.4 SATELLITE PHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
NOTE: An account must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice/SMS.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver provides an airborne low speed data link, Iridium Satellite Telephone service,
and Short Message Service (SMS).
The telephone is available to the flight crew through the audio panel and headsets.
REGISTERING WITH GARMIN CONNEXT
EIS
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up an
Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the
‘Aux- System Status’ Page. Contact Garmin at www.flyGarmin.com.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
DISABLE/ENABLE IRIDIUM TRANSCEIVER
Iridium telephone and data communications may be turned on or off by performing these simple steps.
Disabling/enabling telephone and low speed data services:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux-Satellite Phone’ Page.
3) If necessary, press the Phone Softkey to display the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-28 Report Status Page
4) Press the MENU Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’ in the menu list.
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-29 Select Disable Iridium Transmission
6) Press the ENT Key. The Iridium transceiver is now disabled.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
7) To enable the Iridium transceiver, repeat steps 1 through 4, then select ‘Enable Iridium Transceiver’.
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network. Control and monitoring of
telephone functions are accomplished through the ‘Aux-Satellite Phone’ Page.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Viewing the Satellite Phone Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ page.
3) If necessary, press the Phone Softkey to display the ‘Aux-Satellite Phone’ Page.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
The phone status display gives a graphical representation of the current disposition of voice and/or data
transmissions.
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External
Phone
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Internal
Phone
Description
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Phone is Idle
Phone is ringing
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
EIS
Phone dialed is busy
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Phone is dialing another phone
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Phone has failed
Phone status not known
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Phone is disabled
Phone is reserved for data transmission
AFCS
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
APPENDICES
Table 8-1 Telephone Symbols
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CONTACTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The names, telephone number, and email addresses can be saved in a list of contacts for easy use when
making telephone calls.
Entering a new contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘New Entry’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves the ‘Name’ field of the ‘Contact Details’ window.
EIS
4) Enter the desired name of the new contact. Entry can be accomplished through the FMS Knob on the MFD.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Phone Number’ field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
6) Enter the desired telephone number. Entry can be accomplished through the FMS Knob on the MFD.
7) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Email’ field.
8) Enter the desired email address. Entry can be accomplished through the FMS Knob on the MFD.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
9) Press the Symbols Softkey to display the “at” symbol, the period, and other special characters.
Figure 8-30 Accessing and Selecting SiriusXM Preset Channels
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
10) Press the ENT Key. The Save button is highlighted.
11) Press the ENT Key. The new contact entry is added to the list of saved contacts.
Deleting a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
AFCS
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Press the Delete Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the selected contact.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-31 Editing a Contact
Editing a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone Page’ displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Press the Edit Softkey. The cursor is placed in the ‘Name’ field. Enter the desired changes. Entry can be
accomplished through the FMS Knob on the MFD.
4) Press the ENT Key when each field is complete. The Save Button is now highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to save the changes.
AFCS
INCOMING CALLS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux-Satellite Phone’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed and
an aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. If the incoming call is an Iridium network call, Iridium will
be displayed. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the popup alert, a ringing phone symbol will be displayed to the right of the MFD page title. Also, the voice alert
“Incoming Call” will be heard on the selected cockpit audio.
APPENDICES
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
1) Press the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the Answer Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
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While viewing the ‘Aux-Satellite Phone’ Page
459
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone is active after
pressing the Answer Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
4) Press the ENT Key.
EIS
Pressing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the call unanswered. Pressing
the Phone Softkey will display the ‘Aux-Satellite Phone’ Page allowing additional call information to be
viewed before answering.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Muting incoming call alerts:
1) With the ‘Aux-Satellite Phone’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an incoming call is received.
OUTGOING CALLS
Making an external call from the cockpit using the Iridium satellite network:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the Dial Softkey on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Iridium’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor has now moved to the phone number entry field.
AFCS
The International dialing sequence is necessary to place a call from the cockpit to an external phone:
Country Code + City/Area Code (if any) + Telephone Number. The following country codes may be used
when calling other satellite telephone systems.
Country Code
870
8810 or 8811
8812 or 8813
8816 or 8817
8818 or 8819
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Satellite System
Inmarsat
ICO
Ellipso
Iridium
Globalstar
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-32 Enter Phone Number
5) Enter the desired telephone number (country code first) by using the FMS Knob on the MFD..
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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INDEX
Figure 8-33 Make the Call
461
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number.
Figure 8-34 System is Making the Connection
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
When the phone is answered, the connection is established. To exit the call, press the Hangup Softkey.
Figure 8-35 Phone is Answered, Connection Complete
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Making an external call from the cockpit by using the Contact List:
1) Press the Phone Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired contact name in the list of contacts.
4) Press the Call Softkey. The external call is initiated and the number associated with the contact name is dialed.
PLACING THE COCKPIT PHONE ON HOLD
Placing a call on hold:
EIS
Press the Hold Softkey on the MFD.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call. This figure illustrates a call between the cockpit and an
external phone in which the cockpit phone has been put on hold. Press the Hold Softkey again to resume
the call.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-36 Cockpit Phone on Hold
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may be
sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160 characters,
including the email address. Senders should address text messages to aircraft by entering [aircraft Iridium
phone number]@msg.iridium.com.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
EIS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Satellite Phone’.
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
3) If necessary, press the SMS Softkey to display the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-37 Text Messaging Page
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message Symbol
Description
Received text message that has not been opened
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Received text message that has been opened
Saved text message, draft not sent
EIS
System is sending text message
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Predefined text message
Table 8-2 Text Message Symbols
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed
when a new text message is received.
AFCS
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
New Text Message Pop-up
Figure 8-38 New Text Message Received
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Press the View Softkey to view the message. Pressing the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up
window and leave the text message unopened. Pressing the Ignore All Softkey will extinguish the popwindow and ignore all future incoming text messages. Pressing the SMS Softkey will display the ‘Aux-Text
Messaging’ Page.
Figure 8-39 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
AFCS
1) With the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable New Message Popups’.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text message is received.
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OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-40 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
REPLY TO A TEXT MESSAGE
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Replying to a text message:
While viewing the text message, press the Reply Softkey.
Or:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
AFCS
Text messages may be sent from the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
Sending a new text message:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the New Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
APPENDICES
c) Press the ENT Key.
INDEX
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-41 Composing a New Text Message
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) The SMS Text Message Draft Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through use of the FMS Knob and softkeys on
the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters, numbers and the “at” symbol, or numbers can be entered from
the MFD by pressing the Numbers Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 2.
5) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
6) Press the Send Softkey to send the message immediately, or press the Save Softkey to save the message in
Outbox for sending at a later time. Press the Cancel Softkey to delete the message.
PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these messages as
a predefined message.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Creating a predefined text message:
1)
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-42 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined Messages view is now displayed.
4) Press the New Softkey.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-43 Composing a Predefined Message
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INDEX
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘Title’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be accomplished through
use of the FMS Knob and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters, numbers and the “at”
symbol, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the Numbers Softkey. Press the CapsLock
469
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters. Special characters can be accessed by pressing the
Symbols Softkey.
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step 5.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the Save Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list. Pressing the Cancel
Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
EIS
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Cancel Drafting Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Sending a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, select the New Softkey.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’ field. Enter the desired
telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished through use of the FMS Knob and softkeys on
the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters, numbers and the “at” symbol, or numbers can be entered from
the MFD by pressing the Numbers Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-44 Predefined Message Softkey Shown When Composing a Message
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) Press the Predefined Softkey. The Predefined Message Menu Window is displayed.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If desired, the message can
be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Press the ENT Key.
AFCS
8) Press the Send Softkey to transmit the message.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains ‘Sent” and
‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts. Each text message
box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
APPENDICES
Showing Inbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Inbox Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
INDEX
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
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FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-45 Text Message Inbox
Showing Outbox messages:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Outbox Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
AFCS
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
Showing Draft messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Drafts Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
APPENDICES
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left of the list window.
MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
INDEX
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the type of
message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Time Softkey.
Or:
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
EIS
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Type Softkey.
Or:
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Viewing messages sorted by address:
While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press the Address Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list window.
Viewing the content of a text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, select the desired message box.
AFCS
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
4) Press the VIEW Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
Press the ENT Key.
Or:
APPENDICES
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Message content is displayed.
INDEX
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EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-46 Viewing Message Content
5) To close the text message, press the Cancel Softkey.
Or:
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Cancel Drafting Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Marking selected message as read:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Press the MRK Read Softkey.
AFCS
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
c) Press the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
Marking all messages as read:
APPENDICES
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
INDEX
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate all the message have
been opened.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Deleting a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux - Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Press the Delete Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
EIS
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message is now deleted.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
5) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message is now deleted.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.5 SURFACEWATCH
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight guidance during airborne
or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS information regarding the current active
runway, condition, or information about the position of hold lines.
NOTE: The SafeTaxi database must be available to provide information regarding taxiways, aprons and
EIS
other objects in the airport environment.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides visual annunciations to help the flight crew maintain situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air operations in the airport
environment. The SurfaceWatch feature is comprised of the following key components:
• Alert Annunciations
- Taxiway Takeoff
- Runway Too Short (during takeoff or landing)
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
- Check Runway (during takeoff or landing)
- Taxiway Landing
• Provides information on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) that contains runway and taxiway information that
changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The full SurfaceWatch feature is not available in Reversionary Mode.
Inhibiting/uninhibiting SurfaceWatch:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor..
AFCS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the SurfaceWatch field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to toggle the SurfaceWatch alerts on or off.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
INFORMATION BOX
The SurfaceWatch™ Information Box is displayed on the PFD. It contains runway and taxiway information
that dynamically changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment. The information that is
displayed in the Information Box is the aircraft’s relative position to nearby aprons, taxiways, and runways.
INDEX
APPENDICES
There are three components to the SurfaceWatch™ Information Box. These components are Currently
Occupied, Approaching, and Crossing Runways.
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INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-47 Information Types Displayed in the Information Box
CURRENTLY OCCUPIED
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘ON’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. The aircraft is
currently ‘ON’ runway 04 right (RWY 04R). The remaining runway distance is also shown when the aircraft
is situated on and aligned with a runway.
If the aircraft is airborne and approaching an airport, ‘AIRBORNE TO’ and the destination airport identifier
will be displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Information regarding non-manuevering areas not labeled on the SafeTaxi diagram will not be displayed.
APPROACHING COMPONENT
AFCS
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘APPROACHING’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. In the
previous figure, the aircraft is currently ‘APPROACHING’ taxiway H (TWY H). The distance to the taxiway
is also shown.
When the aircraft is taxiing and approaching an intersection of multiple taxiways, the taxiway identifiers
will be listed in order of proximity and the distance to the nearest is displayed.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
When the aircraft is taxiing and crossing an intersection of multiple taxiways, ‘CROSSING’ will be displayed
and no distance will be shown.
CROSSING RUNWAYS
APPENDICES
This component lists the runways, from closest to furthest, that are ‘CROSSING’ the runway the aircraft
currently occupies. The distance to each runway is also shown in order of closest distance. Runways behind
the aircraft are not depicted.
The Crossing Runways component is shown in conjunction with the Currently Occupied component of
the Information Box.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
ALERTS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The SurfaceWatch alert annunciations are displayed in the central portion of the PFD. The alert annunciations
are accompanied by a corresponding voice alert.
SurfaceWatch Alert
Annunciation
Associated Voice
Alert
Description
TWY TAKEOFF
“Taxiway”
RWY TOO SHORT
“Runway too short”
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a runway with a length less than needed as
calculated by the PERF function.
CHECK RUNWAY
“Check runway”
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a runway different than that entered in PERF.
TWY LANDING
“Taxiway”
RWY TOO SHORT
“Runway too short”
CHECK RUNWAY
“Check runway”
Issued when the aircraft is taking off from a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway).
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a runway with a length less than needed as calculated
by the PERF function.
Issued when the aircraft is landing on a runway different than that entered in PERF.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Table 8-3 SurfaceWatch Alert Annunciations
TAKEOFF ALERTS
The Takeoff phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Takeoff Alerts.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Taxiway Takeoff
The Taxiway Takeoff alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway) or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
In addition to the visual and voice alerts, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied taxiway (or other maneuvering area) and potentially the next area (apron or maneuvering area) to
be occupied (based on aircraft heading and the airport geometry) and the distance to that area.
INDEX
Figure 8-48 Typical Taxiway Information Displayed in the Information Box
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OVERVIEW
Runway Too Short
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Runway Too Short (during takeoff) alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway
and the remaining runway length is less than the required length. The insufficient runway length condition
is determined based on aircraft current position during the takeoff roll and the required takeoff distance
information entered on the Takeoff Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway from which the aircraft is
taking off, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in the Takeoff
Data.
EIS
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will contain a textual description of the
currently occupied runway and the remaining runway length.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-49 Typical Runway Information Displayed in the Information Box
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway that does not
match the departure runway entered in the Takeoff Data Screen.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box contains a textual description of the currently
occupied runway.
LANDING ALERTS
AFCS
The On-Final phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to issue
Landing Alerts.
Taxiway Landing
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
The Taxiway Landing alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a non-runway (e.g. a taxiway)
or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING TWY” to indicate a non-runway landing is being attempted.
APPENDICES
Figure 8-50 Typical Information Displayed During a Taxiway Landing Alert
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Runway Too Short
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway with which aircraft is aligned,
the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in entered in the Landing
Data Screen.
The Runway Too Short alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway where the remaining
runway length is less than the required landing runway length entered in the Landing Data Screen.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier
and the text “APPROACHING REMAINING” to indicate a the remaining runway length.
Figure 8-51 Typical Information Displayed During a Runway Too Short Alert
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway that does not match the
arrival runway specified in the Landing Data.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Additionally, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier, the runway with which
the aircraft is aligned, and the distance to the runway.
AFCS
Figure 8-52 Typical Information Displayed During a Check Runway Alert
SURFACEWATCH SETUP
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Origin/destination airport, runway and distance data entered integrates with SurfaceWatch technology to
alert the flight crew to a runway too short for takeoff/landing, or to advise of a potential taxiway takeoff/landing.
The runway selected in SurfaceWatch Setup appears on the airport diagram in cyan, and appears outlined in
cyan on the synthetic vision representation of the runway on the PFD.
APPENDICES
Entering origin/destination airport:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Origin or Destination Airport field.
INDEX
4) Use the FMS Knobs to input the desired Origin or Destination Airport.
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OVERVIEW
Selecting origin/destination runway:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Runway or Landing Runway field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired available Runway or Landing Runway. As the small FMS Knob is
turned, the preview of the selected runway or landing runway is also displayed.
Selecting required takeoff/landing distance:
EIS
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the REQD Takeoff DIS or REQD Landing DIS field.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
4) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the required takeoff or landing distance. Upon pressing the FMS Knob and
committing the required takeoff or landing distance, the Runway Length field will turn amber if an insufficient
runway length exists.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-53 SurfaceWatch Setup Page (MFD)
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AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-54 Surface Watch Info and Cyan Runway Outline (PFD)
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.6 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBERS AND REVISIONS
CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISION
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation, ChartView,
SafeTaxi, Airport Directory. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable during a period that
extends from the cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the system, the Power-up Page
displays the current status of the databases. As an example, see the table below for the various FliteCharts
Power-up Page displays and the definition of each. The expiration date and disables date varies for each database.
EIS
Example Power-up Page Display Text
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Table 8-4 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current. Yellow text,
such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no longer viewable and
have expired.
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Database time critical information can also be found on the ‘Aux - System Status’ page. The database Region,
Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue or yellow text.
Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not within the current
subscription period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
APPENDICES
Select the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the Database window. Scroll through the listed information
by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the applicable database information is shown.
Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
YYTI
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
YYII
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
EIS
II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Database Cycle Number Format
YYII
Revision Cycle
28 days
YYMI
Not Applicable
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
28 days
INDEX
Table 8-5 Database Cycle Number and Revision
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.7 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL 69A Data Link Receiver is available for
the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A can receive SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment services
at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S. Entertainment audio is available only on the GDL 69A Data Link
Receiver, not the GDL 69.
EIS
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to constantly
search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based transmissions.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific service packages, visit
www.siriusxm.com.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
ACTIVATING SIRIUSXM SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two coded IDs, depending on
the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite
Radio to activate the entertainment subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions with the GDL 69A.
Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an
activation signal that, when received by the GDL 69A, allows it to play entertainment programming.
These IDs are located:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
• On the XM Information Page on the MFD
• On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at www.garmin.com, P/N
190-00355-04)
AFCS
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
Activating the SiriusXM Satellite Radio services:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ page.
4) Select the INFO Softkey to display the XM Information Page.
APPENDICES
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
6) Select the Lock Softkey.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight YES.
8) To complete activation, press the ENT Key.
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Weather
Products
Window
Audio
Radio ID
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
Data
Radio ID
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Info
Softkey
Figure 8-55 XM Information Page
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are blank on the XM
Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is displayed in the center of the Weather Data
Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for
subscription.
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
AFCS
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the SiriusXM
Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed XM Radio Page.
INDEX
APPENDICES
3) Select the Radio Softkey to show the XM Radio Page where audio entertainment is controlled.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Active
Channels
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Channel
List
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Volume
Field
Categories
Field
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-56 XM Radio Page
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the SiriusXM
Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected category.
Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel number.
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
AFCS
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the Channel Softkey.
2) Select the CH + Softkey to go up through the list in the Channel Box, or move down the list with the CH – Softkey.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
APPENDICES
1) While on the XM Radio Page, select the Channel Softkey.
2) Select the Direct CH Softkey. The channel number in the Active Channel Box is highlighted.
3) Select the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the desired channel number.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
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OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
CATEGORY
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories of
channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music or other
contents. One of the optional categories is Presets to view channels that have been programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Select the Category Softkey on the XM Radio Page.
2) Select the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
EIS
Or:
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category with the small FMS Knob
and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all channels in the list.
Figure 8-57 Categories List
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
PRESETS
INDEX
APPENDICES
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are selected by
selecting the Presets and More Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly and added to the
channel list for the Presets category.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Setting a preset channel number:
1) On the XM Radio Page, while listening to an Active Channel that is wanted for a preset, select the Presets
Softkey to access the first five preset channels (Preset 1 - Preset 5).
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Select the More Softkey to access the next five channels (Preset 6 – Preset 10), and again to access the last five
channels (Preset 11 – Preset 15). Selecting the More Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
3) Select any one of the (Preset 1 - Preset 15) softkeys to assign a number to the active channel.
4) Select the Set Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
EIS
Select Presets to
Access the Preset
Channels Softkeys
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Select Set to
Save Each
Preset Channel
Select More to Cycle
Through the Preset
Channels
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-58 Accessing and Selecting SiriusXM Preset Channels
Selecting the Back Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the top level softkeys.
VOLUME
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Radio volume is shown as a percentage. Volume level is controlled by selecting the Volume Softkey, which
brings up the Mute Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the XM Radio Page displayed, select the Volume Softkey.
AFCS
2) Select the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or select the VOL + Softkey to increase volume. (Once the VOL
Softkey is selected, the volume can also be adjusted using the small FMS Knob.)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-59 Volume Control
APPENDICES
SiriusXM Radio volume may also be adjusted on each passenger headset.
Muting SiriusXM audio:
1) Select the XM Radio Page or XM Information Page.
2) Select the Mute Softkey to mute the audio. Select the Mute Softkey again to unmute the audio.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.8 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being logged by the
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
system.
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data card (up
to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each
1GB of available space on the card.
EIS
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged on a
specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport identifier. The
file is created automatically each time the system is powered on, provided an SD card has been inserted.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the ‘Aux-Utility’ Page. If no SD card has been
inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA” is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the system is capable of logging.
• AFCS roll/pitch commands
• Time
• Longitude (degrees; geodetic;
+East)
• GPS altitude (MSL)
• Magnetic Heading (degrees)
• GPS horizontal alert limit
• GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
• HSI source
• GPS vertical alert limit
• Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
• Selected course
• Baro Correction (in/Hg)
• Com1/Com2 frequency
• SBAS GPS horizontal protection
level
• Indicated airspeed (kts)
• Nav1/Nav2 frequency
• Vertical speed (fpm)
• CDI deflection
• SBAS GPS vertical protection
level
• GPS vertical speed (fpm)
• VDI/GP/GS deflection
• Fuel Qty (right & left)(gals)
• OAT (degrees C)
• Wind Direction (degrees)
• Fuel Flow (gph)
• True airspeed (knots)
• Wind Speed (knots)
• Oil Pressure (psi)
• Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Active Waypoint Identifier
• Oil Temperature (deg. F)
• Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
• Distance to next waypoint (nm)
• Ground Speed (kts)
• Bearing to next waypoint
(degrees)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Date
APPENDICES
• Ground Track (degrees
magnetic)
• Latitude (degrees; geodetic;
+North)
• GPS fix
• Magnetic variation (degrees)
• Autopilot On/Off
• AFCS roll/pitch modes
INDEX
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in the following figure. This file can be
imported into most computer spreadsheet applications.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Local Date
YYMMDD
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
log_180510_104506_KIXD.csv
Figure 8-60 Log File Format
Data logging status can be monitored on the ‘Aux-Utility’ Page.
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
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SYSTEM
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.9 ELECTRONIC CHECKLISTS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
NOTE: The optional checklists presented here are for example only and may differ from checklists available
for the airframe. The information described in this section is not intended to replace the checklist information
described in the approved current pertinent flight manual or the Pilot Safety and Warning Supplements
document.
NOTE: Garmin is not responsible for the content of checklists. Checklists are created by the aircraft
EIS
manufacturer. Modifications or updates to the checklists are coordinated through the aircraft manufacturer.
The user cannot edit these checklists.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The MFD is able to display optional electronic checklists which allow a pilot to quickly find the proper procedure
on the ground and during each phase of flight. The system accesses the checklists from an SD card inserted into
the bezel slot. If the SD card contains an invalid checklist file or no checklist, the Power-up Page messages display
‘Checklist File: Invalid’ or ‘Checklist File: N/A’ (not available) and the Checklist Softkey is not available.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Accessing and navigating checklists:
1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob to
select the Checklist Page.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Group’ field.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired procedure and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Checklist’ field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired checklist and press the ENT Key. The selected checklist item is
indicated with white text surrounded by a white box.
AFCS
6) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected checklist item. The line item turns green and a
checkmark is placed in the associated box. The next line item is automatically selected for checking.
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired checklist item.
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
7) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green text at the bottom left
of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be
displayed in yellow text.
8) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
APPENDICES
9) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
INDEX
10) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Accessing emergency procedures:
1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob to
select the Checklist Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the EMER Softkey.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired emergency checklist and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected emergency checklist item. The line item turns green
and a checkmark is placed in the box next to it. The next line item is automatically highlighted for checking.
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired checklist item.
EIS
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
5) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green text at the bottom left
of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be
displayed in yellow text.
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
7) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
8) Press the Return Softkey to return to the previous checklist.
9) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.10 ELECTRONIC STABILITY & PROTECTION (ESP™)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature that is intended to discourage the exceedance of
attitude and established airspeed parameters. This feature will only function when the aircraft is above 200 feet AGL
and the autopilot is not engaged.
ESP engages when the aircraft exceeds one or more conditions (pitch, roll, Vmo, and/or Mmo) beyond the normal
flight parameters. Enhanced stability for each condition is provided by applying a force to the appropriate control
surface to return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope. This is perceived by the pilot as resistance to control
movement in the undesired direction when the aircraft approaches a steep attitude or high airspeed.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
As the aircraft deviates further from the normal attitude and/or airspeed, the force increases (up to an established
maximum) to encourage control movement in the direction necessary to return to the normal attitude and/or
airspeed range. Except in the case of high airspeed, when maximum force is reached, force remains constant up
to the maximum engagement limit. Above the maximum engagement limit, forces are no longer applied. There
is no maximum engagement related to a high airspeed condition.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
When ESP has been engaged for more than ten seconds (cumulative; not necessarily consecutive seconds) of a
20-second interval, the autopilot is automatically engaged with the flight director in Level Mode, bringing the aircraft
into level flight. An aural “Engaging Autopilot” alert is played and the flight director mode annunciation will indicate
‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The pilot can interrupt ESP by pressing and holding either the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) or Autopilot
Disconnect (AP DISC) switch. Upon releasing the CWS or AP DISC switch, ESP force will again be applied,
provided aircraft attitude and/or airspeed are within their respective engagement limits. ESP can also be overridden
by overpowering the servo’s mechanical torque limit.
ESP can be enabled or disabled on the ‘Aux-System Setup 2’ Page on the MFD.
Enabling/disabling ESP:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
AFCS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the SETUP 2 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 2’ Page. If the ‘Aux-System Setup 2’ is
already displayed, proceed to step 4.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Stability & Protection field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
APPENDICES
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
INDEX
ESP is automatically enabled on system power up.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ROLL ENGAGEMENT
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Roll Limit Indicators are displayed on the roll scale at 45° right and left, indicating where ESP will engage (see
following figure). As roll attitude exceeds 45°, ESP will engage and the on-side Roll Limit Indicator will move
to 30°, as shown in the following figure. The Roll Limit Indicator is now showing where ESP will disengage as
roll attitude decreases.
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Figure 8-61 ESP Roll Engagement Indication (ESP NOT Engaged)
ESP Disengage (30°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 46°
Before ESP Engage
After ESP Engage
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
ESP Engage (45°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 44°
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
Figure 8-62 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
Once engaged, ESP force will be applied between 30° and 75°, as illustrated in the following figure. The
force increases as roll attitude increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is intended
to encourage pilot input that returns the airplane to a more normal roll attitude. As roll attitude decreases, ESP
will disengage at 30°.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
º
30
20º
10º
0º
10º
20º
5º
90º
90º
EIS
75º
75º
º
60
60
º
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
º
º
45
4
30
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-63 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Roll Increases & Decreases as Roll Decreases)
ESP is automatically disengaged if the aircraft reaches the autopilot roll engagement attitude limit of 75°
(following figure).
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
ESP Upper Disengage Limit (75°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 49°
Figure 8-64 Roll Attitude Autopilot Engagement Limit (ESP Engaged)
PITCH ENGAGEMENT
APPENDICES
ESP engages at 16° nose-up and 17° nose-down. Once ESP is engaged, it will apply opposing force between
11° and 50° nose-up and between 12° and 50° nose-down, as indicated in the following figure. Maximum
opposing force is applied between 25° and 50° nose-up and between 22° and 50° nose-down.
INDEX
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the direction of pitch travel. This
force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis in the direction of the normal pitch attitude range
for the aircraft.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
There are no indications marking the pitch ESP engage and disengage limits in these nose-up/nose-down
conditions.
45˚
45˚
40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
50˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
15˚
15˚
20˚
20˚
25˚
25˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
15˚
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
20˚
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
20˚
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
25˚
EIS
25˚
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
50˚
35˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
AFCS
40˚
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-65 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged
(Force Increases as Pitch Increases & Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
HIGH AIRSPEED PROTECTION
APPENDICES
Exceeding Vmo or Mmo will result in ESP applying force to raise the nose of the aircraft. When the high
airspeed condition is remedied, ESP force is no longer applied.
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.11 CONNEXT SETUP
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Connext Setup Page allows for setting up the optional Flight Stream device, or an optional GTX 345R
transponder, for a Bluetooth connection between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™
application.
EIS
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the system in order to use the various functions. Pairing is accomplished
by first placing the system in pairing mode by displaying the Connext Setup Page. The system is ‘discoverable’
whenever this page is displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the mobile device and the Garmin Pilot
application. See the device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the connection instructions in the Garmin Pilot
application.
Viewing the Connext Setup Page
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Connext Setup page.
Figure 8-66 Select the Connext Setup Page
Changing the Bluetooth Name
APPENDICES
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Bluetooth Name’ field.
3) Enter the desired name by using the large FMS Knob to select the character field, and the small FMS Knob
select the desired alphanumeric character for that field.
INDEX
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is removed and the new name is displayed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
Figure 8-67 Changing the Bluetooth Name
Enabling/disabling Flight Plan Importing from Garmin Pilot
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Flight Plan Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
Figure 8-68 Flight Plan Import Enabled
Enabling/disabling WiFi Database Importing from Garmin Pilot
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘WiFi Database Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
APPENDICES
Figure 8-69 WiFi Database Disabled
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Enabling/disabling Automatic Reconnection of a Specific Paired Device
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’. Selecting ‘Enabled’ allows the system to automatically
connect to a previously paired device when detected.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Figure 8-70 Disabled Auto Connect
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Removing a Specific Paired Device from the List of Paired Devices:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux - Connext Setup’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
3) Press the Remove Softkey. A confirmation screen is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Yes’.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
5) Press the ENT Key to remove the device from the list of paired devices.
INDEX
APPENDICES
Figure 8-71 Removing Paired Device
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
8.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
GDL 69/69A SXM TROUBLESHOOTING
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page for GDL
69/69A SXM status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been detected in the GDL
69/69A SXM the status is marked with a red X.
Selecting the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page:
EIS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Figure 8-72 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a failure.
APPENDICES
• Ensure the installed Data Link Receiver or Iridium Transceiver has an active subscription or account
• Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link Receiver or
Iridium Transceiver
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
GDL 69/69A SXM
Ensure that nothing is plugged into the MUSIC 1 or MUSIC 2 jacks because that would prevent SiriusXM
radio from being heard
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
Message
Message Location
CHECK ANTENNA
XM Information Page (MFD)
UPDATING
XM Information Page (MFD)
XM Information Page Weather Datalink Page Loss of signal; signal strength too low for
(MFD)
receiver
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
NO SIGNAL
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Description
Data Link Receiver antenna error; service
required
Data Link Receiver updating encryption code
LOADING
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Acquiring channel audio or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page (MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page (MFD)
WEATHER DATA LINK FAILED
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
ACTIVATION REQUIRED
XM Information Page (MFD)
Missing channel information
No communication from Data Link Receiver
within last 5 minutes
SiriusXM subscription is not activated
DETECTING ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription is activating
WAITING FOR DATA...
Weather Datalink Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription confirmed downloading
weather data
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Table 8-6 GDL 69/69A SXM Data Link Receiver Messages
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
NOTE: The the current version of the pertinent flight manual supersedes information found in this document.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
The Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
EIS
• ‘CAS’ Window: The Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is based on
alert levels described in the following section. The ‘CAS’ Window is located to the right of the Altimeter and
Vertical Speed Indicator. All Crew Alerting System (CAS) annunciations can be displayed simultaneously in the
‘CAS’ Window. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that are acknowledged from annunciations that
are not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations are displayed towards the top of the window.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
• ‘Messages’ Window: The Messages Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized alert messages.
The softkey that displays the ‘Messages’ Window is ‘Message’ when flashing or ‘Messages’ when not flashing.
The Message Softkey flashes when a new system message is present. Pressing the Message/Messages Softkey
displays the ‘Messages’ Window. Pressing the Messages Softkey removes the ‘Messages’ Window from the
display. When the ‘Messages’ Window is displayed, the FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the alert
message list. If alerts are still present, the Messages label is displayed in white with black text.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
• Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the Message/Messages Softkey may appear as a flashing
annunciation to accompany an alert. The Message/Messages Softkey assumes a new label consistent with the
alert level (Warning, Caution, or Advisory). By pressing the softkey when it is flashing an annunciation, the
alert is acknowledged. The softkey label then returns to Messages. If alerts are still present, the Messages
label is displayed in white with black text. The Message Softkey flashes again if the state of a displayed message
changes or a new message is displayed.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
• System Annunciations: Typically, a large red or amber ‘X’ appears over instruments whose information is
supplied by a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the System Annunciations Section for more information.
AFCS
System
Annunciation
(Red ‘X’)
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
System
Annunciation
(Amber ‘X’)
APPENDICES
‘CAS’
Window
‘Messages’
Window
INDEX
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-1 Alerting System
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
• Audio Alerting System: The System issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met. See the
Alert Level Definitions Section for more information. Should the #1 GIA 63W fail, audio and voice alerts are
not generated. The annunciation tone may be tested from the ‘AUX - System Status’ Page.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Testing the system annunciation tone:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX - System Status’ Page.
2) Press the ANN Test Softkey.
Or:
EIS
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
CAS MESSAGE PRIORITIZATION
NOTE: Refer to the the current version of the pertinent flight manual for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Any CAS messages that are generated when the system is first powered on are considered already
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
acknowledged. They do not flash or trigger the Master Warning or Master Caution.
The Alerting System uses three alert levels. Messages are grouped by criticality (warning, caution, advisory)
and sorted by order of appearance (most recent messages on top). The color of the message is based on its
urgency and on required action:
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The Crew Alerting System (CAS) Window is located on the right side of the PFD. Warning messages cannot
be scrolled through and remain at the top of the CAS display. The scroll bar appears if more caution and
advisory messages exist than can be displayed at once or if messages have been scrolled off the display. The
CAS softkeys also become available.
AFCS
NOTE: Aural alerts associated with abnormal conditions and advisories are managed through the audio
panels. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information.
APPENDICES
Caution: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may require
intervention. When a new caution message appears in the CAS Window, it is shown in black on amber inverse
video in conjunction with the Caution Softkey (see Figure A-3) and is accompanied by a double chime.
Pressing the Caution Softkey Indicator acknowledges all amber messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once
acknowledged, caution messages are displayed until the issue is corrected.
INDEX
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Warning: This level of alert requires immediate attention. When a new warning CAS message appears in the
CAS Window, it flashes (inversely red on white) in conjunction with the Warning Softkey (see Figure A-3) and
is accompanied by a repeating triple chime. Pressing the Warning Softkey acknowledges all flashing warning
messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once acknowledged, warning messages are shown in red text and are
displayed until the issue is corrected. Warning voice alerts repeat continuously until acknowledged by pressing
the Warning Softkey.
Advisory: This level of alert provides general information. When a new white advisory appears on the CAS
display, it is shown in black on white inverse video in conjunction with the Advisory Softkey (see Figure A-3)
and may be accompanied by a single chime.
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Some CAS messages can be display in more than one alert level group. For example, a message might
display as both a warning and a caution, but cannot appear more than once at any given time (unless the CAS
is being tested). If the received signals justify multiple priorities for a certain message, the message is displayed
for the higher priority condition. When graduating to a higher priority, the message flashes and requires
new acknowledgment. When degrading to a lower priority condition, the message moves to the top of the
appropriate grouping, but does not require new acknowledgment.
EIS
‘CAS’
Window
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-2 CAS Message Prioritization
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (Message Softkey Labels)
AFCS
CAS ANNUNCIATIONS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Red annunciation window text signifies warnings, amber signifies cautions, and white signifies advisories.
See the current version of the pertinent flight manual for recommended pilot actions.
DISPLAY INHIBITS
Inhibits prevent certain CAS messages from being displayed during the following conditions:
APPENDICES
If two alert levels of the same message are active simultaneously (e.g., L FUEL QTY warning and L FUEL
QTY caution) only the higher alert level is displayed.
If a GEA or GIA fails, all CAS messages depending on sensors associated with that LRU are automatically
inhibited. Inhibits cannot be activated by invalid sensor data. Inhibits cannot be activated by invalid
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
WARNING MESSAGES
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
BAGGAGE DOOR
CHECK GEAR
EIS
CO LVL HIGH*
GEAR SYS
HTR OVERHEAT
L ALTR FAIL
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
L ENG CHT
L FUEL QTY
L START ENGD
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
PROP HEAT FAIL*
R ALTR FAIL
R ENG CHT
R FUEL QTY
R START ENGD
T/O CONFIG
* Optional
Description
Forward baggage door is not closed
Landing gear are not down and locked
or
Landing gear is selected UP on the ground
The CO Guardian has detected high levels of carbon monoxide
A failure of a gear system component has been detected
Heater unit has sensed an overheat condition
Left Alternator failure
Left engine CHT in warning range
Left fuel quantity in warning range
Left starter motor energized when engine is running
Propeller heat failure
Right Alternator failure
Right engine CHT in warning range
Right fuel quantity in warning range
Right starter motor energized when engine is running
Flaps not properly configured for Takeoff and throttle advanced
CAUTION MESSAGES
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
Message
AC DOOR OPEN*
CHECK GEAR
CO LVL HIGH*
GEAR SYS
HYDR PUMP ON
L FUEL QTY
PITOT HEAT FAIL
PITOT HEAT OFF
R FUEL QTY
SURF DEICE FAIL*
VACUUM PRESS LOW*
* Optional
Description
Air conditioning condenser door is open during in-flight engine failure condition
Landing gear are not down and locked
The CO Guardian has detected high levels of carbon monoxide
A failure of a gear system component has been detected
Hydraulic pump is running when it should not be running
Left fuel quantity in caution range
Pitot heat failure
Pitot heat selected OFF
Right fuel quantity in caution range
Surface de-ice system failure
Vacuum system pressure abnormal
INDEX
ADVISORY MESSAGES
CAS Window Text
AC DOOR OPEN*
AV FAN FAIL
506
Description
Air conditioning condenser door is open
Aviation cooling fan is inoperative
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APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Description
Forward baggage door is not closed
Emergency power in use
Fuel imbalance (left vs. right tank quantity)
Fuel cross-feed valve selected open
Right engine vacuum pump failure
Maintenance Mode ON
MFD display fan is inoperative
PFD1 display fan is inoperative
PFD2 display fan is inoperative
Right engine vacuum pump failure
Surface de-ice normal cycle is active
Aircraft not properly configured for takeoff
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
EIS
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
CAS Window Text
BAGGAGE DOOR
EMERG BATT ON
FUEL IMBAL
FUEL X-FEED ON
L VAC FAIL*
MAINT MODE ON
MFD FAN FAIL
PFD1 FAN FAIL
PFD2 FAN FAIL
R VAC FAIL*
SURF DEICE ON*
T/O CONFIG
* Optional
AIRFRAME SYSTEM MESSAGES
Description
CO DET SRVC*
The carbon monoxide detector needs service
CO DET FAIL*
The carbon monoxide detector is failed.
Left and right squat switches do not agree
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
WOW MISCOMPARE
* Optional
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
Message
VOICE ALERTS
Message
Priority
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
“Vertical track”
Description
Airspeed exceeds VNE
Landing gear are not down and locked
Warning
Aircraft has descended below the preset barometric minimum descent altitude
Imminent stall is sensed by stall vane
Landing gear are not down and locked
Autopilot engaging
Caution
TIS Traffic Alert
TAS Traffic Alert
TAS system initiated test failed
TAS system initiated test passed
Countdown timer on the PFD has reached zero
Advisory
Aircraft is outside TIS coverage area
Aircraft is one minute from Top of Descent. Issued only when vertical navigation is
enabled.
AFCS
“Airspeed”
“Check Gear”
“Minimums, minimums”
“Stall”
“Check Gear”
“Engaging Autopilot”
“Traffic”
“Traffic, (distance, bearing, altitude)”
“TAS System Test Failed”
“TAS System Test Passed”
“Timer Expired”
“TIS Not Available
INDEX
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SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
System Messages convey messages to the flight crew regarding problems with the system. The softkey that
displays the ‘Messages’ Window is ‘Message’ when flashing or ‘Messages’ when not flashing. When a new
message is issued, the Message Softkey flashes to alert the flight crew. It continues to flash until acknowledged
by pressing the softkey and the softkey returns to its previous Messages label. Press the Messages Softkey
to remove the ‘Messages’ Window from the display. Active messages are displayed in the Messages window in
white text. Messages that have become inactive change to gray text. The Message Softkey flashes again if the
state of a displayed message changes or a new message is displayed. If alerts are still present, the Messages label
is displayed in white with black text. Typically, a large red or amber ‘X’ appears in a window when a related
LRU fails or detects invalid data.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Message Annunciation
(Prior to softkey being
pressed)
Messages Annunciation
(After softkey is
pressed)
Figure A-4 Message/Messages Softkey Annunciation
SYSTEM MESSAGES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
This section describes various system messages. Certain messages are issued due to an LRU or an LRU
function failure. Such messages are normally accompanied by a corresponding red ‘X’ annunciation as shown
previously in the System Annunciation section.
NOTE: This section provides information regarding system messages that may be displayed by the system.
APPENDICES
Knowledge of the aircraft, systems, flight conditions, and other existing operational priorities must be
considered when responding to a message. Always use sound pilot judgment. The current version of the
pertinent flight manual takes precedence over any conflicting guidance found in this section.
INDEX
Message
ABORT APR – Loss of GPS navigation.
Abort approach.
ADC1 SERVICE – ADC1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
ADC2 SERVICE – ADC1 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
AHRS1 CAL – AHRS1 calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
508
Comments
Abort approach due to loss of GPS navigation.
The GDC1 should be serviced.
The GDC2 should be serviced.
The AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
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APPENDIX A
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS2 GPS – AHRS2 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS2 SERVICE – AHRS2 Magneticfield model needs update.
AHRS2 TAS – AHRS2 not receiving
airspeed.
The #2 AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check AFMS
limitations. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
The AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS relies
on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be serviced.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
The #2 AHRS calibration version error. The system should be serviced.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
The #2 AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
The #2 AHRS is operating exclusively in no-GPS mode. The system should be serviced.
AFCS
The #2 AHRS earth magnetic field model is out of date. Update magnetic field model
when practical.
The #2 AHRS is not receiving true airspeed from the air data computer. The AHRS
relies on GPS information to augment the lack of airspeed. The system should be
serviced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
Use LNAV minima when approach is downgraded.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft will penetrate the airspace within
10 minutes.
APPENDICES
Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft position.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft position.
INDEX
190-02477-00 Rev. A
The AHRS is not receiving backup GPS information. The system should be serviced.
EIS
APR DWNGRADE – Approach
downgraded.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead less
than 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less
than 2 nm.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
APR INACTV – Approach is not active.
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Comments
AHRS configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced.
The AHRS is using the backup GPS path. Primary GPS path has failed. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The AHRS is not receiving any or any useful GPS information. Check The current
version of the pertinent flight manual for limitations. The system should be serviced.
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
AHRS1 CONFIG – AHRS1 config error.
Config service req’d.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 using backup
GPS source.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
any GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 not receiving
backup GPS information.
AHRS1 GPS – AHRS1 operating
exclusively in no-GPS mode.
AHRS1 SERVICE – AHRS1 Magneticfield model needs update.
AHRS1 TAS – AHRS1 not receiving
airspeed.
AHRS2 CAL – AHRS2 calibration version
error. Srvc req’d.
AHRS2 CONFIG – AHRS2 config error.
Config service req’d.
The system notifies the pilot that the loaded approach is not active. Activate approach
when required.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
509
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
CHECK CRS – Database course for
LOC2 / [LOC ID] is [CRS]°.
CNFG MODULE – PFD1 configuration
module is inoperative.
COM #[1, 2] INOP - CAL - Check
COM calibration.
COM #[1, 2] INOP - CRNT - Check
COM current.
COM #[1, 2] INOP - NTRL - Com
internal fault.
COM #[1, 2] REDUCED TX POWER COM synthesizer lock fault.
COM #[1, 2] INOP - SYNTH - COM
synthesizer lock fault.
COM1 CONFIG – COM1 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM1 MANIFEST – COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM1 PTT – COM1 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
COM1 SERVICE – COM1 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM1 TEMP – COM1 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COM2 CONFIG – COM2 config error.
Config service req’d.
COM1 MANIFEST – COM1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
COM2 PTT – COM2 push-to-talk key
is stuck.
INDEX
APPENDICES
COM2 SERVICE – COM2 needs
service. Return unit for repair.
COM2 TEMP – COM2 over temp.
Reducing transmitter power.
COPILOT RADIOS MUTED – Copilot
radios are muted.
DATA LOST – Pilot stored data was
lost. Recheck settings.
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
Verify user modified procedures.
510
Comments
Selected course for LOC2 differs from published localizer course by more than 10
degrees.
The PFD1 configuration module backup memory has failed. The system should be
serviced.
COM 1 and/or COM 2 calibration version error. Check COM calibration.
COM 1 and/or COM 2 current is low. Check COM current.
COM 1 and/or COM 2 has an internal fault.
COM 1 and/or COM 2 has a reduced transmission power.
The COM 1 and/or COM 2 has a synthesizer lock fault.
The COM1 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced
COM1 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
The COM1 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The system has detected a failure in COM1. COM1 may still be usable. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM1. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The COM2 configuration settings do not match backup configuration memory. The
system should be serviced
COM1 software mismatch. The system should be serviced.
The COM2 external push-to-talk switch is stuck in the enable (or “pressed”) position.
Press the PTT switch again to cycle its operation. If the problem persists, the system
should be serviced.
The system has detected a failure in COM2. COM2 may still be usable. The system
should be serviced when possible.
The system has detected an over temperature condition in COM2. The transmitter
operates at reduced power. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The copilot radios are set on mute.
The pilot profile data was lost. System reverts to default pilot profile and settings. The
pilot may reconfigure the MFD and PFD with preferred settings, if desired.
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains procedures that have been manually
edited. This alert is issued only after an navigation database update. Verify that the
user-modified procedures in stored flight plans are correct and up to date.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
Message
DB CHANGE – Database changed.
Verify stored airways.
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
AFCS
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
EIS
190-02477-00 Rev. A
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Comments
This occurs when a stored flight plan contains an airway that is no longer consistent
with the navigation database. This alert is issued only after an navigation database
update. Verify use of airways in stored flight plans and reload airways as needed.
DB MISMATCH – Navigation
The PFD and MFD have different navigation database versions or types installed.
database mismatch. Xtalk is off.
Crossfill is off. Check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page to determine versions or regions.
Also, check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Obstacle database The PFD and MFD have different obstacle database versions or types installed. Check
mismatch.
the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the ‘AuxSystem Status’ Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Standby Navigation The PFD and MFD have different standby navigation database versions or types
database mismatch.
installed. Check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page to determine versions or regions. Also,
check the ‘Aux-System Status’ Page for a database synchronization function not
completed. After synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
DB MISMATCH – Terrain database
The PFD and MFD have different terrain database versions or types installed. Check
mismatch.
the ‘‘Aux-System Status’ Page to determine versions or regions. Also, check the ‘AuxSystem Status’ Page for a database synchronization function not completed. After
synchronization is complete, power must be turned off, then on.
ESP CONFIG– ESP config error.
ESP is not configured properly. The system should be serviced.
Config service req’d.
ESP DEGRADE– ESP IAS mode is
IAS mode of ESP is inoperative. The system should be serviced.
inoperative.
ESP FAIL – ESP is inoperative.
The ESP function has failed and is inoperative. The system should be serviced.
ESP OFF– ESP selected off.
Electronic Stability and Protection has been disabled on the Avionics Settings Screen.
FAILED PATH – A data path has
A data path connected to the GDU or the GIA has failed.
failed.
FPL TRUNC – Flight plan has been
This occurs when a newly installed navigation database eliminates an obsolete
truncated.
approach or arrival used by a stored flight plan. The obsolete procedure is removed
from the flight plan. Update flight plan with current arrival or approach.
FPL WPT LOCK – Flight plan waypoint Upon power-up, the system detects that a stored flight plan waypoint is locked. This
is locked.
occurs when an navigation database update eliminates an obsolete waypoint. The
flight plan cannot find the specified waypoint and flags this message. This can also
occur with user waypoints in a flight plan that is deleted.
Remove the waypoint from the flight plan if it no longer exists in any database,
OR
update the waypoint name/identifier to reflect the new information.
FS510 CARD ERROR – FS510 not
The multimedia card was removed from the bottom card slot of the MFD. The
detected in MFD Bottom Slot.
multimedia card needs to be reinserted.
G/S1 FAIL – G/S1 is inoperative.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The system should be serviced.
G/S1 SERVICE – G/S1 needs service. A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 1. The receiver may still be
Return unit for repair.
available. The system should be serviced when possible.
511
SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
APPENDIX A
EIS
FLIGHT
INSTRUMENTS
Message
G/S2 FAIL – G/S2 is inoperative.
G/S2 SERVICE – G/S2 needs service.
Return unit for repair.
GDC1 MANIFEST – GDC1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GDL69 CONFIG – GDL 69 config
error. Config service req’d.
GDL69 FAIL – GDL 69 has failed.
INDEX
APPENDICES
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
AFCS
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
AUDIO PANEL
& CNS
GDL69 MANIFEST – GDL software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEA # [1, 2] INOP- CAL - Check GEA
rigging.
GEA # [1, 2] INOP - CNFG - Check
GEA software and configuration.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - COMM Check GEA config module connection.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - INTRL GEA internal fault.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - SENS Check GEA configuration.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - TEMP Check GEA config module cooling.
GEA # [1, 2] CM INOP - VOLT Check GEA voltages.
GEA1 MANIFEST – GEA1 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEA2 MANIFEST – GEA2 software
mismatch, communication halted.
GEO LIMITS – AHRS1 too far North/
South, no magnetic compass.
GFC MANIFEST – GFC software
mismatch, communication halted.
GIA #[1, 2] INOP - CRNT - Check GIA
current.
GIA #[1, 2] OVER TEMP - Check GIA
temperature.
GIA #[1, 2] INOP - SERIAL - Check
GIA serial communication.
GIA #[1, 2] INOP - VOLT - Check GIA
voltage.
512
Comments
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 2. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in glideslope receiver 2. The receiver may still be
available. The system should be serviced when possible.
GDC 1 has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GDL 69A SXM configuration settings do not match those of backup configuration
memory. The system should be serviced.
A failure has been detected in the GDL 69A SXM. The receiver is unavailable. The
system should be serviced.
The GDL 69A SXM has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
There is a problem with the GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 rigging. Check the rigging.
There is a problem with the GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 software configuration. Check the
configuration. If the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
There is a problem with the GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 config module connection. Check the
connection.
GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 has an internal fault. The system should be serviced.
There is an error in the GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 configuration. Check the configuration. If
the problem persists, the system should be serviced.
The GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 configuration module has insufficient cooling. If the problem
persists, the system should be serviced.
The GEA 1 and/or GEA 2 voltage is low. Check GEA voltages.
The #1 GEA has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The #2 GEA has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The aircraft is outside geographical limits for approved AHRS operation. Heading is
flagged as invalid.
Incorrect servo software is installed, or gain settings are incorrect.
GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 current is low. The current should be checked.
GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 is reporting an over-temperature condition.
Loss of GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 serial communication. Check GIA serial communication.
GIA 1 and/or GIA 2 low voltage. Check voltage.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
190-02477-00 Rev. A
APPENDIX A
The audio panel self-test has detected a problem in the unit. Certain audio functions
may still be available, and the audio panel may still be usable. The system should be
serviced when possible.
The GMU has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
The GPS battery needs to be checked.
FLIGHT
MANAGEMENT
GPS 1 and/or GPS 2 calibration version error. Check GPS calibration.
Loss of GPS navigation due to insufficient satellites.
Loss of GPS navigation due to position error.
HAZARD
AVOIDANCE
Loss of GPS navigation due to GPS failure.
A failure has been detected in the GPS1 and/or GPS2 receiver. The receiver may still
be available. The system should be serviced.
AFCS
The AHRS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
ADDITIONAL
FEATURES
A failure has been detected in GSR. The system should be serviced.
GTS configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The system
should be serviced.
The GTS has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
APPENDICES
The transponder has incorrect software installed. The system should be serviced.
GWX configuration settings do not match those of the GDU configuration. The system
should be serviced.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper PA-34 Seneca
INDEX
190-02477-00 Rev. A
The audio panel has incorrect software in