Garmin | G1000 NXi: Piper PA-46 M350 Mirage | Garmin G1000 NXi: Piper PA-46 M350 Mirage G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Piper M350

Garmin G1000 NXi: Piper PA-46 M350 Mirage G1000 NXi Pilot's Guide for the Piper M350
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
APPENDICES
INDEX
Copyright © 2017 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.
This manual reflects the operation of System Software version 2783.00 or later for the G1000 NXi
Piper M350. Some differences in operation may be observed when comparing the information in this
manual to earlier or later software versions.
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Stormscope® is a registered trademark of L-3 Communications. AC-U-KWIK® is a registered
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representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Under no circumstances including
negligence, shall AOPA be liable for any incidental, special or consequential damages that result from
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
the use or inability to use the software or related documentation, even if AOPA or an AOPA authorized
representative has been advised of the possibility of such damages. User agrees not to sue AOPA and,
to the maximum extent allowed by law, to release and hold harmless AOPA from any causes of action,
claims or losses related to any actual or alleged inaccuracies in the information. Some jurisdictions do
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or make any representations regarding its accuracy, reliability, or otherwise. Licensee agrees not to sue
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jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion of implied warranties or liability for incidental or
consequential damages so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to licensee.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for
maintaining separation from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data
from third party sources and cannot independently verify the accuracy of the information.
WARNING: Always refer to current aeronautical charts and NOTAMs for verification of
displayed aeronautical information. Displayed aeronautical data may not incorporate the
latest NOTAM information.
WARNING: Do not use geometric altitude for compliance with air traffic control altitude
requirements. The primary barometric altimeter must be used for compliance with all air
traffic control altitude regulations, requirements, instructions, and clearances.
WARNING: Do not use basemap information (land and water data) as the sole means of
navigation. Basemap data is intended only to supplement other approved navigation data
sources and should be considered only an aid to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all
of the traffic within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal reception,
and/or inaccurate information from aircraft or ground stations, traffic may be present that is
not represented on the display.
WARNING: Do not use data link weather information for maneuvering in, near, or around
areas of hazardous weather. Information contained within data link weather products may
not accurately depict current weather conditions.
WARNING: Do not use the indicated data link weather product age to determine the age of
the weather information shown by the data link weather product. Due to time delays
inherent in gathering and processing weather data for data link transmission, the weather
information shown by the data link weather product may be older than the indicated
weather product age.
WARNING: The displayed minimum safe altitude (MSAs) are only advisory in nature and
should not be relied upon as the sole source of obstacle and terrain avoidance information.
Always refer to current aeronautical charts for appropriate minimum clearance altitudes.
WARNING: Always obtain qualified instruction prior to operational use of this equipment.
WARNING: Do not use GPS to navigate to any active waypoint identified as a ‘NON WGS84
WPT’ by a system message. ‘NON WGS84 WPT’ waypoints are derived from an unknown
map reference datum that may be incompatible with the map reference datum used by GPS
(known as WGS84) and may be positioned in error as displayed.
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: When using the autopilot to fly an approach with vertical guidance, the
autopilot will not level the aircraft at the MDA/DH even if the MDA/DH is set in the altitude
preselect.
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
WARNING: Because of variation in the earth’s magnetic field, do not rely on the accuracy of
attitude and heading indications in the following geographic areas: North of 72° North
latitude at all longitudes; South of 70° South latitude at all longitudes; North of 65° North
latitude between longitude 75° W and 120° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North
latitude between longitude 70° W and 128° W. (Northern Canada); North of 70° North
latitude between longitude 85° E and 114° E. (Northern Russia); South of 55° South latitude
between longitude 120° E and 165° E. (Region south of Australia and New Zealand).
WARNING: Do not rely on information from a lightning detection system display as the sole
basis for hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause the
system to display inaccurate or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the
lightning detection system manufacturer for detailed information about the system.
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and
traffic avoidance. Garmin SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may
not provide either the accuracy or reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan
maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the Garmin SVT
display or may appear as a partial symbol.
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining
the proximity of the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path
angle during landing.
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or
objects are within the MPEL boundary.
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation
intensity to be displayed as a color not representative of the true intensity.
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
WARNING: Do not use TAWS information for primary terrain or obstacle avoidance. TAWS is
intended only to enhance situational awareness.
WARNING: Do not use SurfaceWatch™ information as the primary method of flight
guidance during airborne or ground operations. SurfaceWatch does not have NOTAM or ATIS
information regarding the current active runway, condition, or information about the position
of hold lines.
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not
operate properly with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height
above mean sea level, or the standard pressure setting, as applicable.
CAUTION: Do not clean display surfaces with abrasive cloths or cleaners containing
ammonia. They will harm the anti-reflective coating.
CAUTION: Repairs should only be made by an authorized Garmin service center.
Unauthorized repairs or modifications could void both the warranty and affect the
airworthiness of the aircraft.
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
information. Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service
Stations or Air Traffic Control.
NOTE: All visual depictions contained within this document, including screen images of the
system panel and displays, are subject to change and may not reflect the most current system
and aviation databases. Depictions of equipment may differ slightly from the actual
equipment.
NOTE: The United States government operates the Global Positioning System and is solely
responsible for its accuracy and maintenance. The GPS system is subject to changes which
could affect the accuracy and performance of all GPS equipment. Portions of the system
utilize GPS as a precision electronic NAVigation AID (NAVAID). Therefore, as with all
NAVAIDs, information presented by the system can be misused or misinterpreted and,
therefore, become unsafe.
NOTE: This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this
device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: Interference from GPS repeaters operating inside nearby hangars can cause an
intermittent loss of attitude and heading displays while the aircraft is on the ground. Moving
the aircraft more than 100 yards away from the source of the interference should alleviate
the condition.
NOTE: Use of polarized eyewear may cause the flight displays to appear dim or blank.
NOTE: This product, its packaging, and its components contain chemicals known to the
State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, or reproductive harm. This notice is being
provided in accordance with California’s Proposition 65. If you have any questions or would
like additional information, please refer to our web site at www.garmin.com/prop65.
NOTE: Operating the system in the vicinity of metal buildings, metal structures, or
electromagnetic fields can cause sensor differences that may result in nuisance miscompare
annunciations during start up, shut down, or while taxiing. If one or more of the sensed
values are unavailable, the annunciation indicates no comparison is possible.
NOTE: The system responds to a terminal procedure based on data coded within that
procedure in the Navigation Database. Differences in system operation may be observed
among similar types of procedures due to differences in the Navigation Database coding
specific to each procedure.
NOTE: The FAA has asked Garmin to remind pilots who fly with Garmin database-dependent
avionics of the following:
• It is the pilot’s responsibility to remain familiar with all FAA regulatory and advisory
guidance and information related to the use of databases in the National Airspace System.
• Garmin equipment will only recognize and use databases that are obtained from Garmin or
Jeppesen. Databases obtained from Garmin or Jeppesen that have a Type 2 Letter of
Authorization (LOA) from the FAA are assured compliance with all data quality
requirements (DQRs). A copy of the Type 2 LOA is available for each applicable database
and can be viewed at http://fly.garmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Declarations.’
• Use of a current Garmin or Jeppesen database in your Garmin equipment is required for
compliance with established FAA regulatory guidance, but does not constitute
authorization to fly any and all terminal procedures that may be presented by the system. It
is the pilot’s responsibility to operate in accordance with established AFM(S) and regulatory
guidance or limitations as applicable to the pilot, the aircraft, and installed equipment.
NOTE: The pilot/operator must review and be familiar with Garmin’s database exclusion list
as discussed in SAIB CE-14-04 to determine what data may be incomplete. The database
exclusion list can be viewed at www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Database Exclusions List.’
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
NOTE: The pilot/operator must have access to Garmin and Jeppesen database alerts and
consider their impact on the intended aircraft operation. The database alerts can be viewed
at www.flygarmin.com by selecting ‘Aviation Database Alerts.’
NOTE: If the pilot/operator wants or needs to adjust the database, contact Garmin Product
Support.
NOTE: Garmin requests the flight crew report any observed discrepancies related to database
information. These discrepancies could come in the form of an incorrect procedure;
incorrectly identified terrain, obstacles and fixes; or any other displayed item used for
navigation or communication in the air or on the ground. Go to FlyGarmin.com and select
‘Aviation Data Error Report’.
NOTE: The system supports approval of AC 120-76C Hardware Class 3, Software Type B
Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) electronic aeronautical chart applications. Possible additional
requirements may make a secondary source (traditional paper or additional electronic display)
necessary onboard the aircraft. If the secondary source is a Portable Electronic Device (PED),
its use must be consistent with guidance in AC 120-76C.
NOTE: Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of
89º South latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the
system’s ability to process the data representing the affected areas.
NOTE: When using Stormscope, there are several atmospheric phenomena in addition to
nearby thunderstorms that can cause isolated discharge points in the strike display mode.
However, clusters of two or more discharge points in the strike display mode do indicate
thunderstorm activity if these points reappear after the screen has been cleared.
NOTE: Operate G1000NXi system power through at least one cycle in a period of four days
of continuous operation to avoid an autonomous system reboot.
NOTE: The navigation databases used in Garmin navigation systems contain Special
Procedures. Prior to flying these procedures, pilots must have specific FAA authorization,
training, and possession of the corresponding current, and legitimately-sourced chart
(approach plate, etc.). Inclusion of the Special Procedure in the navigation database DOES
NOT imply specific FAA authorization to fly the procedure.
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WARNING, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
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RECORD OF REVISIONS
Record of Revisions
Part Number
Revision
Date
Page
Range
190–02361-00
A
12/5/17
All
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Description
Production Release with GDU Software
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 System Description............................
Line Replaceable Units (LRU).....................
1.2 System Controls.................................
PFD/MFD Controls ...................................
PFD/MFD Control Unit..............................
Secure Digital Cards..................................
1
1
5
6
9
10
1.3 System Operation.............................. 12
System Power-up......................................
Normal Operation.....................................
Reversionary Mode...................................
System Annunciations...............................
System Status...........................................
AHRS Operation.......................................
GPS Receiver Operation............................
12
13
13
14
16
17
19
1.4 Accessing System Functionality........ 25
Softkey Function.......................................
Menus......................................................
MFD Page Groups.....................................
Split Screen Functionality..........................
System Settings........................................
System Utilities.........................................
25
33
34
37
39
49
1.5 Display Backlighting.......................... 54
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 Overview............................................ 57
2.2 Flight Instruments.............................. 60
Attitude Indicator.....................................
Airspeed Indicator.....................................
Altimeter..................................................
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI).....................
Vertical Deviation......................................
Vertical Navigation (VNV) Indications.........
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)............
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)...............
GPS CDI Scaling (FMS Navigation Source).
OBS Mode................................................
Turn Rate Indicator...................................
Bearing Pointers and Information
Windows..................................................
DME Information Window........................
60
61
63
67
68
70
71
75
77
80
81
82
83
2.3 Supplemental Flight Data.................. 84
Generic Timer...........................................
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Temperature Displays................................
Wind Data................................................
84
85
2.4 PFD Annunciations and Alerting
Functions............................................ 86
Altitude Alerting.......................................
Low Altitude Annunciation.......................
Marker Beacon Annunciations..................
Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision
Height Alerting.........................................
86
86
86
87
2.5 SVT Operation.................................... 89
Garmin SVT (Synthetic Vision Technology).
SVT Operation..........................................
SVT Features.............................................
89
90
92
2.6 Abnormal Operations........................104
Abnormal GPS Conditions........................
Comparator Annunciations.......................
Reversionary Sensor Annunciations...........
SVT Troubleshooting.................................
SVT in Reversionary Mode.........................
Unusual Attitudes.....................................
SVT Unusual Attitudes..............................
104
105
106
107
107
107
108
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
3.1 Engine Indication System (EIS)
Display................................................111
3.2 Engine Page........................................114
Fuel Calculations....................................... 115
Carbon Monoxide Detector...................... 116
Landing Gear Indicator............................. 116
3.3 Reversionary Mode............................118
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 Overview............................................119
MFD/PFD Control Unit.............................. 123
4.2 COM Operation..................................125
COM Tuning Boxes...................................
COM Transceiver Manual Tuning...............
Auto-Tuning the COM Frequency..............
Auto-tuning from the MFD.......................
Frequency Spacing....................................
125
126
126
127
129
4.3 NAV Operation...................................131
NAV Tuning Boxes..................................... 131
NAV Radio Selection and Activation.......... 132
84
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
xiii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
NAV Receiver Manual Tuning....................
Auto-Tuning a NAV Frequency from the
MFD.........................................................
Auto-Tuning NAV Frequencies on
Approach Activation.................................
Marker Beacon Receiver (Optional)...........
ADF/DME Tuning......................................
ADF Tuning...............................................
Selecting ADF Receiver Mode....................
DME Tuning..............................................
132
133
135
136
137
138
139
140
4.4 Mode S Transponder..........................142
Transponder Controls................................
Transponder Mode Selection.....................
Entering a Transponder Code....................
Ident Function..........................................
142
143
145
146
4.5 Additional Audio Panel Functions....148
Power-Up.................................................
Mono/Stereo Headsets..............................
Speaker....................................................
Intercom...................................................
Clearance Recorder and Player..................
Split-COM Operation................................
Entertainment Inputs................................
148
148
148
148
152
152
152
4.6 Audio Panel Preflight Procedure.......154
4.7 Abnormal Operation..........................155
Stuck Microphone....................................
COM Tuning Failure..................................
Audio Panel Fail-Safe Operation................
Reversionary Mode...................................
155
155
155
155
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
5.1 Introduction........................................157
Navigation Status Box and Data Bar.......... 159
5.2 Using Map Displays............................162
Map Orientation.......................................
Map Range...............................................
Map Panning............................................
Measuring Bearing and Distance...............
Topography..............................................
Map Symbols............................................
Airways....................................................
Additional Navigation Map Items..............
162
166
168
171
172
175
179
181
5.3 Waypoints...........................................185
xiv
Airports....................................................
Intersections.............................................
NDB..........................................................
VOR..........................................................
VRP..........................................................
User Waypoints.........................................
186
193
195
197
200
202
5.4 Airspaces.............................................209
5.5 Direct-To Navigation..........................215
5.6 Flight Planning...................................220
Flight Plan Creation..................................
Flight Plan Import/Export...........................
Adding Airways to a Flight Plan................
Adding Procedures to a Stored Flight Plan.
Active Flight Plan......................................
Along Track Offsets...................................
Parallel Track.............................................
Flight Plan Views.......................................
Closest Point of FPL..................................
User-Defined Holding Patterns..................
221
224
234
237
247
250
251
254
257
258
5.7 Vertical Navigation............................264
Altitude Constraints.................................. 266
Vertical Situation Display (VSD)................. 269
5.8 Procedures..........................................274
Departures................................................ 276
Arrivals .................................................... 279
Approaches.............................................. 281
5.9 Weight Planning.................................293
Weight Warning Conditions...................... 293
5.10 Trip Planning.......................................296
Trip Planning............................................. 296
5.11 Abnormal Operation..........................300
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 Overview............................................303
6.2 Data Link Weather.............................304
Activating Data Link Weather Services.......
Weather Product Age...............................
Displaying Data Link Weather Products.....
Weather Data Link (XM) Page Softkeys.....
Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page Softkeys..
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS......................
Weather Product Overview.......................
FIS-B Weather Status................................
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
304
307
310
311
314
321
324
359
190–02361–00 Rev. A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abnormal Operations for Garmin Connext
Weather................................................... 361
6.3 Stormscope Lightning Detection
System................................................363
Using The Stormscope Page...................... 363
6.4 Airborne Color Weather Radar.........367
System Description...................................
Principles of Pulsed Airborne Weather
Radar........................................................
NEXRAD and Airborne Weather Radar......
Antenna Beam Illumination.......................
Safe Operating Distance...........................
Basic Antenna Tilt Setup...........................
Weather Mapping and Interpretation........
Ground Mapping and Interpretation.........
Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation
Map Page.................................................
System Status...........................................
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL
SYSTEM
367
368
368
371
372
373
384
7.1 AFCS Overview...................................441
385
386
389
393
394
395
401
401
402
404
6.6 Traffic Information Service (TIS)........407
Traffic Information Service (TIS).................
Displaying Traffic Data..............................
Traffic Map Page.......................................
TIS Alerts..................................................
System Status...........................................
407
408
409
410
412
6.7 TAS/TCAS I Traffic...............................415
Theory of Operation.................................
System Test...............................................
Operation.................................................
Traffic Map Page.......................................
System Status...........................................
415
419
420
421
424
6.8 ADS-B Traffic.......................................426
ADS-B System Overview............................ 426
ADS-B with TAS/TCAS I............................. 428
190–02361–00 Rev. A
428
430
431
432
437
367
6.5 Terrain Displays..................................388
Relative Terrain Symbology........................
Wire Obstacle Information and Alerting....
Terrain Page..............................................
Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Terrain......
Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance...........
Inhibiting FLTA Alerting.............................
Additional TAWS-B Alerting......................
System Status...........................................
Conflict Situational Awareness and
Alerting....................................................
Airborne and Surface Applications............
Traffic Description.....................................
Operation.................................................
ADS-B System Status................................
AFCS Control Unit.................................... 441
Additional AFCS Controls......................... 442
Basic Autopilot Operation......................... 443
7.2 Flight Director Operation..................445
AFCS Status Box....................................... 445
Flight Director Modes............................... 446
Command Bars......................................... 447
7.3 AFCS Modes........................................448
Vertical Modes..........................................
Pitch Hold Mode.......................................
Selecting Altitude Capture Mode (ALTS)....
Altitude Hold Mode..................................
Vertical Speed Mode.................................
Flight Level Change Mode........................
Lateral Modes...........................................
Roll Hold Mode (ROL)...............................
Low Bank Mode.......................................
Heading Select Mode (HDG).....................
Navigation Modes (GPS, VOR, LOC)..........
Combination Modes (VNV, APR, NAV, BC,
GA)..........................................................
Vertical Navigation Modes (VPTH, ALTV)....
Vertical Path Tracking Mode......................
VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode (ALTV)
Glidepath Mode (GP)................................
Glideslope Mode (GS)...............................
Approach Modes (GPS, VAPP, LOC)...........
Backcourse Mode (BC)..............................
Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes..
448
448
449
450
451
452
454
455
455
456
457
459
461
461
465
466
468
470
471
473
7.4 Autopilot And Yaw Damper
Operation...........................................475
Flight Control........................................... 475
Engagement............................................. 476
Control Wheel Steering............................ 476
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
xv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Disengagement........................................ 476
7.5 AFCS Annunciations And Alerts........478
Overspeed Protection................................
Underspeed Protection.............................
Altitude Critical Modes (ALT, GS, GP, TO,
GA, FLC)...................................................
Non Altitude Critical Modes (VS, VNAV,
IAS)..........................................................
Level Mode...............................................
Emergency Descent Mode........................
Activation.................................................
479
480
481
482
483
483
483
7.6 Abnormal Operation..........................485
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 Overview............................................487
8.2 SafeTaxi...............................................489
8.3 Charts..................................................491
Charts......................................................
Chartview.................................................
Chart Options...........................................
FliteCharts................................................
FlightCharts Softkeys................................
Airport Directory.......................................
IFR/VRF Charts..........................................
491
491
494
498
499
499
501
8.4 Database Cycle Number and
Revisions.............................................504
8.5 SiriusXM Radio Entertainment..........506
Using SiriusXM Radio................................
Active Channel and Channel List...............
Category..................................................
Presets......................................................
Volume.....................................................
507
507
508
508
509
8.6 Satellite Telephone and SMS
Messaging..........................................510
Registering the system for datalink/
Connext services.......................................
Telephone Communication.......................
Contacts...................................................
Incoming Calls..........................................
Outgoing Calls..........................................
Text Messaging (SMS)...............................
Viewing a Text Message When Received...
Sending a Text Message............................
xvi
510
512
513
514
515
520
522
524
Predefined Text Messages......................... 526
Text Message Boxes.................................. 528
Managing Text Messages.......................... 530
8.7 Flight Data Logging...........................533
8.8 Connext Setup....................................536
8.9 Surface Watch....................................538
SurfaceWatch...........................................
Information Box........................................
Alerts........................................................
Takeoff Alerts...........................................
Landing Alerts..........................................
SurfaceWatch Setup.................................
538
538
539
540
541
542
8.10 Electronic Stability and Protection
(ESP)....................................................546
Roll Engagement......................................
Pitch Engagement.....................................
Angle of Attack Protection........................
High Airspeed Protection..........................
547
548
550
550
8.11 Electronic Checklists...........................551
8.12 Abnormal Operation..........................553
GDL 69/69A SXM Troubleshooting............ 553
GDL 69/69A SXM Messages..................... 553
APPENDICES
Annunciations and Alerts........................ 555
CAS Message Prioritization.......................
Voice Alerts .............................................
System Message Annunciations................
System Messages......................................
556
561
563
563
Database Management............................ 589
Loading Updated Databases..................... 589
Magnetic Field Variation Database Update 598
Aviation Terms and Acronyms................. 601
Frequently Asked Questions....................621
Map Symbols............................................ 625
INDEX
Index......................................................... I-1
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
SECTION 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The system consists of the following LRUs:
•
GDC 72 (2) – Processes data from the pitot/static system as well as the OAT probe. This unit
provides pressure altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the system, and
communicates with both GIAs, the on-side PFD, the MFD (GDC#2 only), and the on-side GRS,
using an ARINC 429 digital interface.
•
GRS 79 (2) – Provides aircraft attitude and heading information via ARINC 429 to both the on-side
PFD, the MFD, and both GIAs. The GRS contains advanced sensors (including accelerometers and
rate sensors) and interfaces with the on-side GMU to obtain magnetic field information, with the
GDC to obtain air data, and with both GIAs to obtain GPS information. AHRS modes of operation
are discussed later in this document..
•
GEA 71B (1) – Receives and processes signals from the engine and airframe sensors. This unit
communicates with both GIAs using an RS-485 digital interface.
•
GMU 44 (2) – Measures local magnetic field. Data is sent to the GRS for processing to determine
aircraft magnetic heading. This unit receives power directly from the GRS and communicates with
the GRS using an RS-485 digital interface
•
GMA 350C (1) – Integrates NAV/COM digital audio, intercom system and marker beacon controls.
This unit features an all-digital audio panel with Bluetooth® capability, and communicates with both
GIAs, using an RS-232 digital interface.
Appendices
GIA 64W (2) – Functions as the main communication hub, linking LRUs to the PFD and MFD.
Each GIA contains a GPS SBAS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS receivers, a flight director (FD) and
system integration microprocessors. Each GIA is paired with the PFD and MFD via an HSDB
connection. The GIAs are not paired together and do not communicate with each other directly.
Additional Features
•
Automatic Flight Control
System
GDU 1250A (2) – Features a 12–inch backlit LED screen with high resolution and is configured as
an Multi Function Display (MFD). This unit is linked to both PFDs and GIAs via HSDB connection.
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
System
GDU 1050 (2) – Each unit is configured as a Primary Flight Display (PFD) that features a 10 inch
backlit LED screens with high resolution. The unit installed on the left/pilot side is designated as
PFD1, and the one installed on the right/copilot side is designated as PFD2. These units
communicate with each other and the MFD through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) connection.
Both feature 10.4-inch backlit LED screens with high resolution. The displays communicate with
each other through a High Speed Data Bus (HSDB) Ethernet connection. Each display is also paired
with an Ethernet connection to an Integrate Avionics Unit (IAU, i.e. Garmin Integrated Avionics
(GIA)).
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
LINE REPLACEABLE UNITS (LRU)
Flight Instruments
This section provides an overview of the G1000 NXi Integrated Avionics System as installed in the
Piper M350. The system presents flight instrumentation, position, navigation, communication, and
identification information to the pilot through large-format displays.
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
1
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
•
GCU 476 (1) – The Control Unit provides MFD/PFD and radio tuning control through an RS-232
digital interface.
•
GMC 710 (1) – Provides the controls for the Garmin AFCS through an RS-232 digital interface
allowing communication with PFD and the MFD.
•
GTX 335R (1)(Standard)/GTX345R (Alternate) (1)/ GTX 33D w/ES (Optional as #2) (1) – The
GTX 335R solid-state transponder provides Modes A, C, S and ADS-B Out capability. As an
alternative, the GTX 345R provides the same capabilities, plus an ADS-B In/Out capability. The
optional GTX 33 Diverstiy with Extended Squitter may be installed in addition to the GTX
335R/GTX 345R. The transponder can be controlled from the PFD, and it communicates with the
both GIAs through an RS-232 digital interface..
•
GWX 68 (1) – Provides airborne weather and ground mapped radar data to the MFD via HSDB
connection..
•
GDL 69A SXM (1)(Optional) – A satellite radio receiver that provides data link weather information
to both GDUs via an HSDB connection. Subscriptions to the SiriusXM Weather or SiriusXM Satellite
Radio services are required to enable the GDL 69A SXM capability.
•
Flight Stream 510 (1)(Optional) – Provides wireless Bluetooth® connectivity between a compatible
tablet/mobile device and the avionics system.
•
GSR 56 (1)(Optional) – The Iridium Transceiver provides voice communication by means of pilot
and copilot headsets. The unit can also send and receive data over the Iridium satellite network. The
GSR is connected to the #2 GIA with an RS-232 digital interface.
•
GTP 59 (1) – Provides Outside Air Temperature (OAT) data to the GDC.
•
GTS 800 (1)(Optional) – The GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) uses active interrogations of
Mode S and Mode C transponders to provide traffic information to the pilot independent of the air
traffic control system.
•
GDL69A SXM Data Link Receiver
•
Flight Stream 510 Wireless Bluetooth® Gateway
•
GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver
•
GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System
•
KN 63 DME manufactured by Honeywell
•
RA 3504 ADF manufactured by Honeywell
•
WX-500 Stormscope Lightning Sensor manufactured by L-3
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
The Garmin Automated Flight Control System (AFCS) provides the flight director (FD), autopilot
(AP), and yaw damper (YD) functions of the system. See the AFCS Section for more information.
The following figure shows interactions between the LRUs and optional equipment. The system is
capable of interfacing with the following optional equipment:
2
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Flight Instruments
NOTE: For information on non-Garmin equipment, consult the applicable optional interface
user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of
this additional equipment.
System Overview
NOTE: For information on the additional equipment shown in the following figure, consult
the applicable optional interface user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is
already familiar with the operation of this additional equipment.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
3
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Flight Instruments
GMC 710
(AFCS
Controller)
GCU 476
(Display
Controller)
#1
GDU 1050
(PFD1)
GDU 1250A
(MFD)
FS 510
Wireless
Bluetooth
Gateway
Engine Indication System
GTS 800
(TAS)
#2
GDU 1050
(PFD2)
GDL 69A SXM
(SiriusXM
Weather Datalink)
GWX 68
(Weather Radar)
Audio Panel and CNS
GMA 350C
(Audio Panel)
#1 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#1 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
Flight Management
System
#1 GRS 79
(Attitude & Heading)
#2 GMU 44
(Magnetometer)
#2 GIA 64W
(Integrated
Avionics
Unit)
#2 GRS 79
(Attitude & Heading)
#1 GDC 72
(Air Data
Computer)
#2 GDC 72
(Air Data
Computer)
#1 GTP 59
OAT Probe
#2 GTP 59
OAT Probe
VHF COM
VHF COM
Hazard Avoidance
GPS/SBAS
G/S
G/S
AFCS Mode
Logic
GSA 80 (1)
(High Speed
Servo)
AFCS Mode
Logic
Flight
Director
Automatic Flight Control
System
VOR/LOC
GSA 81 (3)
(Pitch Trim, Roll,
Yaw Servos)
VOR/LOC
Flight
Director
GEA 71B
(Engine &
Airframe)
GTX 335R
(Transponder)
#2 GTX 33D ES
(Transponder)
Additional Features
#1 GTX 345R
(Transponder)
WX-500
(Lightning
Detection)
Garmin Equipment
Appendices
GPS/SBAS
Non-Garmin
Equipment
Optional
Garmin Equipment
GSR 56
(Iridium
Transceiver)
KN-63
(DME)
RA-3504
(ADF)
Optional
Non-Garmin Equipment
Index
Figure 1-1 System (LRU Configuration)
4
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
1.2 SYSTEM CONTROLS
The system controls are located on the PFD and MFD bezels and audio panel. The controls for the
PFD and MFD are discussed within the following pages of this section.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The Audio Panel and AFCS controls are described in the Audio & CNS and AFCS
sections respectively.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
5
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
PFD/MFD CONTROLS
1
6
2
3
4
5
6
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
7
8
10
13
11
14
12
15
9
17
16
Figure 1-2 PFD/MFD Controls
190–02361–00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Heading Knob Turn to manually select a heading. When operating in Heading Select mode,
this knob provides the heading reference to the flight director. Press to display a digital
heading momentarily to the left of the HSI and synchronize the Selected Heading to the
current heading.
5
Joystick Turn to change map range. Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning.
6
CRS/BARO Knob Turn large knob for altimeter barometric pressure setting Turn the small
knob to set the pilot-selected course on the HSI when the VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP mode is
selected. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the currently selected VOR. The pilot-selected
course provides course reference to the pilot-side flight director when operating in Navigation
and Approach modes. Press to re-center the CDI and return course pointer directly TO
bearing of active waypoint/station.
7
COM Knob Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz;
small knob for kHz). Press to switch the tuning box (cyan box) between COM1 and COM2.
The selected COM (green) is controlled with the MIC Key (Audio Panel).
8
COM Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies.
Press and hold two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into
the active frequency field.
9
COM VOL/SQ Knob Turn to control COM audio volume level (shown as a percentage in the
COM Frequency Box). Press to turn the COM automatic squelch ON/OFF.
10
Direct-to Key Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination
waypoint and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route).
11
FPL Key Displays the active Flight Plan Page for creating and editing the active flight plan.
12
CLR Key Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus. Press and hold to display the
MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
13
MENU Key Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or
making setting changes.
14
PROC Key Gives access to IFR Departure Procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs) and
Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport.
15
ENT Key Validates/confirms a menu selection or data entry.
Additional Features
4
Automatic Flight Control
System
NAV Knob Turn to tune NAV receiver standby frequencies (large knob for MHz; small for
kHz) Press to toggle cyan tuning box between NAV1 and NAV2.
Hazard Avoidance
3
Flight Management
System
NAV Frequency Transfer Key Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
Audio Panel and CNS
2
Engine Indication System
NAV VOL/ID Knob Turn to control NAV audio volume (shown in the NAV Frequency Box as
a percentage). Press to toggle the Morse code identifier audio ON/OFF.
Flight Instruments
1
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
7
16
FMS Knob Press to turn the selection cursor ON/OFF. Data Entry: With cursor ON, turn to
enter data in the highlighted field (large knob moves cursor location; small knob selects
character for highlighted cursor location). Scrolling: When a list of information is too long for
the window/box, a scroll bar appears, indicating more items to view. With cursor ON, turn
large knob to scroll through the list. Page Selection: Turn knob on MFD to select the page to
view (large knob selects a page group; small knob selects a specific page from the group).
17
ALT Knob Sets the selected altitude in the Selected Altitude Box (the large knob selects the
thousands, the small knob selects the hundreds). In addition to providing the standard system
altitude alerter function, selected altitude provides an altitude setting for the Altitude
Capture/Hold mode of the AFCS.
The PFD/MFD Control Unit is a pedestal-mounted user interface allowing for ease of data entry,
PFD/MFD operation, and NAV/COM tuning. Many procedures in this Pilot’s Guide can be performed
using the PFD/MFD Control Unit rather than the display bezel controls. Indicators above the PFD,
MFD, NAV, and COM Keys are illuminated when their respective control mode(s) are selected. The
unit is in MFD control mode by default on system power-up.
NAV/COM radio tuning can be accomplished in either PFD or MFD control mode. The appropriate
frequency box on the selected display is outlined by a cyan selection box, which flashes for a few
seconds to indicate Control Unit activity (refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more
information about NAV/COM tuning). Selection of a different display control or radio tuning mode
results in cancelation of the previous radio tuning mode.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
8
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
PFD/MFD CONTROL UNIT
1
2
3
4
Flight Instruments
5
19
Engine Indication System
18
17
16
15
6
Audio Panel and CNS
14
7
12
8
10
Hazard Avoidance
11
Flight Management
System
13
9
Figure 1-3 GCU 476 PFD/MFD Control Unit
FPL Key Displays flight plan information.
2
Direct-to Key Activates the direct-to function and allows the user to enter a destination
waypoint and establish a direct course to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route).
3
Menu Key Displays a context-sensitive list of options for accessing additional features or
making setting changes.
4
PROC Key Gives access to IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures (STARs), and
approach procedures (IAPs) for a flight plan or selected airport.
5
Joystick Turn to change map range. Press to activate Map Pointer for map panning.
6
Alphanumeric Keys Allow data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/
numbers).
7
BKSP Key Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
8
SPC Key Adds a space character.
9
ENT Key Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
Automatic Flight Control
System
1
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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9
10
CLR Key Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus. Press and hold to display the
MFD Navigation Map Page (MFD only).
11
SEL Key Arrows move cyan Softkey Selection Box (Figure 1-10) on selected display. Press the
center to activate the selected softkey.
12
Decimal Key Enters a decimal point character.
13
Plus-Minus (±) Key Toggles entry between the + and - characters.
14
NAV Key Selects/deselects NAV radio tuning mode on the PFD/MFD Control Unit.
15
COM Key Selects/deselects COM radio tuning mode on the PFD/MFD Control Unit..
16
COM Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies.
Press and hold two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) automatically into
the active frequency field.
17
PFD Key When selected, the PFD/MFD Control Unit can be used to access PFD functions.
18
MFD Key When selected, the PFD/MFD Control Unit can be used to access MFD functions
(default display control mode).
19
FMS/NAV-COM Knob NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob. PFD/MFD
Control Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob.
SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for instructions on updating the aviation databases.
NOTE: Ensure that the system is powered off before inserting the SD card.
The GDU 1050 data card slots use Secure Digital (SD) cards and are located on the top right portion of
the display bezels. Each display bezel is equipped with two SD card slots. SD cards are used system
software updates. Also, flight plans may be imported or exported from an SD card in the MFD.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
SD Card Slots
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Figure 1-4 PFD/MFD Display Bezel SD Card Slots
Inserting and Removing an SD card
Hazard Avoidance
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot, pushing the card in until the spring latch
engages. The front of the card should remain flush with the face of the display bezel.
To remove, gently press on the SD card to release the spring latch and eject the card.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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11
1.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
This section discusses powering up the system, normal and reversionary display operation,
annunciations, system status, air data and attitude heading reference system (AHRS) modes of operation,
and GPS receiver operation.
SYSTEM POWER-UP
NOTE: See the Appendices
annunciations and alerts.
for
additional
information
regarding
system-specific
NOTE: See the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for specific procedures concerning avionics
power application and emergency power supply operation.
The system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The PFD, MFD, and supporting sub-systems include both power-on and continuous built-in
test features that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM, and external inputs and outputs to provide safe
operation.
When powering up the system, test annunciations are displayed and key annunciator lights also
become momentarily illuminated on the audio panel and the display bezels. On the PFD, the AHRS
begins to initialize and an alignment message is displayed. All system annunciations should disappear
typically within one minute of power-up.
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Power-up Page displays the following information:
•
System version
•
Checklist File
•
Land database name and version
•
Safe Taxi database name and effective dates
•
Terrain database name and version
•
Obstacle database name and effective dates
•
Navigation database name and effective dates
•
Airport Directory name and effective dates
•
FliteCharts/ChartView database information
•
IFR/VFR charts database information
•
Crew Profile
•
Copyright
Current database information includes the valid operating dates, cycle number and database type.
When this information has been reviewed for currency (to ensure that no databases have expired), the
pilot is prompted to continue.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
NORMAL OPERATION
Engine Indication System
In normal operating mode, the PFD presents graphical flight instrumentation (attitude, heading,
airspeed, altitude, vertical speed), replacing the traditional flight instrument cluster. The MFD
normally displays a full-color moving map with navigation information, while the left portion of the
MFD is dedicated to the Engine Indication Syste. Both displays offer control for COM and NAV
frequency selection.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: In normal operating mode, backlighting can only be adjusted from the PFD. In
reversionary mode, it can be adjusted from the remaining display. (See the Display
Backlighting chapter for more information)
Audio Panel and CNS
PFD1
PFD2
Flight Management
System
MFD
Figure 1-5 Normal Operation
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the
Appendices for further information regarding system-specific alerts.
•
MFD failure – Both PFDs automatically switch to reversionary mode.
•
PFD2 failure – MFD and PFD1 remain in normal mode.
Appendices
PFD1 Failure — MFD and PFD2 remain in normal mode.
Additional Features
•
Automatic Flight Control
System
Reversionary mode is a mode of operation in which all important flight information is presented
identically on at least one of the remaining displays. Transition to reversionary mode should be
straightforward for the pilot, for flight parameters are presented in the same format as in normal mode.
In the event of an MFD failure, the system automatically switches to reversionary (backup) mode. In
reversionary mode, all important flight information is presented on the remaining display(s) in the same
format as in normal operating mode.
Hazard Avoidance
REVERSIONARY MODE
Index
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13
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Reversionary mode can be activated manually by pressing a dedicated reversionary switch installed in
the cockpit. Pressing this switch again deactivates reversionary mode.
Each display can be configured to operate in reversionary mode, as follows:
•
PFD1 – By pressing the left reversionary switch.
•
MFD – By pressing the left or right reversionary switch.
•
PFD2 – By pressing the right reversionary switch.
Should the connection between a PFD and the GIA functions become inoperative, the GIA can no
longer communicate with the PFD (refer to Figure 1-1). As a result, the NAV and COM functions
provided to the failed PFD or MFD by the GIA are flagged as invalid (red “X”) on the remaining PFD.
The system reverts to backup paths for the AHRS, ADC, Engine/Airframe Unit, and Transponder, as
required. The change to backup paths is completely automated for all LRUs and no pilot action is
required.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Figure 1-6 Reversionary Mode
SYSTEM ANNUNCIATIONS
NOTE: Upon power-up, certain windows remain invalid as system equipment begins to
initialize. All windows should be operational within one minute of power-up. If any window
continues to remain flagged, the system should be serviced by a Garmin-authorized repair
facility.
Index
Appendices
Figure 1-7 Inoperative Input (NAV1 Shown)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Annunciation
Comment
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Refer to the POH for additional information regarding pilot responses to these
annunciations.
System Overview
When an LRU or an LRU function fails, a large red or amber “X” is typically displayed on windows
associated with the failed data. Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for additional
information regarding pilot responses to these annunciations.
Engine Indication System
Air Data, Attitude and Heading Reference System is aligning.
Audio Panel and CNS
Display system is not receiving attitude information from the
AHRS (GRS unit).
Automatic Flight Control
System
Display system is not receiving airspeed input from the air data
computer.
Hazard Avoidance
GPS information is either not present or is invalid for navigation
use. Note that AHRS utilizes GPS inputs during normal operation.
AHRS operation may be degraded if GPS signals are not present
(see POH).
Flight Management
System
AHRS calibration incomplete or configuration module failure.
Display system is not receiving valid heading input from the AHRS
or magnetometer.
Appendices
Display system is not receiving altitude input from the AHRS or
magnetometer.
Additional Features
Display system is not receiving vertical speed input from the air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving valid OAT information from the air
data computer.
Index
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15
System Annunciation
Comment
Display system is not receiving valid ISA information from the air
data computer.
Display system is not receiving valid transponder information.
Other Various Amber/Red X
Indications
A red ‘X’ through any other display field (such as engine
instrumentation fields) indicates that the field is not receiving
valid data.
Table 1-1 System Annunciations
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Viewing LRU Information
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) To place the cursor in the ‘LRU Info’ Box,
Press the LRU Softkey.
Or:
Flight Management
System
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) With ‘Select LRU Window’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
3) Use the FMS Knob to scroll through the box to view LRU status information.
The System Status Page displays the status and software version numbers for all detected system
LRUs. Pertinent information on all system databases is also displayed. Active LRUs are indicated by
green check marks and failed LRUs are indicated by red “X”s. Failed LRUs should be noted and a
service center or Garmin dealer informed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
SYSTEM STATUS
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
17
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Appendices
In addition to using internal sensors, the AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air
data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal mode,the AHRS relies upon GPS and
magnetic field measurements. If either of these external measurements is unavailable or invalid, the
AHRS uses air data information for attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of operation are
available and depend upon the combination of available sensor inputs. Loss of air data, GPS, or
magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
The AHRS corrects for shifts and variations in the Earth’s magnetic field by applying the Magnetic
Field Variation Database. The Magnetic Field Variation Database is derived from the International
Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). The IGRF is a mathematical model that describes the Earth’s
Additional Features
AHRS OPERATION
Automatic Flight Control
System
The LRU and ARFRM Softkeys on the System Status Page select the applicable list (LRU
Information or Airframe Window) through which the FMS Knob can be used to scroll information
within the selected window.
Pressing the MFD1 DB Softkey (label annunciator turns green indicting the softkey is selected)
places the cursor in the database window. Use the FMS Knob to scroll through database information
for the MFD. Pressing the softkey again will change the softkey label to PFD1 DB. PFD 1 database
information is now displayed in the database window. Pressing the softkey a third time will change the
softkey label back to MFD1 DB. MFD database information is displayed again in the database window.
The ANN Test Softkey, when selected, causes an annunciation test tone to be played.
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 1-8 Example System Status Page
main magnetic field and its annual rate of change. The database is updated approximately every 5
years. See the Appendices for information on updating the Magnetic Field Variation Database. The
system will prompt you on startup when an update is available. Failure to update this database could
lead to erroneous heading information being displayed to the pilot.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
NOTE: Refer to the Appendices for specific AHRS system message information.
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering while the AHRS is not operating normally can degrade AHRS
accuracy.
Audio Panel and CNS
GPS Data Available and Reliable?
Flight Management
System
Mag Data Available and Reliable?
Mag Data AND Air Data
Available and Reliable?
Air Data Available and Reliable?
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
AHRS Normal
Mode
AHRS no-Mag
Mode
AHRS no-Mag/
no-Air Mode
Heading
HeadingInvalid
Invalid
Attitude/Heading
Invalid
Heading Invalid
AHRS no-GPS
Mode
AHRS coast-on-gyros
until invalid
Attitude/Heading
Invalid
Attitude/Heading Invalid
Additional Features
Figure 1-9 AHRS Operation
GPS INPUT FAILURE
Appendices
NOTE: In-flight initialization of AHRS, when operating without any valid source of GPS data
and at true air speed values greater than approximately 200 knots, is not guaranteed. Under
these rare conditions, it is possible for in-flight AHRS initialization to take an indefinite
amount of time which would result in an extended period of time where valid AHRS outputs
are unavailable.
Index
The system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the
information provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable, the AHRS seamlessly transitions to
using the other GPS receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of the backup GPS path.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
If both GPS inputs fail, the AHRS continues to operate in reversionary No-GPS mode so long as the
air data and magnetometer inputs are available and valid.
AIR DATA INPUT FAILURE
Flight Instruments
A failure of the air data input has no effect on AHRS output while operating in normal mode. A
failure of the air data input while the AHRS is operating in reversionary No-GPS mode results in
invalid attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated by red “X” flags).
MAGNETOMETER FAILURE
GPS RECEIVER OPERATION
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Each GIA Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU) contains a GPS receiver. Information collected by the
specified receiver (GPS1 for the #1 IAU or GPS2 for the #2 IAU) may be viewed on the Aux - GPS
Status Page.
GPS1 provides information to the MFD and GPS2 provides data to the PFD. Internal system
checking is performed to ensure both GPS receivers are providing accurate data to the GDUs. In some
circumstances, both GPS receivers may be providing accurate data, but one receiver may be providing
a better GPS solution than the other receiver. In this case the GPS receiver producing the better
solution will be automatically coupled to both GDUs. “BOTH ON GPS 1” or “BOTH ON GPS 2” will
then be displayed in the Reversionary Sensor Window (see Appendix A) indicating which GPS receiver
is being used. Both GPS receivers are still functioning properly, but one receiver is performing better
than the other at that particular time.
These GPS sensor annunciations are most often seen after system power-up when one GPS receiver
has acquired satellites before the other, or one of the GPS receivers has not yet acquired a SBAS signal.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the SBAS signal may be blocked by obstructions causing one GPS
receiver to have difficulty acquiring a good signal. Also, while airborne, turning the aircraft may result
in one of the GPS receivers temporarily losing the SBAS signal.
If the sensor annunciation persists, check for a system failure message in the Messages Window on
the PFD. If no failure message exists, check the GPS Status Page and compare the information for
GPS1 and GPS2. Discrepancies may indicate a problem.
Engine Indication System
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions to one of the reversionary No-Magnetometer
modes and continues to output valid attitude information. However, if the aircraft is airborne, the
heading output on the PFD does become invalid (as indicated by a red “X”).
Additional Features
Viewing GPS receiver status information:
1) Use the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group (see Section 1.4 for
information on navigating MFD page groups).
2) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Appendices
Index
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19
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Selecting the GPS receiver for which data may be reviewed:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Flight Instruments
2) To change the selected GPS receiver:
Press the desired GPS Softkey.
Or:
Engine Indication System
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the receiver which is not selected and press the ENT
Key.
Satellite Signal
Information Status
GPS Receiver
Status
RAIM
Availability
Prediction
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Satellite Constellation
Diagram
Hazard Avoidance
EGNOS, MSAS
and WAAS
Selected
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Satellite Signal
Strength Bars
GPS Selection RAIM Softkey
Softkeys
Selected
SBAS Softkey Selected
Figure 1-10 GPS Status Page (RAIM or SBAS Selected)
Appendices
SATELLITE CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM
Index
The GPS Status Page displays satellites currently in view at their respective positions on a sky view
diagram. The sky view is always in a north-up orientation, with the outer circle representing the
horizon, the inner circle representing 45° above the horizon, and the center point showing the
position directly overhead.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Index
21
Appendices
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Additional Features
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Automatic Flight Control
System
In most cases performing a RAIM prediction is not necessary. However, in some cases, the selected
approach may be outside the SBAS coverage area, and it may be necessary to perform a RAIM
prediction for the intended approach.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a GPS receiver function that performs a
consistency check on all tracked satellites. RAIM ensures that the available satellite geometry allows
the receiver to calculate a position within a specified RAIM protection limit (2.0 nautical miles for
oceanic and enroute, 1.0 nm for terminal, and 0.3 nm for non-precision approaches). During
oceanic, enroute, and terminal phases of flight, RAIM is available nearly 100% of the time.
The RAIM prediction function also indicates whether RAIM is available at a specified date and
time. RAIM computations predict satellite coverage within ±15 min of the specified arrival date and
time.
Because of the tighter protection limit on approaches, there may be times when RAIM is not
available. The system automatically monitors RAIM and warns with an alert message when it is not
available. If RAIM is not predicted to be available for the final approach course, the approach does
not become active, as indicated by the messages, “Approach is not active” and “RAIM not available
Hazard Avoidance
RAIM PREDICTION
Flight Management
System
The GPS solution type (ACQUIRING, 2D NAV, 2D DIFF NAV, 3D NAV, 3D DIFF NAV) for the
active GPS receiver (GPS1 or GPS2) is shown in the upper right of the GPS Status Page. When the
receiver is in the process of acquiring enough satellite signals for navigation, the receiver uses
satellite orbital data (collected continuously from the satellites) and last known position to determine
the satellites that should be in view. “Acquiring” is indicated as the solution until a sufficient number
of satellites have been acquired for computing a solution.
When the receiver is in the process of acquiring a 3D differential GPS solution, 3D NAV is
indicated as the solution until the 3D differential fix has finished acquisition. SBAS (Satellite-Based
Augmentation System) indicates “Inactive”. When acquisition is complete, the solution status
indicates 3D DIFF NAV and SBAS indicates “Active”.
Audio Panel and CNS
GPS STATUS
Engine Indication System
This box provides information regarding signal status. The accuracy of the aircraft’s GPS fix is
calculated using Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Dilution of Precision (DOP), and horizontal
and vertical figures of merit (HFOM and VFOM). EPU is the radius of a circle centered on an
estimated horizontal position in which actual position has 95% probability of laying. EPU is a
statistical error indication and not an actual error measurement.
DOP measures satellite geometry quality (i.e., number of satellites received and where they are
relative to each other) on a range from 0.0 to 9.9, with lower numbers denoting better accuracy.
HFOM and VFOM, measures of horizontal and vertical position uncertainty, are the current 95%
confidence horizontal and vertical accuracy values reported by the GPS receiver.
The current calculated GPS position, time, altitude, ground speed, and track for the aircraft are
displayed below the satellite signal accuracy measurements.
Flight Instruments
SATELLITE STATUS
System Overview
Each satellite is represented by an oval containing the Pseudo-random noise (PRN) number (i.e.,
satellite identification number). Satellites whose signals are currently being used are represented by
solid ovals.
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
from FAF to MAP”. If RAIM is not available when crossing the FAF, the missed approach procedure
must be flown.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The system RAIM prediction capability does not meet all RAIM prediction
requirements. Reference the RAIM/Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) Prediction Tool at
flygarmin.com as required.
Predicting RAIM availability at a selected waypoint:
Engine Indication System
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
Audio Panel and CNS
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window.
5) Enter the desired waypoint:
Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired waypoint by identifier, facility, or city name and
press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
Or:
a) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints
(the FPL list is populated only when navigating a flight plan).
b) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Flight Plan, Nearest, Recent, or
Hazard Avoidance
User waypoints, if required.
c) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint. The system
Automatic Flight Control
System
automatically fills in the identifier, facility, and city fields with the information for the
selected waypoint.
d) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
8) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM
•
‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date
combination
•
‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
•
‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and
date
•
‘RAIM Not Available’—RAIM is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint,
time, and date
Index
Appendices
availability is computed, one of the following is displayed:
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Predicting RAIM availability at present position:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
2) If necessary, press the RAIM Softkey.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the FMS Knob. The ‘Waypoint’ Field is highlighted.
4) Press the MENU Key.
5) With ‘Set WPT to Present Position’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the waypoint entry.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival time and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the FMS Knob to enter an arrival date and press the ENT Key.
availability is computed, one of the following is displayed:
•
‘Computing Availability’—RAIM calculation in progress
•
‘RAIM Available’—RAIM is predicted to be available for the specified waypoint, time, and
date
•
‘RAIM Not Available’ is predicted to be unavailable for the specified waypoint, time, and
date
SBAS SELECTION
Disabling SBAS:
1) Select the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Additional Features
2) If necessary, press the SBAS Softkey.
Automatic Flight Control
System
In certain situations, such as when the aircraft is outside or on the fringe of the SBAS coverage
area, it may be desirable to disable EGNOS, WAAS or MSAS (although it is not recommended).
When disabled, the SBAS Field in the GPS Status Box indicates Disabled. There may be a small delay
for the GPS Status Box to be updated upon WAAS and MSAS enabling/disabling.
Hazard Avoidance
‘Compute RAIM?’—RAIM has not been computed for the current waypoint, time, and date
combination
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
9) With the cursor highlighting ‘Compute RAIM?’, press the ENT Key. Once RAIM
3) Press the FMS Knob, and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘EGNOS’, ‘MSAS’ or
‘WAAS’.
4) Press the ENT Key to uncheck the box.
Appendices
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
GPS SATELLITE SIGNAL STRENGTHS
190–02361–00 Rev. A
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23
Index
The GPS Status Page can be helpful in troubleshooting weak (or missing) signal levels due to poor
satellite coverage or installation problems. As the GPS receiver locks onto satellites, a signal strength
bar is displayed for each satellite in view, with the appropriate satellite PRN number (01-32 or
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
120-138 for WAAS) below each bar. The progress of satellite acquisition is shown in three stages, as
indicated by signal bar appearance:
•
No bar—Receiver is looking for the indicated satellite
•
Hollow bar—Receiver has found the satellite and is collecting data
•
Cyan bar—Receiver has collected the necessary data and the satellite signal can be used
•
Green bar—Satellite is being used for the GPS solution
•
Checkered bar—Receiver has excluded the satellite (Fault Detection and Exclusion)
•
“D” indication—Denotes the satellite is being used as part of the differential computations
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Each satellite has a 30-second data transmission that must be collected (signal strength bar is
hollow) before the satellite may be used for navigation (signal strength bar becomes solid).
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
1.4 ACCESSING SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
SOFTKEY FUNCTION
Bezel-Mounted
Softkeys (press)
PFD SOFTKEYS
CAS
Level 3
Level 4
Description
CAS Up
Scroll up CAS messages
(Accessible only when the CAS
Softkey is displayed).
Appendices
Displays the scroll keys. Only
displayed when the number of
CAS messages exceeds the
capacity of the display window.
Additional Features
Level 2
Automatic Flight Control
System
Level 1
Hazard Avoidance
The PFD softkeys provide control over the PFD display and some flight management functions,
including GPS, NAV, terrain, traffic, and weather (optional). Each softkey sublevel has a Back
Softkey which can be pressed to return to the previous level. If new messages remain after
acknowledgement, the Messages Softkey will show “Message” in black text with a white
background. The Messages Softkey is visible in all softkey levels. For the top level softkeys and the
transponder (XPDR) levels, the Ident Softkey remains visible.
The following table describes PFD Softkey functions. Softkeys which display another set of
softkeys are indicated in the table by showing the given set as an increased level. For example, the
Map/HSI Softkey is shown in the Level 1 column. When pressed, the Map/HSI softkey will display
another set of softkeys and these softkeys are explained in the Level 2 column. If a softkey on Level 2
provides yet another set of softkey functions, those new available softkeys are then explained in the
Level 3 column, etc.
Flight Management
System
Figure 1-11 Softkeys (First-Level PFD Configuration)
Audio Panel and CNS
Softkey Names
(displayed)
Engine Indication System
Softkey On Softkey Subdued
Flight Instruments
Selection softkeys are located along the bottom of the displays. The softkeys shown depend on the
softkey level previously selected. The bezel keys below the softkey labels can be used to select the
appropriate softkey. There are three types of softkeys. One selects a simple on/off state, indicated by an
annunciator on the softkey label displayed as green (on) or gray (off). The next type of softkey selects
among several options, indicated by the softkey label changing (with the exception of the Map Range
keys) to reflect the name of the chosen option. The last type of softkey, when pressed displays another
set of softkeys available for the selected function. Also, these softkeys revert to the previous level after
45 seconds of inactivity. When a softkey function is disabled, the softkey label is subdued (dimmed).
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
25
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Flight Instruments
CAS Dn
Displays the PFD Map display
settings softkeys.
Engine Indication System
Layout
Displays the PFD Map selection
softkeys.
Map Off
Audio Panel and CNS
Inset Map
Flight Management
System
Automatic Flight Control
System
Displays the Inset Map.
Displays the HSI Map.
Inset Trfc
Replaces the Inset Map with a
dedicated traffic display.
Wx LGND
Detail
Removes the PFD map from
display (Inset or Traffic).
HSI Map
HSI Trfc
Hazard Avoidance
Description
Scroll down CAS messages
(Accessible only when the CAS
Softkey is displayed).
Map/HSI
Additional Features
Level 4
Replaces the HSI Map with a
dedicated traffic display.
Displays/removes the name of
the selected data link weather
provider (SiriusXM) and the
weather product icon and age
box (for enabled weather
products).
Selects desired amount of map
detail:
•
All (No Declutter): All map
features visible.
•
Detail 1: Removes everything
except for the active flight
plan.
•
Detail 2: Declutters land and
SUA data.
Detail 3: Declutters land data.
Displays traffic information on
PFD Map.
•
Index
Appendices
Traffic
26
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 2
Level 3
TER
Level 4
Description
Topo: Displays topographical
data (e.g., coastlines, terrain,
rivers, lakes) and elevation
scale on PFD Map.
•
REL: Displays relative terrain
information on the PFD Map.
WX LGND
LTNG Off
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
27
Index
PFD Opt
Appendices
TFC Map
Additional Features
STRMSCP
Automatic Flight Control
System
Datalink
Hazard Avoidance
Lightning
Flight Management
System
METAR
Audio Panel and CNS
PRECIP
or
NEXRAD
Engine Indication System
Off: Removes terrain
Displays/removes the name of
the selected data link weather
provider (SiriusXM) and the
weather product icon and age
box (for enabled weather
products).
Displays Connext weather and
coverage on PFD Map.
Displays XM NEXRAD weather
and coverage on PFD Map
(subscription optional).
Displays METAR information on
PFD Map (subscription
optional).
Adds/removes the display of
SiriusXM lightning information
on PFD Map (optional).
Disables lightning function on
PFD Map. The softkey
annunciator is green when the
lightning function is off.
Selects the data link weather
source for the PFD Map.
Adds or removes the display of
Stormscope information on the
PFD Map. The softkey
annunciator is green when the
function is on. When the
function is off, the annunciator
is gray.
Replaces the PFD Map with a
dedicated traffic display. The
default display is the Inset Map.
Displays second-level softkeys
for additional PFD options.
•
Flight Instruments
•
System Overview
Level 1
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
SVT
Displays additional SVT overlay
softkeys. (optional)
Flight Instruments
Pathways
Displays Pathway Boxes on the
Synthetic Vision Display.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Terrain
Enables synthetic terrain
depiction.
HDG LBL
Displays compass heading
along the Zero-Pitch line.
APT Sign
Displays position markers for
airports within approximately
15 nm of the current aircraft
position. Airport identifiers are
displayed when the airport is
within approximately 9 nm.
Wire
Displays power lines on the
Synthetic Vision Display.
Flight Management
System
Wind
Displays the wind option
softkeys.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Off
Wind information not
displayed.
Option 1
Wind direction arrow and
speed.
Option 2
Headwind/Tailwind and
crosswind components and
wind direction arrow.
Option 3
Wind direction arrow with
direction and speed.
Appendices
Additional Features
DME
Displays DME Information
(optional).
Bearing 1
Cycles the Bearing 1
Information Window through
NAV1, NAV2, GPS/waypoint
identifier and GPS-derived
distance information, ADF/
frequency, and Off.
Sensors
Displays the sensor selection
softkeys.
Index
ADC
28
Description
Displays ADC selection
softkeys.
ADC 1
Selects the #1 ADC.
ADC 2
Selects the #2 ADC.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
AHRS
Description
Displays the AHRS selection
softkeys.
Selects the #1 AHRS.
AHRS 2
Selects the #2 AHRS.
Displays softkeys to select
altitude unit parameters.
IN
STD Baro
Press to display the BARO
setting as inches of mercury.
Press to display the BARO
setting as hectopascals.
CDI
Cycles through GPS, NAV1, and
NAV2 navigation modes on the
CDI.
ADF/DME
Displays the ADF/DME Tuning
Window, allowing selection and
tuning of the ADF and DME
(optional).
XPDR
XPDR 1
Appendices
Displays the transponder
selection softkeys.
Additional Features
Selects OBS mode on the CDI
when navigating by GPS (only
available with active leg). When
OBS is on, the softkey
annunciator is green.
Automatic Flight Control
System
OBS
Hazard Avoidance
Sets barometric pressure to
29.92 in Hg (1013 hPa if metric
units are selected) and returns
to top-level softkeys.
Flight Management
System
HPA
When enabled, displays
overlays altimeter with meters.
Audio Panel and CNS
ALT Units
Engine Indication System
Cycles the Bearing 2
Information Window through
NAV1, NAV2, GPS/waypoint
identifier and GPS-derived
distance information, ADF/
frequency, and Off.
Flight Instruments
AHRS 1
Bearing 2
Meters
System Overview
Level 1
Only available when two
transponders are installed.
Selects the #1 transponder as
active.
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
29
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Only available when two
transponders are installed.
Selects the #2 transponder as
active.
Standby
Selects transponder Standby
Mode (transponder does not
reply to any interrogations).
On
Activates transponder
(transponder replies to
identification interrogations).
Alt
Altitude Reporting Mode
(transponder replies to
identification and altitude
interrogations).
VFR
Automatically enters the VFR
code (1200 in the U.S.A. only).
Flight Management
System
Displays transponder code
selection softkeys 0-7.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
0–7
Additional Features
Ident
Appendices
Description
XPDR 2
Code
Ident
Level 4
Use numbers to enter code.
Ident
Activates the Special Position
Identification (SPI) pulse for 18
seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC
screen.
BKSP
Removes numbers entered, one
at a time.
Activates the Special Position
Identification (SPI) pulse for 18
seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC
screen.
Activates the Special Position
Identification (SPI) pulse for 18
seconds, identifying the
transponder return on the ATC
screen.
Displays References Window.
Index
Tmr/Ref
30
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Nearest
System Overview
Level 1
Description
Displays Nearest Airports
Window.
MFD SOFTKEYS
Lvl 2
Lvl 3
Engine
Automatic Flight Control
System
Displays EIS - Engine Page; press again
to exit page (see the EIS Section for
more information).
Decreases calculated fuel remaining by
1 gallon for each softkey press.
INC Fuel
Increases calculated fuel remaining by 1
gallon for each softkey press.
RST Fuel
Resets calculated fuel remaining to
default and resets fuel used to zero.
Traffic
Appendices
Displays second level Map Options
softkeys
Displays traffic information on
Navigation Map Page.
Inset
Additional Features
DEC Fuel
Map Opt
Displays inset window second level
softkeys.
Removes VSD inset from Navigation
Map Page.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Index
Off
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Description
Hazard Avoidance
Lvl 1
Flight Management
System
The MFD softkeys provide control over flight management functions, including GPS, NAV, terrain,
traffic, and weather (optional). There are many softkey functions available on the MFD depending on
the page group and screen selected.
The following table provides an example of the MFD Softkey functions accessed from the
Navigation Map screen. Further information concerning softkeys providing more navigation and
flight planning functions may be found in the Flight Management Section. Terrain, traffic, and
weather softkey descriptions may be found in the Hazard Avoidance section. Further description of
optional equipment and corresponding softkey functions may be found in the Additional Features
Section.
Audio Panel and CNS
Table 1-2 PFD Softkeys
Engine Indication System
System generated messages
cause the Messages Softkey
label to change from Messages
to a flashing ‘Message’ label.
Pressing the Message Softkey
opens the Messages Window,
acknowledges the message,
and the softkey reverts to the
‘Messages’ label.
Flight Instruments
Messages or
Message
31
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Lvl 2
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Lvl 1
Lvl 3
Description
VSD
Displays VSD profile information of
terrain/obstacles along the current track,
vertical track vector, and selected
altitude.
•
Auto: Automatically displays either
VSD profile information for active
flight plan information or along
current track with no active flight plan.
•
FPL: Displays VSD profile information
for active flight plan.
TRK: Displays VSD profile information
along current track.
Displays terrain on the map; cycles
through the following:
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Flight Management
System
TER
•
Off: No terrain information shown on
MFD Map.
•
Topo: Displays topographical data
(e.g., coastlines, terrain, rivers, lakes)
and elevation scale on MFD Map.
REL:
Displays
relative
terrain
information on the MFD Map.
Displays airways on the map; cycles
through the following:
Hazard Avoidance
•
Automatic Flight Control
System
AWY
•
Off: No airways are displayed.
•
On: All airways are displayed.
•
LO: Only low altitude airways are
displayed.
HI: Only high altitude airways are
displayed.
Displays Stormscope information on
Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays XM NEXRAD weather and
coverage on Navigation Map Page
(optional).
Displays XM lightning information on
Navigation Map Page (optional).
Displays METAR information on PFD
Map (subscription optional).
Additional Features
•
STRMSCP
Appendices
NEXRAD
XM LTNG
Index
METAR
32
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Lvl 2
Legend
Detail
Description
Displays legends for the displayed XM
Weather products (optional).
Displays weather information.
Flight Instruments
Wx Radar
Lvl 3
System Overview
Lvl 1
Selects desired amount of map detail;
cycles through the following levels:
Detail All: All map features visible.
•
Detail-3: Declutters land data.
•
Detail-2: Declutters land and SUA data.
Charts
CHRT Opt
STAR
APR
NOTAM
Checklist
Appendices
Table 1-3 MFD Navigation Map Page Softkeys
MENUS
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
33
Index
The system has a MENU Key that, when pressed, displays a context-sensitive list of options. This
options list allows the user to access additional features or make settings changes which specifically
relate to the currently displayed window/page. There is no all-encompassing menu. Some menus
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Additional Features
WX
Automatic Flight Control
System
DP
Hazard Avoidance
Info
Flight Management
System
Show Map
or
Chart
Audio Panel and CNS
Detail-1: Removes everything except
for the active flight plan.
When available, displays optional airport
and terminal procedure charts
(optional).
Displays chart display settings softkeys
(if available).
Show Map displays the applicable WPT
Page information upon the map for the
chart currently selected.
Chart displays the chart for the WPT
Page that is currently selected and
returns to the Charts Level 2 Softkeys.
Pressing the Info 1 or Info 2 Softkey
returns to the airport diagram when the
view is on a different chart.
Displays departure procedure chart.
Displays standard terminal arrival
procedure chart.
Displays approach procedure chart.
Displays weather information.
Displays NOTAM information for
selected airport, when available.
When available, displays optional
checklists.
•
Engine Indication System
•
provide access to additional submenus that are used to view, edit, select, and review options. Menus
display “No Options” when there are no options for the window/page selected. The main controls used
in association with all window/page group operations are described in Section 1.2. Softkey selection
does not display menus or submenus.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Engine Indication System
No Options with
NRST Window
Displayed on PFD
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Options with
FPL Window
Displayed on MFD
Figure 1-12 Page Menu Examples
Navigating the Page Menu Window:
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through a list of available options (a scroll bar appears to
the right of the window when the option list is longer than the window).
3) Press the ENT Key to select the desired option.
4) The CLR Key may be pressed to remove the menu and cancel the operation. Pressing
the FMS Knob also removes the displayed menu.
MFD PAGE GROUPS
NOTE: Refer to other supporting sections in this Pilot’s Guide for details on specific pages.
Information on the MFD is presented on pages grouped according to function. The Display Title is
comprised of the page group and active page title and is displayed in the upper center of the screen
below the Navigation Data Bar. In the bottom right corner of the screen, a page group window is
displayed by turning either FMS Knob. The page group tabs are displayed along the bottom of the
window. The page titles are displayed in a list above the page group tabs.
34
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Page Group
MFD
Active Page Title
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Pages in
Current
Group
Audio Panel and CNS
Page Groups
The main page groups are navigated using the FMS Knob; specific pages within each group can vary
depending on the configuration of optional equipment.
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to display the list of page groups; continue turning the large
FMS Knob until the desired page group is selected.
Hazard Avoidance
Selecting a page using the FMS Knob:
Flight Management
System
Figure 1-13 Page Title and Page Groups
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired page within a specific page group.
Automatic Flight Control
System
There are several pages which may be selected by pressing the appropriate softkey at the bottom of
the page (or from the page menu). In this case, the page title will change when a different page softkey
is pressed, but the page will remain the same, i.e. the Radio and Info softkeys show different page
titles (“Aux - XM Radio” and “Aux - XM Information” respective) within the same page, “XM Radio”.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
35
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Page Group
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Map (Map Page Group)
•
Navigation Map
•
IFR/VFR Charts (optional)
•
Traffic Map
•
Weather Radar(optional)
•
Weather Data Link (optional)
•
TAWS—B (optional)
•
Airport Information
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
WPT (Waypoint Page Group)
Pages within Page Group
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
AUX (Auxiliary Page Group)
36
•
Airport Information (Info 1 Softkey)
•
Airport Directory Information (Info 2 Softkey)
•
Departure Information (DP Softkey)
•
Arrival Information (STAR Softkey)
•
Approach Information (APR Softkey)
•
Weather Information (optional) (WX Softkey)
•
NOTAM Information (NOTAM Softkey)
•
Intersection Information
•
NDB Information
•
VOR Information
•
VRP Information
•
User WPT Information
•
Weight Planning
•
Trip Planning
•
Utility
•
GPS Status
•
System Setup 1/2
•
XM Radio (optional)
•
XM Radio (Radio Softkey)
•
XM Information (Info Softkey)
•
System Status
•
ADS-B Status
•
Connext Setup
•
Databases
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Page Group
Pages within Page Group
FPL (Flight Plan Page Group)
•
Active Flight Plan
•
Flight Plan Catalog
NRST (Nearest Page Group)
Stored Flight Plan (New Softkey)
•
Nearest Airports
•
Nearest Intersection
•
Nearest NDB
•
Nearest VOR
•
Nearest VRP
•
Nearest User WPTS
•
Nearest Frequencies
•
Nearest Airspaces
•
Engine
Flight Management
System
SurfaceWatch Setup
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
EIS (Engine Indication System)
Flight Instruments
•
Table 1-4 Page Group and Pages
PROCEDURE PAGES (PROC)
Approach Loading
•
Arrival Loading
•
Departure Loading
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
Hazard Avoidance
The Procedure Pages may be accessed at any time on the MFD by pressing the PROC Key. A menu
is initialized, and when a departure, approach, or arrival is selected, the appropriate Procedure
Loading Page is opened. Turning the FMS Knob does not scroll through the Procedure pages.
SPLIT SCREEN FUNCTIONALITY
Additional Features
Appendices
Chart pages may be viewed in split screen mode alongside the Navigation Map Page or the Active
Flight Plan Page. When the system is powered-up on the ground, following acknowledgement of the
MFD Power-up Display, the Navigation Map Page and Active Flight Plan Page will be displayed in
normal page view. To activate the split screen functionality, press the Charts Softkey. Two display panes
are displayed on the MFD. If split screen is activated from the Navigation Map Page, the dispaly title
will show ‘Map - Chart + Navigation Map’. If split screen is activated from the Active Flight Plan Page,
the display title will change to show ‘FPL - Chart + Active Flight Plan’.
See the Additional Features section for more information on Charts, and how to enable Charts Full
Screen.
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
37
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
MFD in Split Screen Mode
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts
is the active display pane
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Page Title shows
Map - Chart + Navigation Map
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Figure 1-14 Split Screen Mode
CONTROLLING DISPLAY PANES
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
In split screen mode, the active display pane is outlined by a cyan box called the pane selector.
Softkeys and menu options will automatically change depending on which display pane is active.
Display panes may be displayed vertically in Narrow View, or horizontally in Wide View. In Narrow
View, move the Joystick left or right to move the pane selector. In Wide View, move the Joystick up
and down to move the pane selector. To change between Wide View and Narrow View, push and
hold the Joystick.
For information on viewing Charts and the Active Flight Plan Page with the Flight Plan map, see
the Flight Management Section.
For more information on Charts and how to enable Charts Full Screen, see the Additional Features
section.
38
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190–02361–00 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
MFD in Split Screen Mode
Flight Instruments
Flight Management
System
Softkeys for the
active display pane
Audio Panel and CNS
- Move Joystick in
direction of cyan
arrows to move
display pane
- Push and hold
Joystick to change
Narrow/Wide view
Engine Indication System
Pane Selector Box
Cyan Pane Selector
shows Charts
is the active
display pane
Figure 1-15 Split Screen in Wide View
Hazard Avoidance
Enabling/disabling split screen mode:
1) From the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page or the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page press the
Charts Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Chart Mode On’.
2) To disable the split screen mode, press the Charts Softkey again or press the MENU
Automatic Flight Control
System
Key and select ‘Chart Mode Off’. The display returns to the base page, either the
Navigation Map Page or the Active Flight Plan Page.
SYSTEM SETTINGS
Additional Features
System settings and crew profiles are managed from the System Setup Pages. Fields shown in cyan
text may be edited. Managing crew profiles and editing the system time format, display units, arrival
alerts, and audio voice format settings are discussed in this section. For other system settings, see the
reference given to their respective sections.
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
39
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Flight Instruments
Configure System
Time
Fields shown in Cyan may
be edited
Engine Indication System
Change Display
Unit Settings
Configure settings
- GPS CDI
- Channel Spacing
- Flight Director Format
- Nearest Airport
Configure Alert Settings
BARO Alerts Airspace Alerts Arrival Alerts -
Audio Panel and CNS
Restore System Defaults
Crew Profile
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
- Choose active profile
- Create new profile
- Edit, rename, and delete
existing profile (other than
default profile)
- Import / Export profile to
SD Card
Select System Setup Page
- Setup 1
- Setup 2
Figure 1-16 System Setup 1/2 Pages
Additional Features
If desired, the default system settings may be restored at any time.
Restoring system setup defaults:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the Defaults Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Restore Page Defaults’,
Appendices
and press the ENT Key. The message ‘Restore Setup (1 or 2) Page Defaults?’ is
displayed.
Index
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
40
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Engine Indication System
CREW PROFILE IMPORT/EXPORT MESSAGES
Flight Instruments
System settings may be saved under a crew profile. When the system is powered on, the last
selected crew profile is shown on the MFD Power-up Splash Screen. The system can store up to 25
profiles; the currently active profile, the amount of memory used, and the amount of memory
available are shown at the top of the System Setup Page in the box labeled “Crew Profile”. From here,
crew profiles may be created, selected, renamed, or deleted. Crew profiles may also be exported from
the system to an SD card, or imported from an SD card into the system.
System Overview
CREW PROFILES
In some circumstances, some messages may appear in conjunction with others:
Description
‘No crew profile files found.’
Displayed if the SD card does not have one or
more valid pilot profile filenames.
‘Overwrite existing profile?’
Displayed if the profile name matches the name
of existing profile.
‘Profile name invalid. Enter a different profile
name.’
Displayed if the profile name is invalid.
‘All available crew profiles in use. Delete a
profile before importing another.’
Displayed if the maximum number for pilot
profiles has been reached.
‘Crew profile import failed.’
Displayed if the importing operation fails for any
other reason.
‘Crew profile import succeeded.’
Displayed if the importing operation succeeds.
‘Overwrite existing file?’
Displayed if the filename matches the name of an
existing file on the SD card.
‘Crew profile export failed.’
Displayed if the export operation fails.
‘Crew profile export succeeded.’
Displayed if the export operation succeeds.
Audio Panel and CNS
Message
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Table 1-5 Crew Profile Import/Export Messages
Creating a profile:
Additional Features
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Create’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Create Profile’ Window is displayed.
Key. Crew profile names cannot begin with a blank as the first letter.
Appendices
5) Use the FMS Knob to enter a profile name up to 16 characters long and press the ENT
6) In the next field, use the small FMS Knob to select the desired settings upon which to
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
41
Index
base the new profile. Profiles can be created based on Garmin factory defaults, default
profile settings (initially based on Garmin factory defaults unless edited by the pilot), or
other previously created profile settings.
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
7) Press the ENT Key.
8) With ‘Create’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to create the profile.
Flight Instruments
Or:
Use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Create & Activate’ and press the ENT Key to activate
the new profile.
9) To cancel the process, select ‘Cancel’ with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
Selecting an active profile:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Active’ profile Field in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the crew profile list and highlight the desired
profile.
5) Press the ENT Key. The system loads and displays the system settings for the selected
Flight Management
System
profile.
Renaming a Profile
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Rename’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
5) In the ‘Rename Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to rename.
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) Use the FMS Knob to enter a new profile name up to 16 characters long and press the
ENT Key.
Additional Features
8) With ‘Rename’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
9) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Key.
Deleting a profile:
Appendices
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete’ in the ‘Crew Profile’ Box.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Index
5) In the ‘Delete Profile’ Window, turn the FMS Knob to select the profile to delete.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
6) Press the ENT Key.
7) With ‘Delete’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
8) To cancel the process, use the large FMS Knob to select ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT
Flight Instruments
Key.
Importing a profile from an SD card:
1) Insert an SD card containing the crew profile(s) into the top card slot on the MFD.
Engine Indication System
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
3) Press the Import Softkey.
Or:
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Import Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Importing’ Window with ‘Import’ highlighted.
5) If the imported profile name is the same as an existing profile on the system, the system
6) If successful, the system displays ‘Crew profile import succeeded’ in the Window below.
Automatic Flight Control
System
With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys or press the FMS Knob to return to
the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page. The imported profile becomes the active profile.
Hazard Avoidance
displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt. Press the ENT Key to
replace profile on the system with the profile imported from the SD card, or turn the
FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the ‘Crew Profile
Importing’ Window.
Flight Management
System
Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the desired
profile name with the large and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press
the ENT Key with ‘Import’ highlighted.
Audio Panel and CNS
a) Press the MENU Key.
Additional Features
Crew Profiles Available for Import
from SD Card
Import Successful
Appendices
Crew Profile Importing and Import
Results Window
Figure 1-17 Crew Profile Import on the (Aux - System Setup Page)
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
43
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Exporting a profile to an SD card:
1) Insert the SD card for storing the Crew Profile into the top card slot on the MFD.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
3) Press the Export Softkey. The system displays the ‘Crew Profile Exporting’ Window.
Or:
Engine Indication System
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Export Crew Profile’ and press the ENT Key.
4) To export the crew profile using the current selected profile, press the ENT Key with
Audio Panel and CNS
‘Export’ highlighted. To change the selected profile, turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight the ‘Profile Name’ Field, then scroll to the desired profile name with the large
and small FMS Knobs, then press the ENT Key. Then press the ENT Key with ‘Export’
highlighted.
5) If the selected profile to be exported is the same as an existing profile file name on the
Flight Management
System
SD card, the system displays an ‘Overwrite existing profile? OK or CANCEL’ prompt.
Press the ENT Key to replace the profile on the SD card with the profile to be exported,
or turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to return to the
‘Crew Profile Exporting’ Window without exporting the profile.
6) If successful, the window displays ‘Crew profile export succeeded.’ With ‘OK’
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
highlighted, press the ENT or CLR Keys, or press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Aux System Setup (1 or 2)’ Page.
Additional Features
Crew Profile Exporting Window, Enter
a Name to Use for Exported Profile
Export Successful
Figure 1-18 Crew Profile Export on the (Aux - System Setup Page)
DATE/TIME
Index
Appendices
The system obtains the current Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) date and time directly from the
GPS satellite signals (shown on the Aux - GPS Status Page). System time (displayed in the lower
right corner of the PFD) can be displayed in three formats: local 12-hr, local 24-hr, or UTC. Local
time is set by adding/subtracting an offset (hours:minutes) to/from UTC.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 1-19 System Time (UTC Format)
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 1-20 Date/Time Settings (System Setup 1 Page)
Additional Features
Configuring the system time:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired format and press the ENT Key to confirm
selection. If local time format is selected, the ‘Time Offset’ Field is highlighted.
Appendices
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Time Format’ Field.
5) If necessary, use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time offset (±HH:MM) and press
the ENT Key to confirm selection.
Index
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45
DISPLAY UNITS
Units in which various quantities are displayed on the system screens are listed on the System
Setup Page. The Navigation Angle reference, the Temperature units, and the Position units can be set
from here.
Category
Settings
Navigation Angle
Magnetic (North)* Heading
True (North)
Course
Bearing
Track
Desired Track
Wind Direction (Trip Planning Page)
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Affected Quantities
Distance and Speed Metric
Nautical*
Crosstrack error (HSI)
Bearing distances (information windows)
DME distance (information window)
Flight plan distances
Map ranges (some)
DIS, GS, TAS, XTK Fields (Navigation Data Bar)
Most distances on MFD
Altitude buffer distance (System Setup)
Arrival Alert trigger distance (System Setup)
All speeds on MFD
†
Altitude and Vertical Feet*
Speed
Meters
All altitudes on MFD
All elevations on MFD
††
Temperature
Celsius*
Fahrenheit
All temperatures on PFD
Total Air Temperature (Trip Planning Page)
†††
Fuel and Fuel
Flow**
Gallons
Fuel Parameters (Trip Planning Page)
†††
Weight**
Pounds*
Kilograms
N/A
Position
HDDD°MM.MM’* All positions
HDDD°MM’SS.S”
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
* Default setting
** Contact a Garmin-authorized service center to change this setting
† Excludes: airspeed indicator, altitude, true airspeed (PFD), wind speed vector, map range (Traffic Map
Page, Terrain Proximity/HTAWS Page), CDI scaling (System Setup), and fuel range calculation (EIS)
†† Excludes: altimeter, Vertical Speed Indicator, and VNV altitudes (Active Flight Plan)
††† Excludes: Engine Indication System (EIS)
Index
Table 1-6 Display Unit Settings (System Setup Page)
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
1) While on the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page, press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate
System Overview
Changing a display unit setting:
the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired units.
4) Press the ENT Key. Press the CLR Key to cancel the action without changing the units.
Engine Indication System
BARO TRANSITION ALERT
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Display Units’ Box.
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on setting the Baro Transition Alert.
AIRSPACE ALERTS
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on Airspace Alerts settings.
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘On/Off’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
Hazard Avoidance
Enabling/disabling the Window Arrival Alert:
Flight Management
System
The Arrival Alert Box on the System Setup 1 Page allows the Messages Window arrival alerts to be
turned “On/Off” and the alert trigger distance (up to 99.9 units) set for alerts in the Messages
Window and the PFD Navigation Status Box. An arrival alert can be set to notify the pilot with a
message upon reaching a user-specified distance from the final destination (the direct-to waypoint or
the last waypoint in a flight plan). When Arrival Alerts is set to “On”, and the set distance is reached,
an “Arrival at waypoint” message is displayed in the PFD Navigation Status Box, and a “WPT
ARRIVAL - Arriving at waypoint - [xxxx]” is displayed in the Messages Window. When Arrival Alerts
is set to “Off”, only the PFD Navigation Status Box message “Arriving at waypoint” is displayed, and
it is displayed when the time to the final destination is approximately ten seconds.
Audio Panel and CNS
ARRIVAL ALERTS
turn the alert Off.
Additional Features
Changing the arrival alert trigger distance:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
Appendices
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Distance’ Field in the ‘Arrival Alert’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter a trigger distance and press the ENT Key.
SURFACEWATCH
See the Additional Features section for more information on setting the SurfaceWatch Alerts.
Index
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47
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
FLIGHT DIRECTOR
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion setting the Flight Director format.
MFD DATA BAR FIELDS
Flight Instruments
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on the MFD Data Bar Fields settings.
GPS CDI
See the Flight Instruments section for a discussion on setting the GPS CDI format.
Engine Indication System
COM CONFIGURATION
See the Audio Panel & CNS section for a discussion on the COM Configuration for channel
spacing.
Audio Panel and CNS
NEAREST AIRPORT
See the Flight Management section for a discussion on the Nearest Airport settings.
STABILITY AND PROTECTION
Flight Management
System
See the Additional Features Section for information on enabling and disabling the Stability and
Protection feature.
PAGE NAVIGATION
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
The large FMS Knob displays the Page Group Tabs and navigates through the tabs. The small FMS
Knob navigates through the pages listed within a specific group. The number of clicks it takes to
display the Page Group Tabs and change to the next tab can be controlled from the Page Navigation
box on the Aux - System Setup 2 Page.
Off – Displays the Page Group Window with one click of either FMS Knob.
On – Displays the Page Group Window and navigates to the next page group with one click of
either FMS Knob.
The pilot can select, from the Aux - System Setup 2 Page, the amount of time the Page Group
Window is displayed (in the lower right corner of the MFD). The timeout can range from two to ten
seconds.
Selecting page navigation settings:
Additional Features
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 2 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Change On 1st Click’ field in the Page
Navigation Box.
Appendices
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Timeout Seconds’ field in the Page
Navigation Box.
Index
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired number of seconds
7) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to remove the flashing cursor.
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System Overview
AUDIO ALERTS
The Audio Box on the System Setup 2 Page allows the audio alert voice setting (male or female).
Changing the audio alert voice:
Flight Instruments
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the Aux - System Setup 2 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Voice Field in the Audio Box.
SYSTEM UTILITIES
Audio Panel and CNS
For flight planning purposes, timers, trip statistics, and a scheduler feature are provided on the Aux Utility Page. The timers available include a stopwatch-like generic timer, a total time in flight timer,
and a record of the time of departure. Trip statistics—odometer, trip odometer, and average trip and
maximum groundspeeds—are displayed from the time of the last reset.
Engine Indication System
4) Use the FMS Knob to select the desired voice setting and press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Figure 1-21 Utility Page
TIMERS
•
Stopwatch-like generic timers
•
Total-time-in-flight timer
•
Time since departure
Appendices
The system timers available on the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page include:
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
49
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
The generic timer can be set to count up or down from a specified time (HH:MM:SS). When the
countdown on the timer reaches zero the digits begin to count up from zero. If the timer is reset
before reaching zero on a countdown, the digits are reset to the initial value. If the timer is counting
up when reset, the digits return to zero.
The flight timer can be set to count up from zero starting at system power-up or from the time that
the aircraft lifts off; the timer can also be reset to zero at any time.
The system records the time at which departure occurs, depending on whether the pilot prefers the
time to be recorded from system power-up or from aircraft lift off. The displayed departure time can
also be reset to display the current time at the point of reset. The format in which the time is
displayed is controlled from the System Setup Page.
Setting the generic timer:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the timer counting direction (Up/Dn) and press the
ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
4) If a desired starting time is desired:
a) Use the large FMS Knob to highlight the HH:MM:SS ‘Generic’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Start?’ and press the ENT Key to start the timer.
Hazard Avoidance
The field changes to ‘Stop?’.
6) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to
‘Reset?’.
Automatic Flight Control
System
7) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back
to ‘Start?’ and the digits are reset.
Setting the flight timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
Additional Features
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Flight’ timer Field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the
ENT Key.
Appendices
Resetting the flight timer:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Index
3) With ‘Reset Flight Timer’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
System Overview
Setting the departure timer starting criterion:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the starting criterion (Pwr-On or In-Air) and press the
ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
Resetting the departure time:
Flight Instruments
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Departure Time’ Field.
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
TRIP STATISTICS
Resetting trip statistics readouts:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
Flight Management
System
The odometer and trip odometer record the total mileage traveled from the last reset; these
odometers can be reset independently. Resetting the trip odometer also resets the average trip
groundspeed. Maximum groundspeed for the period of time since the last reset is also displayed.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Reset Departure Time’ and press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key. The following reset options for trip statistics are displayed:
•
Reset Odometer—Resets odometer readout only
•
Reset Maximum Speed—Resets maximum speed readout only
•
Reset All—Resets flight timer, departure timer, odometers, and groundspeed readouts
3) Use the FMS Knob to highlight the desired reset option and press the ENT Key. The
selected parameters are reset to zero and begin to display data from the point of reset.
SCHEDULER
51
Index
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Appendices
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Additional Features
The system’s Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display reminder messages (e.g., “Switch
fuel tanks”, “Overhaul”, etc.) in the Messages Window on the PFD. Messages can be set to display
based on a specific date and time (event), once the message timer reaches zero (one-time; default
setting), or recurrently whenever the message timer reaches zero (periodic). Message timers set to
periodic alerting automatically reset to the original timer value once the message is displayed. When
power is cycled, messages are retained until deleted, and message timer countdown is restarted.
Scheduler messages appear in the Messages Window on the PFD and cause the Messages Softkey
label to change to a flashing Message label. Pressing the Message Softkey opens the Messages
Window and acknowledges the scheduler message. The softkey reverts to the Messages label.
Pressing the Messages Softkey again removes the Messages Window from the display and the
scheduler message is deleted from the message queue.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Reset Trip ODOM/AVG GS—Resets trip average ground speed readout and odometer
Hazard Avoidance
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-22 PFD Messages Window
Entering a scheduler message:
Flight Management
System
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the first empty field within the ‘Scheduler’ Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter text within the ‘Message’ Field to be displayed in the
Hazard Avoidance
‘Messages’ Window and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the ‘Type’
Field.
Automatic Flight Control
System
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select set the message alert type:
•
Event—Message issued at the specified date/time
•
One-time—Message issued when the message timer reaches zero (default setting)
•
Periodic—Message issued each time the message timer reaches zero
Additional Features
7) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next
field.
8) For periodic and one-time message, use the FMS Knob to enter the timer value
(HHH:MM:SS) from which to countdown and press the ENT Key.
Index
Appendices
9) For event-based messages:
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System Overview
a) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired date (DD-MMM-YYY) and press the ENT
Key.
b) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next
Flight Instruments
field.
c) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time (HH:MM) and press the ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key again or use the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to enter the
next message.
Engine Indication System
Deleting a scheduler message:
1) Select the ‘Aux - Utility’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
be deleted.
4) Press the CLR Key to clear the message text. If the CLR Key is pressed again, the
message is restored.
Flight Management
System
5) Press the ENT Key to confirm message deletion.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Message’ Field of the scheduler message to
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
53
1.5 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The PFD and MFD display backlighting, the PFD and MFD bezel, and the Audio Panel keys can be
adjusted manually in one of two ways:
•
Using the individual dimmer bus control for the desired display, or
•
Using PFD Setup Menu and the following procedures. In normal operating mode, backlighting can
only be adjusted from a PFD. In reversionary mode, adjustments can be made from remaining
displays.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 1-23 PFD Setup Menu
Automatic Flight Control
System
Adjusting display backlighting:
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup Menu’. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted
next to ‘PFD1 Display’. If desired, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Auto’ next to
‘MFD Display’ or ‘PFD2 Display’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value
Additional Features
is now highlighted.
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting then press the ENT Key.
4) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Adjusting key backlighting:
Appendices
1) Press the PFD MENU Key to display the ‘PFD Setup Menu’. ‘Auto’ is now highlighted
next to ‘PFD1 Display’.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘PFD1 Display’, ‘MFD Display’, or ‘PFD2 Display’,
Index
as desired.
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SYSTEM OVERVIEW
‘MFD Key’, or ‘PFD2 Key’.
System Overview
3) Turn the small FMS Knob in the direction of the green arrowhead to display ‘PFD1 Key’,
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Auto’.
is now highlighted.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired backlighting and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
7) To remove the menu, press the CLR or MENU Key.
Flight Instruments
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Manual’ and press the ENT Key. The intensity value
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
55
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
BLANK PAGE
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
SECTION 2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2.1 OVERVIEW
Airspeed Indicator, showing
Indicated airspeed
•
True speed
•
Airspeed awareness ranges
•
Vspeed Reference Bugs
•
Attitude Indicator with slip/skid indication
•
Altimeter, showing
Trend vector
•
Barometric setting
•
Selected altitude
Hazard Avoidance
•
•
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
•
Vertical Navigation (VNV) indications
•
Outside air temperature (OAT)
•
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) temperature deviation
•
Horizontal Situation Indicator, showing
Turn Rate Indicator
•
Bearing pointers and information windows
•
Navigation Source
•
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
•
DME Information Window (optional)
•
HSI Map
Appendices
•
Additional Features
Vertical Deviation, Glideslope, and Glidepath Indicators
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
Index
•
Flight Management
System
•
ADF/DME Tuning Window (Optional)
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
The system increases pilot situational awareness by providing and easy-to-scan Primary Flight Display
(PFD) that features a large horizon, airspeed, attitude, altitude, vertical speed, and course deviation
information. In addition to the flight instruments, navigation, communication, terrain, traffic, and
weather information are also presented on the PFD and explained in other sections of this Pilot’s Guide.
The following flight instruments and supplemental flight data are displayed on the PFD:
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides additional readouts and bugs on
selected flight instruments. Refer to the AFCS Section for details on these bugs and readouts,
as they appear on the display during certain AFCS modes.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
57
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
•
•
Timer/References Window, Showing
•
Generic timer
•
Vspeed values
•
Barometric Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH)
Wind data
Engine Indication System
The PFD also displays various alerts and annunciations.
17
15
16
14
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
13
1
12
2
11
10
9
8
Hazard Avoidance
3
4
5
Automatic Flight Control
System
6
7
1
Airspeed Indicator
10
Barometric Altimeter Setting
2
True Airspeed
11
Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
3
Current Heading
12
Selected Altitude Bug
4
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
13
Altimeter
5
ISA Temperature Deviation
14
Selected Altitude
6
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
15
Navigation Status Box
7
Softkeys
16
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Selected Heading Bug
17
Attitude Indicator
9
Turn Rate Indicator
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 2-1 Primary Flight Display (Default)
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System Overview
11
10
Flight Instruments
9
8
Engine Indication System
1
2
7
Audio Panel and CNS
3
4
Flight Management
System
5
6
Figure 2-2 Additional PFD Information
7
Selected Course
2
Wind Data Box
8
Required Vertical Speed Indicator
3
HSI Map
9
Vertical Deviation Indication
4
Bearing Information Windows
10
VNV Target Altitude
5
Bearing Information Windows
11
Marker Beacon Annunciation
6
Minimum Descent Altitude/ Decision
Height
Automatic Flight Control
System
Selected Heading
Hazard Avoidance
1
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
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59
2.2 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
Attitude information is displayed over a virtual blue sky and brown ground with a white horizon
line. The Attitude Indicator displays the pitch, roll, and slip/skid information.
9
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
1
8
7
Audio Panel and CNS
2
6
4
5
Roll Pointer
2
Roll Scale
3
Horizon Line
4
Aircraft Symbol
5
Land Representation
6
Pitch Scale
7
Slip/Skid Indicator
8
Sky Representation
9
Roll Scale Zero
Figure 2-3 Attitude Indicator
The horizon line is part of the pitch scale. Above and below the horizon line, major pitch marks and
numeric labels are shown for every 10˚, up to 80˚. Minor pitch marks are shown for intervening 5˚
increments, up to 25˚ below and 45˚ above the horizon line. Between 20˚ below to 20˚ above the
horizon line, minor pitch marks occur every 2.5˚. When the Synthetic Vision System is activated, the
pitch scale is reduced to 10˚ up and 7.5˚ down; refer to the Additional Features section.
The inverted white triangle indicates zero on the roll scale. Major tick marks at 30˚ and 60˚ and
minor tick marks at 10˚, 20˚, and 45˚ are shown to the left and right of the zero. Angle of bank is
indicated by the position of the pointer on the roll scale. When the optional Electronic Stability and
Protection System (Garmin ESP™) system is installed and enabled, additional indications also appear
on the roll scale; refer to the Additional Features Section for more information about Garmin ESP.
The Slip/Skid Indicator is the bar beneath the roll pointer. The indicator bar moves with the roll
pointer and moves laterally away from the pointer to indicate uncoordinated flight. Slip (inside the
turn) or skid (outside the turn) is indicated by the location of the bar relative to the pointer. One bar
displacement is equal to one ball displacement on a traditional Slip/Skid Indicator.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
3
1
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Figure 2-4 Slip/Skid Indication
Single-cue
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Synthetic Vision System Pathways are disabled if the cross-pointer is displayed.
Engine Indication System
The amber symbolic aircraft on the Attitude Indicator changes appearance based on selection of
AFCS Flight Director Command Bar format (see the AFCS Section for details). The Command Bar
format (single-cue or cross-pointer) may be selected from the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Cross-pointer
Flight Management
System
Figure 2-5 Flight Director Format
Changing the Command Bar format:
Hazard Avoidance
1) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the ‘Aux’ page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux — System Setup 1’ Page.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Format Active’ setting in the ‘Flight Director’
box.
Additional Features
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired format.
Automatic Flight Control
System
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
’Single Cue’ to display the aircraft symbol and Command Bars as a single cue.
Or:
’X Pointer’ to display the aircraft symbol and Command Bars as a cross-pointer.
Appendices
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
NOTE: Refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) for airspeed criteria and Vspeed values.
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
61
Index
The Airspeed Indicator displays airspeed on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The true airspeed
is displayed in knots below the Airspeed Indicator. The numeric labels and major tick marks on the
moving tape are marked at intervals of 10 knots. The minor tick marks on the moving tape are
indicated at intervals of 5 knots. Speed indication starts at 20 knots, with 60 knots of airspeed
viewable at any time. The indicated airspeed is displayed inside the black pointer. The pointer remains
black until reaching never-exceed speed (VNE), then it becomes red.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Engine Indication System
Airspeed
Trend
Vector
Audio Panel and CNS
Indicated
Airspeed
Red Pointer with VNE
exceedan ce
Speed
Ranges
True
Airspeed
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Low
Speed
Range
Figure 2-6 Airspeed Indicator Ranges
A color-coded (red, white, green, and amber) speed range strip is located on the moving tape. The
colors denote flaps operating range, normal operating range, caution range, and never-exceed speed
(VNE). A red range is also present for low speed awareness.
The Airspeed Trend Vector is a vertical magenta line that appears to the right of the color-coded
speed range strip when airspeed is either accelerating or decelerating. One end of the magenta line is
anchored to the tip of the airspeed pointer while the other end moves continuously up or down
corresponding to the rate of acceleration or deceleration. For any constant rate of acceleration or
deceleration, the moving end of the line shows approximately what the indicated airspeed value will
be in six seconds. If the trend vector crosses VNE, the number in the indicated airspeed pointer
changes to amber. The trend vector is absent if the speed remains constant or if any data needed to
calculate airspeed is not available due to a system failure.
The pilot can enable/disable the display of Vspeed Reference Bugs. When enabled, the Vspeed
Reference Bugs appear in their respective positions to the right of the airspeed scale. When the
indicated airspeed is below 20 knots, enabled Vspeeds Reference Bugs and their numeric values
appear in a list at the bottom of the airspeed tape, ordered from highest to lowest. The pilot cannot
change the numeric values of the Vspeed Reference Bugs. The pilot can enable/disable all Vspeed
Reference Bugs as a group.
Index
Appendices
Vspeed
Reference
Bug
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
Flight Instruments
References Window
Engine Indication System
References Window Menu
Figure 2-7 References Window and Menu
Enabling/disabling individual Vspeed Reference Bugs:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the On/Off field for the desired bug.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to On or counterclockwise to Off.
Flight Management
System
4) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Enabling/disabling Vspeed Reference Bugs as a group:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll as needed to highlight the desired selection.
4) Press the ENT Key.
ALTIMETER
63
Index
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Appendices
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Additional Features
The Altimeter displays barometric altitude values on a moving tape rolling number gauge. The pilot
can choose display units format for the Altimeter as feet or meters.
If the altitude is displayed in feet, the Altimeter shows 600 feet of barometric altitude at a time, with
numeric labels and major tick marks displayed at intervals of 100 feet. Minor tick marks are at
intervals of 20 feet.
If the altitude is displayed in meters, the Altimeter shows 180 meters of barometric altitude at a time,
with numeric labels and major tick market displayed at intervals of 50 meters. Minor tick marks are at
intervals of 10 meters.
The Indicated Altitude is displayed in the black pointer.
The Selected Altitude is displayed above the Altimeter in the box indicated by a selection bug
symbol. A bug corresponding to this altitude is shown on the tape; if the Selected Altitude exceeds the
range shown on the tape, the bug appears at the upper or lower edge of the tape. See the AFCS Section
for more information about the Selected Altitude.
Automatic Flight Control
System
5) To remove the References Window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Instruments
Selected Altitude
Engine Indication System
Altitude Trend Vector
Selected Altitude Bug
MDA/DH Altitude Bug
Altitude displ ay units
selection
Baromet ric Setting
(in. HG)
Altimeter in Meters
Audio Panel and CNS
Altimeter in Feet
Selected Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Selected Altitude in
Feet Overlay
Indicated Altitude in
Meters Overlay
Indicated Altitude in
Feet Overlay
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Figure 2-8 Altimeter Shows Feet or Meters
Altimeter in Feet with Metric
Overlays Enabled
Altimeter in Meters with Feet
Overlays Enabled
Figure 2-9 Altimeter with Altitude Units Overlays
Additional Features
Selecting the altitude display units:
1) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘ALT, VS’ datafield in the ‘Display Units’
Appendices
Window.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Feet(FT,FPM)’ or ‘Meters(MT,MPS)’ and
Index
press the ENT Key. This setting affects altitude displays system-wide, in addition to
those shown on the PFD.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
1) Turn the ALT SEL Knob to set the Selected Altitude. If the Altimeter display units are set
for the Selected altitude.
The pilot can choose to display overlays for the indicated altitude and Selected Altitude using alternate
display units. For example, if the Altimeter is displaying feet, the system can show a metric overlay for
the indicated and selected altitudes without changing the scale or display units of the Altimeter.
Audio Panel and CNS
Enabling altitude units overlays:
Engine Indication System
2) If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height (MDA/DH) value is also available
Flight Instruments
to feet, the Selected Altitude increments are 100 feet. If the Altimeter is set to Metric,
the Selected altitude increments are 50 meters. When the altitude units overlays are
enabled, the increments alternate between a rounded value of feet or meters while
turning the ALT SEL Knob. If set, the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height
(MDA/DH) value is also available for the Selected Altitude.
System Overview
Setting the Selected Altitude:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys..
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
Selecting the altimeter barometric pressure setting:
Additional Features
Turn the BARO Knob to select the desired setting.
If the barometric altimeter settings differ between PFDs by more than 0.02 Hg, the readouts become
amber. The settings can be synchronized from the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD. Once the
settings are synchronized, the readouts change from amber to cyan.
Automatic Flight Control
System
WARNING: Do not use a QFE altimeter setting with this system. System functions will not
operate properly with a QFE altimeter setting. Use only a QNH altimeter setting for height
above mean sea level, or the standard pressure setting, as applicable.
Hazard Avoidance
The barometric pressure setting is displayed below the Altimeter in inches of mercury (in Hg) or
hectopascals (hPa) when metric units are selected. Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates
discontinuities in VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take
several minutes for the aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a
waypoint with a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to
meet the vertical constraint.
Flight Management
System
3) Press the Meters or Feet Softkeyto enable/disable the altitude overlays.
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
65
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Baromet ric Settings
not Synchronized on PFDs
Displayed in Amber
Figure 2-10 Barometric Setting on PFDs not Synchronized
Synchronizing the altimeter barometric pressure settings:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux page group on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, press the Setup 1 Softkey to display the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Flight Management
System
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘BARO’ in the ‘Synchronization’ box.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
7) Press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
8) Turn the small FMS Knob to change the altitude.
9) Press the ENT Key.
10) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Changing altimeter barometric pressure setting units:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey to display the second-level softkeys.
2) Press the ALT Units Softkey.
Additional Features
3) Press the IN Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in inches of mercury (in
Hg).
Or:
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
The Baro Transition Alerts flash the barometric pressure setting to remind the pilot to change the
barometric pressure setting to or from standard. Two alerts are available. The altitude Baro Transition
Alert occurs when climbing through the transition altitude beginning at 200 feet below this altitude. The
flight level Baro Transition Alert occurs when descending through the transition flight level beginning at
200 feet above this flight level. The barometric pressure setting stops flashing after the pilot changes the
Index
Appendices
Press the HPA Softkey to display the barometric pressure setting in hectopascals (hPa).
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
barometric pressure setting. The pilot can enable/disable either Baro Transition Alert, and choose the
altitude or flight level used to trigger the alerts.
Setting the Baro Transition Alerts:
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) To enable/disable the Baro Transition Alert based on altitude, turn the large FMS Knob
Engine Indication System
to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition Alert Altitude in the ‘BARO
Transition Alert’ Box.
Flight Instruments
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
4) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Altitude ‘On’ or
‘Off’.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to change the altitude and press the ENT Key to accept or press the
CLR Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
7) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field for the BARO Transition
8) If desired, turn the small FMS Knob to set the BARO Transition Alert Flight Level ‘On’ or
‘Off’.
Flight Management
System
Alert Level.
Audio Panel and CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude’ field.
9) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Flight Level’ field.
Hazard Avoidance
10) Use the FMS Knobs to change the Flight Level for the alert and press the ENT Key to
accept or press the CLR Key to return to the previous altitude selection.
11) Push the FMS Knob to deactivate the cursor.
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator is only available on GPS approaches supporting SBAS vertical
guidance when SBAS is available.
67
Index
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Appendices
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Additional Features
The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) displays the aircraft vertical speed using a non-moving tape. The
current vertical speed is displayed in the pointer along the tape. The pilot can choose the display units
format for the VSI and altimeter as feet or meters.
If the VSI is displayed in feet, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 1000 and 2000 feet per
minute. Minor tick marks appear for every 500 fpm. If the current vertical speed is at least 100 fpm,
digits appear in the pointer. If the rate of ascent/descent exceeds 2000 fpm, the pointer appears at the
corresponding edge of the tape while displaying the current vertical speed numerically.
If the VSI is displayed in meters, numeric labels with major tick marks appear at 5 and 10 meters per
second. Minor tick marks appear for every 2.5 meters per second. If the current vertical speed it least
0.5 meters per second, digits appear in the pointer. If the rate of ascent or descent exceeds 10 meters per
second, the pointer appears at the corresponding edge of the tape while displaying the current vertical
speed numerically.
Automatic Flight Control
System
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)
A magenta chevron bug is displayed as the Required Vertical Speed Indication (RVSI) for reaching a
VNV Target Altitude once the “TOD [Top of Descent] within 1 minute” alert has been generated. See the
Flight Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to the Supplemental Flight Data
discussion later in this section for more information about VNV indications on the PFDs.
VERTICAL DEVIATION
When Vertical Navigation (VNV) is being used, the Vertical Deviation Indicator (VDI) appears to the
left of the altimeter and is displayed with a magenta ‘V’ at the top of the scale and a magenta chevron
indicating the baro-VNAV vertical deviation. The VDI appears in conjunction with the “TOD within 1
minute” alert. The VDI is removed from the display if vertical deviation becomes invalid. See the Flight
Management Section for details on VNV features, and refer to the Supplemental Flight Data discussion
later in this section for more information about VNV indications on the PFDs.
The Glideslope Indicator appears to the left of the Altimeter whenever an ILS frequency is tuned in
the active NAV field and the selected course and heading are within 107°. A green diamond acts as the
Glideslope Indicator, like a glideslope needle on a conventional indicator. If a localizer frequency is
tuned and there is no glideslope, “NO GS” is displayed in place of the diamond.
VNV Target
Altitude
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Vertical
Speed
Scale
Vertical
Speed
Indicator
Glideslope
Indicator
Figure 2-11 Vertical Speed and Deviation Indicator (VSI and VDI) and Glideslope Indicator
The Glidepath Indicator is a vertical deviation scale for RNAV GPS approaches supporting SBAS
vertical guidance (LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LPV, LP+V). The Glidepath Indicator, a magenta diamond appears
on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF) becomes the active waypoint, and FMS is the
selected navigation source. Full-scale deflection (two dots), is angular with upper and lower limits.
The upper limit is +/-492 feet (150 meters) and lower limits depend on approach service level.
•
LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V, LP+V is +/- 148 feet (45 meters).
•
LPV is +/- 49 feet (15 meters).
If the approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
diamond.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Required
Vertical
Speed
Marker
Beacon
Annunciation
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
While executing an SBAS approach with an LNAV/VNAV approach service level, and between the
FAF and MAP, the Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators appear as vertical white lines indicating the area
where deviation exceeds allowable limits for the glidepath. The Vertical Deviation Limit Indicator
provides a scaled representation of +/- 75 feet of the calculated glidepath. The “window” between the
lines represents the area of acceptable deviation. The length of the lines change while progressing
through the final approach. When the Glidepath Indicator enters an excessive deviation area, the
Glidepath and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators become amber.
System Overview
NOTE: The Glidepath Indicator appears on the display as soon as the Final Approach Fix (FAF)
becomes the active waypoint. Depending on procedure design, pilot action, and/or ATC
clearance, the aircraft may be centered on or above the glidepath when the Glidepath
Indicator appears.
Audio Panel and CNS
Glidepath
in area of
excessive
vertical
deviation
with
amber
indicators
Flight Management
System
Glidepath
Indicator
Vertical
Deviation
Limit
Indicators
Hazard Avoidance
While executing an LNAV/VNAV approach and SBAS is unavailable or disabled, baro-VNAV
(barometric vertical navigation) is used for vertical guidance. This occurs due to any of the following
conditions:
SBAS fails or becomes unavailable prior to the FAF
•
The aircraft is outside of SBAS coverage
•
SBAS is manually disabled on the ‘Aux - GPS Status’ Page.
Appendices
Baro-VNAV is also the source of vertical approach guidance if the LNAV/VNAV procedure does not
support SBAS vertical guidance.
While baro-VNAV is being used, the Glidepath Indicator appears as a magenta pentagon. If the
approach downgrades past the final approach fix (FAF), “NO GP” is displayed in place of the
pentagon.
Additional Features
•
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 2-12 Glidepath Indicator (Baro-VNAV) and Vertical Deviation Limit Indicators
Index
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
69
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Glidepath
Indicator
(BaroVNAV)
Figure 2-13 Glidepath Indicator with Baro-VNAV active
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNV) INDICATIONS
When a VNV flight plan has been activated, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, RVSI, VDI) appear
on the PFD in conjunction with the “TOD within 1 minute” message and “Vertical track” voice alert. See
the Flight Management and AFCS sections for details on VNV features. VNV indications are removed
from the PFD according to the criteria listed in the table.
Hazard Avoidance
Top of Descent Message
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Phase of
Flight
GPS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 2-14 Vertical Navigation Indications (PFD)
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
VNV Target
Altitude
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
VNV Indication Removed
X
X
X
VNV cancelled (CNCL VNV Softkey selected on
MFD)
X
X
X
Distance to active waypoint cannot be computed
due to unsupported flight plan leg type (see Flight
Management Section)
X
X
X
Aircraft > 250 feet below active VNV Target
Altitude
X
X
X
Current crosstrack or track angle error has
exceeded limit
X
X
X
Active altitude-constrained waypoint can not be
reached within maximum allowed flight path
angle and vertical speed
X
X
Flight Management
System
Aircraft > 1 min before the next TOD due to flight
plan change
Audio Panel and CNS
VNV Target
Altitude
Engine Indication System
Vertical
Deviation
(VDI)
Flight Instruments
Required
Vertical
Speed
(RSVI)
Criteria
Table 2-1 VNV Indication Removal Criteria
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) displays a rotating compass card in a heading-up
orientation. Letters indicate the cardinal points with numeric labels every 30˚. Major tick marks are at
10˚ intervals and minor tick marks are at 5˚ intervals. A digital reading of the current heading appears
on top of the HSI. The HSI also presents turn rate, course deviation, bearing, and selected navigation
source information. The HSI is available in two formats: a 360˚ compass rose and a 210˚ HSI Map. The
HSI Map is mutually exclusive with the Inset Maps.
The HSI with the HSI map disabled presents a Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) with a Course
Pointer, To/From Indicator, and a sliding deviation bar and scale. The Course Pointer is a single line
arrow (GPS, VOR1, and LOC) or a double line arrow (VOR2 and LOC2) which points in the direction
of the set course. The To/From Indicator rotates with the Course Pointer and appears when the system
is receiving the active NAVAID.
Hazard Avoidance
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
Appendices
Index
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
71
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
15
Flight Instruments
1
12
2
3
11
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
4
5
10
6
9
7
8
Flight Management
System
Figure 2-15 Horizontal Situation Indicator (360˚ HSI)
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
13
1
Turn Rate Indicator
9
To/From Indicator
2
Current Track Indicator
10
Flight Phase
3
Course Pointer
11
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)
4
Navigation Source
12
Heading Bug
5
Aircraft Symbol
13
Turn Rate and Heading Trend Vector
6
Lateral Deviation Scale
14
Current Heading
7
Rotating Compass Card
15
Lubber Line
8
OBS Mode Active
The HSI Map is a 210 ˚ expanded compass rose which also includes a navigation map with overlay
capabilities such as topographical, weather, traffic, and land information. The HSI Map contains a
Course Pointer, a combined To/From Indicator with a sliding deviation indicator, and a lateral
deviation scale. Upon passing a station, the To/From Indicator points to the tail of the aircraft.
Depending on the navigation source, the CDI on the HSI Map can appear either as an arrowhead
(GPS, VOR, OBS) as a diamond (LOC). Refer to the Flight Management Section for information about
using HSI Map overlays.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
14
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
Lateral Deviation Scale
Flight Phase
Annunci ation
Navigation Source
Flight Instruments
Course Deviation
Indicator and To/
From Indicator
Course Pointer
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Figure 2-16 HSI Map Enabled
Hazard Avoidance
The following information appears above the Current Heading when the HSI Map is enabled:
OBS Mode/Suspend Mode Status
Deviation scale
Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode Annunciation
Navigation Source
Crosstrack Error (XTK)
Flight Phase
Back Course Annunciation (BC)
Appendices
Enabling/disabling the HSI Map on the PFD:
Additional Features
For the HSI Map, when a localizer is the active navigation source and the difference between the
selected course and current heading is greater than 107°, a ‘BC’ annunciation appears instead of the
Flight Phase above the selected course readout to indicate backcourse sensing is active. This
annunciation does not apply to the HSI when the HSI Map is disabled. In either case, when the system
detects LOC BC guidance is active, the localizer guidance behaves as if a front course were selected.
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for three seconds after being adjusted.
Automatic Flight Control
System
A sliding deviation indicator (the To/From and deviation
indicators are combined)
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
73
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
3) Press the HSI Map Softkey to enable the HSI Map.
Flight Instruments
Or:
Press the Map Off Softkey to disable the HSI Map.
Adjusting the selected heading:
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
1) Turn the HDG Knob to set the selected heading.
2) Press the HDG Knob to synchronize the bug to the current heading.
Adjusting the Selected Course:
1) Turn the CRS Knob to set the Selected Course.
2) Press the CRS Knob to re-center the CDI and return the course pointer to the bearing of
the active waypoint or navigation station (see OBS Mode for adjusting a GPS course).
The Selected Course is shown to the upper right of the HSI for 3 seconds after being adjusted.
Current Heading
Selected Heading
Selected Course
Selected Heading Bug
Figure 2-17 Heading and Course Indications
The Current Track Indicator, represented by a magenta diamond on the HSI, is the current over the
ground track the aircraft is flying.
Navigation angles (track, heading, course, bearing) are corrected to the computed magnetic variation
(Mag Var) or referenced to true north (T), set on the ‘AUX - System Setup 1’ Page. When an approach
referenced to true north has been loaded into the flight plan, the system generates a message to change
the navigation angle setting to True at the appropriate time.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Current Track Indicator
Figure 2-18 Heading and Course Indications (True)
Appendices
Changing the navigation angle true/magnetic setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX - System Setup 1‘ Page on the MFD.
Index
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Nav Angle’ in the ‘Display Units’ box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
True - References angles to true north (T)
•
Magnetic - Angles corrected to the computed magnetic variation (Mag Var)
Flight Instruments
•
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR (CDI)
Audio Panel and CNS
Navigation
Source
Flight
Phase
Scale
Flight Management
System
Crosstrack
Error
Engine Indication System
The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) moves left or right from the course pointer along a lateral
deviation scale to display aircraft position relative to the course. If the course deviation data is not
valid, the CDI is not displayed.
CDI
Automatic Flight Control
System
The CDI can display two sources of navigation, FMS or VOR/LOC. The color indicates the current
navigation source, magenta for FMS and green for VOR and LOC. The full scale limits for the CDI are
defined by an FMS-derived distance when coupled to the FMS. If the CDI exceeds the maximum
deviation on the scale (two dots) while navigating with FMS, the crosstrack error (XTK) is displayed
below the white aircraft symbol. When navigating using a VOR or localizer (LOC), the CDI uses the
same angular deviation as a mechanical CDI.
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 2-19 Course Deviation Indicator
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 2-20 Navigation Sources
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
75
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
NAV1 Selected for Tuning
Flight Instruments
FMS
Selected
Engine Indication System
Pressing the CDISoftkey
Cycles through
Navigation Sources
Figure 2-21 Selecting a Navigation Source
Changing navigation sources:
1) Press the CDI Softkey to change from FMS to VOR1 or LOC1. This places the cyan
tuning box over the NAV1 standby frequency in the upper left corner of the PFD.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
VOR2
Selected
2) Press the CDI Softkey again to change from VOR1 or LOC1 to VOR2 or LOC2. This
places the cyan tuning box over the NAV2 standby frequency.
3) Press the CDI Softkey a third time to return to FMS.
The system automatically switches from FMS to LOC navigation source and changes the CDI scaling
accordingly when all of the following occur:
•
A localizer or ILS approach has been loaded into the active flight plan
•
The final approach fix (FAF) is the active waypoint, the FAF is less than 15 nm away, and the aircraft
is moving toward the FAF
•
A valid localizer frequency has been tuned
•
The FMS CDI deviation is less than 1.2 times full-scale deflection
FMS steering guidance is still provided after the CDI automatically switches to LOC until LOC
capture, up to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for an ILS approach, or until FMS information becomes
invalid. Activating a Vector-to-Final (VTF) also causes the CDI to switch to LOC navigation source.
FMS steering guidance is not provided after this switch.
On some ILS approaches where the glideslope intercept point is at or in close proximity to the fix
prior to the FAF, it is possible to be above the glideslope when the navigation source automatically
switches from FMS to LOC. The probability of this occurring varies based on air temperature.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
LOC1
Selected
NAV2 Selected for Tuning
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Fix Prior to the FAF
Engine Indication System
Glideslope Intercept Point
Synchronizing the CDIs:
Flight Management
System
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source
annunciation becomes amber on both displays if not synchronized. Once the CDIs are synchronized
(CDI Synchronization turned on), they remain synchronized until the selection is turned off.
If the same VOR/LOC navigation source is selected on both PFDs, the navigation source annunciation
becomes amber on both displays if not synchronized. Once the CDIs are synchronized (CDI
Synchronization turned on), they remain synchronized until the selection is turned off.
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 2-22 ILS Approach with Glideslope Intercept Point at Fix Prior to the FAF
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page using the FMS Knob.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the CDI On/Off option in the Synchronization
box.
Automatic Flight Control
System
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to ‘On’ or counterclockwise to ‘Off’.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
GPS CDI SCALING (FMS NAVIGATION SOURCE)
Additional Features
Appendices
When FMS is the selected navigation source, the flight plan legs are sequenced automatically and
annunciations appear on the HSI for the flight phase. Flight phase annunciations are normally shown
in magenta, but when cautionary conditions exist the color changes to amber. If the current leg in the
flight plan is a heading leg, ‘HDG LEG’ is annunciated in magenta beneath the aircraft symbol.
The current GPS CDI scale setting is displayed as ‘System CDI’ on the AUX - System Setup Page and
the full-scale deflection setting may also be changed (2.0 nm, 1.0 nm, 0.3 nm, or Auto) from this page.
If the selected scaling is smaller than the automatic setting for enroute and terminal phases, the CDI is
scaled accordingly and the selected setting is be displayed rather than the flight phase annunciation.
When set to Auto (default), the GPS CDI scale automatically adjusts to the desired limits based upon
the current phase of flight (Figure 2-30, Table 2-3).
Index
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77
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
(Oceanic if >200 nm
from nearest airport)
Terminal
Approach
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
1.0 nm
2.0 nm
0.3 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
1.0 nm
Terminal
Missed
Approach
Figure 2-23 Automatic CDI Scaling
•
Once a departure procedure is activated, the CDI is scaled for departure (0.3 nm).
•
The system switches from departure to terminal CDI scaling (1.0 nm) under the following
conditions:
The next leg in the procedure is not aligned with the departure runway
The next leg in the departure procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or TF
(see Glossary for leg type definitions)
After any leg in the departure procedure that is not CA or FA
•
At 30 nm from the departure airport the enroute phase of flight is automatically entered and CDI
scaling changes to 2.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
When navigating with an active departure procedure, the flight phase and CDI scale does not change
until the aircraft arrives at the last departure waypoint (if more than 30 nm from the departure
airport) or the leg after the last departure waypoint has been activated or a direct-to waypoint is
activated.
•
If after completing the departure procedure the nearest airport is more than 200 nm away from the
aircraft and the approach procedure has not yet commenced, the CDI is scaled for oceanic flight (4.0
nm).
•
Within 31 nm of the destination airport (terminal area), the CDI scale gradually ramps down from
2.0 nm to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm, except under the following conditions:
Upon reaching the first waypoint of an arrival route that is more than 31 nm from the destination
airport, the flight phase changes to terminal and the CDI scale begins to transition down from 2.0
nm to 1.0 nm over a distance of 1.0 nm.
•
During approach, the CDI scale ramps down even further (see Figures Below). This transition
normally occurs within 2.0 nm of the final approach fix (FAF). The CDI switches to approach scaling
automatically once the approach procedure is activated or if Vector-to-Final (VTF) is selected.
If the active waypoint is the FAF, the ground track and the bearing to the FAF must be within 45° of
the final approach segment course.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Departure
Index
Appendices
Refer to accompanying
approach CDI scaling figures
Enroute
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
FAF
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
2 nm
FAF
Engine Indication System
2 nm
angle based
on database
information
course width
350 ft
0.3 nm
1.0 nm
CDI Full-scale Deflection
CDI Full-scale Deflection
angle set
by system
Flight Instruments
CDI scale is set to the smaller of 0.3 nm
or an angle set by the system
Landing
Threshold
CDI scale varies if VTF is activated
•
The system automatically switches back to terminal scaling under the following conditions:
The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not aligned with the final approach path
The next leg in the missed approach procedure is not CA, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FA, FC, FD, FM, IF, or
TF
After any leg in the missed approach procedure that is not CA or FA
Annunciation*
Automatic CDI Full-scale
Deflection
0.3 nm
Terminal
TERM
1.0 nm
Enroute
ENR
2.0 nm
Oceanic
OCN
4.0 nm
Approach (Nonprecision)
LNAV
1.0 nm decreasing to 350 feet
depending on variables
Approach (Nonprecision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
Additional Features
DPRT
Automatic Flight Control
System
Departure
Hazard Avoidance
When a missed approach is activated, the CDI scale changes to 0.3 nm.
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 2-24 Typical LNAV and LNAV+V Approach CDI Scaling/Typical LNAV/VNAV, LPV and LP
Approach CDI Scaling
Flight Phase
System Overview
If the active waypoint is part of the missed approach procedure, the active leg and preceding missed
approach legs must be aligned with the final approach segment course and the aircraft must not have
passed the turn initiation point.
LNAV+V
Appendices
Index
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79
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Phase
LPV
Approach (Nonprecision with Advisory
Vertical Guidance)
LP+V
Approach (LP)
Missed Approach
1.0 nm decreasing to a specified
course width, then 0.3 nm,
depending on variables
LP
MAPR
0.3 nm
Table 2-2 Automatic GPS CDI Scaling
Changing the selected FMS CDI setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘AUX - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Format Allowed’ in the ‘GPS CDI’ box.
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Automatic CDI Full-scale
Deflection
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired setting and press the ENT Key.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
OBS MODE
NOTE: VNV is inhibited while automatic waypoint sequencing has been suspended.
Enabling Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode suspends the automatic sequencing of waypoints in a
GPS flight plan (GPS must be the selected navigation source), but retains the current “active-to”
waypoint as the navigation reference even after passing the waypoint. ‘OBS’ is annunciated to the
lower right of the aircraft symbol when OBS Mode is selected.
While OBS Mode is enabled, a course line is drawn through the “active-to” waypoint on the moving
map. If desired, the course to/from the waypoint can now be adjusted. When OBS Mode is disabled,
the GPS flight plan returns to normal operation with automatic sequencing of waypoints, following the
course set in OBS Mode. The flight path on the moving map retains the modified course line.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
LNAV
Approach (LPV)
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Approach (LNAV/
VNAV)
Annunciation*
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
GPS
Selected
Flight Instruments
Extended
Course
Line
OBSMode
Enabled
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Again
Disables OBSMode
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 2-25 Omni-bearing Selector (OBS) Mode
Engine Indication System
Pressing the OBS
Softkey Enables
OBSMode
Flight Management
System
SUSP
Softkey
SUSP
Annunci ation
Enabling/disabling OBS Mode while navigating a GPS flight plan:
1) Press the OBS Softkey to select OBS Mode.
Additional Features
2) Turn the CRS Knob to select the desired course to/from the waypoint. Press the CRS
Automatic Flight Control
System
As the aircraft crosses the missed approach point (MAP), automatic approach waypoint sequencing is
suspended. ‘SUSP’ appears on the HSI at the lower right of the aircraft symbol. The OBS Softkey label
changes to indicate the suspension is active as shown in the following figure. Selecting the SUSP
Softkey, deactivates the suspension and resumes automatic sequencing of approach waypoints.
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 2-26 Suspending Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
Knob to synchronize the Selected Course with the bearing to the next waypoint.
3) Press the OBS Softkey again to return to automatic waypoint sequencing.
TURN RATE INDICATOR
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
81
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Appendices
The Turn Rate Indicator is located directly above the rotating compass card. Tick marks to the left
and right of the lubber line denote half-standard and standard turn rates. A magenta Turn Rate Trend
Vector shows the current turn rate. The end of the trend vector gives the heading predicted in 6
seconds, based on the present turn rate. A standard-rate turn is shown on the indicator by the trend
vector stopping at the standard turn rate tick mark, corresponding to a predicted heading of 18˚ from
the current heading. At rates greater than 4 deg/sec, an arrowhead appears at the end of the magenta
trend vector and the prediction is no longer valid.
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Standard
Turn Rate
Arrow Shown
for Turn Rate
> 4 Degrees
per Second
Half Standard
Turn Rate
Figure 2-27 Turn Rate Indicator and Trend Vector
BEARING POINTERS AND INFORMATION WINDOWS
Two bearing pointers and associated information can be displayed on the HSI for NAV and FMS
sources by pressing the PFD Opt Softkey then either the Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey. The bearing
pointers are cyan and are single-line (BRG1) or double-line (BRG2). A pointer symbol is shown in the
information window to indicate the navigation source. The bearing pointers never override the CDI
and are visually separated from the CDI by a white ring. Bearing pointers may be selected but not
necessarily visible due to data unavailability.
Tuning Mode
Frequen cy
Bearing 1
Pointer
Bearing 2
Pointer
Distance
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
DMEInformation Window
Distance to
Bearing Source
Bearing
Source
Station
Pointer
Icon
Bearing 1 Information Window
Pointer
Icon
Bearing
Source
Bearing 2 Information Window
Figure 2-28 HSI with Bearing and DME Information
When a bearing pointer is displayed, its associated information window is also displayed. The
Bearing Information windows are displayed to the lower sides of the HSI and display the following
information:
Bearing source (NAV, FMS, ADF)
GPS-derived great circle distance to bearing
source
Pointer icon (BRG1 = single line, BRG2 = double
line)
Frequency (NAV)
Station/waypoint identifier (NAV, FMS)
Index
When the NAV radio is tuned to an ILS frequency the bearing source and the bearing pointer is
removed from the HSI. When NAV1 or NAV2 is the selected bearing source, the frequency is replaced
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
information window with a NAV source.
3) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey again to change the bearing source to
FMS.
to ADF (note: ADF radio installation is optional).
5) To remove the bearing pointer and information window, press either Bearing 1 or
Bearing 2 Softkey again.
NOTE: DME installation is optional.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Displaying the DME Information Window:
Hazard Avoidance
The DME Information Window is displayed above the BRG1 Information Window on the 360˚ HSI
and in a box above and along side the Arc HSI. It shows the DME label, tuning mode (NAV1, NAV2, or
HOLD), frequency, and distance. When a signal is invalid, the distance is replaced by –.– – NM Refer to
the Audio Panel and CNS Section for information on tuning the DME.
Flight Management
System
DME INFORMATION WINDOW
Audio Panel and CNS
4) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey a third time to change the bearing source
Engine Indication System
2) Press either Bearing 1 or Bearing 2 Softkey to display the desired bearing pointer and
Flight Instruments
Selecting bearing display and changing sources:
System Overview
by the station identifier when the station is within range. If GPS is the bearing source, the active
waypoint identifier is displayed in lieu of a frequency.
The bearing pointer is removed from the HSI and “NO DATA” is displayed in the information
window if the NAV radio is not receiving the tuned VOR station or if GPS is the bearing source and an
active waypoint is not selected.
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the DME Softkey to display the DME Information Window above the BRG1
Information Window.
Additional Features
3) To remove the DME Information Window, press the DME Softkey again.
Appendices
Index
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83
2.3 SUPPLEMENTAL FLIGHT DATA
In addition to the flight instruments, the PFD also displays various supplemental information,
including temperatures, wind data, and Generic Timer.
GENERIC TIMER
The generic timer can be accessed via softkeys on the PFD and allows for quick access for timing
functions (either counting up or down) for the pilot.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Setting the Generic Timer:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the timer field (HH:MM:SS).
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired time.
4) Press the ENT Key. The Up/Dn field is now highlighted.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the UP/DOWN Window.
Flight Management
System
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Up’ or ‘Dn’.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Start?’ is now highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to start the timer. The field changes to ‘Stop?’. If the timer is
counting DOWN, it will start counting UP after reaching zero.
Hazard Avoidance
9) To stop the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Stop?’ highlighted. The field changes to
‘Reset?’.
10) To reset the timer, press the ENT Key with ‘Reset?’ highlighted. The field changes back
11) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
TEMPERATURE DISPLAYS
The Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and deviation from International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
temperature are displayed in the lower left corner of the PFD. Both temperatures are displayed in
degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F), depending on the selected temperature units on the ‘Aux System Setup 1’ Page.
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
to ‘Start?’ and the digits are reset.
Figure 2-29 Air Temperatures
Changing temperature display units:
Index
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page on the MFD using the FMS Knob.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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System Overview
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Temperature datafield in the ‘Display Units’
box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight either ‘Celsius’ or ‘Fahrenheit’ and press the ENT
Flight Instruments
Key to confirm the selection.
5) To cancel the selection, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
WIND DATA
Option 2
Option 3
No Data
Audio Panel and CNS
Option 1
Engine Indication System
Wind direction and speed (relative to the aircraft) in knots can be displayed in a window to the
upper left of the HSI. When the window is selected for display, but wind information is invalid or
unavailable, the window shows “NO WIND DATA”. Wind data can be displayed in three different
ways:
Flight Management
System
Figure 2-30 Wind Data
Hazard Avoidance
Displaying wind data:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the Wind Softkey to display wind data to the left of the HSI.
Automatic Flight Control
System
3) Press one of the Option Softkeys to change how wind data is displayed:
Option 1: Headwind/tailwind and crosswind arrows with numeric speed components
•
Option 2: Wind direction arrow and speed
•
Option 3: Wind direction arrow with headwind/tailwind and crosswind components
Additional Features
•
To remove the window, press the Off Softkey.
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
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85
2.4 PFD ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTING FUNCTIONS
The following annunciations and alerting functions are displayed on the PFD. Refer to the Engine
Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) Section for information on the Crew Alerting System
(CAS) and to Appendix A for more information on alerts and annunciations.
ALTITUDE ALERTING
The Altitude Alerting function provides visual and audio alerts when approaching the Selected
Altitude. Whenever the Selected Altitude is changed, Altitude Alerting is reset. Altitude Alerting is
based on the altitude information shown on the PFD. Altitude Alerting is independent of the AFCS.
The following occur when approaching the Selected Altitude:
•
Upon passing through 1000 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude Box changes to black
text on a cyan background, flashes for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
•
When the aircraft passes within 200 feet of the Selected Altitude, the Selected Altitude changes to
cyan text on a black background and flashes for 5 seconds.
•
After reaching the Selected Altitude, if the aircraft flies outside the deviation band (±200 feet of the
Selected Altitude), the Selected Altitude Box changes to amber text on a black background, flashes
for 5 seconds, and an aural tone is generated.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Within 1000 ft
Within 200 ft
Deviation of ±200 ft
Figure 2-31 Altitude Alerting Visual Annunciations
LOW ALTITUDE ANNUNCIATION
NOTE: The Low Altitude Annunciation is available only when SBAS is available. This
annunciation is not shown unless HTAWS alerting is inhibited, has failed, or is unavailable.
When the Final Approach Fix (FAF) is the active waypoint in a GPS SBAS approach using vertical
guidance, a Low Altitude Annunciation may appear if the current aircraft altitude is at least 164 feet
below the prescribed altitude at the FAF. A black-on-amber ‘LOW ALT’ annunciation appears to the
top left of the Altimeter, flashing for several seconds then remaining displayed until the condition is
resolved.
Figure 2-32 Low Altitude Annunciation on PFD
MARKER BEACON ANNUNCIATIONS
Marker Beacon Annunciations are displayed on the PFD to the left of the Selected Altitude. Outer
marker reception is indicated in blue, middle in amber, and inner in white. Refer to the Audio Panel
and CNS Section for more information on Marker Beacon Annunciations.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Middle Marker
System Overview
Outer Marker
Inner Marker
Flight Instruments
Altimeter
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT ALERTING
•
When the aircraft passes through 100 feet of the MDA/DH, the bug and text turn white.
•
Once the aircraft reaches MDA/DH, the bug and text become amber and the voice alert, “Minimums.
Minimums”, is heard.
Within 2500 ft
Within 100 ft
Altitude Reached
Barometric
Minimum
Bug
Automatic Flight Control
System
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Figure 2-34 Barometric MDA/DH Alerting Visual Annunciations
Index
Figure 2-35 BARO and TEMP COMP MDA/DH
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Appendices
Alerting is inhibited while the aircraft is on the ground and until the aircraft reaches 150 feet above
the setting for the alert. If the aircraft proceeds to climb after having reached the MDA/DH, once it
reaches 50 feet above the MDA/DH, alerting is disabled. The function is reset when the power is
cycled.
Additional Features
Barometric
Minimum
Box
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Hazard Avoidance
When the aircraft altitude descends to within 2500 feet of the MDA/DH setting, the BARO MIN, RA
MIN, or COMP MIN box appears with the altitude in cyan (or magenta for COMP MIN) text. The
bug appears on the altitude tape in cyan (or magenta for COMP MIN) once in range.
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
For altitude awareness, a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH), based on
barometric altitude, radar altitude, or temperature compensated can be set. When active, the altitude
setting is displayed to the lower left of the altimeter, with a bug at the corresponding altitude along the
altimeter (once the altitude is within the visible range of the tape). The following visual annunciations
alert the pilot when approaching the MDA or DH:
Engine Indication System
Figure 2-33 Marker Beacon Annunciations
87
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Setting the Minimum Descent Altitude/Decision Height and bug:
1) Press the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Minimums field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP.’ ‘OFF’ is selected by default.
Press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the next field.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to enter the desired altitude (from zero to 16,000 feet).
Engine Indication System
5) If TEMP COMP was selected, press the ENT Key or turn the large FMS Knob to
highlight the next field and then enter the temperature (-59˚C to 59˚C)
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
6) To remove the window, press the CLR Key or the Tmr/Ref Softkey.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
2.5 SVT OPERATION
GARMIN SVT (SYNTHETIC VISION TECHNOLOGY)
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Garmin SVT™ (Synthetic Vision Technology) is an optional visual enhancement to the system. SVT
depicts a forward-looking attitude display of the topography immediately in front of the aircraft. The
field of view is 29 degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. In Reversionary Mode, the field of
view is 21.5 degrees to the left and 35.5 degrees to the right. SVT information is shown on the Primary
Flight Display (PFD), or on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. The depicted
imagery is derived from the aircraft attitude, heading, GPS three-dimensional position, and a 4.9 arcsecond database of terrain, obstacles, and other relevant features. The terrain data resolution is 4.9 arcseconds, meaning that the terrain elevation contours are stored in squares measuring 4.9 arc-seconds
on each side, is required for the operation of SVT. Loss of any of the required data, including
temporary loss of the GPS signal, will cause SVT to be disabled (although the softkeys will still appear
functional) until the required data is restored.
The SVT terrain display shows land contours (colors are consistent with those of the topographical
map display), large water features, towers, wind turbines, and other obstacles over 200’ AGL that are
included in the obstacle database. Cultural features on the ground such as roads, highways, railroad
tracks, cities, and state boundaries are not displayed even if those features are found on the MFD map.
The terrain display also includes a north–south east–west grid with lines oriented with true north and
spaced at one arc-minute intervals to assist in orientation relative to the terrain.
Terrain-SVT, which is included with the Garmin-SVT option, or the optional Terrain Awareness and
Warning System (TAWS) provide visual and auditory alerts to indicate the presence of terrain and
obstacle threats relevant to the projected flight path. Terrain alerts are displayed in red and yellow
shading on the PFD.
Garmin-SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If SVT is
enabled when switching to Reversionary Mode, it will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The
standard, non-SVT PFD display will be shown in the interim.
The terrain display is intended for situational awareness only. It may not provide the accuracy or
fidelity on which to base decisions and plan maneuvers to avoid terrain or obstacles. Navigation must
not be predicated solely upon the use of the Garmin-SVT or TAWS-B terrain or obstacle data displays.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Terrain alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º South
latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s ability
to process the data representing the affected areas.
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Do not use the flight path marker as a flight director.
Flight Instruments
WARNING: Use appropriate primary systems for navigation, and for terrain, obstacle, and
traffic avoidance. SVT is intended as an aid to situational awareness only and may not
provide either the accuracy or reliability upon which to solely base decisions and/or plan
maneuvers to avoid terrain, obstacles, or traffic.
Index
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Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Figure 2-36 Synthetic Vision Imagery
SVT OPERATION
SVT is activated from the PFD using the softkeys located along the bottom edge of the display.
Pressing the softkeys turns the related function on or off. When SVT is enabled, the pitch attitude scale
is reduced from 20 degrees up and down to 10 degrees up to 7.5 degrees down.
SVT functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. The PFD Opt Softkey leads into the PFD
function Softkeys, including synthetic vision. Pressing the SVT Softkey displays the SVT feature
softkeys. The softkeys are labeled Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire. The Back
Softkey returns to the previous level of softkeys. Synthetic Terrain must be active before any other SVT
feature may be activated.
Pathways, HDG LBL, APT Sign, and Wire Softkeys are only available when the Terrain Softkey is
activated (gray with black characters). After activating the Terrain Softkey, the Pathways, HDG LBL,
APT Sign, and Wire softkeys may be activated in any combination to display desired features. When
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•
Terrain Softkey enables synthetic terrain depiction.
•
HDG LBL Softkey enables horizon heading marks and digits.
•
APT Sign Softkey enables airport signposts.
•
Wire Softkey enables aerial wire obstruction depiction.
Engine Indication System
Pathways Softkey enables display of rectangular boxes that represent course guidance.
Flight Instruments
•
System Overview
system power is cycled, the last selected state (on or off) of the Pathways, Terrain, HDG LBL, and
APT Sign softkeys is remembered by the system.
Activating and deactivating SVT:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Pathways:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
Flight Management
System
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the Terrain Softkey. The SVT display will cycle on or off with the Terrain Softkey.
3) Press the Pathways Softkey. The Pathway feature will cycle on or off with the
Pathways Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Horizon Headings:
Hazard Avoidance
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the HDG LBL Softkey. The horizon heading display will cycle on or off with the
Automatic Flight Control
System
HDG LBL Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Airport Signs:
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
Additional Features
3) Press the APT Sign Softkey. Display of airport signs will cycle on or off with the APT
Sign Softkey.
Activating and deactivating Wire Obstacles on SVT:
Appendices
1) Press the PFD Opt Softkey.
2) Press the SVT Softkey.
3) Press the Wire Softkey. Display of aerial wire obstruction will cycle on or off with the
Wire Softkey.
Index
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91
SVT FEATURES
Selected
Altitude
Airpo rt
Runway
Flight
Path
Marker
Airplane
Symbol
Zero
Pitch Line
(ZPL)
with
Compass
Heading
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
SVT
Softkeys
Figure 2-37 SVT on the Primary Flight Display
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Synthetic
Terrain
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude
deviation information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
AIRPORT SIGNS
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Airport Signs provide a visual representation of airport location and identification on the synthetic
terrain display. When activated, the signs appear on the display when the aircraft is approximately
15 nm from an airport and disappear at approximately 4.5 nm. Airport signs are shown without the
identifier until the aircraft is approximately eight nautical miles from the airport. Airport signs are
not shown behind the airspeed or altitude display. Airport signs are activated and deactivated by
pressing the APTSIGNS Softkey.
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System Overview
(Between
8 nm and
15 nm)
(Between
4.5 nm and
8 nm)
Engine Indication System
Airpo rt
Sign with
Flight Instruments
Airpo rt
Sign
without
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
FLIGHT PATH MARKER
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
The Flight Path Marker (FPM), also known as a Velocity Vector, is displayed on the PFD at
groundspeeds above 30 knots. The FPM depicts the approximate projected path of the aircraft
accounting for wind speed and direction relative to the three-dimensional terrain display.
The FPM is always available when the Synthetic Terrain feature is in operation. The FPM
represents the direction of the flight path as it relates to the terrain and obstacles on the display,
while the airplane symbol represents the aircraft heading.
The FPM works in conjunction with the Pathways feature to assist the pilot in maintaining desired
altitudes and direction when navigating a flight plan. When on course and altitude the FPM is
aligned inside the pathway boxes as shown.
The FPM may also be used to identify a possible conflict with the aircraft flight path and distant
terrain or obstacles. Displayed terrain or obstacles in the aircraft’s flight path extending above the
FPM could indicate a potential conflict, even before an alert is issued by TAWS. However, decisions
regarding terrain and/or obstacle avoidance should not be made using only the FPM.
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 2-38 Airport Signs
Index
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93
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Path
Marker
(FPM)
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Wind
Vector
Figure 2-39 Flight Path Marker
HORIZON HEADING
Automatic Flight Control
System
The Horizon Heading is synchronized with the HSI and shows approximately 60 degrees of
compass heading in 30 degree increments on the Zero Pitch Line. Horizon Heading tick marks and
digits appearing on the zero pitch line are not visible behind either the airspeed or altitude display.
Horizon Heading is used for general heading awareness, and is activated and deactivated by pressing
the HDG LBL Softkey.
Additional Features
PATHWAYS
Appendices
Pathways provide a three-dimensional perspective view of the selected route of flight shown as
colored rectangular boxes representing the horizontal and vertical flight path of the active flight plan.
The box size represents 700 feet wide by 200 feet tall during enroute, oceanic, and terminal flight
phases. During an approach, the box width is 700 feet or one half full scale deviation on the HSI,
whichever is less. The height is 200 feet or one half full scale deviation on the VDI, whichever is less.
The altitude at which the pathway boxes are displayed is determined by the higher of either the
selected altitude or the VNV altitude programmed for the active leg in the flight plan.
Index
NOTE: Pathways and terrain features are not a substitute for standard course and altitude
deviation information provided by the altimeter, CDI, and VDI.
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Flight Instruments
Selected
Altitude
System Overview
The color of the rectangular boxes may be magenta, green, or white depending on the route of
flight and navigation source selected. The active GPS or GPS overlay flight plan leg is represented by
magenta boxes that correspond to the Magenta CDI. A localizer course is represented by green boxes
that correspond to a green CDI. An inactive leg of an active flight plan is represented by
white[[ boxes corresponding to a white line drawn on the PFD maps or MFD map indicating an
inactive leg.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Programmed
Altitudes
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
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95
Index
Prior to intercepting an active flight plan leg, pathways are displayed as a series of boxes with
pointers at each corner that point in the direction of the active waypoint. Pathways are not
displayed for the first leg of the flight plan if that segment is a Heading-to-Altitude leg. The first
segment displaying pathways is the first active GPS leg or active leg with a GPS overlay. If this leg
of the flight plan route is outside the SVT field of view, pathways will not be visible until the
Appendices
DEPARTURE AND ENROUTE
Additional Features
Pathways provide supplemental glidepath/glideslope information on an active ILS, LPV, LNAV/
VNAV, and some LNAV approaches. Pathways are intended as an aid to situational awareness and
should not be used independent of the CDI, VDI, glide path indicator, and glide slope indicator.
They are removed from the display when the selected navigation information is not available.
Pathways are not displayed beyond the active leg when leg sequencing is suspended and are not
displayed on any portion of the flight plan leg that would lead to intercepting a leg in the wrong
direction.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 2-40 Programmed and Selected Altitude
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Instruments
aircraft has turned toward this leg. While approaching the center of the active leg and prescribed
altitude, the number of pathway boxes decreases to a minimum of four.
Climb profiles cannot be displayed due to the variables associated with aircraft performance.
Flight plan legs requiring a climb are indicated by pathways displayed at a level above the aircraft
at the altitude selected or programmed.
DESCENT AND APPROACH
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
During an approach, Pathways be can shown for the programmed descent, level transition flight,
and at the Selected Altitude within the approach segments. When an approach providing vertical
guidance is activated, the corresponding approach glideslope or glidepath will be displayed using a
color corresponding to the selected navigation source and conditions.
White Pathways represent the next segment of the approach that is not yet active. Magenta
Pathways represent the active segment with GPS as the navigation source. Green Pathways indicate
the ILS/LOC navigation source. During the arrival/approach phases of flight, gray pathways
indicate the anticipated preview glidepath/glideslope. The gray Approach Preview Pathways will be
displayed beginning at the start of the segment leading to the FAF waypoint. With active approach
vertical guidance, the selected altitude will be displayed as a level gray Pathway if the Selected
Altitude is lower than the glidepath/glideslope. The gray Selected Altitude Preview Pathways are
displayed until they converge with the green glideslope or magenta glidepath pathways. If
approach vertical guidance is not yet active, pathways at the Selected Altitude will be displayed in
magenta throughout the arrival/approach.
During an ILS approach, the initial approach segment is displayed in magenta at the segment
altitudes if GPS is the selected as the navigation source on the CDI. When switching to localizer
inbound with the LOC selected as the navigation source on the CDI, pathways are displayed in
green along the localizer and glideslope. VOR, LOC, BC, and ADF approach segments that are
approved to be flown using GPS are displayed in magenta boxes. Segments that are flown using
other than GPS or ILS, such as heading legs or VOR final approach courses are not displayed.
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Selected Altitude
set for Enroute
Selected Altitude
set for Departure
Flight Instruments
Climbs NOT
displayed
by pathway
Non-programmed descents NOT displayed by pathway
Engine Indication System
TOD
Selected Altitude
for Step Down
Programmed descent
displayed by pathway
Audio Panel and CNS
Selected Altitude or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
Flight Management
System
Figure 2-41 SVT Pathways, Enroute and Descent
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Upon activating the missed approach, pathways lead to the Missed Approach Holding Point
(MAHP) and are displayed as a level path at the published altitude for the MAHP, or the selected
altitude, whichever is the highest. If the initial missed approach leg is a Course-to-Altitude (CA)
leg, the pathways boxes will be displayed level at the altitude published for the MAHP. If the initial
missed approach leg is defined by a course using other than GPS, pathways are not displayed for
that segment. In this case, the pathways displayed for the next leg may be outside the field of view
and will be visible when the aircraft has turned in the direction of that leg.
Pathways are displayed along each segment including the path required to track course reversals
that are part of a procedure, such as holding patterns. Pathways boxes will not indicate a turn to a
MAHP unless a defined geographical waypoint exists between the MAP and MAHP.
Hazard Avoidance
MISSED APPROACH
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Flight Instruments
FAF
Descent displayed
by pathway
Engine Indication System
Selected Altitude
or Programmed Altitude
(whichever is higher)
MAP Climbs NOT displayed
Audio Panel and CNS
by pathway
Turn Segment
NOT displayed
by pathway
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
MAHP
Figure 2-42 SVT Pathways, Approach, Missed Approach, and Holding
Additional Features
RUNWAYS
Appendices
NOTE: Not all airports have runways with endpoint data in the database, therefore, these
runways are not displayed.
Index
WARNING: Do not use the Garmin SVT runway depiction as the sole means for determining
the proximity of the aircraft to the runway or for maintaining the proper approach path
angle during landing.
Runway data provides improved awareness of runway location with respect to the surrounding
terrain. All runway thresholds are depicted at their respective elevations as defined in the database.
In some situations, where threshold elevations differ significantly, crossing runways may appear to be
layered. As runways are displayed, those within 45 degrees of the aircraft heading are displayed in
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System Overview
white. Other runways will be gray in color. When an approach for a specific runway is active, that
runway will appear brighter and be outlined with a white box, regardless of the runway orientation
as related to aircraft heading. As the aircraft gets closer to the runway, more detail such as runway
numbers and centerlines will be displayed.
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Other
Runway
on Airpo rt
Audio Panel and CNS
Airpo rt
Runway
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
TRAFFIC
WARNING: Intruder aircraft at or below 500 ft. AGL may not appear on the SVT display or
may appear as a partial symbol.
Additional Features
Appendices
Traffic symbols are displayed in their approximate locations as determined by the related traffic
systems. Traffic symbols are displayed in three dimensions, appearing larger as they are getting
closer, and smaller when they are further away. Traffic within 250 feet laterally of the aircraft will not
be displayed on the SVT display. Traffic symbols and coloring are consistent with that used for traffic
displayed in the Inset map or MFD traffic page. If the traffic altitude is unknown, the traffic will not
be displayed on the SVT display. For more details refer to the traffic system discussion in the Hazard
Avoidance section.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 2-43 Airport Runways
TERRAIN ALERTING
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99
Index
Terrain alerting on the synthetic terrain display is triggered by Forward-looking Terrain Avoidance
(FLTA) alerts, and corresponds to the yellow terrain shading for a caution alert and the red shading
for a warning alert on the navigation maps and ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Pages. For
more detailed information regarding Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B, refer to the Hazard Avoidance
Section.
In some instances, a terrain or obstacle alert may be issued with no conflict shading displayed on
the synthetic terrain. In these cases, the conflict is outside the SVT field of view to the left or right of
the aircraft.
Terrain
Annunci ation
Potential
Impa ct
Area
Figure 2-44 Terrain Alert
Obstacles are represented on the synthetic terrain display by standard two-dimensional tower or
wind turbine symbols found on map displays. Obstacle symbols appear in the perspective view with
relative height above terrain and distance from the aircraft. Unlike the map displays, which color
obstacles relative to the aircraft’s altitude, obstacles on the synthetic terrain display do not change
colors to warm of potential conflict with the aircraft’s flight path until the obstacle is associated with
an actual FLTA alert. Obstacles greater than 1000 feet below the aircraft altitude are not shown.
Obstacles are shown behind the airspeed and altitude displays.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Obstacle
Cautions
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 2-45 SVT with Obstacle Cautions
WIREAWARE POWER LINE OBSTACLES
The Zero Pitch Line is drawn completely across the display and represents the horizon when the
terrain horizon is difficult to distinguish from other terrain being displayed. It may not align with the
terrain horizon, particularly when the terrain is mountainous or when the aircraft is flown at high
altitudes.
Appendices
ZERO PITCH LINE
Additional Features
To enhance safety, SVT incorporates Garmin’s WireAware wire obstacle technology. WireAware
database information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power lines which
are typically high voltage transmission lines depicted on the VFR Sectional charts, and are
considered of special interest to pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers, valleys,
canyons, or be in close proximity to airports/heliports. For wire obstacles present in the obstacle
database, the system shows these on the maps as well as the Synthetic Vision display; see Hazard
Avoidance section for more information about WireAware alerting.
Automatic Flight Control
System
NOTE: The WireAware obstacle database does not contain all known power lines. And as
such, obstacle avoidance is the sole responsibility of the flight crew.
Index
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101
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Figure 2-46 Wire Caution
FIELD OF VIEW
The PFD field of view can be represented on the MFD Navigation Map Page. Two dashed lines
forming a V-shape in front of the aircraft symbol on the map, represent the forward viewing area
shown on the PFD.
The following figure compares the PFD forward looking depiction with the MFD plan view and
Field of View turned on.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Potential
Impa ct
Area
Cautions
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Lines
depi ct
PFD Field
of View
Engine Indication System
Field of View on the MFD
Audio Panel and CNS
SVT View on the PFD
Figure 2-47 PFD and MFD Field of View Comparison
Enabling/Disabling SVT Field of View on the Navigation Map:
‘Page Menu’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
1) While viewing the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Automatic Flight Control
System
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ page.
Hazard Avoidance
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Map’ Group options to ‘Field of View’.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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103
2.6 ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
ABNORMAL GPS CONDITIONS
The annunciations listed in Table 2-4 can appear on the HSI when abnormal GPS conditions occur.
Refer to the Flight Management Section for more information on Dead Reckoning Mode.
Annunciation
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
GPS LOI
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
GPS
INTEG OK
Location
Description
Right of HSI
Loss of Integrity
Monitoring–GPS integrity is
insufficient for the current
phase of flight
Right of HSI
Integrity OK–GPS integrity
has been restored to within
normal limits (annunciation
displayed for 5 seconds)
Lower left of
aircraft symbol if
HSI Map is
disabled, or on
aircraft icon if
HSI Map
enabled
Dead Reckoning–System is
using projected position
rather than GPS position to
compute navigation data
and sequence active flight
plan waypoints
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Table 2-3 Abnormal GPS Conditions Annunciated on HSI
Index
Figure 2-48 Example HSI Annunciations
In Dead Reckoning Mode, the CDI is removed (when FMS is the selected navigation source), and the
following items on the PFD are then shown in amber:
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System Overview
Current Track Bug
•
Wind Data
•
Distances in the Bearing Information windows
•
FMS bearing pointers
These items should be verified when operating in Dead Reckoning Mode and they become
increasingly inaccurate over time.
Miscompa re Annunci ations
Audio Panel and CNS
The Comparator monitors critical values generated by redundant sensors. If differences in the
sensors exceed a specified amount, a miscompare annunciation is displayed in black text on an amber
background. If one or both of the sensed values are unavailable, a no compare annunciation is
displayed with black text on a white background. Refer to the Appendix A for more information on
alerts and annunciations.
Engine Indication System
COMPARATOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Flight Instruments
•
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
No Compa re
Annunci ations
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 2-49 Sensor Comparator Annunciations
Annunciation
IAS
PIT
190–02361–00 Rev. A
If either airspeed sensor detects > 80 knots, and the difference in sensors
is > 7 knots.
Difference in heading sensors is > 6 degrees.
Difference in pitch sensors is > 5 degrees.
Difference in roll sensors is > 6 degrees.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Index
ROL
If either airspeed sensor detects > 35 knots, and the difference in sensors
is > 10 knots
Appendices
HDG
Difference in altitude sensors is > 200 ft.
Additional Features
ALT
Condition
105
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Annunciation
No data from one or both altitude sensors.
ALT
No data from one or both airspeed sensors.
Flight Instruments
IAS
No data from one or both heading sensors.
HDG
No data from one or both pitch sensors.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
PIT
No data from one or both roll sensors.
ROL
REVERSIONARY SENSOR ANNUNCIATIONS
Reversionary sensor selection is annunciated on the upper left center of the PFD. These
annunciations reflect reversionary sensors selected on one or both PFDs. Pressing the PFD Opt Softkey
accesses the Sensors Softkey. Pressing the Sensors Softkey accesses the ADC and AHRS softkeys
These softkeys allow switching of the sensors being viewed on each PFD. With certain types of sensor
failures, the system may make some sensor selections automatically. The FMS sensor cannot be
switched manually.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Condition
Figure 2-50 Reversionary Sensor Annunciations
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
BOTH ON ADC1
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC1.
BOTH ON ADC2
Both PFDs are displaying data from ADC2
BOTH ON AHRS1
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS1.
BOTH ON AHRS2
Both PFDs are displaying data from AHRS2
Appendices
BOTH
ON GPS1
BOTH
ON GPS2
Index
USING ADC1
106
Condition
Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS1.
Both PFDs are displaying data from GPS2.
PFD2 is displaying data from ADC1. Shown while PFD1 is displaying
data from ADC2.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
Reversionary Sensor
Window Text
Condition
PFD1 is displaying data from ADC2. Shown while PFD2 is displaying
data from ADC1.
USING ADC2
PFD2 is displaying data from AHRS1. Shown while PFD1 is
displaying data from AHRS2.
USING AHRS2
PFD1 is displaying data from AHRS2. Shown while PFD2 is
displaying data from AHRS1.
Flight Instruments
USING AHRS1
Engine Indication System
PFD2 is displaying data from the #1 GPS.
USING
GPS1
PFD1 is displaying data from the #2 GPS.
USING
GPS2
•
Heading data
•
GPS position data
•
4.9 Arc-second Terrain data
•
Obstacle data
•
TAWS function is not available, in test mode, or failed
•
The position of the aircraft exceeds the range of the terrain database.
SVT IN REVERSIONARY MODE
UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
Appendices
When the aircraft enters an unusual pitch attitude, red chevrons pointing toward the horizon warn
of extreme pitch. The chevrons are displayed on the Attitude Indicator, starting at 50˚ above and 30˚
below the horizon line.
Additional Features
SVT can be displayed on the Multifunction Display (MFD) in Reversionary Mode. If it is enabled
when switching to Reversionary Mode, SVT will take up to 30 seconds to be displayed. The standard,
non-SVT PFD display will be shown in the interim.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Attitude data
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
System
SVT is intended to be used with traditional attitude, heading, obstacle, terrain, and traffic inputs.
SVT is disabled when valid attitude or heading data is not available for the display. In case of invalid
SVT data, the PFD display reverts to the standard blue-over-brown attitude display.
SVT becomes disabled without the following data resources:
Audio Panel and CNS
SVT TROUBLESHOOTING
Index
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107
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Nose Low
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Nose High
Figure 2-51 Pitch Attitude Warnings with SVT Disabled
If pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚, some information displayed on the PFD is removed.
The Altimeter and Airspeed, Attitude, Vertical Speed, and Horizontal Situation indicators remain on
the display and the Bearing Information, Alerts, and Annunciation windows can be displayed during
such situations. The following information is removed from each PFD and their softkeys are disabled
when the aircraft experiences unusual attitudes:
Traffic Annunciations
System Time
Minimum Descent Altitude/
Decision Height readout
AFCS Annunciations
PFD Setup Menu
Vertical Deviation, Glideslope,
and Glidepath Indicators
Inset Map
Windows displayed in the lower Altimeter Barometric Setting
right corner of the PFD:
Outside Air Temperature (OAT)
— References Window
Selected Altitude
ISA temperature deviation
— Nearest Airports
VNV Target Altitude
Wind data
— Flight Plan
Ground Speed
Selected Heading readout
— Messages
True Airspeed
Selected Course readout
— Procedures
Transponder Status Box
SVT UNUSUAL ATTITUDES
During extreme pitch attitudes, the display shows either a brown or blue colored bar at the top or
bottom of the screen to represent earth or sky. The blue colored bar is also displayed when terrain
gradient is great enough to completely fill the display. This is intended to prevent losing sight of the
horizon during extreme pitch attitudes.
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FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
System Overview
Blue Band
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Terrain
Comple tely
Fills Display
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Figure 2-52 Blue Sky Bar with Synthetic Terrain Enabled
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
109
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
BLANK PAGE
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
System Overview
SECTION 3 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
NOTE: Refer to the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) for limitations.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
EIS Display
Flight Instruments
The G1000 NXi offers improved flight operations and reduces crew workload by automatically
monitoring critical system parameters and providing system alerts during all phases of flight. The
Engine Indication System (EIS) displays electrical, fuel, and engine information on the left side of the
Multi Function Display (MFD). EIS information can also be fully expanded to an entire page by
pressing the Engine Softkey or turning the large FMS Knob to select the EIS - Engine Page
Green bands on the instruments indicate normal ranges of operation; amber and red bands indicate
caution and warning, respectively. White or uncolored bands indicate areas outside of normal
operation not yet in the caution or warning ranges. When unsafe operating conditions occur, the
corresponding displays flash to indicate cautions and warnings. If sensory data to an instrument
becomes invalid or unavailable, a red or amber “X” is displayed across the instrument.
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 3-1 MFD with EIS Display
Additional Features
3.1 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM (EIS) DISPLAY
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
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111
System Overview
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
1
1
9
Flight Instruments
9
2
2
10
10
Engine Indication System
3
11
3
11
13
12
4
4
5
Audio Panel and CNS
13
6
6
7
Flight Management
System
7
14
14
8
8
15
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
15
Figure 3-2 EIS Display (Normal)
Figure 3-3 EIS Display when Engine Softkey is
Selected
1
Manifold Pressure
Indicator
Displays manifold pressure in inches of mercury (MAP IN HG)
2
Tachometer Indicator
Displays engine tachometer in revolutions per minute (RPM)
3
Turbine Inlet Temperature Displays turbine inlet temperature (TIT) in degrees Celsius (°C)
or Fahrenheit (°F)
Indicator
4
Fuel Flow Indicator
Displays fuel flow in gallons per hour (FFLOW GPH)
5
Cylinder Head
Temperature Indicator
Displays cylinder head temperature (CHT) in degrees Celsius
(°C) or Fahrenheit (°F) and shows digital number of hottest
cyclinder
6
Oil Pressure Indicator
Displays oil pressure in pounds per square inch (psi)
7
Oil Temperature Indicator
Displays oil temperature in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit
(°F)
8
Fuel Quantity Indicator
Displays the amount of fuel in gallons (GAL) for each side fuel
tank
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Differential Pressure
Indicator
Displays the differential pressure (DIFF) in pounds per square
inch (PSI)
11
Destination Elevation
Displays the elevation and the destination airport in feet
12
Pulse Oximeter Group)
Displays blood oxygen indicator in percentage and heart rate
indicator in beats per minute (BPM)
13
Electrical Group
Displays left (L) and right (R) alternator current in amperes (ALT
AMPS), bus voltage (VOLTS), and battery current in amperes
(BATT AMPS)
14
Flap Indicator
Displays flap indication in angle degrees 0°, 10°, 20°, and 36°
15
Landing Gear Indicator
Displays landing gear indications
Audio Panel and CNS
10
Engine Indication System
Displays the altitude feet on a slide indicator with digits
displayed below and the rate of climb/decent in feet per minute
(FPM)
Flight Instruments
Cabin Pressurization
Group
System Overview
9
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
113
3.2 ENGINE PAGE
The Engine Page displays all engine, fuel, electrical, and fuel calculation information. To access this
page, press the Engine Softkey or turn the large FMS Knob and select the ‘EIS - Engine Page.’
Level 1
Level 2
Description
Engine
Displays EIS - Engine Page and second-level engine
softkeys; press again to exit page
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
DEC Fuel
Decreases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
INC Fuel
Increases displayed fuel remaining in 1-gal increments
RST Fuel
Resets displayed fuel remaining to maximum fuel capacity
for aircraft and fuel used to zero
CO RST
Resets the CO Detector
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
1
5
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
2
3
4
Index
Appendices
Figure 3-4 Engine Page Display (MFD)
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
System Overview
Displays cylinder head temperature in °F along vertical bars. If the
temperature of any cylinder exceeds the normal range, the bars will
turn amber for caution or red for warning
2
System Group
(PULSE OXIMETER
Group)
Displays the oxygen indicator in percentage, heart rate indicator in
beats per minute (BPM), the vacuum indicator in inches of mercury (IN
HG), and the CO detector indication in parts per million (CO PPM). The
pulse oximeter is not displayed in reversionary mode
3
Fuel Calculation
Group
Displays the gallons remaining (GAL REM), gallons used (GAL USED,
endurance range (ENDUR) in hours and minutes, range in nautical miles
(RANGE NM), and nautical miles per gallon (NMPG)
4
Engine Softkey
Displays the engine softkey selection
5
Engine Strip
Displays engine (EIS) strip
NOTE: Fuel calculations do not use the aircraft fuel quantity indicators and are calculated
from the last time the fuel was reset.
Additional Features
Appendices
Resetting the fuel totalizer:
Automatic Flight Control
System
On the Engine Page, use the DEC Fuel and INC Fuel Softkeys to obtain the desired fuel
remaining (GAL REM).
Hazard Avoidance
Adjusting the fuel totalizer quantity:
Flight Management
System
Fuel used (GAL USED), endurance (ENDUR), range (in nautical miles, RANGE NM), and fuel
efficiency (in statute miles per gallon, MPG) are calculated based on the displayed fuel remaining (GAL
REM) and the fuel flow totalizer. The calculated range also takes into account the aircraft’s heading and
the wind direction and speed.
A map feature related to the EIS Fuel Calculations is the Fuel Range Ring, which graphically
illustrates the aircraft’s remaining range based on the endurance (ENDUR), heading, groundspeed, and
wind direction and speed. The solid green circle represents the range until all the remaining fuel is
depleted. The dashed green circle indicates the aircraft range until only reserve fuel remains. Once on
reserve fuel, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
The Fuel Range Ring shifts position in relation to the aircraft according to wind effects. For example,
more fuel is required for flying into a headwind, and the aircraft’s decreased range in that direction is
indicated by the Fuel Range Ring shifting toward the tail of the Aircraft Symbol.
The amount of reserve fuel (only for purposes of the Fuel Range Ring) is set on the Navigation Map
Page Setup Menu in terms of remaining flight time. When enabled, the Fuel Range Ring appears on
the Navigation Map Page, the Weather Data Link Page, and PFD Inset Map. (refer to Flight
Management for more information on the Fuel Range Ring).
Audio Panel and CNS
FUEL CALCULATIONS
Engine Indication System
Cylinder Head
Temperature
Indicator
Flight Instruments
1
On the Engine Page, select the RST Fuel Softkey; this resets displayed fuel remaining
(GAL REM) to the maximum fuel capacity for the aircraft and fuel used to zero.
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
115
System Overview
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Set Fuel Remaining
Calculated Fuel Used
Calculated Endu rance
Figure 3-5 Fuel Calculation Group
CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR
Carbon Monoxide Detector (CO DETECTOR) is displayed on the Engine Page in the SYSTEMS
group. The carbon monoxide detector provides information in Parts Per Million (PPM) and detects the
amount of carbon monoxide present in PPM.
Reset the Carbon Monoxide Detector:
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Calculated Range
Figure 3-6 Carbon Monoxide Detector (CO DETECTOR)
LANDING GEAR INDICATOR
Landing gear statuses are shown using the indications in the following table.
Position
EIS
Engine Page
Up & Locked
In Transition
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
On the Engine Page, push CO RST softkey.
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ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
117
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Engine Page
EIS
Position
Down & Locked
Warning
3.3 REVERSIONARY MODE
In the event of a PFD or MFD display failure, the display(s) operating in Reversionary Mode are
configured to present PFD symbology together with the EIS Display (refer to the System Overview for
information about display reversionary mode).
The Engine Display, in reversionary mode, is identical to the normal EIS Display on the MFD.
EIS Display
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEM
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 3-7 Reversionary Mode (EIS Shown)
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
System Overview
SECTION 4 AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.1 OVERVIEW
•
Multi Function Display (MFD)
•
Integrated Avionics Unit (2)
•
Audio Panel
•
Mode S Transponder (2 Optional)
•
MFD/PFD Control Unit
Audio Panel and CNS
Primary Flight Display (PFD)(2)
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
The Communication/Navigation/Surveillance (CNS) system includes the Audio Panel,
communication radios, navigation radios, and Mode S transponder. The System Overview Section
provides a block diagram description of the Audio Panel and CNS system interconnection.
CNS operation is performed by the following Line Replaceable Units (LRUs):
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
The MFD/PFD controls are used to tune the communication transceivers and navigation radios.
The Audio Panel provides the traditional audio selector functions of microphone and receiver audio
selection. The Audio Panel includes an intercom system (ICS) between the pilot, copilot, and
passengers, a marker beacon system, and a COM clearance recorder. Ambient noise from the aircraft
radios is reduced by a feature called Master Avionics Squelch (MASQ). When no audio is detected,
MASQ processing further reduces the amount of background noise from the radios.
The Mode-S transponder is controlled with softkeys and the FMS Knob located on the Primary
Flight Display (PFD). The Transponder Data Box is located to the left of the System Time Box. The
data box displays the active four-digit code, mode, and reply status.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
119
PFD CONTROLS AND FREQUENCY DISPLAY
1
2
3
5
4
6
7
8
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Flight Management
System
9
10
Hazard Avoidance
11
13
12
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 4-1 PFD Controls, NAV/COM Frequency Tuning Boxes, and ADF/DME Tuning
Window
120
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls NAV audio volume level. Press to turn the Morse code
identifier audio on and off. Volume level is shown in the NAV frequency field as a
percentage.
2
NAV Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active NAV frequencies.
3
NAV Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the NAV receiver (large knob for MHz; small
knob for kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer Arrow
between NAV1 and NAV2.
4
NAV Frequency Box – Displays NAV standby and active frequency fields, volume, and
station ID. The frequency of the NAV radio selected for navigation is displayed in green.
5
COM Frequency Box – Displays COM standby and active frequency fields and volume. The
selected COM transceiver frequency is displayed in green.
6
COM Knob – Tunes the standby frequencies for the COM transceiver (large knob for MHz;
small knob for kHz). Press to move the tuning box (light blue box) and Frequency Transfer
Arrow between COM1 and COM2.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
8
COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio volume level. Press to turn the COM automatic
squelch on and off. Volume level is shown in the COM frequency field as a percentage.
9
ADF/DME Tuning Window – Displays ADF frequencies, volume setting, and modes, and
DME tuning selection. Display by selecting the ADF/DME Softkey.
Flight Instruments
COM Frequency Transfer Key – Transfers the standby and active COM frequencies. Press
and hold this key for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz)
automatically into the active frequency field.
System Overview
7
10 ENT Key – Validates or confirms DME mode and Auto-tune selection.
13 ADF/DME Softkey – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply, and
ident status for the transponder.
1
3
4
5
12
13
14
15
22
6
7
8
9
16
17
18
19
10
Hazard Avoidance
2
Flight Management
System
AUDIO PANEL CONTROLS
Audio Panel and CNS
12 Transponder Data Box – Indicates the selected transponder code, operating mode, reply,
and ident status for the transponder.
Engine Indication System
11 FMS Knob – Flight Management System Knob, used to enter transponder codes and Autotune entries when NRST Window is present. Press the FMS Knob to turn the selection cursor
on and off. The large knob moves the cursor in the window. The small knob selects
individual characters for the highlighted cursor location.
20
Automatic Flight Control
System
11
21
Figure 4-2 GMA 350 Controls
Additional Features
NOTE: When a key is selected, a triangular annunciator above the key is illuminated.
2
COM1 – When selected, audio from the #1 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to
enable/disable monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
3
COM2 – When selected, audio from the #2 COM receiver can be heard. Press and hold to
enable/disable monitored COM muting during primary COM reception.
4
NAV1 – When selected, audio from the #1 NAV receiver can be heard.
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Index
MKR/MUTE – Selects marker beacon receiver audio. Mutes the currently received marker
beacon receiver audio. Deactivates automatically and marker beacon audio is heard when
the next marker beacon signal is received. Also, stops play of recorded COM audio
Appendices
1
121
5
NAV2 – When selected, audio from the #2 NAV receiver can be heard.
6
– Selects and deselects audio from a telephone or entertainment device connected to
the Front Panel Jack. Audio from a telephone device connected to the rear of the audio
panel is used if a device is not connected to the Front Panel Jack. Press and hold to enable/
disable
muting during reception.
7
MUS 1 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable
MUS1 muting during reception.
8
MUS 2 – Selects and deselects music entertainment audio. Press and hold to enable/disable
MUS2 muting during reception.
9
MAN SQ – Manual Squelch annunciator. When lit, intercom squelch is controlled manually.
10
Volume Indicator – Indicates volume/squelch setting relative to full scale.
11
Front Panel Jack – Used for an entertainment or telephone input.
12
MIC1 – Selects the #1 transmitter for transmitting. COM1 receive is simultaneously selected
when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #1 COM receiver to be heard.
COM2 receive can be added by pressing the COM2 Key. Selection of a second MIC button
initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is
using the COM2.
13
MIC2 – Selects the #2 transmitter for transmitting. COM2 receive is simultaneously selected
when this key is pressed allowing received audio from the #2 COM receiver to be heard.
COM1 receive can be added by pressing the COM1 Key. Selection of a second MIC button
initiates Split-COM mode. When in Split-COM mode, the pilot is using COM1, the copilot is
using the COM2.
14
PLAY – Press once to play the latest recorded memory block. Press while audio is playing
begins playing the previously recorded memory block. Each subsequent press thereafter
plays the previous block of memory.
15
AUX – When selected, audio from the ADF and DME (if equipped) can be heard
16
PILOT – Controls the pilot intercom isolation.
17
COPLT – Controls the copilot intercom system. Press and hold to toggle copilot
configuration between crew and passenger.
18
PASS – Controls the passenger intercom system. Press and hold to enable/disable passenger
muting during reception.
19
SPKR – Selects and deselects the cabin speaker. COM, NAV, AUX, and MKR receiver audio
can be heard on the speaker. Press and hold for 2 seconds for Passenger Address (PA). The
SPKR Key flashes during PA.
20
Cursor (CRSR) Control Knob – Turn to move the cursor (flashing white or blue
annunciator) to the desired source.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
22
Bluetooth Connection Annunciator – A flashing blue annunciator indicates the unit is
discoverable. A solid blue annunciator indicates an active Bluetooth connection.
Flight Instruments
Volume (VOL) Control Knob – Turn the smaller knob to control volume or squelch of the
selected source (indicated by the flashing white or blue annunciator). When the volume
control cursor is not active press to switch to Blue-Select mode. If the volume control cursor
is active, press twice (once to cancel the cursor, twice to activate Blue-Select mode).
System Overview
21
MFD/PFD CONTROL UNIT
Engine Indication System
Tuning Selection
Box
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
1
13
12
11
Hazard Avoidance
10
9
2
8
Automatic Flight Control
System
3
Additional Features
7
6
5
4
Appendices
Figure 4-3 MFD/PFD Control Unit and Frequency Tuning Display on the PFD
MENU Key – Displays a list of options for accessing additional features or making setting
changes.
2
Alphanumeric Keys – Allows data entry (rather than using the FMS Knob to select characters/
numbers).
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
123
Index
1
3
BKSP Key – Moves cursor back one character space and removes last character entered.
4
ENT Key – Validates or confirms a menu selection or data entry.
5
CLR Key – Erases information, cancels entries, or removes menus.
6
SEL Key – Arrows move cyan Softkey Selection Box on selected display. Press the center to
activate the selected softkey
7
Decimal Key – Enters a decimal point.
8
NAV Key – Selects NAV radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The NAV tuning box
is outlined with a cyan selection line when the NAV frequency is active on the control unit.
9
COM Key – Selects COM radio tuning mode on the MFD/PFD Control Unit. The COM tuning
box is outlined with a cyan selection line when the COM frequency is active on the control
unit.
10 Frequency Transfer Key (EMERG) – Transfers the standby and active COM or NAV frequencies.
Press and hold for two seconds to tune the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) automatically
into the COM active frequency field.
11 PFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access PFD functions.
12 MFD Key – When selected, the control unit is used to access MFD functions (default control
mode).
13 FMS/NAV-COM Knob – NAV/COM Tuning Modes: Acts as the NAV or COM Knob. MFD/PFD
Control Modes: Acts as the FMS Knob.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
System Overview
4.2 COM OPERATION
COM TUNING BOXES
2
3
4
5
Flight Instruments
1
Engine Indication System
7
6
Audio Panel and CNS
8
Flight Management
System
Figure 4-4 COM Tuning Box Indications
3
Standby Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby
frequencies are on the right. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or
gray. The standby frequency in the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
4
Frequency Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields with
the Frequency Transfer Arrow. Indicates which COM transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby
Field.
5
Automatic Squelch Indication – Indicates that Automatic Squelch is disabled. Automatic
Squelch quiets unwanted static noise when no audio signal is received, while still providing
good sensitivity to weak COM signals. When Automatic Squelch is disabled, COM audio
reception is always on. Continuous static noise is heard over the headsets and speaker, if
selected.
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Index
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields
with the Frequency Tuning Box. Indicates which COM transceiver is selected for frequency
transfer between the Standby and Active fields.
Appendices
2
Additional Features
Active Field – The COM Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies
are on the left. An active COM frequency is displayed in green and indicates that the COM
transceiver is selected on the Audio Panel (MIC1 or MIC2 Key). Both active COM frequencies
appearing in white indicate that no COM radio is selected for transmitting (PA mode is
selected on the Audio Panel).
Automatic Flight Control
System
1
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: When turning on the system for use, the system remembers the last frequencies used
and the active COM transceiver state prior to shutdown.
125
6
Transmit and Receive Indications – During COM transmission, a white TX appears by the
active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow. During COM signal reception,
a white RX appears by the active COM frequency replacing the Frequency Transfer Arrow.
7
Frequency Spacing – The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975
MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel
configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing
frequencies are also available in the complete 3040-channel list.
8
COM Volume – COM radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ
Knob. Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise
decreases volume. When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby
frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after the change.
COM TRANSCEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The COM frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the right side of the MFD and PFD.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Manually tuning a COM frequency:
1) Turn the COM Knob to tune the desired frequency (large knob for MHz; small knob for
Flight Management
System
kHz).
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the COM VOL/SQ Knob.
4) Press the COM VOL/SQ Knob to turn automatic squelch on and off.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Manually tuning a COM frequency from the Control Unit:
1) Press the COM Key to select the COM frequency box.
2) Turn the NAV/COM Knob to tune the desired frequency in the COM Tuning Box (large
knob for MHz; small knob for kHz).
3) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the active field.
AUTO-TUNING THE COM FREQUENCY
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
COM frequencies can be automatically tuned from the following:
•
Nearest Airports Window (PFD)
•
WPT – Airport Information Page
•
NRST – Nearest Airports Page
•
NRST – Nearest Frequencies Page (ARTCC, FSS, WX)
•
NRST – Nearest Airspaces Page
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE PFD
COM frequencies for the nearest airports can be automatically tuned from the Nearest Airports
Window on the PFD. When the desired frequency is entered, it becomes a standby frequency.
Pressing the Frequency Transfer Key places this frequency into the COM Active Frequency Field.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Press the
Nearest
Softkey to
Open the
‘Nearest
Airports’
Window
Figure 4-5 Nearest Airports Window
Auto-tuning a COM frequency for a nearby airport from the PFD:
25 nearest airport identifiers and COM frequencies is displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the list and highlight the desired COM frequency.
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active
Frequency Field.
AUTO-TUNING FROM THE MFD
Additional Features
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the COM Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or
WPT page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the COM Standby Frequency Field.
Hazard Avoidance
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD to open the Nearest Airports Window. A list of
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
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Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-6 Nearest Pages Menus
On the WPT - Airport Information Page, the cursor can be placed on the frequency field by pressing
the FMS Knob and scrolling through the list. With the desired frequency highlighted, press the ENT
Key to bring up the ‘Load Frequency’ Options menu. Use the FMS Knobs to select the desired COM
radio field and press the ENT Key to load it.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Hazard Avoidance
Selected Airport
Identifier and
Information
Automatic Flight Control
System
Runway
Information
Additional Features
Press ENT Key to load
frequency into PFD
COM Standby Field.
Cursor then advances
to the next frequency.
Appendices
Select INFO Softkey for
AIRPORT, RUNWAYS,
and FREQUENCIES
Windows
Index
Figure 4-7 WPT - Airport Information Page
COM frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST - Nearest Airspaces, NRST - Nearest
Frequencies, and NRST - Nearest Airports Pages on the MFD in a similar manner using the
appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
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System Overview
Auto-tuning a COM frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
1) From any page that the COM frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by
pressing the FMS Knob or pressing the appropriate softkey.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired COM frequency.
3) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected
COM radio.
COM Active Frequency Field.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the page menu.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
Engine Indication System
4) Press the Frequency Transfer Key on the PFD or MFD to transfer the frequency to the
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor on the desired selection.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
5) Press the ENT Key to load the COM frequency into the standby field of the selected
COM radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the COM Active
Frequency Field.
Automatic Flight Control
System
The COM radios can tune either 25-kHz spacing (118.000 to 136.975 MHz) or 8.33-kHz spacing
(118.000 to 136.990 MHz) for 760-channel or 3040-channel configuration. When 8.33-kHz channel
spacing is selected, all of the 25-kHz channel spacing frequencies are also available in the complete
3040-channel list. COM channel spacing is set on the System Setup 1 Page of the Aux Page Group.
While the COM Configuration Window is selected, the softkeys are blank.
Hazard Avoidance
FREQUENCY SPACING
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Select 8.33-kHz
or 25.0-kHz
COM Frequency
Channel Spacing
Figure 4-8 AUX - System Setup 1 Page
Changing COM frequency channel spacing:
Automatic Flight Control
System
1) Select the Aux – System Setup 1 Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Channel Spacing Field in the COM
Configuration Box.
Additional Features
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired channel spacing.
Index
Appendices
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the channel spacing selection.
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System Overview
4.3 NAV OPERATION
NAV TUNING BOXES
3
4
5
6
Flight Instruments
2
1
Engine Indication System
7
Figure 4-9 NAV Tuning Box Indications
4
NAV Tuning Box – Moves between the upper and lower radio standby frequency fields with
the Frequency Transfer Arrow. Indicates which NAV transceiver is to be tuned in the Standby
Field. Moving the Frequency Tuning Box is accomplished by pressing the NAV knob on the
PFD.
5
VOR/LOC Morse Code Audio Indication – When the Morse Code Identifier audio is on for
a NAV radio, a white ID replaces the Frequency Transfer Arrow to the left of the active NAV
frequency. In order to listen to either station identifier, press the NAV1 or NAV2 Key on the
Audio Panel. Pressing the VOL/ID Knob turns on/off the Morse code audio only in the radio
with the NAV Tuning Box. To turn on/off both NAV IDs, transfer the NAV Tuning Box between
NAV1 and NAV2 by pressing the small NAV Knob and pressing the VOL/ID Knob again to
turn the Morse code off in the other radio.
6
Decoded Morse Code Station Identifier – The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded
Morse Code station identifier that is received from the navigation source. Audio verification of
the selected station identifier is still required, and can be accomplished by selecting the
corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
7
NAV VOLUME – NAV radio volume level can be adjusted from 0 to 100% using the VOL/SQ
Knob. Turning the knob clockwise increases volume, turning the knob counterclockwise
decreases volume. When adjusting volume, the level is displayed in place of the standby
frequencies. Volume level indication remains for two seconds after the change.
Appendices
Active Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two active frequencies
are on the right. An active NAV frequency is displayed in green. The active NAV radio is
selected by pressing the CDI softkey on the PFD. Both active NAV frequencies appearing in
white indicate that no NAV radio is selected.
Additional Features
3
Automatic Flight Control
System
Frequency Transfer Arrow – Moves between the upper and lower radio frequency fields
with the Frequency Tuning Box. Indicates which NAV transciever is selected for frequency
transfer between the Standby and Active fields.
Hazard Avoidance
2
Flight Management
System
Standby Fields – The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; the two standby
frequencies are on the left. Frequencies in the standby field are displayed in either white or
gray. The standby frequency in the tuning box is white. The other standby frequency is gray.
Audio Panel and CNS
1
Index
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131
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
NAV RADIO SELECTION AND ACTIVATION
The NAV Frequency Box is composed of four fields; two standby fields and two active fields. The
active frequencies are on the right side and the standby frequencies are on the left.
A NAV radio is selected for navigation by pressing the CDI Softkey located on the PFD. The active
NAV frequency selected for navigation is displayed in green. Pressing the CDI Softkey once selects
NAV1 as the navigation radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a second time selects NAV2 as the navigation
radio. Pressing the CDI Softkey a third time activates GPS mode. Pressing the CDI Softkey again cycles
back to NAV1
While cycling through the CDI Softkey selections, the selected NAV standby frequency is selected for
tuning, the Frequency Transfer Arrow is placed in the selected NAV Frequency Field, and the active
NAV frequency color changes to green.
The three navigation modes that can be cycled through are:
•
VOR1 (or LOC1) – If NAV1 is selected, a green single line arrow (not shown) labeled either VOR1 or
LOC1 is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV1 frequency is displayed in green.
•
VOR2 (or LOC2) – If NAV2 is selected, a green double line arrow (shown) labeled either VOR2 or
LOC2 is displayed on the HSI and the active NAV2 frequency is displayed in green.
•
GPS – If GPS Mode is selected, a magenta single line arrow (not shown) appears on the HSI and
neither NAV radio is selected. Both active NAV frequencies are then displayed in white and the
previously selected NAV standby frequency remains selected for tuning.
See the Flight Instruments Section for selecting the DME and Bearing Information windows and
using VOR or ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The NAV Frequency Box displays the decoded Morse Code station identifier that is received from the
navigation source. Audio verification of the selected station identifier is still required, and can be
accomplished by selecting the corresponding NAV radio on the audio panel and pressing the NAV
VOL/ID Knob.
NAV radios are selected for listening by pressing the corresponding keys on the Audio Panel.
Pressing the NAV1, NAV2, or AUX Key selects and deselects the navigation radio source. Selected
audio can be heard over the headset and the speakers (if selected). All radios can be selected
individually or simultaneously.
NAV RECEIVER MANUAL TUNING
The NAV frequency controls and frequency boxes are on the left side of the MFD and PFD.
Manually tuning a NAV frequency:
1) Rotate the NAV Knob to tune the desired frequency in the NAV Tuning Box.
Appendices
2) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active
Frequency Field.
3) Adjust the volume level with the NAV VOL/ID Knob.
Index
4) Press the NAV VOL/ID Knob to turn the Morse code identifier audio on and off.
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System Overview
AUTO-TUNING A NAV FREQUENCY FROM THE MFD
NAV frequencies can be selected and loaded from the following MFD pages:
•
WPT – VOR Information
•
NRST – Nearest Airports
•
NRST – Nearest VOR
•
NRST – Nearest Frequencies (FSS, WX)
•
NRST – Nearest Airspaces
1) From any page that the NAV frequency can be auto-tuned, activate the cursor by
pressing the FMS Knob or the appropriate softkey.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired NAV identifier or NAV frequency.
cursor on the NAV frequency.
4) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV
Hazard Avoidance
3) On the Nearest VOR and Nearest Airports pages, press the FREQ Softkey to place the
Flight Management
System
Auto-tuning a NAV frequency from the WPT and NRST Pages:
Audio Panel and CNS
The MFD provides auto-tuning of NAV frequencies from waypoint and nearest pages. During
enroute navigation, the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV standby frequency field.
During approach activation the NAV frequency is entered automatically into the NAV active frequency
field.
Frequencies can be automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box from pages in the NRST or
WPT page group by highlighting the frequency and pressing the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
WPT – Airport Information
Flight Instruments
•
radio.
Automatic Flight Control
System
5) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active
Frequency Field.
Additional Features
Press the ENT
Key to load a
highlighted
Frequency into
the NAV Standby
Frequency Box
Turn the FMS Knob to
scroll through a list of
Frequencies
Appendices
Figure 4-10 NAV Frequency Auto-Tuning from the MFD
Or:
Index
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System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1) When on the NRST pages, press the MENU Key on the MFD control unit to display the
page menu.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the menu options.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the ENT Key to place the cursor in the desired window.
4) Scroll through the frequency selections with the FMS Knob or the ENT Key.
5) Press the ENT Key to load the NAV frequency into the standby field of the selected NAV
Engine Indication System
radio.
6) Press the Frequency Transfer Key to transfer the frequency to the NAV Active
Nearest Airports Menu
Nearest VOR Menu
Nearest Frequencies Menu
Nearest Airspaces Menu
Figure 4-11 Nearest Pages Menu
In the example shown, the VOR list is selected with the VOR Softkey or from the page menu. The
FMS Knob or ENT Key is used to scroll through the list. The cursor is placed on the frequency with the
FREQ Softkey and loaded into the NAV Tuning Box with the ENT Key.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Frequency Field.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Select the FREQ Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Frequency
Hazard Avoidance
Select the VOR Softkey
to Place the Cursor on
the VOR Identifier
Flight Management
System
Press the ENT
Key to Load
the Frequency
into the NAV
Standby Field.
Figure 4-12 Loading the NAV Frequency from the NRST - Nearest VOR Page
AUTO-TUNING NAV FREQUENCIES ON APPROACH ACTIVATION
NAV frequencies are automatically loaded into the NAV Frequency Box on approach activation.
When loading or activating a VOR or ILS/LOC approach, the approach frequency is automatically
transferred to a NAV frequency field as follows:
Appendices
NOTE: When an ILS/LOC approach has been activated while navigating by GPS, the system
automatically switches to LOC as the final approach course is intercepted (within 15 nm of
the FAF). See the Flight Management Section for details.
Additional Features
NOTE: The primary NAV frequency is auto-tuned upon loading a VOR or ILS/Localizer
approach.
Automatic Flight Control
System
While enroute, NAV frequencies can also be auto-tuned from the NRST — Nearest Airports, WPT —
Airport Information, WPT — VOR Information, and NRST — Nearest Frequencies Pages on the MFD in
a similar manner using the appropriate softkeys or MENU Key, the FMS Knob, and the ENT Key.
Index
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135
If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, the approach frequency is transferred to the NAV1
active frequency field. The frequency that was previously in the NAV1 active frequency field is
transferred to standby.
•
If the current CDI navigation source is GPS, and if the approach frequency is already loaded into the
NAV1 standby frequency field, the standby frequency is transferred to active.
•
If the current CDI navigation source is NAV1 or NAV2, the approach frequency is transferred to the
standby frequency fields of the selected CDI NAV radio.
Engine Indication System
•
MARKER BEACON RECEIVER (OPTIONAL)
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
The marker beacon receiver is used as part of the ILS. The marker beacon receiver is always on and
detects any marker beacon signals within the reception range of the aircraft.
The receiver detects the three marker tones – outer, middle, and inner – and provides the marker
beacon annunciations located to the left of the Altimeter on the PFD.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
NOTE: The marker beacon indicators operate independently of marker beacon audio and
cannot be turned off.
The Audio Panel provides three different states of marker beacon operation; On, Muted, and
Deselected. Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key selects and deselects marker beacon audio. The key
annunciator indicates when marker beacon audio is selected.
During marker beacon audio reception, pressing the MKR/MUTE Key mutes the audio but does not
affect the marker annunciations. The marker tone is silenced, then waits for the next marker tone. The
MKR/MUTE Key Annunciator is illuminated, indicating audio muting. The audio returns when the
next marker beacon signal is received. If the MKR/MUTE Key is pressed during signal reception (O,
M, I indication) while marker beacon audio is muted, the audio is deselected and the MKR/MUTE
Key Annunciator is extinguished.
Pressing the HI SENS Key switches between high and low marker beacon receiver sensitivity. The HI
SENS function (annunciator illuminated) is used to provide an earlier indication when nearing a
marker during an approach. The LO SENS function (annunciator extinguished) results in a narrower
marker dwell while over a station.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 4-13 Marker Beacon Key and Annunciator Lights
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System Overview
ADF/DME TUNING
•
ADF receiver mode
•
ADF receiver volume
•
DME tuning mode (DME transceiver pairing)
Active ADF Frequency
Standby ADF Frequency
Automatic Flight Control
System
ADF Mode
Hazard Avoidance
When the ADF/DME Tuning Window is displayed, the selection cursor is placed over the standby
ADF frequency field.
Turning the large FMS Knob moves the selection cursor through the various fields (standby ADF
frequency, ADF receiver mode, ADF radio volume, and DME tuning mode). Pressing the FMS Knob
activates/deactivates the selection cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The ADF frequency is
entered using the FMS Knob and the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
Active and standby ADF frequencies
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME and bearing information windows (ADF)
and using the ADF as the source for the bearing pointer.
The system tunes the ADF receiver (optional) and DME transceiver (optional). The ADF is tuned by
entering the frequency in the ADF standby frequency field of the ADF/DME Tuning Window. (The
softkey may be labeled ADF/DME, ADF, or DME, depending on installed equipment.)
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is
automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The following ADF/DME information is displayed in the ADF/DME Tuning Window:
Flight Instruments
NOTE: When another auxiliary window is turned on, the ADF/DME Tuning Window is
replaced on the PFD.
ADF Volume
Additional Features
DME Tuning Mode
Appendices
Figure 4-14 ADF/DME Tuning Window
Index
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137
ADF TUNING
ADF frequencies in the 190.0-kHz to 1799.5-kHz range are entered in the standby ADF frequency
field of the ADF/DME Tuning Window. The system does not tune the ADF emergency frequency,
2182.0 ÂkHz.
Pressing the CLR Key before completing frequency entry cancels the frequency change and reverts
back to the previously entered frequency.
The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is
automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
Pressing the CLR Key when the cursor is flashing, clears the frequency and replaces the standby field
with 0000.0.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Figure 4-15 Entering ADF Standby Frequencies
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Press the ENT
Key to Transfer
the ADF
Frequencies
Additional Features
Figure 4-16 Transfer ADF Frequencies
Tuning ADF Frequency:
1) Press the ADF/DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency
Appendices
field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to begin data entry and change each digit.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next digit position.
Index
5) Press the ENT Key to complete data entry for the standby frequency.
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AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the standby ADF frequency
System Overview
Tranferring the active and standby ADF frequencies:
field.
SELECTING ADF RECEIVER MODE
•
ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the NDB
station.
•
ADF/BFO (ADF/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF pointer points to the relative bearing of the
NDB station and an audible tone confirms signal reception. This mode allows identification of the
interrupted carrier beacon stations used in various parts of the world.
•
ANT/BFO (Antenna/Beat Frequency Oscillator) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90
degrees while an audible tone is provided when a signal is received. This mode also allows
identification of the interrupted carrier beacon stations and confirms signal reception.
ADF receiver volume level can be adjusted in the tuning window from 0 to 100%. The default
volume level is set to 50%.
Flight Management
System
ANT (Antenna) – The ADF bearing pointer parks on the HSI at 90 degrees. Best mode for listening
to NDB audio.
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
The following modes can be selected: (In all modes NDB audio can be heard by selecting the ADF
Key on the Audio Panel.)
Flight Instruments
2) Press the ENT Key to complete the frequency transfer.
Hazard Avoidance
Turn the Small FMS Knob
to Select the Mode
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 4-17 Adjusting ADF Receiver Volume
Additional Features
Turn the Small FMS Knob
to Select the Mode
Appendices
Figure 4-18 Selecting ADF Receiver Mode
Index
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System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Adjusting ADF receiver volume:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF volume field.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust volume as desired.
Selecting ADF Receiver Mode:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the selection cursor over the ADF mode field.
DME TUNING
NOTE: When turning on the G1000 NXi for use, the system remembers the last frequency
used for DME tuning and the NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD state prior to shutdown.
The system tunes the optional DME transceiver. The UHF DME frequency is tuned by pairing with a
VHF NAV frequency. DME frequency pairing is automatic and only the VHF NAV frequency is shown.
The DME Tuning Window is located to the right of the HSI in the lower right corner of the PFD. The
DME transceiver is tuned by selecting NAV1, NAV2, or HOLD in the DME Tuning Window. Pressing
the ADF/DMEor DME Softkey switches the DME Tuning Window on and off.
DME
Modes
Figure 4-19 ADF/DME Tuning Window
The following DME transceiver pairing can be selected:
•
NAV1 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV1 frequency.
•
NAV2 – Pairs the DME frequency from the selected NAV2 frequency.
•
HOLD – When in the HOLD position, the DME frequency remains paired with the last selected NAV
frequency.
Pressing the CLR Key or FMS Knob while in the process of DME pairing cancels the data entry and
reverts back to the previously selected DME tuning state. Pressing the FMS Knob activates/deactivates
the cursor in the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
See the Flight Instruments Section for displaying the DME information window.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired ADF receiver mode.
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System Overview
Selecting DME transceiver pairing:
1) Press the ADF/DME or DME Softkey to display the ADF/DME Tuning Window.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the DME tuning mode.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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141
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
4.4 MODE S TRANSPONDER
The system is equipped with 1 or 2 Mode S Transponders. The Mode S Transponders provide Mode A,
Mode C, and Mode ¯S interrogation and reply capabilities. Selective addressing or Mode Select (Mode
S) capability includes the following features:
•
Level-2 reply data link capability (used to exchange information between aircraft and ATC facilities)
•
Surveillance identifier capability
•
Flight ID (Flight Identification) reporting – The Mode S Transponder reports aircraft identification as
either the aircraft registration or a unique Flight ID.
•
Altitude reporting
•
Airborne status determination
•
Transponder capability reporting
•
Mode S Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) requirements
•
Acquisition squitter – Acquisition squitter, or short squitter, is the transponder 24-bit identification
address. The transmission is sent periodically, regardless of the presence of interrogations. The purpose
of acquisition squitter is to enable Mode S ground stations and aircraft equipped with a Traffic
Avoidance System (TAS) to recognize the presence of Mode S equipped aircraft for selective
interrogation.
•
Extended squitter – The extended squitter is transmitted periodically and contains information such as
altitude (barometric and GPS), GPS position, and aircraft identification. The purpose of extended
squitter is to provide aircraft position and identification to ADS-B Ground-Based Transceivers (GBTs)
and other aircraft.
The Hazard Avoidance Section provides more details on traffic avoidance systems.
TRANSPONDER CONTROLS
Transponder function is displayed on three levels of softkeys on the PFD: Top-level, Mode Selection,
and Code Selection. When the top-level XPDR Softkey is pressed, the following XPDR and Mode
Selection softkeys appear: XPDR1, XPDR2 (Optional),Standby, On, ALT, VFR, Code, Ident, Back.
When the Code Softkey is pressed, the number softkeys appear: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Ident, BKSP,
Back. The digits 8 and 9 are not used for code entry. Pressing the numbered softkeys in sequence
enters the transponder code. If an error is made, pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection
cursor to the previous digit. Pressing the BKSP Softkey again moves the cursor to the next previous
digit.
Pressing the Back Softkey during code selection reverts to the Mode Selection Softkeys. Pressing the
Back Softkey during mode selection reverts to the top-level softkeys.
The code can also be entered with the FMS Knob on the PFD. Code entry must be completed with
either the softkeys or the FMS Knob, but not a combination of both.
Pressing the Ident Softkey while in Mode or Code Selection initiates the ident function and reverts to
the top-level softkeys.
After 45 seconds of transponder control inactivity, the system reverts back to the top-level softkeys.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Selecting and Activating Transponder 1 or Transponder 2 (Optional)
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
TRANSPONDER MODE SELECTION
Mode selection can be automatic (Altitude Mode) or manual (Standby, ON, and Altitude Modes).
The Standby, On, and ALT Softkeys can be accessed by pressing the XPDR Softkey.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the XPDR1 or XPDR2 Softkey to select and activate the desired transponder.
Flight Management
System
When turning on the system for use, the system activates Transponder 1 as the default unit,
regardless of which transponder was active prior to shutdown. When switching between Transponder
1 and Transponder 2, the code and mode remain the same. If a new code is entered in the active
transponder, switching transponders does not bring back the previous code.
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 4-20 XPDR Softkeys (PFD)
Automatic Flight Control
System
STANDBY MODE (MANUAL)
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the IDENT function is inhibited.
Appendices
STBY Mode (White
Code Number and
Mode)
Additional Features
Standby Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the Standby Softkey. In Standby, the
transponder is powered and new codes can be entered, but no replies or squitters are transmitted..
When Standby is selected, a white STBY indication and transponder code appear in the mode field
of the Transponder Data Box.
Figure 4-21 Standby Mode
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MANUAL ON MODE
On Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the On Softkey. An On indication will appear in
the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting On mode enables transmission of transponder
replies and squitters, but transmissions will not include altitude information. The On indication and
transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will appear green while airborne and white while on
the ground. When the transponder is operating with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies
to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic
systems of other aircraft.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Airborne On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Figure 4-22 On Mode
ALTITUDE MODE
ALT Mode can be selected at any time by pressing the ALT Softkey. When ALT mode is selected,
an ALT indication will appear in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box. Selecting ALT mode
enables transmission of transponder replies and squitters. Transmissions will include pressure
altitude information. The ALT indication and transponder code in the Transponder Data Box will
appear green while airborne and white while on the ground. When the transponder is operating
with an air state of on-ground it will disable replies to Mode A, Mode C, and Mode S all-call
interrogations so the aircraft will not show up on the traffic systems of other aircraft.
On-Ground ALT Mode
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
On-Ground On Mode
(No Altitude Reporting)
Appendices
Airborne ALT Mode
Figure 4-23 Altitude Mode
Index
REPLY STATUS
When the transponder sends replies to interrogations, a white R indication appears momentarily in
the reply status field of the Transponder Data Box.
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System Overview
Reply to Interrogation
Flight Instruments
Figure 4-24 Reply Indication
Selecting a transponder mode:
Engine Indication System
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
2) Press the desired softkey to activate the transponder mode.
ENTERING A TRANSPONDER CODE
VFR CODE
Hazard Avoidance
VFR Code
Flight Management
System
The VFR code can be entered either manually or by pressing the XPDR Softkey, then the VFR
Softkey. When the VFR Softkey is pressed, the pre-programmed VFR code is automatically displayed
in the code field of the Transponder Data Box. Pressing the VFR Softkey again restores the previous
identification code.
The pre-programmed VFR Code is set at the factory to 1200. If a VFR code change is required,
contact a Garmin-authorized service center for configuration.
Audio Panel and CNS
Pressing the CLR Key or small FMS Knob before code entry is complete cancels code entry and
restores the previous code. Waiting for 10 seconds after code entry is finished activates the code
automatically.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 4-25 VFR Code
Entering a transponder code with softkeys:
2) Press the CODE Softkey to display the Transponder Code Selection Softkeys, for digit
entry.
Additional Features
1) Press the XPDR Softkey to display the Transponder Mode Selection Softkeys.
3) Press the digit softkeys to enter the code in the code field. When entering the code, the
Appendices
next softkey in sequence must be pressed within 10 seconds, or the entry is cancelled
and restored to the previous code. Pressing the BKSP Softkey moves the code selection
cursor to the previous digit. Five seconds after the fourth digit has been entered, the
transponder code becomes active.
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System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
Flight Instruments
Entering a Code
Figure 4-26 Entering a Code
Entering a transponder code with the PFD FMS Knob:
Engine Indication System
1) Press the XPDR and the CODE Softkeys as in the previous procedure to enable code
entry.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob on the PFD to enter the first two code digits.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
Flight Management
System
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Hazard Avoidance
Turn the Small
FMS Knob to
Enter Two Code
Digits at a Time
Press the
ENT Key to
Complete
Code Entry
Turn the Large
FMS Knob
to Move the
Cursor to the
Next Code Field
Figure 4-27 Entering a Code with the FMS Knob
Automatic Flight Control
System
Entering a transponder code with the Control Unit FMS Knob
1) Press the XPDR and the Code Softkeys on the PFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the first two code digits.
Additional Features
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move the cursor to the next code field.
4) Enter the last two code digits with the small FMS Knob.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete code digit entry.
Appendices
IDENT FUNCTION
NOTE: In Standby Mode, the Ident Softkey is inoperative.
Index
Pressing the Ident Softkey sends a distinct identity indication to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The
indication distinguishes the identing transponder from all the others on the air traffic controller’s
screen. The Ident Softkey appears on all levels of transponder softkeys. When the Ident Softkey is
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System Overview
pressed, a green Ident indication is displayed in the mode field of the Transponder Data Box for a
duration of 18 seconds.
After the Ident Softkey is pressed while in Mode or Code Selection, the system reverts to the toplevel softkeys.
Flight Instruments
Ident Indication
Engine Indication System
Select the Ident Softkey to
Initiate the ID Function
Figure 4-28 Ident Softkey and Indication
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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4.5 ADDITIONAL AUDIO PANEL FUNCTIONS
POWER-UP
The Audio Panel performs a self-test during power-up. During the self-test all Audio Panel
annunciator lights illuminate for approximately two seconds. Once the self-test is completed, most of
the settings are restored to those in use before the unit was last turned off.
MONO/STEREO HEADSETS
Stereo headsets are recommended for use in this aircraft.
Using a monaural headset in a stereo jack shorts the right headset channel output to ground. While
this does not damage the Audio Panel, a person listening on a monaural headset hears only the left
channel in both ears. If a monaural headset is used at one of the passenger positions, any other
passenger using a stereo headset hears audio in the left ear only.
SPEAKER
All of the radios can be heard over the cabin speaker. Pressing the SPKR Key selects and deselects
the cabin speaker. Speaker audio is muted when the PTT is pressed.
PASSENGER ADDRESS MODE (PA MODE)
Press and hold the SPKR Key for 2 seconds to initiate Passenger Address Mode. PA Mode is
annunciated by a rapid blinking of the SPKR annunciator. When in PA Mode the crew can use the
PTT “Push-to-Talk” button to deliver announcements over the speaker, to the passenger headsets, or
both depending on configuration.
SPLIT-PA MODE
During Split-PA Mode the pilot can continue to use the radio(s) while the copilot delivers PA
announcements. To initiate Split-PA Mode, first enter Split-COM Mode by pressing more than one
MIC Key simultaneously, then press and hold the SPKR Key for 2 seconds.
INTERCOM
The GMA 350 includes a six-position intercom system (ICS), one music input, and one telephone/
entertainment input for the pilot, copilot and passengers. The intercom provides Pilot, Copilot, and
Passenger audio isolation.
Figure 4-29 Intercom Controls
Press the PILOT, COPLT, and/or PASS Keys to distribute as required. If the annunciators are lit,
those positions will share intercom audio. If an annunciator is NOT lit that position is isolated from
the others.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
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COPILOT CONFIGURED AS CREW OR PASSENGER
INTERCOM MODES
NOTE: In the following modes the copilot position is configured as crew.
In ‘All Intercom’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear each other and hear the aircraft
audio.
Audio Panel and CNS
ALL INTERCOM MODE
Engine Indication System
The copilot position can be configured as crew (COPLT Key enabled) or as a passenger (COPLT
Key disabled). Pressing and holding the COPLT Key toggles the copilot position configuration
between passenger and crew. The aural message “Copilot Configured as Passenger” or “Copilot
Configured as Crew” is heard.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: When the copilot position is configured as a passenger, the COPLT Key is disabled
and the copilot headset is treated as a ‘passenger’ for intercom and entertainment audio
distribution.
Flight Management
System
PILOT ISOLATE MODE
In ‘Passenger/Crew Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio and each other.
The Passengers hear each other.
Automatic Flight Control
System
PASSENGER/CREW ISOLATE MODE
Hazard Avoidance
In ‘Pilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot and
Passengers also hear each other.
Additional Features
COPILOT ISOLATE MODE
Appendices
In ‘Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The Pilot and
Passengers also hear each other. The Copilot has the option to use Split-COM mode.
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System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
ALL ISOLATE MODE
Flight Instruments
In ‘All Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio. The Copilot has the option to
use Split-COM mode. The Passengers hear each other.
PILOT & COPILOT ISOLATE MODE
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
In ‘Pilot & Copilot Isolate’ mode the Pilot, Copilot, and Passengers hear the aircraft audio. The
Passengers hear each other. The Copilot has the option to use Split-COM mode.
PILOT & PASSENGER ISOLATE MODE
Flight Management
System
In ‘Pilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot hear the aircraft audio. The Passengers
hear each other.
COPILOT & PASSENGER ISOLATE MODE
BLUE-SELECT MODE (TELEPHONE/ENTERTAINMENT DISTRIBUTION)
The music (MUSIC) and telephone/entertainment ( ) audio are distributed using the Blue-Select
Mode. The following example indicates that the pilot, copilot, and passengers will all hear the
telephone/entertainment audio.
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
In ‘Copilot & Passenger Isolate’ mode the Pilot and Copilot can hear the aircraft audio. The
Copilot has the option to use Split-COM mode. The Passengers hear each other.
Index
Figure 4-30 Blue-Select Mode (Telephone/Entertainment Distribution)
The Blue-Select Mode is entered by pressing the small knob when the volume control cursor
(flashing white annunciator) is not active. If the volume control cursor is active, press the small knob
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ADJUSTING INTERCOM VOLUME
When the cursor is on PILOT, COPLT, or PASS, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the intercom
volume for the listener.
When the cursor is on SPKR, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the speaker volume of the
selected sources (COM, NAV, AUX, MKR). Alert volumes are not affected by the speaker volume
control knob.
, AND MUS VOLUME
When the cursor is on MKR, AUX,
, MUS1, or MUS2 the Volume Control Knob adjusts the
individual volume of the selected source.
When the cursor is on MAN SQ, the Volume Control Knob adjusts the ICS Squelch Threshold
(the volume level that must be exceeded to be heard over the intercom).
Relative Volume/
Squelch Scale
Automatic Flight Control
System
Manual Squelch Annunciator; Off for
Automatic Squelch, On for Manual Squelch
Hazard Avoidance
ADJUSTING MANUAL SQUELCH
Flight Management
System
ADJUSTING MKR, AUX,
Audio Panel and CNS
ADJUSTING SPEAKER VOLUME
Engine Indication System
Selecting any button other than PILOT, COPLT, PASS, MUS or
will cancel Blue-Select Mode.
Pressing the small knob will also cancel Blue-Select Mode. After approximately ten seconds with no
input, the Blue-Select Mode will automatically cancel.
Flight Instruments
The annunciator over the
Button will be flashing blue. Any combination of the annunciators
over the PILOT, COPLT, and PASS buttons may be blue. Select the desired button to turn the blue
annunciator on or off to distribute the telephone audio to selected crew/passenger positions. Turn
the large knob to select MUS, and select the crew/passenger positions to receive the music audio.
System Overview
twice. The first press will cancel the volume control cursor, the second will activate Blue-Select
Mode.
Additional Features
Cursor
Appendices
Volume or Manual Squelch
Figure 4-31 Volume/Squelch Control
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Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
CLEARANCE RECORDER AND PLAYER
The Audio Panel contains a digital clearance recorder that records up to 2.5 minutes of the selected
COM radio signal. Recorded COM audio is stored in separate memory blocks. Once 2.5 minutes of
recording time have been reached, the recorder begins recording over the stored memory blocks,
starting from the oldest block.
The PLAY Key controls the play function. Pressing the PLAY Key once plays the latest recorded
memory block. Pressing the PLAY Key while audio is playing begins playing the previously recorded
memory block. Each subsequent press of the PLAY Key selects the previously recorded memory
block.
Pressing the MKR/MUTE Key during play of a memory block stops play. If a COM input signal is
detected during play of a recorded memory block, play is halted.
Powering off the unit automatically clears all recorded blocks.
SPLIT-COM OPERATION
NOTE: Split COM performance is affected by the distance between the COM antennas and
the separation of the tuned frequencies. If the selected COM1 and COM2 frequencies are
too close together, interference may be heard during transmission on the other radio.
During Split COM operation, both the pilot and the copilot can transmit simultaneously over
separate radios. In Split COM mode, the pilot is uses COM1 and the copilot is uses COM2.
Pressing both MIC Keys simultaneously initiates Split COM Mode (i.e., COM1/COM2). The
respective COM1/MIC1 or COM2/MIC2 annunciators are illuminated indicating Split COM operation.
Split COM operation is cancelled by pressing one of the selected MIC Keys again.
ENTERTAINMENT INPUTS
•
The telephone/entertainment Key ( )controls a telephone or entertainment device connected to the
rear of the audio panel or to the Front Panel Jack. For GSR 56 equipped aircraft, the Iridium phone
audio is connected to the rear input of the audio panel. To use the Iridium phone, ensure there is no
other audio source plugged into the Front Panel Jack.
•
The MUS1 and MUS2 Key controls the Entertainment Music audio input. External audio jacks can
also be used as an entertainment input. GDL 69 (SiriusXM Radio) audio, if equipped, is wired to the
MUS1 and MUS2 inputs. The Front Panel Jack does not disable audio connected to the MUS1 and
MUS2 inputs.
The Front Panel Jack can be used as an entertainment input or a telephone input. Plugging a device
into the Front Panel Jack will disable any audio source connected to the rear telephone/entertainment
jack (i.e. GSR 56, if so equipped). The Front Panel Jack is a 3.5-mm stereo jack that is compatible with
popular portable entertainment devices such as cell phones and other tablet devices. The headphone
outputs of the entertainment devices are plugged into the Front Panel Jack.
Distribution of the entertainment inputs are configured in Blue-Select Mode.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
The audio panel provides three stereo telephone/entertainment inputs:
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Press and hold the MUS1, MUS2, or ( ) Key for two seconds to toggle muting on and off. The
aural message “Mute Music on Reception Enabled/Disabled” or “Mute Tel and Jack on Reception
Enabled/Disabled” is heard.
Audio Panel and CNS
SiriusXM Radio audio from the Data Link Receiver may be heard by the pilot and passengers
simultaneously (optional: requires subscription to SiriusXM Radio Service). Refer to the Additional
Features Section for more details on the Data Link Receiver.
Connecting a stereo input to the Stereo Input jack removes the SiriusXM Radio Audio from that
input.
Engine Indication System
SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
Flight Instruments
Telephone and entertainment muting can be enabled or disabled by the user, however it is always
muted during alerts.
Enabling/Disabling Muting
System Overview
TELEPHONE AND ENTERTAINMENT MUTING
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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4.6 AUDIO PANEL PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
NOTE: If the pilot and/or copilot are using headsets that have a high/low switch or volume
control knob, verify that the switch is in the high position and the volume control on the
headsets are at maximum volume setting. On single-Âpilot flights, verify that all other
headsets are not connected to avoid excess noise in the audio system.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
NOTE: When the MAN SQ Key is pressed, the ICS squelch can be set manually by the pilot
and copilot. If manual squelch is set to full open, background noise is heard in the ICS system
as well as during COM transmissions.
After powering up the system, the following steps aid in maximizing the use of the Audio Panel as well
as prevent pilot and copilot induced issues. These preflight procedures should be performed each time a
pilot boards the aircraft to insure awareness of all audio levels in the Audio Panel and radios.
Once this procedure has been completed, the pilot and copilot can change settings, keeping in mind
the notes above.
Flight Management
System
Setting the Audio Panel During Preflight:
1) Verify that the PILOT , COPLT and PASS annunciators are lit.
2) Adjust radio volume levels (COM, NAV) to a suitable level.
3) Use the Blue-Select Mode to distribute the telephone/entertainment (
), MUS1, and
Hazard Avoidance
MUS2 appropriately.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
4) Use the VOL/CRSR Knobs to adjust the intercom volumes to the desired level.
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Abnormal operation of the system includes equipment failures of the system components and failure
of associated equipment, including switches and external devices.
COM TUNING FAILURE
AUDIO PANEL FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
REVERSIONARY MODE
Hazard Avoidance
If PFD1 fails, COM1 and NAV1 display a red X on both remaining displays. NAV1 is unavailable.
COM1 automatically tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM1 emergency
frequency is available to both the copilot and pilot.
If PFD2 fails, COM2 and NAV2 display a red X on the remaining PFD display. NAV2 is unavailable.
COM2 tunes 121.500 MHz, but the frequency is not shown. The COM2 emergency frequency is
available to both the copilot and pilot.
Flight Management
System
If there is a failure of the Audio Panel, a fail-safe circuit connects the pilot’s headset (left ear only if
stereo) and microphone directly to the COM1 transceiver. Audio is not available on the speaker during
Fail-safe operation.
Audio Panel and CNS
In case of a COM system tuning failure, the emergency frequency (121.500 MHz) is automatically
tuned in the radio in which the tuning failure occurred. Depending on the failure mode, a red X may
appear on the frequency display.
Engine Indication System
If the PTT Key becomes stuck, the COM transmitter stops transmitting after 35 seconds of
continuous operation. An alert appears on the PFD to advise the pilot of a stuck microphone.
The MIC Key Annunciator on the Audio Panel flashes as long as the PTT Key remains stuck.
Flight Instruments
STUCK MICROPHONE
System Overview
4.7 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUDIO PANEL AND CNS
BLANK PAGE
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System Overview
SECTION 5 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
5.1 INTRODUCTION
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
The system is an integrated flight, engine, communication, navigation and surveillance system. This
section of the Pilot’s Guide explains flight management using the system.
The most prominent part of the system are the three full color displays: two Primary Flight Displays
(PFDs) and one Multi Function Display (MFD). The information to successfully navigate the aircraft
using the GPS sensors is displayed on the PFDs and the MFD. A brief description of the GPS navigation
data on the PFD and MFD follows.
Navigation mode indicates which sensor is providing the course data (e.g., GPS, VOR) and the flight
plan phase (e.g., Departure (DPRT), Terminal (TERM), Enroute (ENR), Oceanic (OCN), RNAV
Approach (LNAV, LNAV+V, L/VNAV, LP, LP+V, LPV), or Missed Approach (MAPR)). L/VNAV, LP, LP+V,
and LPV approach service levels are only available with SBAS.
The Inset Map and HSI Map are small versions of the Navigation Map. The Inset Map is displayed in
the lower left corner of the PFD (lower right during reversionary mode), and the HSI Map is displayed
in the center of the HSI. The Inset Map and the HSI Map may each be referred to as the PFD Map. A
PFD Map is displayed by pressing the Map/HSI Softkey, pressing the Layout Softkey, then pressing
either the Inset Map or HSI Map Softkey. Pressing the Map Off Softkey removes the PFD Map.
The Navigation Map displays aviation data (e.g., airports, VORs, airways, airspaces), geographic data
(e.g., cities, lakes, highways, borders), topographic data (map shading indicating elevation), and hazard
data (e.g., traffic, terrain, weather). The amount of displayed data for the PFD Map can be reduced by
pressing the Map/HSI Softkey on the PFD, then pressing the Detail Softkey. The amount of displayed
data for the Navigation Map can be reduced by pressing the Detail Softkey on the MFD. The Navigation
Map can be oriented three different ways: North Up (NORTH UP), Track Up (TRK UP), or Heading Up
(HDG UP).
An aircraft icon is placed on the Navigation Map at the location corresponding to the calculated
present position. The aircraft position and the flight plan legs are accurately based on GPS calculations.
The basemap upon which these are placed are from a source with less resolution, therefore the relative
position of the aircraft to map features is not exact. The leg of the active flight plan currently being flown
is shown as a magenta line on the navigation map. The other legs are shown in white.
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. The current range is indicated
in the upper left corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the map. To
change the map range on any map, turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to zoom in ( -, decreasing), or
clockwise to zoom out (+, increasing).
The Direct To Window, the Flight Plan Window, the Procedures Window, and the Nearest Airports
Window can be displayed in the lower right corner of the PFD. Details of these windows are discussed
in detail later in the section.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Current Track Indicator
Navigation Mode
Inset Map
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Navigation Status Box
Location of:
- Direct To Window
- Flight Plan Window
- Procedures Window
- Nearest Airports Window
- References Window
Flight Management
System
Figure 5-1 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD Inset Map
Hazard Avoidance
Navigation Mode
Automatic Flight Control
System
Current Track
Indicator
Additional Features
HSI Map
Index
Appendices
Figure 5-2 GPS Navigation Information on the PFD HSI Map
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System Overview
Navigation Data
Bar
Display
Title
Flight Instruments
Map Orientation
Navigation Map
Map Range
Aircraft Icon
at
Present Position
Audio Panel and CNS
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Engine Indication System
- Aviation Data
- Geographic Data
- Topographic Data
- Hazard Data
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
NAVIGATION STATUS BOX AND DATA BAR
The Navigation Status Box located at the top of the PFD contains two fields displaying the following
information:
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 5-3 GPS Navigation Information on the MFD Navigation Page
Additional Features
Figure 5-4 PFD Navigation Status Box
Active flight plan leg (e.g., ‘D-> KICT’ or ‘KIXD -> KCOS’) or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘Turn
right to 021˚ in 8 seconds’)
•
Distance (DIS) and Bearing (BRG) to the next waypoint or flight plan annunciations (e.g., ‘TOD
within 1 minute’)
Appendices
•
The symbols used in the PFD Status Box are:
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Symbol
Description
Symbol
Description
Active Leg
Left Holding
Pattern
Direct-to
Vector to Final
Right Procedure
Turn
Right DME Arc/
Radius to Fix Leg
Left Procedure
Turn
Left DME Arc/
Radius to Fix Leg
Right Holding
Pattern
The Navigation Data Bar located at the top of the MFD contains four data fields, each displaying one
of the following items:
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Table 5-1 PFD Status Box Symbols
Bearing
FOB
Fuel on Board
DEST
Destination Airport Identifier
FOD
Fuel over Destination
DIS
Distance
GS
Ground Speed
DTG
Distance to Go
ISA
Temperature at Standard Pressure
DTK
Desired Track
LDG
ETA at Final Destination
END
Endurance
MSA
Minimum Safe Altitude
ENR
ETE to Final Destination
TAS
True Airspeed
ESA
Enroute Safe Altitude
TKE
Track Angle Error
ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival
TRK
Track
ETE
Estimated Time Enroute
VSR
Vertical Speed Required
FLT
Flight Timer
XTK
Cross-Track Error
Table 5-2 MFD Data Bar Field Items
Additional Features
Appendices
BRG
Figure 5-5 MFD Navigation Data Bar
The navigation information displayed in the four data fields can be selected on the ‘MFD Data Bar
Fields’ Box on the ‘Aux-System Setup 1’ Page. The default selections (in order left to right) are GS,
DTK, TRK, and ETE.
Changing a field in the MFD Navigation Data Bar:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
Index
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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Fields’ Box.
System Overview
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field number in the ‘MFD Data Bar
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display and scroll through the data options list to select the
5) Press the ENT Key. Pressing the Defaults Softkey returns all fields to the default setting.
Flight Instruments
desired data.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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5.2 USING MAP DISPLAYS
Map displays are used extensively in the system to provide situational awareness in flight. Most system
maps can display the following information:
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Hazard Avoidance
• Terrain
• Topography scale and data
• All Map Group Pages (‘Map’)
• All Waypoint Group Pages (‘WPT’)
• Trip Planning Page (‘Aux’)
• All Nearest Group Pages (‘NRST’)
• Flight Plan Pages (‘FPL’)
• Direct To Window
• PFD Maps
• Procedure Loading Pages
MAP ORIENTATION
Maps are shown in one of three different orientation options, allowing flexibility in determining
aircraft position relative to other items on the map (north up) or for determining where map items are
relative to where the aircraft is going (track up or heading up). The map orientation is shown in the
upper left corner of the map.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
• Map Pointer information (distance and
bearing to pointer, location of pointer,
name, and other pertinent information)
• Fuel range ring
• Flight plan legs
• User waypoints
• Track vector
The information in this section applies to the following maps unless otherwise noted:
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
• Airports, NAVAIDs, airspaces, airways,
land data (highways, cities, lakes, rivers,
borders, etc.) with names
• Map range
• Wind direction and speed
• Map orientation
• Icons for enabled map features
• Aircraft icon (representing present
position)
• Obstacle data
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Figure 5-6 Map Orientation
North up (North up) aligns the top of the map display to north (default setting).
•
Track up (Track up) aligns the top of the map display to the current ground track.
•
Heading up (HDG up) aligns the top of the map display to the current aircraft heading.
Hazard Avoidance
•
NOTE: When panning or reviewing active flight plan legs in a non-North Up orientation, the
map does not show the map orientation nor the wind direction and speed.
Additional Features
NOTE: Map orientation can only be changed on the Navigation Map Page. Any other
displays that show navigation data reflect the orientation selected for the Navigation Map
Page.
Automatic Flight Control
System
The Auto North Up setting configures the map to switch automatically to a north up orientation
when the map range reaches a minimum range.
Appendices
Index
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163
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Map Settings
Selection
Figure 5-7 Navigation Map Page Menu Window
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System Overview
Map Group Selection
Flight Instruments
Orientation Field
North Up Above Field
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 5-8 Map Settings Window - Map Group
Additional Features
Changing the Navigation Map orientation:
1) With the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘Map Settings’ Window. Select the ‘Map’ group if
necessary.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired orientation.
Appendices
3) Turn the large FMS Knob, or press the ENT Key once, to select the ‘Orientation’ field.
5) Press the ENT Key to select the new orientation.
190–02361–00 Rev. A
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Index
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the base page.
165
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Enabling/disabling Auto North Up and selecting the minimum switching range:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
5) Highlight the ‘North Up Above’ Field.
6) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’ using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select the desired range.
9) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option.
10) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP RANGE
There are 28 different map ranges available, from 250 feet to 1000 nm. The current range is
indicated in the upper left corner of the map and represents the top-to-bottom distance covered by the
map. When the map range is decreased to a point that exceeds the capability of the system to
accurately represent the map, a magnifying glass icon is shown to the left of the map range. To change
the map range turn the Joystick counter-clockwise to decrease the range, or clockwise to increase the
range
NOTE: Since the PFD Map is much smaller than the MFD navigation maps, items are
removed on the PFD Map two range levels smaller than the range selected in the Map
Settings pages (e.g., a setting of 100 nm removes the item at ranges above 100 nm on MFD
navigation maps, while the PFD Map removes the same item at 50 nm).
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
range field.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Auto Zoom On
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
AUTO ZOOM
Waypoints that are very short distances apart cause the map range to decrease to a point where
situational awareness may not be what is desired. Increase the minimum look ahead time to a
value that limits the auto zoom to a minimum range that provides acceptable situational
awareness.
Appendices
•
Additional Features
Waypoints that are long distances apart cause the map range to increase to a point where many
details on the map are decluttered. If this is not acceptable, lower the maximum look ahead time to
a value that limits the auto zoom to an acceptable range.
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
Hazard Avoidance
Auto zoom allows the system to change the map display range to the smallest range clearly
showing the active waypoint. Auto zoom can be overridden by adjusting the range with the Joystick,
and remains until the active waypoint changes, a terrain or traffic alert occurs, the aircraft takes off,
or the manual override times out (timer set on ‘Map Settings’ Window). Auto zoom is suspended
while the map pointer is active.
If a terrain caution or warning occurs, all navigation maps automatically adjust to the smallest map
range clearly showing the potential impact areas If a new traffic advisory alert occurs, any map page
capable of displaying traffic advisory alerts automatically adjusts to the smallest map range clearly
showing the traffic advisory. When terrain or traffic alerts clear, the map returns to the previous auto
zoom range based on the active waypoint.
The auto zoom function can be turned on or off independently for the PFD and MFD. Control of
the ranges at which the auto zoom occurs is done by setting the minimum and maximum ‘look
forward’ times (set on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the ‘Map’ Group). These settings determine the
minimum and maximum distance to display based upon the aircraft’s ground speed.
Flight Management
System
Figure 5-9 Map Range
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Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
•
Flight plans that have a combination of long and short legs cause the range to increase and
decrease as waypoints sequence. To avoid this, auto zoom can be disabled or the maximum/
minimum times can be adjusted.
•
The ‘time out’ time (configurable on the ‘Map Settings’ Window for the Map Group) determines
how long auto zoom is overridden by a manual adjustment of the range knob. At the expiration of
this time, the auto zoom range is restored. Setting the ‘time out’ value to zero causes the manual
override to never time out.
•
When the maximum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the upper limit becomes the maximum
range available (1000 nm).
•
When the minimum ‘look forward’ time is set to zero, the lower limit becomes 1.5 nm.
Configuring automatic zoom:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
Flight Management
System
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Auto Zoom’ On/Off Field, and select ‘Off’ or ‘On’ using the small FMS
Knob.
Hazard Avoidance
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the
‘Auto Zoom’ display selection field.
7) Select ‘MFD’, ‘PFD’, or ‘All’ using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option. The flashing cursor highlights the ‘Max
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Look FWD’ Field. Times are from zero to 999 minutes.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to set the ‘Max Look FWD’ time. Press the ENT Key.
10) Repeat step 9 for ‘Min Look FWD’ (zero to 99 minutes) and ‘Time Out’ (zero to 99
minutes).
11) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
MAP PANNING
Index
Appendices
Map panning allows the pilot to:
•
View parts of the map outside the displayed range without adjusting the map range
•
Highlight and select locations on the map
•
Review information for a selected airport, NAVAID or user waypoint
•
Designate locations for use in flight planning
•
View airspace and airway information
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Flight Instruments
NOTE: The map is normally centered on the aircraft’s position. If the map has been panned
and there has been no pointer movement for about 60 seconds, the map reverts back to
centered on the aircraft position and the flashing pointer is removed.
System Overview
When the panning function is selected by pushing the Joystick, the Map Pointer flashes on the map
display. A window also appears at the top of the map display showing the latitude/longitude position
of the pointer, the bearing and distance to the pointer from the aircraft’s present position, and the
elevation of the land at the position of the pointer.
Engine Indication System
Map Pointer Information
Audio Panel and CNS
Map Pointer
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 5-10 Navigation Map - Map Pointer Activated
Additional Features
When the Map Pointer is placed on an object, the name of the object is highlighted (even if the name
was not originally displayed on the map). When any map feature or object is selected on the map
display, pertinent information is displayed.
Appendices
Index
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169
Information about Point
of Interest
Map Pointer on
POI
Figure 5-11 Navigation Map - Map Pointer on Point of Interest
When the Map Pointer crosses an airspace boundary, the boundary is highlighted and airspace
information is shown. The information includes the name and class of airspace, the ceiling in feet
above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and the floor in feet MSL.
Panning the map:
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
1) Push the Joystick to display the Map Pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to move the Map Pointer around the map.
3) Push the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer and recenter the map on the aircraft’s
Additional Features
current position.
Reviewing information for an airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the
Map Pointer and place the Map Pointer on a waypoint.
Appendices
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘WPT - Waypoint Information’ Page for the selected
waypoint.
3) Press the Go Back Softkey, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the ‘WPT - Waypoint
Index
Information’ Page and return to the Navigation Map showing the selected waypoint.
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System Overview
Reviewing information for a special-use or controlled airspace:
1) With the desired map page displayed on the MFD, push the Joystick to display the
2) Press the ENT Key to display an options menu.
Flight Instruments
Map Pointer and place the Map Pointer on an open area within the boundaries of an
airspace. (As the Map Pointer crosses the airspace boundary, the boundary is
highlighted and airspace information is shown.)
3) ‘Review Airspaces’ should already be highlighted, if not select it. Press the ENT Key to
4) Press the FMS Knob, the CLR Key, or the ENT Key to exit the ‘Information’ Window.
MEASURING BEARING AND DISTANCE
Pointer Lat/Long
Flight Management
System
Measurement
Information
Audio Panel and CNS
Distance and bearing from the aircraft’s present position to any point on the viewable navigation
map may be calculated using the ‘Measure Bearing and Distance’ selection from Navigation Map page
menu. The bearing and distance tool displays a dashed Measurement Line and a Measure Pointer to
aid in graphically identifying points with which to measure. Lat/Long, distance and elevation data for
the Measure Pointer is provided in a window at the top of the navigation map.
Engine Indication System
display the ‘Information’ Window for the selected airspace.
Hazard Avoidance
Measurement Line
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 5-12 Navigation Map - Measuring Bearing and Distance
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171
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Measuring bearing and distance between any two points:
1) Press the MENU Key (with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed).
Flight Instruments
2) Highlight the ‘Measure Bearing/Distance’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. A Measure Pointer is displayed on the map at the aircraft’s present
position.
4) Move the Joystick to place the reference pointer at the desired location. The bearing
5) To exit the Measure Bearing/Distance option, push the Joystick; or select ‘Stop
Measuring’ from the ‘Page Menu’ Window and press the ENT Key.
TOPOGRAPHY
All navigation maps can display various shades of topography colors representing land elevation,
similar to aviation sectional charts. The topographic data range is the maximum map range on which
topographic data is displayed.
Topographic data can be displayed or removed as described in the following procedures.
Topographic data can also be displayed on the selectable VSD Inset at the bottom of the navigation
map. In addition, the Navigation Map can display a topographic scale (located in the lower right hand
side of the map) showing a scale of the terrain elevation and minimum/maximum displayed elevations.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
and distance are displayed at the top of the map. Elevation at the current pointer
position is also displayed. Pressing the ENT Key changes the starting point for
measuring.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Navigation Map
Topographic Data
Navigation Map
Black Background
Additional Features
TER SoftkeyOff Selected
TOPO Off
Topographic Data
on VSD Inset
TER SoftkeyTopo Selected
TOPO On
Index
Appendices
Figure 5-13 Navigation Map - Topographic Data
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Absolute Terrain On
Terrain Off
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-14 PFD Inset Map - Terrain Data
Maximum Displayed Elevation
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Minimum Displayed Elevation
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 5-15 Navigation Map - Topo Scale
Displaying/removing topographic data on all MFD pages displaying navigation
maps:
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
Additional Features
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data
Appendices
from the navigation map. When topographic data is removed from the page, all
navigation data is presented on a black background.
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173
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Displaying/removing topographic data on the PFD Map:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Topo’ is shown on the softkey to display topographic data.
3) Press the TER Softkey until ‘Off’ is shown on the softkey to remove topographic data
from the navigation map. When topographic data is removed from the page, all
navigation data is presented on a black background.
Engine Indication System
Displaying/removing topographic data using the Navigation Map Page Menu:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ Field.
Flight Management
System
6) Select ‘Topo’ or ‘Off’.
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting a topographical data range (Terrain Display):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
Hazard Avoidance
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group.
Automatic Flight Control
System
4) Press the ENT Key.
5) Highlight the ‘Terrain Display’ range Field. Ranges are from 1 nm to 1000 nm.
6) To change the Terrain Display range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the
Additional Features
range list.
7) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
8) Press the ENT Key.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Appendices
Displaying/removing the topographic scale (Topo Scale):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
Index
3) Select the ‘Map’ Group and select the ENT Key.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
System Overview
4) Highlight the ‘Topo Scale’ Field.
5) Select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
LAND SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the land menu:
N/A
N/A
Interstate Highway
(Freeway)
50
400
International
Highway (Freeway)
50
400
US Highway
(National Highway)
15
150
State Highway
(Local Highway)
2.5
100
4
25
Railroads
(RAILROAD)
7.5
25
Large City (>
200,000)
100
1000
Medium City (>
50,000)
50
400
Small City (> 5,000)
25
100
State/Province
400
1000
River/Lake
75
100
Latitude/Longitude
(LAT/LON)
1
1000
Local Road (Local
Road)
N/A
Appendices
Highways and Roads
Additional Features
40
Automatic Flight Control
System
25
Hazard Avoidance
User Waypoint
Flight Management
System
Max Range (nm)
Symbol
Audio Panel and CNS
Default
Range (nm)
Land Symbols
Engine Indication System
This section discusses the types of land and aviation symbols that can be displayed. Each listed type
of symbol can be turned on or off, and the maximum range to display each symbol can be set. The
decluttering of the symbols from the map using the Detail Softkey is also discussed.
Flight Instruments
MAP SYMBOLS
Table 5-3 Land Symbol Information
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175
AVIATION SYMBOLS
The following items are configured on the aviation menu:
Default
Range
(nm)
Max
Range
(nm)
Large Airport
(Longest Runway
>8100 ft)
100
1000
Medium Airport
(8100 ft > Longest
Runway >5000 ft)
50
400
25
150
1.5
5
7.5
150
N/A
N/A
Intersection (INT)
25
40
Non-directional
Beacon (NDB)
25
50
VOR
50
250
N/A
N/A
Visual Reporting
Point (VRP)
25
1000
Temporary Flight
Restriction (TFR)
250
1000
VNAV Constraints
1000
1000
Aviation Symbols
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Symbols
Audio Panel and CNS
Small Airport
(Longest Runway <
5000 ft)
Flight Management
System
(Medium Airport if
it has a tower
frequency)
Taxiways (SafeTaxi)
See Additional
Features
Hazard Avoidance
Runway Extension
Automatic Flight Control
System
Missed Approach
Preview On/Off
(Missed APR)
Appendices
Additional Features
VOR Compass Rose
On/Off
N/A
N/A
Table 5-4 Aviation Symbol Information
AIRSPACE SYMBOLS
Index
The following items are configured on the airspace menu:
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
N/A
N/A
N/A
Airspace Altitude Labels
(Airspace ALT LBL) On/
Off:
N/A
N/A
N/A
Class B Airspace
Altitude Label (ceiling/
floor)
N/A
N/A
Class C Airspace
Altitude Label (ceiling/
floor)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
50
150
50
100
10
100
50
100
50
250
50
250
•
•
Class D Airspace
Altitude
Label
(ceiling)
Class B Airspace/TMA
(CLASS B/TMA)
Class C Airspace/TCA
(CLASS C/TCA)
Class D Airspace (CLASS
D)
Alert/Prohibited/
Restricted/Warning
Areas (RESTRICTED)
Military Operations
Area [MOA(MILITARY)]
Other/Air Defense
Interdiction Zone
(OTHER/ADIZ)
Audio Panel and CNS
Smart Airspace On/Off
Engine Indication System
Max
Range
(nm)
Flight Instruments
Default
Range
(nm)
System Overview
Symbol
Airspace Symbols
•
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Table 5-5 Airspace Symbol Information
SYMBOL SETUP
Appendices
All navigation maps can display land, aviation and airspace symbols. Symbol types (e.g. runway
extensions, railroads) can be removed individually. The range sets the maximum range at which
items appear on the display. For example, enabling “Runway Extension” displays a dashed line on
the map extending from each runway of an airport in the flight plan when the range is set at or
below the value of the map settings option.
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177
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Setting up the Land, Aviation or Airspace group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The cursor flashes on the
‘Map Settings’ option.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the ENT Key. The Map Settings Menu is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired setting (e.g. On/Off or maximum range).
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
MAP DECLUTTER
The declutter feature allows the pilot to progressively step through four levels of removing map
information. The declutter level is displayed in the Detail Softkey and next to the Declutter Menu
Option.
The following table lists the items that are decluttered at each map detail level. The ‘X’ represents
map items decluttered for each level of detail.
Item
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
178
Detail 3
Detail 2
Detail 1
Data Link Radar Precipitation
X
Data Link Lightning
X
Graphical METARs
X
Airports
X
Safe Taxi
X
Runway Labels
X
TFRs
X
Restricted
X
MOA (Military)
X
Intersections
X
X
NDBs
X
X
VORs
X
X
VRPs
X
X
User Waypoints
X
X
Latitude/Longitude Grid
X
X
NAVAIDs (does not declutter if used to define airway)
X
X
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Detail 3
Detail 1
Intersections (does not declutter if used to define airway)
X
X
Class B Airspaces/TMA
X
X
Class C Airspaces/TCA
X
X
Class D Airspaces
X
X
Other Airspaces/ADIZ
X
X
Obstacles
X
X
X
X
X
Roads
X
X
X
Railroads
X
X
X
State/Province Boundaries
X
X
X
Engine Indication System
Cities
Flight Instruments
Detail 2
Audio Panel and CNS
Table 5-6 Navigation Map Items Decluttered for each Detail Level
Decluttering the MFD Map:
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the Navigation Map Page displayed.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Select ‘Declutter’. The current declutter level is shown.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Decluttering the PFD Map:
Automatic Flight Control
System
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Detail Softkey. The current declutter level is shown. With each selection,
another level of map information is removed.
AIRWAYS
Appendices
Index
179
Additional Features
This airways discussion is based upon the North American airway structure. The airway structure in
places other than North America vary by location, etc. and are not discussed in this book. Low
Altitude Airways (Victor Airways or T-Routes) start 1,200 feet above ground level (AGL) and extend
up to 18,000 feet mean sea level (MSL). Low Altitude Airways are designated with a “V” or a “T” before
the airway number.
High Altitude Airways (Jet Routes or Q-Routes) start at 18,000 feet MSL and extend upward to
45,000 feet MSL. High Altitude Airways are designated with a “J” or a “Q” before the airway number.
Low Altitude Airways are drawn in gray (the same shade used for roads). High Altitude Airways are
drawn in green. When both types of airways are displayed, High Altitude Airways are drawn on top of
Low Altitude Airways.
When airways are selected for display on the map, the airway waypoints (VORs, NDBs and
Intersections) are also displayed.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Flight Management
System
Press the Detail Softkey with the Navigation Map Page displayed. The current declutter
level is shown. With each softkey press, another level of map information is removed.
190–02361–00 Rev. A
System Overview
Item
High Altitude
Airway
(Jet Route)
Low Altitude
Airway
(Victor Airway)
Low Altitude
Airway
(T-Route)
High Altitude
Airway
(Q-Route)
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Figure 5-16 Airways on MFD Navigation Page
Airways may be displayed on the map at the pilot’s discretion using either a combination of AWY
Softkey presses, or menu selections using the MENU Key from the Navigation Map Page. The Airway
range can also be programmed to only display Airways on the MFD when the map range is at or below
a specific number.
The following items are configured on the airways menu:
Default Range
(nm)
Maximum Range
(nm)
Low Altitude Airways (V Routes and T
Routes)
50
100
High Altitude Airways (J Routes and Q
Routes)
50
100
Airways Symbols
Symbol
Table 5-7 Airways Symbol Information
Displaying/removing airways:
Appendices
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
2) Press the AWY Softkey. Both High and Low Altitude Airways are displayed (AWY On).
Index
3) Press the softkey again to display Low Altitude Airways only (AWY LO).
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System Overview
4) Press the softkey again to display High Altitude Airways only (AWY HI).
5) Press the softkey again to remove High Altitude Airways. No airways are displayed
(AWY Off).
Flight Instruments
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ On/Off Field.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Off’ or ‘On’.
Audio Panel and CNS
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Selecting an airway range (Low ALT Airways or High ALT Airways):
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
Flight Management
System
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airways’ Group, and press the ENT Key.
4) Highlight the ‘Low ALT Airways’ or ‘High ALT Airways’ range Field.
Hazard Avoidance
5) To change the range setting, turn the small FMS Knob to display the range list.
6) Select the desired range using the small FMS Knob.
7) Press the ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL NAVIGATION MAP ITEMS
TRACK VECTOR
Appendices
The map can display a track vector that is useful in minimizing track angle error. The track vector
is a solid cyan line segment extended to a predicted location. The track vector look-ahead time is
selectable (30 sec, 60 sec (default), 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min) and determines the length of the
track vector. The track vector shows up to 90 degrees of a turn for the 30 and 60 second time
settings. It is always a straight line for the 2 min, 5 min, 10 min and 20 min settings.
Additional Features
Navigation maps can display some additional items. These items (e.g. track vector, wind vector, fuel
range ring, SVT field of view, and selected altitude intercept arc) can be displayed/removed
individually.
Automatic Flight Control
System
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Figure 5-17 Navigation Map -Track Vector
SELECTED ALTITUDE INTERCEPT ARC
The map can display the location along the current track where the aircraft will intercept the
selected altitude. The location will be shown as a cyan arc when the aircraft is actually climbing or
descending.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Track Vector
Hazard Avoidance
Selected
Altitude
Intercept Arc
WIND VECTOR
The map displays a wind vector arrow in the upper right-hand portion of the screen. Wind vector
information is displayed as a white arrow pointing in the direction in which the wind is moving for
wind speeds greater than or equal to 1 kt.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 5-18 Navigation Map - Range to Altitude Arc
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Appendices
Figure 5-19 Navigation Map - Wind Vector
Index
NOTE: The wind vector is not displayed until the aircraft is moving. It is not displayed on the
Waypoint Information pages.
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The map can display a fuel range ring which shows the remaining flight distance. A dashed green
circle indicates the selected range to reserve fuel. A solid green circle indicates the total endurance
range. If only reserve fuel remains, the range is indicated by a solid amber circle.
System Overview
FUEL RANGE RING
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Total Endurance Range
Time to Reserve Fuel
Audio Panel and CNS
Range to Reserve Fuel
Flight Management
System
Figure 5-20 Navigation Map - Fuel Range Ring
Additional Features
Lateral Field
of View
Boundaries
Automatic Flight Control
System
The map can display the boundaries of the PFD Synthetic Vision Technology (SVT) lateral field of
view. The field of view is shown as two dashed lines forming a V shape in front of the aircraft symbol
on the map. This is only available if SVT is installed on the aircraft.
Hazard Avoidance
FIELD OF VIEW (SVT)
Appendices
Figure 5-21 Navigation Map - Field of View
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Setting up additional Map group items:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map’ Group.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the first field.
Engine Indication System
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the desired option.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
If it is a data field, use the FMS Knob to select the range or time value.
Audio Panel and CNS
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected option and move the cursor to the next item.
8) Repeat steps 5-7 as necessary.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
9) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
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Automatic Flight Control
System
Waypoint Location
Hazard Avoidance
Entered Waypoint on
Map
Map Area Showing
Entered Waypoint
Flight Management
System
- Waypoint Identifier
- Type (symbol)
- Facility Name
- City
Audio Panel and CNS
City Entry Field
Facility
Entry Field
Engine Indication System
Identifier Entry Field
Flight Instruments
Waypoints are predetermined geographical positions (internal database) or pilot-entered positions, and
are used for all phases of flight planning and navigation.
Communication and navigation frequencies can be tuned “automatically” from various Waypoint
Information (WPT) pages, Nearest (NRST) pages, and the Nearest Airports Window (on PFD). This
auto-tuning feature simplifies frequency entry over manual tuning. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS
section for details on auto-tuning.
Waypoints can be selected by entering the ICAO identifier, entering the name of the facility, or by
entering the city name. See the System Overview section for detailed instructions on entering data in the
system. As a waypoint identifier, facility name, or location is entered, the Spell’N’Find feature scrolls
through the database, displaying those waypoints matching the characters which have been entered to
that point. A direct-to navigation leg to the selected waypoint can be initiated by pressing the Direct-to
Key on any of the waypoint pages.
System Overview
5.3 WAYPOINTS
Additional Features
Figure 5-22 Waypoint Information Window
Appendices
If duplicate entries exist for the entered facility name or location, additional entries may be viewed by
continuing to turn the small FMS Knob during the selection process. If duplicate entries exist for an
identifier, a ‘Duplicate Waypoints’ Window is displayed when the ENT Key is pressed.
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Flight Instruments
Identifier with
Duplicates
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Duplicate
Waypoints
Figure 5-23 Waypoint Information Window - Duplicate Identifier
AIRPORTS
NOTE: North Up orientation on the Airport Information Page cannot be changed; the pilot
needs to be aware of proper orientation if the Navigation Map orientation is different from
the Airport Information Page Map.
The Airport Information Page is the first page in WPT Page Group and allows the pilot to view airport
information, load frequencies (COM, NAV, and lighting), review runways, and review instrument
procedures that may be involved in the flight plan. See the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more
information on loading frequencies (auto-tuning). After engine startup, the Airport Information Page
defaults to the airport where the aircraft is located. After a flight plan has been loaded, it defaults to the
destination airport. On a flight plan with multiple airports, it defaults to the airport which is the
current active waypoint.
In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected airport and surrounding area, the Airport
Information Page displays airport information in three boxes labeled Airport, Runways, and
Frequencies. For airports with multiple runways, information for each runway is available. This
information is viewed on the Airport Information Page by pressing the Info Softkey until ‘1’ is
displayed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Duplicate Message
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System Overview
Airport Information
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
- Lat/Long/Elev
- Fuel Available
- Time Zone (UTC Offset)
- Designation
- Length/Width/Surface
- Lighting Available
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
- Availability
- Additional Information
Audio Panel and CNS
Airport/Runway
Diagram
Engine Indication System
Runway Information
Flight Instruments
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Airport
Flight Management
System
Figure 5-24 Airport Information Page
Hazard Avoidance
The following descriptions and abbreviations are used on the Airport Information Page:
Usage type: Public, Military, Private, or Heliport
•
Runway surface type: Hard, Turf, Sealed, Gravel, Dirt, Soft, Unknown, or Water.
•
Runway lighting type: No Lights, Part Time, Full Time, Unknown, or PCL Freq (for pilot-controlled
lighting)
•
COM Availability: TX (transmit only), RX (receive only), PT (part time), i (additional information
available)
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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187
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Airport Information
Airport Directory
Information
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
- ID/Facility/City
- Usage Type/Region
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Softkeys
Figure 5-25 Airport Directory Page Example
The airport directory information is viewed on the Airport Directory Page by pressing the Info
Softkey until ‘2’ is displayed. The following are types of airport directory information shown (if
available) on the Airport Directory Page:
•
Airport: Identifier, Site Number, Name, City, State
•
Traffic Pattern Altitudes (TPA): Aircraft Class/Altitude
•
Runway: Headings, Length, Width, Obstructions, Surface
•
Phones: Phone/Fax Numbers
•
Weather: Service Type, Frequency, Phone Number
•
Obstructions: General Airport Obstructions
•
Hours: Facility Hours, Light Hours, Tower Hours, Beacon Hours
•
Flight Service Station (FSS): FSS Name, Phone Numbers
•
Special Operations at Airport
•
Location: Sectional, Magnetic Variation
•
Instrument Approaches: Published Approach, Freq.
•
Services Available: Category, Specific Service
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System Overview
Frequencies: Type/Frequency
•
NAVAIDS: Type, Identifier, Frequency, Radial, Distance
•
Notes: Airport Notes
•
Transportation: Ground Transportation Type Available
•
Noise: Noise Abatement Procedures
•
Pilot Controlled Lighting: High/Med/Low Clicks/Second
•
Approach: Approach Facility Name, Frequency, Frequency Parameter
•
Charts: Low Altitude Chart Number
•
FBO: Type, Frequencies, Services, Fees, Fuel, Credit Cards, Phone/Fax Numbers
Flight Instruments
•
Engine Indication System
The airport Frequencies Box uses the descriptions and abbreviations listed in the following table:
Control
CTA *
Departure *
Gate
Ground
Helicopter
Multicom
Other
Navigation Frequencies
Pre-taxi
Radar
Ramp
Terminal *
TMA *
Tower
TRSA *
Unicom
ILS
LOC
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Approach *
Arrival *
ASOS
ATIS
AWOS
Center
Class B *
Class C *
Clearance
Audio Panel and CNS
Communication Frequencies
* May include Additional Information
Table 5-8 Airport Frequency Abbreviations
Selecting an airport for review by identifier, facility name, or location:
Additional Features
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey), press the FMS Knob.
Automatic Flight Control
System
A departure, arrival, or approach can be loaded using the softkeys on the Airport Information Page.
See the Procedures section for details. METARs or TAFs applicable to the selected airport can be
selected for display (see the Hazard Avoidance section for details about weather).
2) Use the FMS Knobs and enter an identifier, facility name, or location.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
1) With the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) displayed, press the FMS
Appendices
Selecting a runway:
Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Runways’ Box, on the runway
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Index
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189
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the desired runway (if more than one) for the
selected airport.
Viewing a destination airport:
From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page (Info 1 Softkey) press the MENU Key. Select
‘View Destination Airport’. The Destination Airport is displayed.
The system provides a Nearest Softkey on the PFD, which gives the pilot quick access to nearest
airport information (very useful if an immediate landing is required). The ‘Nearest Airports’ Window
displays a list of up to 25 of the nearest airports (three entries can be displayed at one time). If there
are more than three they are displayed in a scrollable list. If there are no nearest airports available,
“None Within 200nm” is displayed.
Bearing/Distance to Airport
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
4) To remove the flashing cursor, press the FMS Knob.
Flight Management
System
Airport Identifier/
Type
Approach Available
Length of Longest
Runway
COM Freq. Info.
- Identification
- Frequency
Nearest Softkey
Figure 5-26 Nearest Airports Window on PFD
Pressing the ENT Key while the Nearest Airports Window is shown displays the PFD ‘Airport
Information’ Window for the highlighted airport. Pressing the ENT Key again returns to the ‘Nearest
Airports’ Window with the cursor on the next airport in the list. Continued presses of the ENT Key
sequences through the information pages for all airports in the Nearest Airports list.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Additional Airports
(within 200 nm)
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System Overview
Airport Information
Flight Instruments
- ID/Type/City
- Facility
Airport Information
- Usage/Time/Elev
- Region
Engine Indication System
Airport Information
- Lat/Long
Figure 5-27 Airport Information Window on PFD
1) Press the Nearest Softkey to display the Nearest Airports Window.
2) Highlight the airport identifier with the FMS Knob and press the ENT Key to display the
Flight Management
System
Airport Information Window.
Audio Panel and CNS
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the PFD:
3) To return to the Nearest Airports Window press the ENT Key (with the cursor on
4) Press the CLR Key or the Nearest Softkey to close the PFD Nearest Airports Window.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
The Nearest Airports Page on the MFD is first in the group of NRST pages because of its potential
use in the event of an in-flight emergency. In addition to displaying a map of the currently selected
airport and surrounding area, the page displays nearest airport information in five boxes labeled
Nearest Airports, Information, Runways, Frequencies, and Approaches.
The selected airport is indicated by a white arrow, and a dashed white line is drawn on the
navigation map from the aircraft position to the nearest airport. Up to five nearest airports, one
runway, up to three frequencies, and up to four approaches are visible at one time. If there are more
than can be shown, each list can be scrolled. If there are no items for display in a boxed area, text
indicating that fact is displayed. The currently selected airport remains in the list until it is unselected.
See the Audio Panel & CNS Section for frequency selection and the Procedures section for
approaches.
Hazard Avoidance
‘BACK’) or press the CLR Key. The cursor is now on the next airport in the nearest
airports list. (Repeatedly pressing the ENT Key moves through the airport list,
alternating between the Nearest Airports Window and the Airport Information
Window.)
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Nearest Airports
Flight Instruments
- ID/Type
- Bearing/Distance
Airport Information
Runway Information
- Designation/Surface
- Length/Width
Nearest Airport
COM/NAV Freq. Info.
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Airport
- Identification
- Frequency
Approaches Available
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
- Facility/City/Elevation
Figure 5-28 Nearest Airport Page
Hazard Avoidance
Viewing information for a nearest airport on the MFD:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘NRST’ page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Nearest Airports’ Page (it is the first page of the
Automatic Flight Control
System
group, so it may already be selected). If there are no Nearest Airports available, ‘None
Within 200nm’ is displayed.
3) Press the APT Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight
Additional Features
‘Select Airport Window’ and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Nearest
Airports’ Box. The first airport in the nearest airports list is highlighted.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired airport. (Pressing the ENT Key also moves
to the next airport.)
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Appendices
Viewing runway information for a specific airport:
1) 1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page displayed, press the RNWY Softkey; or press
the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Runway Window’; and press the ENT Key. The cursor
is placed in the ‘Runways’ Box.
2) 2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway.
Index
3) 3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Runway Surface’ Field in the ‘Nearest
Airport’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired runway option (Any, Hard Only, Hard/
Audio Panel and CNS
Soft).
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
Flight Instruments
Selecting nearest airport surface and minimum runway length matching criteria:
System Overview
The ‘Nearest Airports’ Box on the System Setup Page defines the minimum runway length and
surface type used when determining the 25 nearest airports to display on the MFD Nearest Airports
Page. A minimum runway length and/or surface type can be entered to prevent airports with small
runways or runways that are not appropriately surfaced from being displayed. Default settings are
3000 feet (or meters) for runway length and “Hard Only” for runway surface type.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Minimum Length’ Field in the ‘Nearest
Airport’ Box.
6) Use the FMS Knob to enter the minimum runway length (zero to 25,000 feet) and
Flight Management
System
press the ENT Key.
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
INTERSECTIONS
Automatic Flight Control
System
The Intersection Information Page is used to view information about intersections. In addition to
displaying a map of the currently selected intersection and surrounding area, the Intersection
Information Page displays information about the VOR which is nearest to the selected intersection.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: The VOR displayed on the Intersection Information Page is the nearest VOR, not
necessarily the VOR used to define the intersection.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Intersection Identifier
Intersection Info
- Region
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR Info
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Radial to VOR
- Distance to VOR
Selected Intersection
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
Intersection
The Nearest Intersections Page can be used to quickly find an intersection close to the flight path.
The selected intersection is indicated by a white arrow.
NOTE: The list only includes waypoints that are within 200 nm.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-29 Intersection Information Page
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System Overview
Intersection Information
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
Intersection
Flight Instruments
- Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
intersection from
aircraft position
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Nearest
Intersection
Intersection Lat/Long
Reference VOR Info
Flight Management
System
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- VOR Frequency
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
Figure 5-30 Nearest Intersection Page
Hazard Avoidance
Selecting an intersection:
1) With the ‘WPT - Intersection Information’ Page displayed, enter an identifier in the
‘Intersection’ Box.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest Intersections’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The NDB Information Page displays information for the selected NDB and a map of the surrounding
area. This page also provides the NDB Frequency and information for the airport nearest to the NDB.
Appendices
NDB
Additional Features
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest INT’
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
NDB Identifier/Type
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
Flight Instruments
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
NDB Information
- Type
- Region
- Lat/Long
Engine Indication System
NDB Frequency
Selected NDB
Nearest Airport Info
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
NOTE: Compass locator (LOM, LMM): a low power, low or medium frequency radio beacon
installed in conjunction with the instrument landing system. When LOM is used, the locator is
at the Outer Marker; when LMM is used, the locator is at the Middle Marker.
The Nearest NDB Page can be used to quickly find an NDB close to the flight path. A white arrow
before the NDB identifier indicates the selected NDB. In addition to displaying a map of the
surrounding area, the page displays information for up to 25 nearest NDBs. The list only includes
waypoints that are within 200nm. If there are no NDBs in the list, text indicating that there are no
nearest NDBs is displayed, and the information and frequency fields are dashed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-31 NDB Information Page
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System Overview
NDB Identifier/Symbol
- Bearing/Distance to
NDB from aircraft
position
Flight Instruments
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
NDB
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Nearest NDB
NDB Information
- Facility Name/City
- Type
- Lat/Long
Flight Management
System
NDB Frequency
Figure 5-32 Nearest NDB Page
1) With the ‘WPT - NDB Information’ Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the
NDB, or the city in which it’s located in the ‘NDB’ Box.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
Selecting an NDB:
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the Nearest NDB Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
Box.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Index
The VOR Information Page displays information for the selected VOR and a map of the surrounding
area. This page can be used to view information about VOR and ILS navigation signals, or to quickly
auto-tune a VOR or ILS frequency.
Localizer information cannot be viewed on the VOR Information Page. If a VOR station is combined
with a TACAN station it is listed as a VORTAC on the VOR Information Page and if it includes only
DME, it is displayed as VOR-DME.
Appendices
VOR
Additional Features
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest NDB’
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
VOR Identifier/Type
Flight Instruments
Navigation Map
Showing
Selected VOR
- Facility Name
- Nearest City
VOR Information
Engine Indication System
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Region
- Lat/Long
VOR Frequency
Nearest Airport Info
Selected VOR
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
- Identifier/Type (symbol)
- Bearing/Distance to
Airport
The Nearest VOR Page can be used to quickly find a VOR station close to the aircraft. A white arrow
before the VOR identifier indicates the selected VOR. Also, a NAV frequency from a selected VOR
station can be loaded from the Nearest VOR Page. In addition to displaying a map of the surrounding
area, the Nearest VOR Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VOR stations. The list only
includes waypoints that are within 200 nm. If there are no nearest VORs in the list, the information is
dashed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-33 VOR Information Page
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
System Overview
Navigation Map
Showing Nearest
VOR
VOR Identifier/Symbol
Flight Instruments
- Bearing/Distance to VOR
from aircraft position
Engine Indication System
- Facility Name/City
- Class/Magnetic Variation
- Lat/Long
Nearest VOR
Flight Management
System
VOR Frequency
Audio Panel and CNS
VOR Information
Figure 5-34 Nearest VOR Page
1) With the ‘WPT - VOR Information’ Page displayed, enter an identifier, the name of the
VOR, or the city in which it’s located in the ‘VOR’ Box.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
Selecting a VOR:
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob or press the VOR
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest VOR’
Box.
Additional Features
Softkey.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Appendices
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest VOR’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Select VOR Window’, and press the ENT Key.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
3) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest VOR’
Box.
VRP
The VRP Information Page dispays information about the selected visual reporting point (VRPs) and
a map of the surrounding area.
Selected VRP
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Navigation Map Showing Selected VRP
VRP Identifier/Symbol
Audio Panel and CNS
- VRP Name
VRP Information
Figure 5-35 VRP Information Page
The Nearest VRP Page can be used to quickly find a VRP close to the aircraft. A white arrow before
the VRP identifier indicates the selected VRP. In addition to displaying a map of the surrounding area,
the Nearest VRP Page displays information for up to 25 nearest VRPs. The list only includes VRPs that
are within 200 nm. If there are no nearest VRPs in the list, the information is dashed.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
- Country
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
- Lat/Long
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System Overview
Navigation Map Showing Nearest VRP
Nearest VRP
- Bearing/Distance to VRP
from aircraft position
Flight Instruments
VRP Identifier/Symbol
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
VRP Information
- VRP Name
- Country
- Lat/Long
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-36 Nearest VRP Page
1) With the ‘WPT - VRP Information’ Page displayed, enter the identifier or the name of
the VRP in the ‘VRP’ Box.
Additional Features
2) Press the ENT Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Selecting a VRP:
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest VRP’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
Box.
Appendices
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest VRP’
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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USER WAYPOINTS
The system can create and store up to 1,000 user-defined waypoints. User waypoints can be created
from any map page (except PFD Maps, Aux-Trip Planning Page, or Procedure Pages) by selecting a
position on the map using the Joystick, or from the User Waypoint Information Page by referencing a
bearing/distance from an existing waypoint, bearings from two existing waypoints, or a latitude and
longitude. Once a waypoint has been created, it can be renamed, deleted, or moved. Temporary user
waypoints are erased upon system power down.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
User Waypoint Info
- Identifier
- Temporary/Normal
- Waypoint Type
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Reference Wpt/Info
Selected User
Waypoint
User Waypoint List
- Identifier/Rad/Dist or
- Identifiers/Radials or
- Region/Lat/Long
- Identifier
- Comment
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
User Wpt Comment
Automatic Flight Control
System
# User Wpts Used
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 5-37 User Waypoint Information Page
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System Overview
Nearest User Wpt List
Flight Instruments
- Identifier
- Bearing/Distance from
aircraft position
Navigation Map
Showing Selected
User Waypoint
Engine Indication System
User Waypoint Info
- Comment
- Lat/Long
Audio Panel and CNS
Selected User
Waypoint
Reference Wpt Info
Flight Management
System
- Identifier
- Radial/Distance
Figure 5-38 Nearest User Waypoint Page
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, enter the name of the User
Waypoint, or scroll to the desired waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box using the
large FMS Knob.
Hazard Avoidance
Selecting a User Waypoint:
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the ENT Key.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
2) Press the ENT Key or turn either FMS Knob to select an identifier in the ‘Nearest User’
Box.
Additional Features
1) With the ‘NRST - Nearest User WPTS’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob.
3) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
1) Press the New Softkey, or press the MENU Key and select ‘Create New User Waypoint’.
Appendices
Creating user waypoints from the User WPT Information Page:
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The current aircraft position is the default location of the new
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
4) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Flight Instruments
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two
reference waypoint identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Box using the
FMS Knobs.
Or:
Engine Indication System
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the
reference waypoint identifier, the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Or:
Audio Panel and CNS
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude
and longitude into the ‘Information’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
6) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the
cursor to ‘Temporary’ and selecting the ENT Key to check the box.
Flight Management
System
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Are you sure you want to create the new user
waypoint AAAAAA?’ is displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two
reference waypoint identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Box using the
FMS Knobs.
Additional Features
Or:
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the
reference waypoint identifier, the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Appendices
Or:
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude
and longitude into the ‘Information’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Index
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
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System Overview
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary by moving the
cursor to ‘Temporary’ and selecting the ENT Key to check the box.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
1) Push the Joystick to activate the panning function and pan to the map location of the
desired user waypoint.
captured position.
3) Enter a user waypoint name (up to six characters).
highlighted.
5) If desired, define the type and location of the waypoint in one of the following ways:
Or:
Automatic Flight Control
System
Select “RAD/DIS” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the
reference waypoint identifier, the radial, and the distance into the ‘Reference
Waypoints’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
Hazard Avoidance
Select “RAD/RAD” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the two
reference waypoint identifiers and radials into the ‘Reference Waypoints’ Box using the
FMS Knobs.
Flight Management
System
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the selected name. The first reference waypoint box is
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: If the pointer has highlighted a map database feature, one of three things happens
upon pressing the ENT Key: 1) information about the selected feature is displayed instead of
initiating a new waypoint, 2) a menu pops up allowing a choice between ‘Review Airspaces’
or ‘Create User Waypoint’, or 3) a new waypoint is initiated with the default name being the
selected map item.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page is displayed with the
Flight Instruments
Creating user waypoints from map pages:
Or:
6) Press the ENT Key to accept the new waypoint.
7) If desired, change the storage method of the waypoint to temporary or normal by
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Appendices
moving the cursor to ‘Temporary’ and selecting the ENT Key to check or uncheck the
box.
Additional Features
Select “LAT/LON” using the small FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, and enter the latitude
and longitude into the ‘Information’ Box using the FMS Knobs.
9) Press the Go Back Softkey to return to the map page.
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EDITING USER WAYPOINTS
Once a user waypoint has been created, it may be edited, renamed, or deleted. A system generated
comment for a user waypoint incorporates the reference waypoint identifier, bearing, and distance. If
a system generated comment has been edited, a new comment can be generated.
The default type of user waypoint (normal or temporary) can be changed using the user waypoint
information page menu. Temporary user waypoints are automatically deleted upon the next power
cycle.
Editing a user waypoint comment or location:
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to activate
the cursor.
2) Select a user waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box, if required, and press the ENT
Audio Panel and CNS
Key.
3) Move the cursor to the desired field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to make any changes.
Flight Management
System
5) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Renaming user waypoints:
1) With the ‘WPTS - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a user waypoint in
Hazard Avoidance
the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box. Press the Rename Softkey, or press the MENU Key and
select ‘Rename User Waypoint’.
2) Enter a new name.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message ‘Do you want to rename the user waypoint AAAAAA
Automatic Flight Control
System
to BBBBBB?’ is displayed.
4) With ‘YES’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Additional Features
Changing the location of an existing waypoint to the aircraft present position:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, enter a waypoint name or
select the waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box, then press the ENT Key.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Appendices
3) Select ‘Use Present Position’.
4) Press the ENT Key twice. The new waypoint’s location is saved.
Index
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Resetting the comment field to the system generated comment:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, enter a waypoint name or
select the waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box, then press the ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Select ‘Auto Comment’.
4) Press the ENT Key. The generated comment is based on the reference point used to
Engine Indication System
define the waypoint.
Changing the user waypoint storage duration default setting:
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key.
2) Move the cursor to select ‘Waypoint Setup’, and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor and return to the ‘WPT - User WPT
Information’ Page.
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in
the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
Flight Management
System
Deleting a single user waypoint:
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Select ‘Normal’ or ‘Temporary’ as desired, and press the ENT Key.
2) Press the Delete Softkey or press the CLR Key. ‘YES’ is highlighted in the confirmation
Hazard Avoidance
window.
3) Press the ENT Key.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in
the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box, or enter a waypoint in the ‘User Waypoint’ Box.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Additional Features
3) Select ‘Delete User Waypoint’.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Or:
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting all user waypoints:
Appendices
NOTE: The option to ‘Delete All User Waypoints’ is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
1) With the ‘WPT - User WPT Information’ Page displayed, highlight a User Waypoint in
the ‘User Waypoint List’ Box.
Index
2) Press the MENU Key.
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3) Select ‘Delete All User Waypoints.’
4) Press the ENT Key twice to confirm the selection.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Flight Instruments
The system can display the following types of airspaces: Class B/TMA, Class C/TCA, Class D, Restricted,
MOA (Military), Other Airspace, Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), and Temporary Flight
Restriction (TFR). For detailed information concerning TFRs, see the Hazard Avoidance Section.
Display settings for airspace altitude lables and airspace boundaries are selected from the ‘Airspace’
Group in the ‘Map Settings’ Window. See Table 5-2 for the default and maximum ranges for each type of
airspace and the symbol used to define the airspace area.
System Overview
5.4 AIRSPACES
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Class D Airspace
MOA (Military)
Engine Indication System
Class B Airspace
Restricted Area
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Airspace Altitude Label
Class C Airspace
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Alert Area
ADIZ
Appendices
Warning Area
Index
Figure 5-39 Airspace
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Airspace 1
Engine Indication System
- Name
- Proximity (Ahead, Inside,
Ahead < 2nm, Within 2nm)
- Time till Intercept (only if
Ahead or Ahead < 2nm)
Flight Instruments
Airspace Alerts Info
System Overview
A selected frequency associated with the airspace can be loaded from the Nearest Airspaces Page. In
addition to displaying a map of airspace boundaries and surrounding area, the Nearest Airspaces Page
displays airspace information in four boxes labeled Airspace Alerts, Airspace Agency, Vertical Limits, and
Frequencies. Airspace alerts and associated frequencies are shown in scrollable lists on the Nearest
Airspaces Page. The Alerts and FREQ sofkeys place the cursor in the respective list. The FREQ Softkey
is enabled only if one or more frequencies exist for a selected airspace.
Audio Panel and CNS
Airspace/Agency Info
- Airspace Type
- Controlling Agency
Airspace Vertical Limits
Flight Management
System
- Ceiling
- Floor
Associated Frequencies
- Type
- Availability/Info
- Frequency
Airspace 2
Hazard Avoidance
Airspace 3
Additional Features
Appendices
The Airspace Alerts Box (Aux - System Setup 1 Page) on the MFD allows the pilot to turn the
controlled/special-use airspace message alerts on or off. This does not affect the alerts listed on the
Nearest Airspaces Page or the airspace boundaries depicted on the Navigation Map Page. It simply turns
on/off the message provided in the Alerts Window on the PFD when the aircraft is approaching or near
an airspace. An altitude buffer is also provided which “expands” the vertical range above or below an
airspace. For example, if the buffer is set at 500 feet, and the aircraft is more than 500 feet above/below
an airspace, an alert message is not generated, but if the aircraft is less than 500 feet above/below an
airspace and projected to enter it, the pilot is notified with an alert message. The default setting for the
altitude buffer is 200 feet.
Pressing the PFD Message Softkey displays the Alerts Window on the PFD. The following airspace
alerts are displayed in the Alerts Window:
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 5-40 Nearest Airspace Page
Index
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Message
Comments
INSIDE ARSPC – Inside airspace.
The aircraft is inside the airspace.
ARSPC AHEAD – Airspace ahead – less
than 10 minutes.
Special use airspace is ahead of aircraft. The aircraft
penetrates the airspace within 10 minutes.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near and
ahead.
Special use airspace is near and ahead of the aircraft
position.
ARSPC NEAR – Airspace near – less than Special use airspace is within 2 nm of the aircraft
position.
2 nm.
Table 5-9 PFD Airspace Alert Messages
Displaying and removing airspace altitude labels:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page displayed. The cursor
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
flashes on the ‘Map Settings’ option.
2) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Map Settings’ Window is displayed.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace’ Group, if necessary, and press the ENT
Flight Management
System
Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Airspace ALT LBL’ Field.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ to display labels and ‘Off’ to remove labels.
Hazard Avoidance
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Changing the altitude buffer distance setting:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Altitude Buffer’ Field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’
Box.
4) Use the FMS Knob to enter an altitude buffer value and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Turning an airspace alert on or off:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page (Setup 1 Softkey).
Appendices
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired field in the ‘Airspace Alerts’ Box.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn the airspace alert On or counterclockwise to
turn the alert Off.
Index
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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System Overview
Selecting and viewing an airspace alert with its associated information:
1) Use the FMS Knob on the MFD to select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airspaces’ Page.
2) Press the Alerts Softkey; or press the FMS Knob; or press the MENU Key, highlight
Flight Instruments
‘Select Alerts Window’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Airspace
Alerts’ Box.
3) Select the desired airspace.
Audio Panel and CNS
The Smart Airspace function de-emphasizes airspaces above or below the current aircraft altitude. The
function does not require the aircraft present position or flight path to enter the lateral boundaries of the
airspace. If the current aircraft altitude is within 1100 feet of the vertical boundaries of the airspace, the
airspace boundary is shown normally. If the current aircraft altitude is not within 1100 feet of the
vertical boundaries of the airspace, the airspace boundary is shown subdued.
Engine Indication System
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Smart Airspace On
Additional Features
Smart Airspace Off
Figure 5-41 Smart Airspace
Turning smart airspace on or off:
2) Press the MENU Key, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is placed in the ‘Group’ Box.
Appendices
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Airspace’ and press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Smart Airspace’ Field.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
5) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to turn smart airspace On or counterclockwise to
turn smart airspace Off.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
The Direct-to method of navigation, initiated by pressing the Direct-to Key, is quicker to use than a flight
plan when the desire is to navigate to a single point such as a nearby airport.
Once a direct-to is activated, the system establishes a point-to-point course line from the present
position to the selected direct-to destination. Course guidance is provided until the direct-to is replaced
with a new direct-to or flight plan, or cancelled.
A vertical navigation (VNV) direct-to creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the
path) from the current altitude to a selected altitude at the direct-to waypoint. Vertical navigation is
based on barometric altitudes, not on GPS altitude, and is used for cruise and descent phases of flight.
The Direct-to Window allows selection and activation of direct-to navigation. The ‘Direct To’ Window
displays selected direct-to waypoint data on the PFD and the MFD.
System Overview
5.5 DIRECT-TO NAVIGATION
Audio Panel and CNS
Direct-to Point Info
- Identifier/Symbol/Region
- Facility Name
- City
VNV Constraints
Flight Management
System
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Map of Selected Point
Hazard Avoidance
Location of Destination
Desired Course
- Bearing/Distance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Figure 5-42 Direct To Window - MFD
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Direct-to Point Info
Flight Instruments
- Identifier/Symbol/City
- Facility Name
VNV Constraints
Direct-to Point Info
- Bearing/Distance
- Desired Course
Activation Command
Figure 5-43 Direct To Window - PFD
Any waypoint can be entered as a direct-to destination from the ‘Direct To’ Window. Also, any
waypoint contained in the active flight plan can be selected as a direct-to waypoint from the ‘Direct To’
Window, the Active Flight Plan Page, or the Flight Plan Window.
Waypoint Submenu
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
- Altitude at Arrival
- Along Track Offset
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
- Flight Plan Waypoints
- Nearest Airports
- Recent Waypoints
- User Waypoints
Figure 5-44 Waypoint Submenu
The Direct To Window can be displayed from any page and allows selection and activation of direct-to
navigation. If the direct-to is initiated from any page except the WPT pages, the default waypoint is the
active flight plan waypoint (if a flight plan is active) or a blank waypoint field. Direct-to requests on any
WPT page defaults to the displayed waypoint.
When navigating a direct-to, the system sets a direct great circle course to the selected destination. The
course to a destination can also be manually selected using the Course Field on the Direct To Window.
Entering a waypoint identifier, facility name, or city as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan
Appendices
waypoint as the default selection or a blank waypoint field if no flight plan is active).
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to begin entering a waypoint identifier (turning it
Index
counter-clockwise brings up the waypoint selection submenu - press the CLR Key to
remove it), or turn the large FMS Knob to select the facility name, or city field and turn
the small FMS Knob to begin entering a facility name or city. If duplicate entries exist
for the entered facility or city name, additional entries can be viewed by turning the
small FMS Knob during the selection process.
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System Overview
3) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the direct-to.
Selecting an active flight plan waypoint as a direct-to destination:
is displayed with the active flight plan waypoint as the default selection.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints
Engine Indication System
(the FPL list is populated only when navigating a flight plan).
Flight Instruments
1) While navigating an active flight plan, press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window
3) Select the desired waypoint.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD, or the ‘Flight Plan’ Window on
the PFD.
Flight Management
System
2) Select the desired waypoint.
Audio Panel and CNS
Or:
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed (with the active flight plan
destination as the default selection or a blank destination if no flight plan is active).
(the FPL list is populated only when navigating a flight plan).
3) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the Nearest, Recent or User waypoints.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to select the desired waypoint.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise to display a list of flight plan waypoints
Hazard Avoidance
Selecting a Nearest, Recent or User waypoint as a direct-to destination:
Additional Features
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting any waypoint as a direct-to destination:
waypoint.
2) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected waypoint as
Appendices
1) Select the page or window containing the desired waypoint type and select the desired
the direct-to destination.
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
Index
4) Press ENT again to activate the direct-to.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Selecting a nearby airport as a direct-to destination:
1) Press the Nearest Softkey on the PFD; or turn the FMS Knob to display the ‘NRST -
Nearest Airports’ Page on the MFD and press the FMS Knob.
Flight Instruments
2) Select the desired airport (the nearest one is already selected).
3) Press the Direct-to Key.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
Engine Indication System
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Selecting a manual direct-to course:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the destination field
Audio Panel and CNS
highlighted.
2) Highlight the ‘Course’ Field.
3) Enter the desired course.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
Flight Management
System
5) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Reselecting the direct course from the current position:
1) Press the Direct-to Key. The ‘Direct To’ Window is displayed with the cursor flashing in
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
3) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
Direct-to destinations may also be selected by using the pointer on the navigation map pages. If no
airport, NAVAID, or user waypoint exists at the desired location, a temporary waypoint named
‘MAPWPT’ is automatically created at the location of the map arrow.
Selecting a waypoint as a direct-to destination using the pointer:
1) From a navigation map page, push the Joystick to display the pointer.
2) Move the Joystick to place the pointer at the desired destination location.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
the ‘Ident, Facility, City’ Box.
3) If the pointer is placed on an existing airport, NAVAID, VRP, or user waypoint, the
waypoint name is highlighted.
4) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window with the selected point
Appendices
entered as the direct-to destination.
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed on ‘Activate?’.
Index
6) Press the ENT Key again to activate the direct-to.
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System Overview
Cancelling a Direct-to:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Engine Indication System
the system resumes navigating the flight plan along the closest leg.
A direct-to with altitude constraints creates a descent path (and provides guidance to stay on the path)
from the aircraft’s current altitude to the altitude of the direct-to waypoint. The altitude is reached at the
waypoint, or at the specified distance along the flight path if an offset distance has been entered. All
VNV altitudes prior to the direct-to destination are removed from the active flight plan upon successful
activation of a direct-to destination that is part of the active flight plan. All VNV altitudes following the
direct-to waypoint are retained. See the section on Vertical Navigation for more information regarding
the use and purpose of VNV altitudes and offset distances.
Flight Instruments
3) With ‘Cancel Direct-To NAV’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. If a flight plan is still active,
Audio Panel and CNS
Entering a VNV altitude and along-track offset for the waypoint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor over the ‘VNV’ Box altitude field.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an
airport, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or
‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
Hazard Avoidance
5) The cursor is now flashing in the ‘VNV’ Box offset distance field.
Flight Management
System
3) Enter the desired altitude.
6) Enter the desired along-track distance before the waypoint.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate?’ is highlighted.
Automatic Flight Control
System
8) Press the ENT Key to activate.
Removing a VNV altitude constraint:
1) Press the Direct-to Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window.
Additional Features
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Clear Vertical Constraints’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Appendices
Index
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219
5.6 FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight planning on the system consists of building a flight plan by entering waypoints one at a time,
adding waypoints along airways, and inserting departures, airways, arrivals, or approaches as needed.
The system allows flight planning information to be entered from either the MFD or PFD. The flight
plan is displayed on maps using different line widths, colors, and types, based on the type of leg and the
segment of the flight plan currently being flown (departure, enroute, arrival, approach, or missed
approach).
Flight Plan Leg Type
Symbol
Active Course Leg*
Active Heading Leg*
Active Roll Steering Path*†
Course Leg in the current flight segment
Course Leg not in the current flight segment
Heading Leg
Roll Steering Path †
Future Roll Steering Path ‡
Turn Anticipation Arc
* The active leg or path is the one currently being flown, and is shown in magenta.
† A roll steering path is a computed transition between two disconnected legs.
‡ A roll steering path in the flight plan that is beyond the next leg appears as a future roll steering
path. When a future roll steering path becomes the next leg in the flight plan, it appears as a roll
steering path.
Table 5-10 Flight Plan Leg Symbols
Up to 99 flight plans with up to 100 waypoints each can be created and stored in memory. Upon
power up, the previously active flight plan is retained and automatically repopulated if the aircraft
position is at the origin airport and the aircraft is on the ground. If, however, the aircraft is not at the
origin, on the ground, or if more than 12 hours have passed since the last active flight plan modification,
the previously active flight plan is not retained. One flight plan can be activated at a time and becomes
the active flight plan. The active flight plan is overwritten when another flight plan is activated. When
storing flight plans with an approach, departure, or arrival, the system uses the waypoint information
from the current database to define the waypoints. If the database is changed or updated, the system
automatically updates the information if the procedure has not been modified. If an approach,
departure, or arrival procedure is no longer available, the procedure is deleted from the affected stored
flight plan(s), and an alert is displayed (see Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A) advising that one or
more stored flight plans need to be edited.
Whenever an approach, departure, or arrival procedure is loaded into the active flight plan, a set of
approach, departure, or arrival waypoints is inserted into the flight plan along with a header line
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
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Airway entry/exit waypoint is not an acceptable waypoint for the airway – either the waypoint is no
longer on the airway, or there is a new directional restriction that prevents it being used.
•
Loading the new airway sequence would exceed the capacity of the flight plan.
Audio Panel and CNS
•
FLIGHT PLAN CREATION
There are three methods to create or modify a flight plan:
Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
•
Flight Plan Window on the PFD (create/modify the active flight plan)
•
Flight Plan Catalog Page on the MFD (create/modify a stored flight plan)
Flight Management
System
•
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Non-Active,
Flight Plan Leg
Appendices
- Active Vertical WPT Alt/ID
- Time to Top of Descent
- Vertical Speed Target
- Flight Path Angle
- Vertical Speed Required
- Vertical Deviation
Additional Features
Vertical Navigation Profile
Automatic Flight Control
System
- Comment
- Procedure Header
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Hazard Avoidance
Active FPL Waypoint List
Turn Anticipation
Arc
Engine Indication System
Airway identifier, entry waypoint or exit waypoint not found in the new database.
Flight Instruments
•
System Overview
describing the instrument procedure the pilot selected. The original enroute portion of the flight plan
remains active (unless an instrument procedure is activated) when the procedure is loaded.
When the database is updated, the airways need to be reloaded also. Each airway segment is reloaded
from the database given the entry waypoint, the airway identifier and the exit waypoint. This reloads the
sequence of waypoints between the entry and exit waypoints (the sequence may change when the
database is updated). The update of an airway can fail during this process. If that happens, the airway
waypoints are changed to regular (non-airway) flight plan waypoints, and an alert is displayed (see
Miscellaneous Messages in Appendix A).
The following could cause the airway update to fail:
Figure 5-45 Active Flight Plan Page
Index
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Flight Instruments
Active Flight Plan Comment
Active Flight
Plan Leg
Active Flight Plan Waypoint List
Engine Indication System
- Waypoint ID
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Airway Identifier
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-46 Active Flight Plan Window on PFD
Catalog Contents
Flight Management
System
- # Used
- # Empty
Flight Plan List
Hazard Avoidance
- Comment
Automatic Flight Control
System
Selected
Flight Plan
Map
Selected FPL Info
Appendices
Additional Features
- Departure Waypoint
- Destination Waypoint
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Figure 5-47 Flight Plan Catalog Page
The active flight plan is listed on the Active Flight Plan Page on the MFD, and in the Flight Plan
Window on the PFD. It is the flight plan to which the system is currently providing guidance, and is
shown on the navigation maps. Stored flight plans are listed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page on the
MFD, and are available for activation (becomes the active flight plan).
Creating an active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key. Press the small FMS Knob to activate the cursor (only on MFD).
Index
2) Select the origin airport and runway.
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a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier
using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field
highlighted.
Flight Instruments
name of the departure waypoint.
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
3) Repeat step number 2 for the destination airport and runway.
4) Select the enroute waypoints.
header is selected, the new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute
waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new waypoint will be placed ahead of the
selected item).
name of the waypoint. The active flight plan is modified as each waypoint is
entered.
5) Repeat step number 4 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
required).
Creating a stored flight plan:
Hazard Avoidance
6) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor (if
Flight Management
System
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
Audio Panel and CNS
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute
1) From the MFD, press the FPL Key.
3) Press the New Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create New Flight Plan’, and
press the ENT Key to display a blank flight plan for the first empty storage location.
a) Highlight the field below the Origin header to enter the origin airport identifier
using the FMS Knob.
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
Additional Features
4) Select the origin airport and runway.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
name of the departure
highlighted.
Appendices
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Set Runway’ Window is displayed with the ‘Runway’ Field
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the runway, and press the ENT Key.
e) Press the ENT Key again to add the origin airport/runway to the flight plan.
Index
5) Repeat step number 4 for the destination airport and runway.
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
6) Select the enroute waypoints.
a) Highlight the location to insert the waypoint using the FMS Knob (If the enroute
Flight Instruments
header is selected, the new waypoint is placed following the header. If an enroute
waypoint or the dashes are selected, the new waypoint will be placed ahead of the
selected item.)
b) Use the FMS Knob or the waypoint submenu to enter the identifier, facility, or city
name of the waypoint.
7) Repeat step number 6 to enter each additional enroute waypoint.
8) When all waypoints have been entered, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
FLIGHT PLAN IMPORT/EXPORT
Flight plans can be imported from an SD Card or exported to an SD Card from the Stored Flight
Plan Page.
Under certain conditions, the following messages may appear when a flight plan is imported or
exported from or to an SD card. Some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
c) Press the ENT Key. The stored flight plan is modified as each waypoint is entered.
Flight Plan Import/
Export Results
Description
‘Flight plan successfully
imported.’
A flight plan file stored on the SD
card was successfully imported as a
stored flight plan.
‘File contained user
waypoints only. User
waypoints imported
successfully. No stored
flight plan data was
modified.’
The file stored on the SD card did
not contain a flight plan, only user
waypoints. These waypoints have
been saved to the system user
waypoints. No flight plans stored in
the system have been modified.
‘No flight plan files found
to import.’
The SD card contains no flight plan
data.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
‘Flight plan import failed.’ Flight plan data was not successfully
imported from the SD card.
224
‘Flight plan partially
imported.’
Some flight plan waypoints were
successfully imported from the SD
card, however others had errors and
were not imported. A partial stored
flight plan now exists in the system.
‘File contained user
waypoints only.’
The file stored on the SD card did
not contain a flight plan, only user
waypoints. One or more of these
waypoints did not import
successfully.
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‘One or more user
waypoints renamed.’
One or more imported user
waypoints were renamed when
imported due to naming conflicts
with waypoints already existing in
the system.
‘Flight plan successfully
exported.’
The stored flight plan was
successfully exported to the SD card.
‘Flight plan export failed.’
The stored flight plan was not
successfully exported to the SD card.
The SD card may not have sufficient
available memory or the card may
have been removed prematurely.
Additional Features
The flight plan file on the SD card
contains user waypoints. The
quantity of stored user waypoints
has exceeded system capacity,
therefore not all the user waypoints
on the SD card have been imported.
Any flight plan user waypoints that
were not imported are locked in the
flight plan. The flight plan must be
edited within the system before it
can be activated for use.
Automatic Flight Control
System
‘User waypoint database
full. Not all loaded.’
Hazard Avoidance
The flight plan on the SD card
contains one or more waypoints that
the system cannot find in the
navigation database. The flight plan
has been imported, but must be
edited within the system before it
can be activated for use.
Flight Management
System
‘Some waypoints not
loaded. Waypoints
locked.’
Audio Panel and CNS
The flight plan on the SD card
contains more waypoints than the
system can support. The flight plan
was imported with as many
waypoints as possible.
Engine Indication System
‘Too many points. Flight
plan truncated.’
Flight Instruments
Description
System Overview
Flight Plan Import/
Export Results
Table 5-11 Flight Plan Import/Export Messages
Appendices
Importing a Flight Plan from an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card containing the flight plan in the top card slot on the MFD.
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
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Index
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
225
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to highlight an empty or existing flight plan.
6) Press the Import Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Import Flight Plan”, and
Flight Instruments
press the ENT Key.
If an empty slot is selected, a list of the available flight plans on the SD card will be
displayed.
Engine Indication System
Or:
Audio Panel and CNS
If an existing flight plan is selected, an ‘Overwrite existing flight plan? OK or CANCEL’
prompt is displayed. Press the ENT Key to choose to overwrite the selected flight plan
and see the list of available flight plans on the SD card. If overwriting the existing flight
plan is not desired, select ‘CANCEL’ using the FMS Knob, press the ENT Key, select
another flight plan slot, and press the Import Softkey again.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired flight plan for importing.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the import.
Flight Management
System
9) Press the ENT Key again to confirm the import.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: If the imported flight plan contains a waypoint with a name that duplicates the name
of a waypoint already stored on the system, the system compares the coordinates of the
imported waypoint with those of the existing waypoint. If the coordinates are different, the
imported waypoint is automatically renamed by adding characters to the end of the name.
Exporting a Flight Plan to an SD Card:
1) Insert the SD card into the top card slot on the MFD.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Additional Features
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the flight plan to be exported.
6) Press the Export Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Export Flight Plan’.
7) If desired, change the name for the exported file by turning the large FMS Knob to the
Appendices
left to highlight the name, then use the small and large FMS knobs to enter the new
name, and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key to initiate the export.
9) Press the ENT Key to confirm the export.
Index
NOTE: The exported flight plan will not contain any procedures or airways.
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Flight plans can be transferred to or from a mobile device via the Flight Stream 510 Bluetooth wireless
connection. Transfer of a flight plan to a mobile device is controlled by the mobile device.
Flight Instruments
Pending Flight Plan
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Ignore Softkey
Flight Management
System
Pending Flight Plan
Pop-Up Alert
Preview Softkey
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-48 Pending Flight Plan Transfer
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Pending Flight Plan
Audio Panel and CNS
Store? or Activate?
Selection
Flight Management
System
Delete Softkey
Activate Softkey
Store Softkey
Figure 5-49 Preview Flight Plan Page
Hazard Avoidance
Previewing a pending flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight
Plan pop-up alert appears in the lower right corner of the MFD, and a Connext
annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Or:
Press the Preview Softkey to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
Additional Features
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key,
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Preview Flight Plan’.
Index
Appendices
c) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
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1) When a flight plan transfer has been initiated from a mobile device, a Pending Flight
2) Press the CLR Key to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight plan. The
pending flight plan will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Flight Instruments
Plan pop-up alert appears in the lower right corner of the MFD, and a Connext
annunciation appears to the right of the MFD page name.
System Overview
Ignoring a pending flight plan transfer from a wireless connection:
Or:
Engine Indication System
Press the Ignore Softkey to remove the pop-up alert and ignore the pending flight
plan. The pending flight plan will still be available on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
Storing a pending flight plan:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
5) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
6) Press the Store Softkey to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and
Flight Management
System
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the pending flight plan.
the pending annunciation is removed.
Hazard Avoidance
Or:
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store?’.
pending annunciation is removed.
Or:
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the
Additional Features
a) Press the MENU Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
c) Press the ENT Key to store the flight plan. The pending flight plan is stored and the
pending annunciation is removed.
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight
Plan Catalog’ Page.
Appendices
Activating a pending flight plan:
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
pending flight plan.
Index
3) Press the ENT Key to display the ‘FPL - Preview Flight Plan’ Page.
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4) Press the Activate Softkey. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ Window is displayed.
Or:
Flight Instruments
a) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate?’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ Window is displayed.
Engine Indication System
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Activate Flight Plan?’ Window is displayed.
Audio Panel and CNS
5) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to activate the pending flight plan. The
pending flight plan becomes the active flight plan and is removed from the Flight Plan
Catalog Page. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and
press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
Deleting a pending flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired pending flight plan.
5) Press the Delete Softkey. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Or:
Press the CLR Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
Additional Features
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’.
c) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete Flight Plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the pending flight plan. The
Appendices
pending flight plan is removed from the Flight Plan Catalog Page. To cancel the request,
press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting all pending flight plans:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Index
3) Press the MENU Key.
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System Overview
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Delete All Pending’.
5) Press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all pending flight plans?’ confirmation Window is
displayed.
the request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
ADDING WAYPOINTS TO AN EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN
Hazard Avoidance
- Memory Slot
- Comment
- Procedure Identifier
- Waypoint Identifier
- Airway Identifier
- Desired Track to Waypoint
- Distance to Waypoint
- Waypoint Altitude Constraint
Flight Management
System
Stored Flight Plan Selected
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Manually adding waypoints to a flight plan after a MANSEQ leg creates a lateral gap
in the flight plan. Time, fuel, and distance values for legs beyond the gap do not include the
distance across the gap.
Engine Indication System
Waypoints can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose the flight plan,
select the desired point of insertion, enter the waypoint, and it is added in front of the selected
waypoint. Flight plans are limited to 100 waypoints (including waypoints within airways and
procedures). If the number of waypoints in the flight plan exceeds 100, the message “Flight plan is
full. Remove unnecessary waypoints.” appears and the new waypoint(s) are not added to the flight
plan.
Flight Instruments
6) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all pending flight plans. To cancel
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Softkeys
Appendices
Figure 5-50 Stored Flight Plan Page
Adding a waypoint to a stored flight plan:
1) On the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Index
2) Highlight the desired flight plan.
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3) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the ENT Key, turn the large FMS Knob clockwise to
select “EDIT” and press the ENT Key. The Stored Flight Plan Page is displayed.
4) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed
Flight Instruments
directly in front of the highlighted waypoint.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it
Engine Indication System
clockwise displays a blank ‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise
displays the ‘Waypoint Information Window’ with a waypoint selection submenu
allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
6) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the
submenu of waypoints and press the ENT Key. The new waypoint now exists in the
flight plan.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: If the identifier entered in the Waypoint Information Window has duplicates, a
Duplicate Waypoint Window is displayed. Use the FMS Knob to select the correct waypoint.
Adding a waypoint to the active flight plan:
Flight Management
System
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint. The new waypoint is placed
prior to the highlighted waypoint.
Hazard Avoidance
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window. (Turning it
clockwise displays a blank ‘Waypoint Information’ Window, turning it counter-clockwise
displays the ‘Waypoint Information’ Window with a waypoint selection submenu
allowing selection of active flight plan, nearest, recent, user, or airway waypoints).
Automatic Flight Control
System
5) Enter the identifier, facility, or city name of the waypoint or select a waypoint from the
submenu of waypoints and press the ENT Key. The active flight plan is modified as each
waypoint is entered.
Creating and adding user waypoints to the active flight plan:
Additional Features
1) Press the FPL Key
2) Press the FMS Knob on the MFD to activate the cursor.
3) Select the point in the flight plan to add the new waypoint.
4) Push the Joystick on the MFD to activate the panning function on the ‘FPL - Active
Index
Appendices
Flight Plan’ Page and pan to the map location of the desired user waypoint.
5) Press the LD WPT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Waypoint’, and press
the ENT Key. The user waypoint is created with a name of USRxxx (using the next
available in sequence) and is added to the active flight plan.
Waypoints entered in the enroute segment of the flight plan may be treated as fly-by waypoints,
unless otherwise designated. A fly-by waypoint is a waypoint that marks the intersection of two
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System Overview
straight paths, with the transition from one path to another being made by the aircraft using a
precisely calculated turn that “flies by” but does not vertically cross the waypoint. A fly-over
waypoint is a waypoint that must be crossed vertically by the aircraft.
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Active Leg to TOP
TOP as Fly-By Waypoint -
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-51 TOP Fly-By Waypoint
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Active Leg to TOP
Fly-Over
Waypoint Symbol
TOP as Fly-Over Waypoint -
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Figure 5-52 TOP Fly-Over Waypoint
Hazard Avoidance
Designating a fly-over waypoint:
1) For the active flight plan, press the FPL Key and press the FMS Knob to activate the
cursor (not required on the PFD).
Automatic Flight Control
System
Or:
For a stored flight plan, highlight the desired flight plan on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog
Page’ and press the Edit Softkey.
2) Highlight the desired waypoint.
Additional Features
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-Over Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set
[waypoint] to be a fly-over waypoint?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) To change the waypoint back to a fly-by waypoint, highlight the desired waypoint. Press
Appendices
the MENU Key, highlight ‘Set Fly-By Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Set
[waypoint] to be a fly-by waypoint?’ Window is displayed. With ‘OK’ highlighted, press
the ENT Key.
Index
ADDING AIRWAYS TO A FLIGHT PLAN
Airways can be added to the active flight plan or any stored flight plan. Choose a flight plan (add the
desired airway entry point if not already in the flight plan), select the waypoint after the desired airway
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Airways Available at TOP
Airway Waypoint
Sequence
Audio Panel and CNS
Preview of
Selected Airway
Engine Indication System
Selected Airway
Flight Instruments
Airway Entry Waypoint
System Overview
entry point, select the airway, and it is added in front of the selected waypoint. An airway can only be
loaded if there is a waypoint in the flight plan that is part of the desired airway and is not part of an
arrival or approach procedure. The system also anticipates the desired airway and exit point based on
loaded flight plan waypoints.
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-53 Select Airway Page - Selecting Airway
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Airway Entry Waypoint
Flight Instruments
Selected Airway
Selected Exit Point
Engine Indication System
Preview of
Selected Airway
Selected Airway Exit
Point
Figure 5-54 Select Airway Page - Selecting Exit Point
Some airways have directional restrictions on all or part of the route. Airway A2 in Europe has a
directional restriction over the whole route such that it can be flown only one direction.
For example, airway UR975 in North Africa has more complicated directional restrictions within the
list of airway waypoints. That is, each waypoint may have its own conditional route in relation to
another waypoint.
In the US, airways that are one-way for specified hours of operation are not uncommon. These
airways are always bidirectional in the system database.
The system only allows correct airway sequences to be inserted. If the pilot subsequently inverts the
flight plan, the system inverts the airway waypoint sequence and removes the airway header.
Adding an airway to a flight plan:
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Airway Exit Points
Available
1) Press the FPL Key.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD).
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint after the desired airway entry point.
Appendices
If this waypoint is not a valid airway entry point, a valid entry point should be entered at
this time.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob one click clockwise and press the LD AIRWY Softkey, or press
Index
the MENU Key and select ‘Load Airway’. The Select Airway Page/Window is displayed.
The LD AIRWY Softkey or the ‘Load Airway’ menu item is available only when a valid
airway entry waypoint has been chosen (the waypoint ahead of the cursor position).
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6) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway exit point from the list, and press the
System Overview
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired airway from the list, and press the ENT Key.
ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
inserted.
ADDING PROCEDURES TO A STORED FLIGHT PLAN
Flight Management
System
Flight Plan Waypoint
List
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Plan Name
Engine Indication System
The system allows the pilot to insert pre-defined instrument procedures from the navigation
database into a flight plan. The procedures are designed to facilitate routing of traffic leaving an airport
(departure), arriving at an airport (arrival), and landing at an airport (approach). See the Procedures
Section for more details.
Flight Instruments
7) Press the ENT Key. The system returns to editing the flight plan with the new airway
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Softkeys
Load Departure Load Arrival Load Approach Activate Flight Plan
Additional Features
Figure 5-55 Stored Flight Plan Page
DEPARTURE
Appendices
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one
departure can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of a departure,
the transition waypoints, and a runway.
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237
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Flight Instruments
Departure Airport
Engine Indication System
Selected
Departure
Departure Waypoint
Sequence
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Departures Available at
KMKC
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-56 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Departure
Automatic Flight Control
System
Departure Airport
Selected
Departure
Selected Runway
Preview of
Selected
Departure
Selected Transition
Appendices
Additional Features
Departure Transition Points
Available
Index
Figure 5-57 Departure Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
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System Overview
Loading a departure procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the
3) Press the LD DP Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Departure’, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Departure Loading’ Page is displayed.
Engine Indication System
4) Select a departure. Press the ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Select a runway served by the selected departure, if required. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a transition for the selected departure. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected departure procedure.
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) is loaded at the destination airport in the flight plan. Only one
arrival can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route is defined by selection of an arrival, the
transition waypoints, and a runway.
Audio Panel and CNS
ARRIVAL
Flight Management
System
Destination Airport
Arrivals Available at KCOS
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Automatic Flight Control
System
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Hazard Avoidance
Selected Arrival
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 5-58 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Arrival
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Flight Instruments
Destination Airport
Selected Arrival
Selected Transition
Engine Indication System
Transitions Available with
DBRY3
Arrival Waypoint Sequence
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Preview of
Selected Arrival
Figure 5-59 Arrival Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
Hazard Avoidance
Loading an arrival procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the
Automatic Flight Control
System
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD STAR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select “Load Arrival”, and press the
ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Arrival Loading’ Page is displayed.
4) Select an arrival. Press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
5) Select a transition for the selected arrival. Press the ENT Key.
6) Select a runway served by the selected arrival, if required. Press the ENT Key.
7) Press the ENT Key to load the selected arrival procedure.
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has an approach available. Only
one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. The route for a selected approach is defined by
designating transition waypoints.
Index
Appendices
APPROACH
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System Overview
Destination Airport
Flight Instruments
Selected
Approach
Engine Indication System
Approaches Available at
KCOS
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Audio Panel and CNS
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Flight Management
System
Figure 5-60 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Approach
Hazard Avoidance
Destination Airport
Automatic Flight Control
System
Selected
Approach
Selected Transition
Transitions Available with
Selected Approach
Additional Features
Preview of
Selected
Approach
Approach Waypoint
Sequence
Appendices
Load?
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Index
Figure 5-61 Approach Loading Page - Selecting the Transition
241
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Loading an approach procedure into a stored flight plan:
1) Select a stored flight plan from the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
2) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’, and press the
Flight Instruments
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
3) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Load Approach’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed.
Engine Indication System
4) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS
Knob to move the cursor to the ‘Approach Channel’ Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key
Flight Management
System
to accept the approach channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
5) Select a transition for the selected approach. Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the selected approach procedure.
The system can store up to 99 flight plans, numbered 1 through 99. The active flight plan is erased
when the system is powered off or when another flight plan is activated. Details about each stored
flight plan can be viewed on the Flight Plan Catalog Page and on the Stored Flight Plan Page.
A stored flight plan may be viewed or edited. The system also allows copying a flight plan into a
new flight plan memory slot, allowing editing, etc., without affecting the original flight plan. This
can be used to duplicate an existing stored flight plan for use in creating a modified version of the
original stored flight plan.
Activating a stored flight plan erases the active flight plan and replaces it with the flight plan being
activated. Inverting a stored flight plan reverses the waypoint order, erases the active flight plan, and
replaces it with the flight plan being activated (the stored flight plan is not changed).
Lastly, individual or all stored flight plans can be deleted from the system memory.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
STORED FLIGHT PLAN
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Flight Instruments
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan
Flight Plan Name
(Comment)
Engine Indication System
Stored FPL Editing
Softkeys
Figure 5-62 Stored Flight Plan Information
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Highlight ‘Store Flight Plan’.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. The flight plan is stored in the next available
position in the flight plan list on the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’ Page.
Automatic Flight Control
System
3) Press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
Storing an active flight plan from the Active Flight Plan Page or the Active Flight
Plan Window:
Flight Management
System
- Departure Airport
- Destination Airport
- Total Flight Plan Distance
- Enroute Safe Altitude
Audio Panel and CNS
Stored Flight Plan Info
Viewing information about a stored flight plan:
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
Additional Features
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
4) The ‘Flight Plan Info’ Box displays departure, destination, total distance, and enroute
Appendices
desired flight plan.
safe altitude information for the selected flight plan.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
5) Press the Edit Softkey to open the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page and view the
waypoints in the flight plan.
6) Press the FMS Knob to exit the ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page.
Flight Instruments
Activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired flight plan.
3) Press the Activate Softkey; or press the ENT Key twice; or press the MENU Key,
Audio Panel and CNS
highlight ‘Activate Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘activate stored flight plan?’
Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Inverting and activating a stored flight plan on the MFD:
Flight Management
System
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
desired flight plan.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the Invert Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert & Activate FPL?’, and
press the ENT Key. The ‘Invert and activate stored flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Copying a stored flight plan on the MFD:
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
Additional Features
desired flight plan.
3) Press the Copy Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Copy Flight Plan’, and press
the ENT Key. The ‘Copy to flight plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to copy the flight plan. To cancel the request,
Appendices
press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting an individual waypoint from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Index
Page.
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System Overview
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
Flight Instruments
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ Window is displayed.
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire airway from a stored flight plan:
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
Engine Indication System
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
Flight Management
System
flight plan to be edited.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be deleted.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Hazard Avoidance
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [airway name]from flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
Deleting an entire procedure from a stored flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
Additional Features
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
4) Press the EDIT Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
Appendices
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the header of the procedure to be deleted.
6) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
displayed.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Flight Instruments
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Engine Indication System
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
Audio Panel and CNS
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight
‘Remove [procedure]’.
6) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
Flight Management
System
displayed.
7) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Hazard Avoidance
Changing a stored flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob clockwise one click to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Automatic Flight Control
System
Page.
3) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
flight plan to be edited.
4) Press the Edit Softkey; or press the MENU Key, select ‘Edit Flight Plan’ and press the
Additional Features
ENT Key. The ‘FPL - Stored Flight Plan’ Page is displayed.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the comment field.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
7) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
Index
Appendices
8) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
System Overview
Deleting a stored flight plan:
Page.
desired flight plan.
3) Press the Delete Softkey; press the CLR Key; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete
Flight Instruments
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete flight plan XX?’ Window is displayed.
request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
NOTE: The option to delete all stored flight plans is not available while the aircraft is in flight.
1) Press the FPL Key and turn the small FMS Knob to display the ‘FPL - Flight Plan Catalog’
Page.
3) Highlight ‘Delete All’ and press the ENT Key. A ‘Delete all flight plans?’ confirmation
window is displayed.
Flight Management
System
2) Press the MENU Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
Deleting all stored flight plans:
Engine Indication System
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the flight plan. To cancel the
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete all flight plans. To cancel the
ACTIVE FLIGHT PLAN
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
The active flight plan can be edited by adding or removing flight plan items. The edits made to the
active flight plan affect navigation as soon as they are entered. The system allows deleting an active
flight plan. Deleting the active flight plan suspends navigation by the system. Individual waypoints,
entire airways, and entire procedures can be deleted from a flight plan. Some waypoints in the final
approach segment (such as the FAF or MAP) can not be deleted individually. Attempting to delete a
waypoint that is not allowed results in a window displaying ‘Invalid flight plan modification’.
The comment field (or name) of each flight plan can be changed to something that is useful for
identification and sorting.
The flight plan leg which is currently being used for navigation guidance is referred to as the ‘active
leg’. The system automatically sequences from one active leg to the next as defined by the active flight
plan. Any leg in the active flight plan successive to the leg currently being flown may be selected to
become the new active leg.
Lastly, the active flight plan may be inverted (reversed) for navigation back to the original departure
point.
Hazard Avoidance
request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Index
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System Overview
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Activating a flight plan leg:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Flight Instruments
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the destination waypoint for the desired leg.
3) Press the ACT Leg Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Activate Leg’,
Engine Indication System
and press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed with ‘Activate’ highlighted.
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the flight plan leg. To cancel, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘Cancel’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Audio Panel and CNS
Inverting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Invert Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. An ‘Invert
Flight Management
System
active flight plan?’ confirmation window is displayed.
3) Select ‘OK’.
4) Press the ENT Key to invert and activate the active flight plan. To cancel, press the CLR
Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
Deleting the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Delete Flight Plan’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Delete
all waypoints in flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
3) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the active flight plan. To cancel the
request, press the CLR Key, or highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
Deleting an individual waypoint from the active flight plan:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
Appendices
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove XXXXX?’ Window is displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Index
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
FMS Knob to highlight the header of the airway to be deleted.
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [airway name] from flight plan?’ Window is displayed.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
Flight Instruments
Deleting an entire airway from the active flight plan:
System Overview
NOTE: If removal of a flight plan item (waypoint, procedure, etc.) results in deletion of the
end waypoint of the active leg, an off-route direct-to to the deleted waypoint is created and
activated.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
Audio Panel and CNS
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Deleting an entire procedure from the active flight plan:
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the header of the procedure to be deleted.
displayed.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the CLR Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
Flight Management
System
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Or:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Automatic Flight Control
System
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Window (PFD).
Additional Features
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu and turn the FMS Knob to highlight
‘Remove [procedure]’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Remove [procedure name] from flight plan?’ Window is
displayed.
highlight ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Appendices
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the request, press the CLR Key, or
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Changing the active flight plan comment:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the large FMS Knob to highlight
3) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the comment.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the changes.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALONG TRACK OFFSETS
A waypoint having an “along track offset” distance from an existing waypoint can be entered into a
flight plan. Along track offset waypoints lie along the path of the existing flight plan, and can be used
to make the system reach a specified altitude before or after reaching the specified flight plan
waypoint. Offset distances can be entered from 1 to 999 nm in increments of 1 nm. Entering a
negative offset distance results in an along track offset waypoint inserted before the selected waypoint,
whereas entering a positive offset distance results in an along track offset waypoint inserted after the
selected waypoint. Multiple offset waypoints are allowed.
A waypoint must be adjacent to its parent waypoint in the flight plan, so the system limits the alongtrack distance to less than the length of the leg before or after the selected waypoint. If the selected
waypoint is the active waypoint, the distance is limited to less than the distance to go to the active
waypoint. Assigning an along track offset to a leg with indeterminate length is not permitted. An along
track offset is not allowed at or after the final approach fix of an approach.
An along track offset distance cannot be modified once entered. If the along track offset distance
must be changed, the existing along track offset waypoint must be deleted and a new one created with
the new offset distance.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
the comment field.
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Flight Instruments
Audio Panel and CNS
Along Track
Offset Waypoint
and Distance
Engine Indication System
Along Track Offset
Waypoint and Distance
from Flight Plan Waypoint
Flight Management
System
Figure 5-63 Along Track Offset
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint for the along track offset.
3) Press the ATK OFS Softkey (MFD only); or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Create ATK
Offset Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key.
leg distances).
5) Press the ENT Key to create the offset waypoint.
Additional Features
4) Enter a positive or negative offset distance in the range of +/- 1 to 999 nm (limited by
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
Hazard Avoidance
Entering an along track offset distance:
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
The Parallel Track (PTK) feature allows creation of a parallel course offset of 1 to 50 nm left or right
of the current flight plan. When Parallel Track is activated, the course line drawn on the map pages
shows the parallel course, and waypoint names have a lower case “p” placed after the identifier.
Activation of parallel track will apply from the current position along the flight plan until a leg that
Appendices
PARALLEL TRACK
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Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
does not meet the criteria for parallel track. Guidance will be computed to return to the original track
at the beginning of that leg.
If the parallel track proposed by the offset direction and distance is not allowed by the system, the
activation prompt is displayed, but disabled.
The following will inhibit activation of a parallel track:
•
Initiating a direct-to, to the selected waypoint.
•
If an approach leg is active, the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel track
with the message ‘Parallel Track Unavailable Approach Leg Active’.
•
If the offset direction and distance results in an unreasonable route geometry (e.g., there is a sharp
turn of more than 120 degrees), the status indicates that the system is unable to activate the parallel
track because of invalid geometry (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Invalid Route Geometry’).
•
If the active leg is not a track between two fixes (TF) or a course to a fix (DF) leg, the status indicates
that the system is unable to activate the parallel track because parallel track is not available for the
active leg type (‘Parallel Track Unavailable Not Allowed for Active Leg’).
•
If there are no legs remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active.
•
Initiating a direct-to, to a waypoint.
•
Initiating a hold at the present position.
•
If a course change occurs greater than 120° or the parallel tracks overlap as a result of the course
change.
•
No legs are remaining in the flight plan after the given leg, or OBS mode is active.
Initiating a hold at a waypoint will result in the aircraft flying the parallel track until a turn is
required to fly to the hold waypoint. If the hold is removed prior to reaching the hold waypoint, the
parallel track will be resumed. Once the holding pattern is active, the parallel track will not be
resumed upon exiting the hold.
NOTE: Vertical navigation is unavailable while the Parallel Track feature is active.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
The following will cancel the parallel track:
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Offset Direction
Offset Distance
Activation Prompt
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 5-64 Parallel Track Window
Flight Management
System
Automatic Flight Control
System
- TIFTO-p
- TOP-p
- ...
- LAA-p
Hazard Avoidance
Parallel Track Waypoints
Additional Features
Parallel Track
Original Track
Appendices
Figure 5-65 Parallel Track Active
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Activating parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Flight Instruments
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel
Track’ Window is displayed with the ‘Direction’ Field highlighted.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘LEFT’ or ‘RIGHT’ and press the ENT Key. The
Engine Indication System
‘Distance’ Field is highlighted.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter a distance from 1-99 nm and press the ENT Key.
‘Activate Parallel Track’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key to activate parallel track. Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to
Audio Panel and CNS
cancel the parallel track activation.
Cancelling parallel track:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Flight Management
System
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Parallel Track’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Parallel
Track’ Window is displayed with ‘Cancel Parallel Track?’ highlighted.
3) Press the ENT Key.
Information about flight plans can be viewed in more than one way. The active flight plan can be
configured to show cumulative distance over the length of the flight plan or the distance for each leg of
the flight plan, and the active flight plan can be viewed in a narrow or wide view. In the wide view,
additional information is displayed: Fuel Remaining (FUEL REM), Estimated Time Enroute (ETE),
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA), and Bearing to the waypoint (BRG).
Changing the flight plan view:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the View Softkey to display the Wide, Narrow, Leg-Leg, and CUM Softkeys.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
FLIGHT PLAN VIEWS
3) Press the CUM Softkey to view cumulative waypoint distance, or press the Leg-Leg
Softkey to view leg-to-leg waypoint distance.
4) Press the Wide Softkey to display the wide view, or select the Narrow Softkey to
Index
Appendices
display the narrow view.
5) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level active flight plan softkeys.
Charts may also be viewed alongside the active flight plan in split screen mode. With an active flight
plan loaded into the system, the Charts Page can be set to automatically display a chart depending on
the active flight plan leg. For more information on Charts, see the Additional Features Section.
Activating split screen mode from the active flight plan displays the Charts Page which removes the
Flight Plan Map. The Flight Plan Map can be re-displayed on the active flight plan page. However,
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System Overview
replacing the Flight Plan Map on the active flight plan page in split screen mode limits the flight plan
content which can be displayed. For example, displaying the Flight Plan Map while in split screen
narrow view removes the Active VNV Profile Box. See the following figures below depicting the
different split screen displays with the active flight plan.
Flight Instruments
Display Title shows ‘Chart + Active Flight Plan
- AUTO indicates the chart shown automatically corresponds to the phase of flight
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Split Screen Wide View
Hazard Avoidance
Split Screen Narrow View
Figure 5-66 Split Screen Narrow and Wide View
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Flight Management
System
Split Screen Narrow View with Flight Plan Map
Split Screen Wide View with Flight Plan Map
Figure 5-67 Split Screen Mode with Flight Plan Map
Viewing charts and active flight plan page in split screen mode:
Hazard Avoidance
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the Charts Softkey. Split screen mode is now enabled showing the Charts Page
alongside the Active Flight Plan Page, and Charts Page is bordered by a cyan box
indicating it is the active display pane.
Automatic Flight Control
System
3) To quickly view the chart corresponding to the active flight plan leg, press the AUTO
Softkey.
Displaying the flight plan map on the active flight plan page in split mode:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
Additional Features
2) Press the Charts Softkey. Split screen mode is now enabled showing the Charts Page
alongside the active flight plan, and the Charts Page is bordered by a cyan box
indicating it is the active display pane.
3) Move the Joystick to select the Active Flight Plan page as the active display pane.
Appendices
4) Press the MENU Key. ‘Show Flight Plan Map’ is highlighted. Press the ENT Key.
5) To remove the Flight Plan Map, press the MENU Key and select ‘Hide Flight Plan Map’.
Index
Press the ENT Key.
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
The system allows airways on the active flight plan to be collapsed or expanded from the Stored or
Active Flight Plan Page/Window. When airways have been collapsed, it is indicated on the airway
heading.
When airways are collapsed, leg-to-leg computed values such as DIS or ETE shown for the exit
waypoint reflect the total of all the legs on the airway that have been hidden in the collapsed display.
The DTK value is inhibited because it is not usable in this context.
The Active Flight Plan Page always keeps the following three waypoints visible: “From” waypoint,
“To” waypoint, and “Next” waypoint. To prevent one or more of these waypoints from being hidden
in a collapsed airway segment, the airway segment that contains either the “To” or the “Next”
waypoint is automatically expanded. When an airway is loaded, airways are automatically expanded
to facilitate flight plan review.
System Overview
COLLAPSING AIRWAYS
Audio Panel and CNS
All Airways
Collapsed View
Flight Management
System
V4.SLN Airway
Expanded View
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-68 Expanded/Collapsed Airways
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Collapse Airways’ or ‘Expand Airways’, and press the
CLOSEST POINT OF FPL
Appendices
‘Closest Point of FPL’ calculates the bearing and closest distance at which a flight plan passes a
reference waypoint, and creates a new user waypoint along the flight plan at the location closest to a
chosen reference waypoint.
Additional Features
ENT Key. The airways are collapsed/expanded.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Collapsing/expanding the airways in the active flight plan:
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Determining the closest point along the active flight plan to a selected waypoint:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
window appears with the reference waypoint field highlighted.
3) Enter the identifier of the reference waypoint. The system displays the bearing (BRG)
and distance (DIS) to the closest point along the flight plan to the selected reference
waypoint and creates a user waypoint at this location. Press the ENT Key. The name for
the new user waypoint is derived from the identifier of the reference waypoint.
USER-DEFINED HOLDING PATTERNS
A holding pattern can be defined at any active flight plan waypoint, at the aircraft present position,
or at a direct-to waypoint.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Closest Point Of FPL’’, and press the ENT Key. A
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System Overview
Engine Indication System
Waypoint
Selected
Flight Instruments
Hold At
Waypoint
Menu
Selection
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Inbound or Outbound
(Time or Distance)
Leg Length
Hazard Avoidance
Leg Length Mode Button
(Time in nm or Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
(Right or Left)
Automatic Flight Control
System
Map of Hold Location
Additional Features
Appendices
Expect Further Clearance Time
Index
Load Hold in Active Flight Plan
Figure 5-69 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at an Active Flight Plan Waypoint
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Waypoint
Selected
Hold Entry Course
Location of Hold
Course Direction
Flight Management
System
(Inbound or Outbound)
Leg Length
(Time in nm or
Distance in minutes)
Turn Direction
Hazard Avoidance
(Right or Left)
Leg Length Mode
Button
Automatic Flight Control
System
(Time or Distance)
Additional Features
Map of Hold Location
Appendices
Expect Further
Clearance Time
Load Hold and
Activate Direct To
Hold At Direct To Waypoint Selection
Index
Figure 5-70 Creating a User Defined Holding Pattern at a Direct To Waypoint
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1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
System Overview
Creating a user-defined hold at an active flight plan waypoint:
Window (PFD).
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Waypoint’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold
Flight Instruments
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
at’ Window appears with the ‘Course’ Field highlighted.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
ENT Key.
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Load?’ is highlighted to insert the hold into the flight plan.
Flight Management
System
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
Audio Panel and CNS
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Engine Indication System
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
Creating a user-defined hold at the aircraft present position:
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Hold At Present Position’, and press the ENT Key. The
3) If desired, use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
Key.
6) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Automatic Flight Control
System
‘Hold at’ Window appears with the ‘Course’ Field highlighted.
Hazard Avoidance
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
7) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
ENT Key.
Appendices
8) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
9) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to create an Offroute Direct-to hold
waypoint at the aircraft present position and activate the hold.
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Creating a user-defined hold at a direct-to waypoint:
1) Press a Direct-to Key and set up the direct-to waypoint as desired, but select ‘Hold?’
instead of ‘Activate?’ when finished.
Flight Instruments
2) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
3) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Key.
5) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
8) Press the ENT Key while ‘Activate?’ is highlighted to activate the direct-to with the user-
Flight Management
System
defined hold defined at the direct-to waypoint. (If the direct-to waypoint is part of the
active flight plan, the hold is inserted into the active flight plan. If the direct-to
waypoint is not part of the active flight plan, an off-route direct-to hold is created.)
Editing a user-defined hold:
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Hazard Avoidance
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
FMS Knob to highlight the waypoint for the hold.
3) Press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Edit Hold’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Hold at’
Automatic Flight Control
System
Window appears with the Course Field highlighted.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the course, and press the ENT Key.
5) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Inbound’ or ‘Outbound’ course direction, and press
Additional Features
the ENT Key.
6) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Time’ or ‘Distance’ length mode, and press the ENT
Key.
7) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the length, and press the ENT Key.
Appendices
8) Use the small FMS Knob to select ‘Right’ or ‘Left’ turn direction, and press the ENT Key.
9) Use the FMS Knobs to edit the Expect Further Clearance Time (EFC Time), and press the
ENT Key.
Index
10) Press the ENT Key while ‘Update?’ is highlighted to update the hold.
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Press the SUSP Softkey. The system will provide guidance to follow the holding pattern
to the inbound course and resume automatic waypoint sequencing.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
FMS Knob to highlight the ‘HOLD’ waypoint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove Holding Pattern?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed from the active
Audio Panel and CNS
flight plan. Select ‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key to cancel the removal of the
holding pattern.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor (not required on the PFD) and turn the large
Flight Instruments
Removing a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
System Overview
Exiting a user-defined hold inserted into the active flight plan:
Removing a user-defined hold at an off-route direct-to:
1) Press a Direct To Key to display the ‘Direct To’ Window (PFD or MFD).
NAV’ selection.
3) Press the ENT Key. The holding pattern is removed.
Flight Management
System
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu with the cursor on the ‘Cancel Direct-To
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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5.7 VERTICAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: The system supports vertical path guidance and altitude constraints for the following
leg types: AF, CD, CF, CI, CR, DF, FC, FD, PI, RF, and TF. Altitude constraints are not retained in
stored flight plans.
The system Vertical Navigation (VNV) feature provides vertical profile guidance during the enroute and
terminal phases of flight. Guidance based on specified altitudes at waypoints in the active flight plan or
to a direct-to waypoint is provided. It includes vertical path guidance to a descending path, which is
provided as a linear deviation from the desired path. The desired path is defined by a line joining two
waypoints with specified altitudes or as a vertical angle from a specified waypoint/altitude. The vertical
waypoints are integrated into the active flight plan. Both manual and autopilot-coupled guidance are
supported.
Canceling vertical navigation results in vertical deviation (V DEV), vertical speed required (VS REQ),
and time to top of descent/bottom of descent (TOD/BOD) going invalid. The Vertical Deviation Indicator
(VDI) and Required Vertical Speed Indicator (RVSI) on the PFD are removed, and the V DEV, VS REQ,
and TOD items displayed in the Active VNV Profile box are dashed. VNV remains disabled until
manually enabled. Vertical guidance in reversionary mode can only be enabled for a direct-to waypoint.
The system allows a vertical navigation direct-to for any waypoint in the active flight plan with an
altitude constraint “designated” for vertical guidance. Pressing the VNV Direct-to Softkey on the Active
Flight Plan Page allows the flight plan to be flown, while vertical guidance based on the altitude
constraint at the VNV direct-to waypoint is provided. The altitude change begins immediately and is
spread along the flight plan from current position to the vertical direct-to waypoint, not just along the
leg for the direct-to waypoint. A direct-to with altitude constraint activated by pressing the Direct-to Key
also provides vertical guidance, but would bypass flight plan waypoints between the current position in
the flight plan and the direct-to waypoint. A top of descent (TOD) point is computed based on the
default flight path angle; descent begins once the TOD is reached.
The vertical navigation profile can be modified by directly entering a vertical speed target (VS TGT)
and/or flight path angle (FPA) in the Active VNV Profile Box.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
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Disabled (fields dashed)
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Enabled (valid data)
System Overview
Active Vertical Navigation Profile
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
ENBL VNV Softkey
Cncl VNV Softkey
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 5-71 Enabling/Disabling Vertical Navigation
Enabling and Disabling VNV guidance:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL- Active Flight Plan’ Page.
the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is enabled, and vertical guidance begins with the
waypoint shown in the ‘Active VNV Profile’ Box (defaults first waypoint in the active
flight plan with an altitude enabled for vertical navigation).
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the ENBL VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Enable VNV’, and press
3) To Disable VNV guidance, press the Cncl VNV Softkey; or press the MENU Key,
Additional Features
highlight ‘Cancel VNV’, and press the ENT Key. Vertical navigation is disabled.
Activating a vertical navigation direct-to:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and turn the FMS Knob to highlight the
Appendices
desired waypoint.
NOTE: The selected waypoint must have a designated altitude constraint (cyan number) to
be used. If not, the first waypoint in the flight plan with a designated altitude constraint is
selected.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
3) Press the VNV Direct-To Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘VNV Direct-To’,
and press the ENT Key. An ‘Activate vertical Direct-to to: NNNNNFT at XXXXXX?’
confirmation window is displayed.
Flight Instruments
4) Press the ENT Key. Vertical guidance begins to the altitude constraint for the selected
waypoint.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the VNV Prof Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select VNV Profile
Window’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is now located in the ‘Active VNV Profile’
Box.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs as needed to edit the values.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ALTITUDE CONSTRAINTS
The system can use altitude constraints associated with lateral waypoints to give guidance for vertical
navigation. These altitudes are, depending on the specific instance, manually entered or retrieved from
the published altitudes in the navigation database.
Altitudes associated with arrival and approach procedures are “auto-designated”. This means the
system automatically provides descending vertical speed and deviation guidance to an altitude(s)
chosen by the system for any waypoint prior to the FAF. These altitudes are displayed as cyan text.
Additionally, altitudes can be manually designated prior to the FAF. The FAF can be manually
designated if the selected approach provides no vertical guidance (i.e. glidepath). Manually designated
altitudes are displayed as cyan text. For all designated altitudes, the system will automatically calculate
altitude constraints prior to the designated altitude, which are displayed as white text.
Altitudes that have been designated for use in vertical guidance can be “un-designated” using the
CLR Key. The altitude is now displayed only as a reference (white text). It is not used to give vertical
guidance. Other displayed altitudes may change due to re-calculations or be rendered invalid as a
result of manually changing an altitude to a non-designated altitude.
Altitude constraints are displayed and entered in feet mean sea level (MSL) values to the nearest
hundred. An altitude constraint in feet above ground level (AGL) format is supported for airports.
When a database altitude restriction is displayed, the system allows entry of a different altitude when
creating a waypoint, effectively overriding the database restriction (only before the FAF). When a
database altitude restriction of type “AT or ABOVE” or “AT or BELOW” is activated, the system uses
the “AT” portion of the restriction to define the vertical profile.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Modifying the VS TGT and FPA:
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System Overview
Altitude Constraint
Examples
Displayed Text
Examples
Cross AT or ABOVE
5,000 ft
White Text with
Altitude Restriction Bar
Temperature
Compensated
Figure 5-72 Waypoint Altitude Constraints
Cyan Text
5OOOFT
Altitude is designated for use in determining
vertical guidance. A pencil icon indicates manual
designation or manually edited data entry.
5OOOFT
NOTE: All designated altitudes (cyan text) will be displayed in the Active Flight Plan Page and
Flight Plan Window without restriction bars regardless of what is shown on the published
procedure.
Appendices
Manually designating a waypoint altitude to be used for vertical guidance:
Additional Features
Table 5-12 Altitude Constraint Color Coding
Automatic Flight Control
System
The system cannot use this altitude in determining
Altitude retrieved from the navigation
database. White line above or below indicates vertical guidance because of an invalid constraint
condition.
the type of constraint, as shown in the
preceding figure. These altitudes are provided
as a reference, and are not designated to be
used in determining vertical guidance.
Hazard Avoidance
Altitude calculated by the system estimating
the altitude of the aircraft as it passes over the
navigation point. No white line above or
below to indicate a potential constraint.
Flight Management
System
White Text
Audio Panel and CNS
Cross AT or BELOW
3,000 ft
Engine Indication System
Cross AT 2,300 ft
Flight Instruments
System Calculated Altitude
(White Text)
Edited Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text with Pencil Icon)
Designated Altitude Constraint
(Cyan Text)
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude.
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter editing mode.
4) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical
guidance.
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and highlight the desired waypoint altitude. Turn the small FMS
Knob to enter editing mode.
3) Press the ENT Key. The altitude is now shown in cyan, indicating it is usable for vertical
guidance.
An altitude constraint is invalid if:
•
Meeting the constraint requires the aircraft to climb
•
Meeting the constraint requires the maximum flight path angle or maximum vertical speed to be
exceeded
•
The altitude constraint results in a TOD behind the aircraft present position
•
The constraint is within a leg type for which altitude constraints are not supported
•
The altitude constraint is added to the FAF of an approach that provides vertical guidance (i.e., ILS
or GPS SBAS approach)
•
The altitude constraint is added to a waypoint past the FAF
Altitude constraints can be modified or deleted after having been added to the flight plan. In the
event an altitude constraint is deleted and the navigation database contains an altitude restriction for
the lateral waypoint, the system displays the altitude restriction from the database provided no
predicted altitude can be provided. The system also provides a way to reinstate a published altitude
constraint that has been edited.
Entering/modifying an altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Manually designating a procedure waypoint altitude to be used for vertical
guidance:
3) Enter an altitude constraint value using the FMS Knobs. To enter altitudes as a flight
Appendices
level, turn the small FMS Knob counter-clockwise past zero or clockwise past 9 on the
first character, and the system automatically changes to show units of Flight Level. Turn
the large FMS Knob clockwise to highlight the first zero and enter the three digit flight
level.
4) Press the ENT Key to accept the altitude constraint; if the selected waypoint is an
Index
airport, an additional choice is displayed. Turn the small FMS Knob to choose ‘MSL’ or
‘AGL’, and press the ENT Key to accept the altitude.
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Deleting an altitude constraint provided by the navigation database:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove VNV altitude?’ confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘OK’ and press the ENT Key.
Deleting an altitude constraint that has been manually entered:
Engine Indication System
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’
4) Select ‘REMOVE’ and press the ENT Key. The manually entered altitude is deleted (it is
replaced by a system calculated altitude, if available).
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
Flight Management
System
Reverting a manually entered altitude constraint back to the navigation database
value:
Audio Panel and CNS
confirmation window is displayed.
3) Press the CLR Key. A ‘Remove or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’
Hazard Avoidance
confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘REVERT’ and press the ENT Key. The altitude is changed to the navigation
database value.
Automatic Flight Control
System
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Modifying a system calculated altitude constraint:
1) Press the FPL Key on the MFD to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the desired waypoint altitude constraint.
Additional Features
3) Press the CLR Key. An ‘Edit or Revert to published VNV altitude of nnnnnFT?’
confirmation window is displayed.
4) Select ‘EDIT’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Edit the value using the FMS Knobs, and press the ENT Key.
Appendices
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD)
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Index
A Vertical Situation Display (VSD) can be shown on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. The
terrain, obstacles, vertical track vector, selected altitude, and active flight plan information (active
flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current VNAV profile,
TOD/BOD, and destination runway) can be displayed on the VSD, depending on the selected mode.
See the Hazard Avoidance section for information about winds aloft, obstacles, and relative terrain on
the VSD.
NOTE: Certain leg types (e.g. holds, heading legs) do not support VNAV PATH descents
because the lateral distance of those legs in unknown. The VSD will not show a VNAV profile
for any legs that have no vertical path guidance.
The VSD horizontal range is equal to the navigation map indicated range when the VSD is in Track
mode. When the VSD is in Flight Plan mode, the horizontal range is the lower of twice the navigation
map indicated range or the lowest range the displays all of the remaining active flight plan. The VSD
altitude range automatically changes when the navigation map range is changed to keep a constant
ratio of altitude range to horizontal range, until both minimum and maximum display limits have been
met. At ranges above the maximum, the altitude range remains constant at the maximum.
The aircraft symbol is displayed on the left side of the VSD. The position of the aircraft symbol on
the vertical scale is close to the top for a descent phase and in the middle for a cruise phase or if the
phase is unknown.
If two waypoints are close together, and their labels or constraint values overlap enough to obscure
any text, one waypoint label/constraint value is removed and the vertical dashed line for that waypoint
is displayed as darker gray. The priority for which waypoint remains displayed is: (1) the current TO
waypoint, (2) waypoint with an altitude constraint, and (3) waypoint closer to the aircraft.
Terrain/obstacles are available on the VSD, and will be shown if the aircraft altitude is low enough
for the terrain/obstacles to be in view (terrain will be shown in gray if the terrain is selected Off on the
Navigation Map). The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of
the terrain based upon the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the
terrain database resolution, within a predefined width along the active flight plan between the aircraft
present position and the end of the map range or active flight plan. The predefined width is
determined by the flight phase.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
FPL Waypoints
VSD Mode (FPL)
Selected Alt. (10000 FT)
Altitude Constraints
Current VNAV Profile
VSD Mode Buttons
Audio Panel and CNS
Destination Runway
Absolute Terrain
Obstacle
Vertical Situation
Display (VSD)
Flight Management
System
- FPL
- TRK
- Auto
Figure 5-73 Vertical Situation Display (VSD)
Displayed
Mode
AUTO FPL
AUTO TRK
(1) Active FPL available &
Terrain/obstacles along the
aircraft not within FPL swath, current track, vertical track
or (2) Active FPL not available vector, and selected altitude
Active FPL not available
Only shows message 'Flight Plan
Not Available'
FPL
NA
Appendices
TRK
Terrain/obstacles along the
current track, vertical track
vector, and selected altitude
Additional Features
Active FPL available
Terrain/obstacles along the active
flight plan route, vertical track
vector, selected altitude, and
active flight plan information
Automatic Flight Control
System
Track
Items available on VSD
Terrain/obstacles along the active
Available active FPL & aircraft flight plan route, vertical track
within FPL swath
vector, selected altitude, and
active flight plan information
Auto
Flight Plan
FPL Criteria
Hazard Avoidance
VSD Mode
Button
Active flight plan information consists of waypoints, associated altitude constraints, current
VNAV profile, TOD/BOD, and destination runway
Index
Table 5-13 VSD Modes
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Flight Phase
Width of Swath
Approach, Departure
0.6 nm
Terminal
2.0 nm
En Route, Oceanic
4.0 nm
Table 5-14 VSD Width of Swath
VSD MESSAGES
Under certain conditions, some messages may appear in conjunction with others.
Message
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Description
‘Loading...’
VSD is loading data due to a range change, full/
half switch, or first being selected for display.
‘Flight Plan Not Available’
Flight Plan mode is selected and there is not a
flight plan loaded with at least one leg.
‘Flight Plan mode unavailable because
aircraft off course and active leg over
200 NM’
All of the following are true:
- Flight Plan mode is selected
- The active leg is greater than 200 nm
- The aircraft is outside the swath
‘Aircraft Beyond Active Leg’
Flight Plan mode is selected and the aircraft’s
position, as projected on the flight plan, is past
the end of the active leg.
‘Active Leg Begins Beyond Aircraft
Position’
Flight Plan mode is selected and the aircraft’s
position, as projected on the flight plan, is prior
to the beginning of the active leg.
‘VSD Not Available’
At least one of the following is true:
- Valid terrain database not available
- GPS MSL altitude not available
- Current barometric altitude not available
- Neither current track nor current heading
available
- GPS position not available
- Map range setting is less than 1 nm
‘VSD Data Old. Deselect and Reselect
VSD’
VSD data has failed to update for 2 seconds or
more.
Appendices
Table 5-15 VSD System Messages
Enabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
Index
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
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4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable the Vertical Situation Display.
5) Press the VSD Mode Softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Or:
Flight Instruments
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
4) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
5) Press the Inset Softkey.
6) Press the VSD Mode Softkey to choose between Auto, FPL, or TRK.
Audio Panel and CNS
Disabling the Vertical Situation Display:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
Flight Management
System
3) Press the Inset Softkey
4) Press the Off Softkey.
Or:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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5.8 PROCEDURES
The system can access the whole range of instrument procedures available. Departures (DPs), arrivals
(STARs), and non-precision and precision approaches (APRs) are stored within the database and can be
loaded using any Procedures (PROC) Key.
The selected procedure for the departure or arrival airport is added to the active flight plan. No
waypoints are required to be in the active flight plan to load procedures; however, if the origin and
destination airport are already loaded, the procedure loading window defaults to the appropriate airport,
saving some time selecting the correct airport on the Procedure Loading Page.
The system adds terminal procedures to the flight plan based on leg types coded within that procedure
in the navigation database. If the terminal procedure in the flight plan contains an identifier like ‘6368ft’,
that indicates a leg that terminates when the specified altitude (6368 feet) has been exceeded. A heading
leg in the flight plan displays ‘hdg’ preceding the DTK (e.g. ‘hdg 008°’). A flight plan leg requiring the
pilot to manually initiate sequencing to the next leg displays ‘MANSEQ’ as the identifier.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Manually Sequenced Heading Leg
Heading Leg Terminating at the
Specified Altitude
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Figure 5-74 Procedure Leg Identifiers
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System Overview
Viewing available procedures at an airport:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page:
Or:
Or:
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting
to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
facility name/city, and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the procedure. The procedure is previewed on
the map.
the procedure. The cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The procedure
is previewed on the map.
Flight Management
System
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available procedures. Press the ENT Key to select
Audio Panel and CNS
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/
Engine Indication System
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Flight Instruments
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runway or transition. Press the ENT Key
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runway or transition. Press the ENT Key
Automatic Flight Control
System
to select the runway or transition. The cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box or the
‘Minimums’ Box. The procedure is previewed on the map.
Hazard Avoidance
to select the runway or transition. The cursor moves to the next box (if available). The
procedure is previewed on the map.
7) Press the Info 1 Softkey or the Info 2 Softkey to return to the ‘WPT - Airport
Information’ Page.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Loading a procedure into the active flight plan from the [Procedure] Information
Page:
1) From the ‘WPT - Airport Information’ Page:
Flight Instruments
Press the DP Softkey. The ‘WPT - Departure Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Or:
Engine Indication System
Press the STAR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Arrival Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting to
the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
Or:
Audio Panel and CNS
Press the APR Softkey. The ‘WPT - Approach Information’ Page is displayed, defaulting
to the airport displayed on the Airport information Page.
2) To select another airport, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor, enter an identifier/
facility name/city, and press the ENT Key.
3) Select a different procedure, if desired.
Flight Management
System
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the procedure. The procedure is previewed on
the map.
b) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available procedures. Press the ENT Key to
Hazard Avoidance
select the procedure. The cursor moves to the next box (runway or transition). The
procedure is previewed on the map.
c) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available runway or transition. Press the ENT
Key to select the runway or transition. The cursor moves to the next box (if
available). The procedure is previewed on the map.
select the transition. The cursor moves to the ‘Sequence’ Box or the ‘Minimums’
Box. The procedure is previewed on the map.
4) Press the MENU Key to display the [Procedure] Information Page Menu.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Load [procedure]’.
6) Press the ENT Key to load the procedure into the active flight plan.
DEPARTURES
A Departure Procedure (DP) is loaded at the departure airport in the flight plan. Only one departure
can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If a departure is loaded when another departure is already in
the active flight plan, the new departure replaces the previous departure. The route is defined by
selection of a departure, the transition waypoints, and a runway.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
d) Turn the small FMS Knob to view the available transitions. Press the ENT Key to
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System Overview
Departure Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Departure Preview
Flight Management
System
Loaded Procedures
Departure Choices
Figure 5-75 Departure Selection
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Loaded Departure
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Selected Departure
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-76 Departure Loading
Hazard Avoidance
Loading a departure into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Highlight ‘Select Departure’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Departure Loading Page/Window is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
5) Select a departure from the list and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
6) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the departure procedure.
Removing a departure procedure from the active flight plan:
Appendices
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Index
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Departure’.
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4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
System Overview
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
plan.
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the departure procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
Audio Panel and CNS
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the departure header in the active flight
Flight Instruments
Or:
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ARRIVALS
Flight Management
System
A Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available. Only one
arrival can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an arrival is loaded when another arrival is already in
the active flight plan, the new arrival replaces the previous arrival. The route is defined by selection of
an arrival, the transition waypoints, and a runway.
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Loaded Procedures
Arrival Preview
Arrival and Transition
Choices
Index
Figure 5-77 Arrival Selection
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Loaded Arrival
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Selected Arrival
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys
Figure 5-78 Arrival Loading
Hazard Avoidance
Loading an arrival into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Highlight ‘Select Arrival’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Arrival Loading Page/Window is displayed.
4) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
5) Select an arrival from the list and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
6) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
7) Select a runway (if required) and press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key to load the arrival procedure.
Removing an arrival from the active flight plan:
Appendices
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
Index
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Arrival’.
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3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the arrival procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal request, highlight
‘CANCEL’ and press the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the arrival header in the active flight plan.
Flight Instruments
Or:
APPROACHES
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
An Approach Procedure (APR) can be loaded at any airport that has one available, and provides
guidance for non-precision and precision approaches to airports with published instrument approach
procedures. Only one approach can be loaded at a time in a flight plan. If an approach is loaded when
another approach is already in the active flight plan, the new approach replaces the previous approach.
The route is defined by selection of an approach and the transition waypoints.
When selecting an approach, a “GPS” designation to the right of the procedure name indicates the
procedure can be flown using the GPS receiver. Some procedures do not have this designation,
meaning the GPS receiver can be used for supplemental navigation guidance only. If the GPS receiver
cannot be used for primary guidance, the appropriate navigation receiver must be used for the selected
approach (e.g., VOR or ILS). The final course segment of ILS approaches, for example, must be flown
by tuning the NAV receiver to the proper frequency and selecting that NAV receiver on the CDI.
The SBAS GPS allows for flying LNAV, LNAV+V, LNAV/VNAV, LP, LP+V, and LPV approach service
levels according to the published chart. LNAV+V is an LNAV with advisory vertical guidance provided
for assistance in maintaining a constant vertical glidepath similar to an ILS glideslope on approach.
This guidance is displayed on the system PFD in the same location as the ILS glideslope using a
magenta diamond. In all cases where LNAV+V is indicated by the system during an approach, LNAV
minima are used. The active approach service level is annunciated on the HSI as shown in the
following table:
Flight Management
System
NOTE: If certain GPS parameters (SBAS, RAIM, etc.) are not available, some published
approach procedures for the desired airport may not be displayed in the list of available
approaches.
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
HSI Annunciation
Flight Instruments
LNAV
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
LNAV+V
Description
Example on HSI
RNAV GPS approach using published
LNAV minima
RNAV GPS approach using published
LNAV minima. Advisory vertical guidance
is provided
L/VNAV
(available only if
SBAS available)
RNAV GPS approach using published
LNAV/VNAV minima (downgrades to
LNAV if SBAS unavailable)
LP
(available only if
SBAS available)
RNAV GPS approach using published LP
minima (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS
unavailable)
LP+V
(available only if
SBAS available)
RNAV GPS approach using published LP
minima
Advisory vertical guidance is provided
(downgrades to LNAV if SBAS
unavailable)
LPV
(available only if
SBAS available)
RNAV GPS approach using published LPV
minima (downgrades to LNAV if SBAS
unavailable)
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Table 5-16 Approach Service Levels
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System Overview
Destination Airport
Available Procedure Actions
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Approach Preview
Approach Choices
Flight Management
System
Loaded Procedures
Figure 5-79 Approach Selection
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Loaded Approach
Procedure Loading Page Selection Softkeys LOAD or ACTIVATE? Annunciation
Figure 5-80 Approach Loading
Loading an approach into the active flight plan using the PROC Key:
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Selected Approach
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed.
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The Approach Loading Page/
Automatic Flight Control
System
Window is displayed.
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
b) Select an approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
Or:
a) If necessary, push the FMS Knob to exit the approach list, and use the large FMS
Knob to move the cursor to the Approach Channel Field.
b) Use the FMS Knob to enter the approach channel number, and press the ENT Key
Appendices
to accept the approach channel number. The airport and approach are selected.
4) Select a transition (if required) and press the ENT Key.
Index
5) Minimums
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press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the
ENT Key.
the small FMS Knob to select the temperature, and press the ENT Key
Or:
Flight Instruments
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. Turn
System Overview
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the
approach procedure.
Loading an approach into the active flight plan from the Nearest Airport Page:
Flight Management
System
NOTE: If there is no arrival procedure in the active flight plan, loading an approach after a
destination airport has already been entered will result in a duplicate destination airport
waypoint being added to the end of the enroute segment.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course, the message ‘NOT
APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the approach, but the HSI must
to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of the approach.
Engine Indication System
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the
1) Select the ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page.
airport. The airport is previewed on the map.
3) Press the APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Select Approach Window’,
Automatic Flight Control
System
and press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the FMS Knob, then turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired nearest
4) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired approach.
5) Press the LD APR Softkey; or press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Load Approach’, and
Additional Features
press the ENT Key. The ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page is displayed with the
‘Transition’ Field highlighted.
6) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired transition, and press the ENT Key.
7) Minimums
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the
ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. Turn
the small FMS Knob to select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
Engine Indication System
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key. ‘Load?’ is highlighted.
8) Press the ENT Key with ‘Load?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn the
Audio Panel and CNS
large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate’ and press the ENT Key to load and activate the
approach procedure. The system continues navigating the current flight plan until the
approach is activated. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach
course, the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to
the approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course
of the approach.
Removing an approach from the active flight plan:
Flight Management
System
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the MENU Key, and highlight ‘Remove Approach’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
Hazard Avoidance
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key.
Or:
Automatic Flight Control
System
1) Press the FPL Key to display the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page (MFD) or the ‘Flight Plan’
Window (PFD).
2) Press the FMS Knob, and turn to highlight the approach header in the active flight
plan.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
3) Press the CLR Key. A confirmation window is displayed listing the approach procedure.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key. To cancel the removal, highlight ‘CANCEL’
and press the ENT Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
ACTIVATING AN APPROACH
Whenever an approach is selected, the choice to either “Load” or “Load and Activate” is given
(“Load and Activate” is only available for the active flight plan). “Loading” adds the approach to the
end of the flight plan without immediately using it for navigation guidance. This allows continued
navigation via the intermediate waypoints in the original flight plan, but keeps the procedure
available for quick activation when needed. “Activating” also adds the procedure to the end of the
flight plan but immediately begins to provide guidance to the first waypoint in the approach.
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Flight Instruments
Activating a previously loaded approach:
System Overview
In many cases, it may be easiest to “load” the full approach while still some distance away, enroute
to the destination airport. Later, if vectored to final, use the steps below to select ‘Activate Vector-ToFinal’ — which makes the inbound course to the FAF waypoint active.
1) Press the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed with ‘Activate Approach’
highlighted.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the approach.
Engine Indication System
Activating a previously loaded approach with vectors to final:
1) Press the PROC Key to display the ‘Procedures‘ Window.
2) Highlight ‘Activate Vector-to-Final’ and press the ENT Key.
1) From the ‘PROC - Approach Loading’ Page, press the MENU Key on the MFD. The page
menu is displayed with ‘Load & Activate Approach’ highlighted.
Audio Panel and CNS
Loading and activating an approach using the MENU Key:
2) Press the ENT Key. When GPS is not approved for the selected final approach course,
MISSED APPROACH
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
In this missed approach procedure, the altitude immediately following the MAP (in this case
‘6600ft’) is not part of the published procedure. It is simply a Course to Altitude (CA) leg which
guides the aircraft along the runway centerline until the altitude required to safely make the first
turn toward the MAHP is exceeded. This altitude is provided by the navigation database, and may be
below, equal to, or above the published minimums for this approach. In this case, if the aircraft
altitude is below the specified altitude (6,600 feet) after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to
provide a course on runway heading until an altitude of 6,600 feet is reached. After reaching 6,600
feet, a direct-to is established to the published MAHP (in this case ADANE). If the aircraft altitude is
above the specified altitude after crossing the MAP, a direct-to is established to the published fix
(ADANE) to begin the missed approach procedure.
Flight Management
System
the message ‘NOT APPROVED FOR GPS’ is displayed. GPS provides guidance to the
approach, but the HSI must to be switched to a NAV receiver to fly the final course of
the approach.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Figure 5-83 Course to Altitude
Figure 5-81 Course to Altitude
In some missed approach procedures this Course to Altitude leg may be part of the published
procedure. For example, a procedure may dictate a climb to 5,500 feet, then turn left and proceed to
the Missed Approach Hold Point (MAHP). In this case, the altitude would appear in the list of
waypoints as ‘5500ft’. Again, if the aircraft altitude is lower than the prescribed altitude, a direct-to is
established on a Course to Altitude leg when the missed approach procedure is activated.
Activating a missed approach in the active flight plan:
1) Press the PROC Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Activate Missed Approach’.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Course to Altitude Leg
3) Press the ENT Key. The aircraft automatically sequences to the MAHP.
Or:
Additional Features
Fly past the MAP, and press the SUSP Softkey on the PFD.
Or:
Press the Go-Around Button.
Index
Appendices
VISUAL APPROACH
The system provides a visual approach feature. Unlike instrument approaches, visual approaches
are not defined in the navigation database and do not follow a precise prescribed path. Instead, the
system calculates the lateral and vertical path for the chosen runway and creates visual approach
waypoints based on runway position and course as specified in the navigation database.
Each visual approach will have two transitions, the straight in transition (STRGHT) and the
Vectors-to-Final transition (VECTORS). The visual approach waypoints (fixes) consist of the initial
fix (STRGHT), the final approach fix (FINAL), and the missed approach point (RWxx). A 3 degree
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
glide path is calculated from the missed approach point up to each waypoint along the extended
straight-in path.
For visual approaches, the pilot is responsible for avoiding terrain, obstacles and traffic. Therefore,
when a visual approach is selected, the message “Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual
approaches” is displayed on the approach selection page and must be acknowledged before the
visual approach is loaded into the flight plan.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 5-82 Loading Visual Approach
Additional Features
Loading and Activating a visual approach using the PROC Key:
1) Select the PROC Key. The ‘Procedures’ Window is displayed
2) Highlight ‘Select Approach’, and press the ENT Key. The ‘Approach Loading’ Page is
displayed.
Appendices
3) Select the airport and approach:
a) Use the FMS Knob to select an airport, if necessary, and press the ENT Key.
b) Select a visual approach from the list and press the ENT Key.
4) Select a transition and press the ENT Key.
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5) Minimums
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289
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
a) To set ‘Minimums’, turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘BARO’ or ‘TEMP COMP’, and
press the ENT Key. Turn the small FMS Knob to select the altitude, and press the
ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
b) If ‘TEMP COMP’ was selected, the cursor moves to the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. Turn
the small FMS Knob to select the temperature, and press the ENT Key.
Or:
6) Press the ENT Key with ‘LOAD?’ highlighted to load the approach procedure; or turn
the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘ACTIVATE’ and press the ENT Key to load and
activate the approach procedure.
7) The message ‘Obstacle clearance is not provided for visual approaches’ is displayed.
Press ENT to continue.
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED ALTITUDE
If desired, the system can compensate the loaded approach altitudes based on a pilot-supplied
temperature at the destination. For example, if the pilot enters a destination temperature of -40º C,
the system increases the approach altitudes accordingly. A temperature compensated altitude is
displayed in white text with a snowflake icon next to it.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
To skip setting minimums, press the ENT Key.
Selected
Temperature
Automatic Flight Control
System
FAF Altitude
Compensated
Altitude
Appendices
Additional Features
Temperature
Compensation
Selected
Index
Figure 5-83 Temperature Compensation
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System Overview
Uncompensated
Altitudes
Flight Instruments
Compensated
Altitudes
Engine Indication System
Figure 5-84 Temperature Compensation in the Active Flight Plan
1) From the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, press the MENU Key on the MFD. The ‘Page
Menu’ Window is displayed.
Audio Panel and CNS
Manually activating temperature compensated altitude:
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
Flight Management
System
3) Press the ENT Key. The ‘Temperature Compensation’ Window is displayed.
4) Use the small FMS Knob to select the ‘TEMP At’ [airport] Field. The compensated
altitude is computed as the temperature is selected.
6) Press the ENT Key. The compensated altitudes for the approach are shown in the flight
Automatic Flight Control
System
5) Press the ENT Key. ‘Activate Compensation?’ is highlighted.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: The temperature at the destination can be entered in the Temperature Compensation
Window on the MFD, or in the References Window on the PFD. There is only one
compensation temperature for the system, therefore, changing the temperature will affect
both the loaded approach altitudes and the minimums. Refer to the Flight Instruments
section for information about applying temperature compensation to the MDA/DH.
plan.
Additional Features
Cancelling temperature compensated altitude:
1) From the Active Flight Plan Page, press the MENU Key. The ‘Page Menu’ Window is
displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Temperature Compensation’.
Appendices
3) Press the ENT Key. The Temperature Compensation Window is displayed.
4) Press the ENT Key. ‘Cancel Compensation?’ is highlighted.
5) Press the ENT Key. The temperature compensated altitude at the FAF is cancelled.
Index
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System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Activating/cancelling temperature compensation for the loaded approach altitudes
does not select/deselect temperature compensated minimums (MDA/DH), nor does selecting/
deselecting temperature compensated minimums activate/cancel temperature compensated
approach altitudes.
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The ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page is available to manage actual weight, estimated weight, and fuel
quanity.
System Overview
5.9 WEIGHT PLANNING
Flight Instruments
A/C Payload Calculator
Fuel Weight Calculator
- Zero Fuel Weight Calculation
- Fuel on Board Entry
- Aircraft Weight Calculation
- Est. Landing Weght Calculation
- Est. Landing Fuel Calculation
- Fuel Reserve Entry
- Excess Fuel Calculation
Engine Indication System
Basic Empty Weight Entry Pilot and Stores Weight Entry BOW Calculation Passenger(s) Weight Entry Cargo Weight Entry Zero Fuel Weight Calculation -
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Empty Weight Softkey
Hazard Avoidance
(selects Basic Empty Weight)
Figure 5-85 Weight Planning Page
•
Est Landing Weight = Zero Fuel Weight + Estimated Landing Fuel Weight
•
Est Landing Fuel = Fuel on Board weight - (fuel flow x ETE)
•
Excess Fuel = Estimated Landing Fuel Weight - Fuel Reserves Weight
Est Landing Weight
•
Est Landing Fuel
•
Excess Fuel
Appendices
•
Additional Features
If the aircraft is on the ground or a destination waypoint has not been entered, the following fields
display invalid values consisting of six dashes. Fuel calculations can be completed once airborne and the
destination waypoint has been entered:
Automatic Flight Control
System
When the aircraft is in the air and a destination waypoint has been entered, the fuel calculations can
be completed.
WEIGHT WARNING CONDITIONS
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Index
If the zero fuel weight is greater than the maximum allowable zero fuel weight, then the zero fuel
weight is displayed in amber.
If the aircraft weight is greater than the maximum allowable takeoff weight, then the aircraft weight
is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing weight is greater than the maximum allowable landing weight, then the
estimated landing weight is displayed in amber.
If the estimated landing fuel weight is positive, but less than or equal to the fuel reserves weight, the
following values are displayed in amber:
•
Est Landing Fuel
•
Excess Fuel
If the estimated landing fuel weight is zero or negative, then the following values are displayed in
red:
•
Estimated fuel at landing weight
•
Excess fuel weight
Entering basic empty weight:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the Config Softkey; or press the MENU
Key, highlight ‘Set Basic Empty Weight’, and press the ENT Key to select the ‘Basic
Empty Weight’ Field.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the basic empty weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
Hazard Avoidance
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering pilot and stores weight:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
Automatic Flight Control
System
highlight the ‘Pilot & Stores’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the pilot and stores weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Additional Features
Entering the number of passengers:
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
highlight the ‘Passengers #’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the number of passengers.
Appendices
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
Index
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
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1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
System Overview
Entering the average passenger weight:
highlight the passenger weight (‘at’) field.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the average passenger weight.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
1) From the ‘Aux - Weight Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and
highlight the ‘Cargo’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the cargo weight.
Engine Indication System
Entering the cargo weight:
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering a fuel on board weight:
Flight Management
System
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel on Board’ Field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel on board.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
Hazard Avoidance
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Entering fuel reserves weight:
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor and highlight the ‘Fuel Reserves’ Field.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to enter the fuel reserves amount.
3) Press the ENT Key to confirm the entry.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the flashing cursor.
Synchronizing the fuel on board with the actual measured fuel on board:
Additional Features
Press the FOB Sync Softkey on the ‘Aux - Weight and Balance’ Page; or press the
MENU and highlight ‘Synchronize Fuel on Board’, and press the ENT Key. The actual
measured fuel on board is displayed in the ‘Fuel On Board’ Field.
Appendices
Index
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295
5.10 TRIP PLANNING
The system allows the pilot to view trip planning information, fuel information, and other information
for a specified flight plan or flight plan leg based on automatic data, or based on manually entered data.
TRIP PLANNING
All of the input of data needed for calculation and viewing of the statistics is done on the Trip
Planning Page located in the Aux Page Group.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Audio Panel and CNS
- FPL Number/Cumulative Legs (CUM or REM) or Leg Number (NN)
- Waypoints Defining Selected Flight Plan/Flight Plan Leg
Trip Planning Page Mode
Flight Management
System
Trip Input Data (sensor/pilot)
- Departure Time (local)
- Ground Speed
- Fuel Flow
- Fuel On Board Aircraft
- Calibrated Airspeed
- Indicated Altitude
- Barometric Pressure
- Total Air Temperature
Trip Statistics
Desired Track Distance Est. Time Enroute Est. Time of Arrival Enroute Safe Altitude Sunrise Time (local) Sunset Time (local) -
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
- Automatic/Manual
Preview of Selected
Flight Plan/
Flight Plan Leg
Other Statistics
- Density Altitude
- True Airspeed (TAS)
Fuel Statistics
Efficiency Total Endurance Remaining Fuel Remaining Endurance Fuel Required Total Range -
Softkeys
- Automatic/Manual Page Mode
- Flight Plan/Waypoint Mode
Figure 5-86 Trip Planning Page
The trip planning inputs are based on sensor inputs (automatic page mode) or on pilot inputs
(manual page mode). Some additional explanation of the sources for some of the inputs is as follows:
•
Departure Time - This defaults to the current time in automatic page mode. The computations are
from the aircraft present position, so the aircraft is always just departing.
•
Calibrated Airspeed - The primary source is from the air data system, and the secondary source of
information is GPS ground speed.
•
Indicated Altitude - The primary source is the barometric altitude, and the secondary source of
information is GPS altitude.
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•
Estimated time enroute (ETE) - ETE is shown as hours:minutes until less than an hour, then it is
shown as minutes:seconds.
•
Estimated time of arrival (ETA) - ETA is shown as hours:minutes and is the local time at the
destination.
•
If a flight plan other than the active flight plan is selected it shows the ETA by adding to the
departure time all of the ETEs of the legs up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight
plan is selected, then the ETA is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
•
If the active flight plan is selected the ETA reflects the current position of the aircraft and the
current leg being flown. The ETA is calculated by adding to the current time the ETEs of the
current leg up to and including the selected leg. If the entire flight plan is selected, then the ETA
is calculated as if the last leg of the flight plan was selected.
Enroute safe altitude (ESA) - The ESA is shown as nnnnnFT
•
Destination sunrise and sunset times (SUNRISE, SUNSET) - These times are shown as
hours:minutes of the time at the destination.
FUEL STATISTICS
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297
Index
The fuel statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip
planning inputs. Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active
flight plan has already been flown.
Appendices
•
Additional Features
If in waypoint mode then the ETA is the ETE added to the departure time.
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
Hazard Avoidance
Distance - The distance is shown in tenths of units up to 99.9, and in whole units up to 9999.
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Desired Track - Desired Track is shown as nnn° and is the desired track between the selected
waypoints. It is dashed unless only a single leg is selected.
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
The trip statistics are calculated based on the selected starting and ending waypoints and the trip
planning inputs.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and the entire flight plan (CUM)
selected, the waypoints are the starting and ending waypoints of the selected flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with a stored flight plan selected (NN), and a specific leg (NN) selected,
the waypoints are the endpoints of the selected leg.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and the remaining flight plan
(REM) selected, the ‘from’ waypoint is the present position of the aircraft and the ‘to’ waypoint is the
endpoint of the active flight plan.
In flight plan mode (FPL) with the active flight plan selected (00), and a specific leg (NN) selected,
the ‘from’ waypoint is the current aircraft position and the ‘to’ waypoint is the endpoint of the
selected leg.
In waypoint (WPTs) mode these are manually selected waypoints (if there is an active flight plan,
these default to the endpoints of the active leg).
Some of the calculated trip statistics are dashed when the selected leg of the active flight plan has
already been flown.
System Overview
TRIP STATISTICS
•
Fuel efficiency (Efficiency) - This value is calculated by dividing the current ground speed by the
current fuel flow.
•
Time of fuel endurance (Total Endurance) - This time is shown as hours:minutes. This value is
obtained by dividing the amount of fuel on board by the current fuel flow.
•
Fuel on board upon reaching end of selected leg (Remaining Fuel) - This value is calculated by
taking the amount of fuel onboard and subtracting the fuel required to reach the end of the
selected leg.
•
Fuel endurance remaining at end of selected leg (Remaining Endurance) - This value is calculated
by taking the time of fuel endurance and subtracting the estimated time enroute to the end of the
selected leg.
•
Fuel required for trip (Fuel Required) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time to go by
the fuel flow.
•
Total range at entered fuel flow (Total Range) - This value is calculated by multiplying the time of
fuel endurance by the ground speed.
OTHER STATISTICS
These statistics are calculated based on the system sensor inputs or the manual trip planning
inputs.
•
Density Altitude
•
True Airspeed
The pilot may select Automatic or Manual page mode, and flight plan (FPL) or waypoint (WPTs)
mode. In automatic page mode, only the FPL, LEG, or waypoint IDs are editable (based on FPL/
WPTs selection). In manual page mode, the other eight trip input data fields must be entered by the
pilot, in addition to flight plan and leg selection.
Selected Leg(s)
Selected Flight Plan NN 00 is Active FPL
01-99 are Stored FPLs
Starting and Ending Waypoint of
Selected Flight Plan Segment
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Stored Flight Plan
- CUM: Beginning to End of FPL
- NN: Beginning to End of Selected Leg
Active Flight Plan
- REM: Pres. Pos. to End of FPL
- NN: Pres. Pos. to End of Selected Leg
Figure 5-87 Trip Planning Page - Flight Plan Mode
Selected Flight Plan
Selected Leg(s)
Appendices
Not Available
Not Available
Selected Starting and Ending Waypoints
Index
Figure 5-88 Trip Planning Page - Waypoint Mode
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FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the Auto Softkey or the Manual Softkey; or
press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Auto Mode’ or ‘Manual Mode’, and press the ENT Key.
From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the FPL Softkey or the WPTs Softkey; or
press the MENU Key, highlight ‘Flight Plan Mode’ or ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the
ENT Key.
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the
‘FPL’ Field.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘CUM’ or ‘REM’. The statistics for each leg can be
viewed by turning the small FMS Knob to select the desired leg. The Trip Planning Map
also displays the selected data.
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the WPTs Softkey; or press the MENU Key,
highlight ‘Waypoints Mode’, and press the ENT Key. The cursor is positioned in the
waypoint field directly below the FPL Field.
WPT to Present Position’ if that is what is desired), and press the ENT Key. The cursor
moves to the second waypoint field.
3) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the desired waypoint, and press the ENT Key. The
Entering manual data for trip statistics calculations:
1) From the ‘Aux - Trip Planning’ Page, press the Manual Softkey or select ‘Manual Mode’
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to move the cursor onto the ‘Departure Time’ Field and enter the
desired value. Press the ENT Key. The statistics are calculated using the new value and
the cursor moves to the next entry field. Repeat until all desired values have been
entered.
Additional Features
from the Page Menu, and press the ENT Key. The cursor may now be positioned in any
field in the top right two boxes.
Automatic Flight Control
System
statistics for the selected leg are displayed.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Turn the FMS Knobs to select the desired waypoint (or select from the Page Menu ‘Set
Flight Management
System
Selecting waypoints for waypoint mode:
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired flight plan number.
Engine Indication System
Selecting a flight plan and leg for trip statistics:
Flight Instruments
Selecting flight plan or waypoint mode:
System Overview
Selecting automatic or manual page mode:
Appendices
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5.11 ABNORMAL OPERATION
This section discusses the Dead Reckoning mode of operation and the subsequent indications.
NOTE: Dead Reckoning Mode only functions in Enroute (ENR) or Oceanic (OCN) phase of
flight. In all other phases, an invalid GPS solution produces a “NO GPS POSITION”
annunciation on the map and the system stops using GPS.
While in Enroute or Oceanic phase of flight, if the system detects an invalid GPS solution or is unable
to calculate a GPS position, the system automatically reverts to Dead Reckoning (DR) Mode. In DR
Mode, the system uses its last-known position combined with continuously updated airspeed and
heading data (when available) to calculate and display the aircraft’s current estimated position.
It is important to note that estimated navigation data supplied by the system in DR Mode may become
increasingly unreliable and must not be used as a sole means of navigation. If while in DR Mode
airspeed and/or heading data is also lost or not available, the DR function may not be capable of
accurately tracking estimated position and, consequently, the system may display a path that is different
than the actual movement of the aircraft. Estimated position information displayed by the system
through DR while there is no heading and/or airspeed data available should not be used for navigation.
DR Mode is inherently less accurate than the standard GPS/SBAS Mode due to the lack of satellite
measurements needed to determine a position. Changes in wind speed and/or wind direction compound
the relative inaccuracy of DR Mode. Because of this degraded accuracy, other navigation equipment must
be relied upon for position awareness until GPS-derived position data is restored.
DR Mode is indicated on the system by the appearance of the letters ‘DR’ superimposed in amber over
the ‘own aircraft’ symbol. In addition, ‘DR’ is prominently displayed in amber on the HSI slightly below
and to the left of the aircraft symbol on the CDI. The CDI deviation bar remains, but is removed from
the display after 20 minutes in DR Mode. The autopilot will remain coupled in DR mode as long as the
deviation info is available (20 min.) Furthermore, a ‘GPS NAV LOST’ alert message appears on the PFD.
Normal navigation using GPS/SBAS source data resumes automatically once a valid GPS solution is
restored.
As a result of operating in DR Mode, all GPS-derived data is computed based upon an estimated
position and is displayed as amber text on the display to denote degraded navigation source information
as shown in the following figure. If the VSD Inset is selected on the MFD, ‘VSD Not Available’ will be
displayed.
Also, while the system is in DR Mode, some terrain functions are not available. Additionally, the
accuracy of all nearest information (airports, airspaces, and waypoints) is questionable. Finally, airspace
alerts continue to function, but with degraded accuracy.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
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System Overview
Distance &
Bearing
Flight Instruments
Current
Track
Indicator
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Audio Panel and CNS
GPS Navigation
Lost Message
Engine Indication System
Course Deviation
Indicator
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Nav Data Bar
All data except
Active Leg, TAS,
and DTK are in
amber
Automatic Flight Control
System
Dead Reckoning
Annunciation
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 5-89 Dead Reckoning Mode - GPS Derived Data Shown in Amber
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Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
BLANK PAGE
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System Overview
SECTION 6 HAZARD AVOIDANCE
6.1 OVERVIEW
•
GSR 56 Garmin Connext Weather (Optional)
•
Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather (Optional)
•
L-3 Stormscope® WX-500 Lightning Detection System (Optional)
•
GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar (optional)
Audio Panel and CNS
GDL 69/69A or 69/69A SXM SiriusXM Weather (Subscription Optional)
Engine Indication System
•
Terrain Avoidance
Terrain Proximity
•
Terrain SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option)
•
Terrain Awareness and Warning System Class B (TAWS-B) (Optional)
Flight Management
System
•
Traffic
Traffic Information Service (TIS)
•
GTS 800 Traffic Advisory System (TAS) (Optional)
•
GTS 825 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (Optional)
•
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Traffic (Optional)
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Instruments
Hazard avoidance features available for the G1000 NXi are designed to aid situational awareness and
provide advisory information with regard to potential hazards to flight safety associated with weather,
terrain, and air traffic.
Weather
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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6.2 DATA LINK WEATHER
ACTIVATING DATA LINK WEATHER SERVICES
ACTIVATING THE SIRIUSXM WEATHER SERVICE
NOTE: Not all weather products offered by SiriusXM are supported for display on this
system. This pilot’s guide only discusses supported weather products.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Audio Panel and CNS
Before SiriusXM Weather can be used, the service must be activated by providing SiriusXM’s
customer service the coded ID(s) unique to the installed data link receiver. The Data Radio ID
must be provided to activate the weather service. A separate Audio Radio ID, if present, enables the
receiver to provide SiriusXM Radio entertainment. To view this information, refer to the following
locations:
•
The Aux - XM Information Page on the MFD
•
The SiriusXM Activation Instructions included with the Data Link Receiver
•
The label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
Flight Management
System
SiriusXM uses the coded IDs to send an activation signal that allows the system to display
weather data and/or provide audio entertainment programming through the data link receiver.
Establishing an account for SiriusXM services:
1) Select the XM Radio Page in the Auxiliary Page Group.
Hazard Avoidance
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Note the Data Radio ID (for SiriusXM Weather data) and/or the Audio Radio ID (for
SiriusXM Satellite Radio).
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
4) Contact SiriusXM customer service through the phone number listed on its website,
www.siriusxm.com.
5) Provide SiriusXM customer service the Data Radio ID and/or Audio Radio ID, in addition
to payment information, and the desired weather product subscription package.
After SiriusXM has been contacted, it may take approximately 15 minutes until the activation occurs.
Verifying the SiriusXM Weather service activation:
1) Once a SiriusXM Weather account has been established, select the XM Radio Page in
the Auxiliary Page Group.
Appendices
2) If necessary, press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) View the list of supported Weather Products. A white empty box appears next to an
Index
unavailable weather product; a green filled box appears next to an available weather
product. During activation, it may take several minutes for weather products in the
selected subscription package to become available.
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System Overview
Audio Radio ID
(for SiriusXM Satellite
Radio)
Data Radio ID
(for SiriusXM
Weather)
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Weather Products
(Available products
for Service Class show
green checks)
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Select to display XM
Information Page
Figure 6-1 ‘Aux — XM Information’ Page
ACTIVATING GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Garmin Connext weather requires an active Iridium satellite network account and an active
subscription to the Garmin Connext Weather service.
A subscriber account must be established for the Iridium transceiver prior to using the Iridium
Satellite System for telephone services. Before setting up an Iridium account, obtain the serial
number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by selecting the Aux - System Status
Page. Then Contact Garmin through the phone number listed on its website, www.flygarmin.com.
Additional Features
Appendices
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Engine Indication System
System ID Number
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Iridium Transceiver
Serial Number
Figure 6-2 Identification Needed for Iridium Registration
When an account is established, Garmin provides an Access Code which must be entered on the
system in order to complete the registration process.
Registering the system to receive Garmin Connext Weather:
1) With the aircraft outside and having a clear view of the sky, turn the large FMS Knob
on the MFD to select the Map page group.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page. If
Automatic Flight Control
System
another data link weather source such as ‘XM’ or ‘FIS-B’ is displayed in the page title, it
will be necessary to change the data link weather source to CNXT before continuing.
Refer to ‘Viewing the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page’ procedure to change the data
link source to prior to registration.
3) If the system displays the Connext Registration Window, proceed to step 6. Otherwise,
press the MENU Key. The page menu window is now displayed.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Register With Connext’ in the menu list.
Additional Features
5) Press the ENT Key. The Connext Registration Window appears as shown in the figure
below.
6) Enter the access code provided by Garmin in the ‘Access Code’ field.
7) Press the ENT Key. ‘Register’ is highlighted as in the figure below.
Appendices
8) Press the ENT Key. The system contacts Garmin through the Iridium network. System
registration is complete when the Current Registration Window displays the correct
information for the Airframe, Tail Number, Airframe Serial Number, and Iridium Serial
Number.
Index
9) When finished, push the FMS Knob to remove the Connext Registration Window.
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Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Enabling/disabling the weather product age for PFD Maps:
Flight Instruments
Unlike real-time weather information collected directly from weather sensors on-board an aircraft,
such as an airborne weather radar or a lightning detection system, data link weather by contrast relies
on service providers to collect, process, and transmit weather information to the aircraft. This
information can come from a variety of sources such as government agencies. Due to the time it takes
to collect, process, and distribute data link weather information, it is imperative for pilots to
understand that data link weather information is not real-time information and may not accurately
depict the current conditions.
For each data link weather product which can be displayed as a map overlay, such as radar
precipitation, the system can also show a weather product age. This age represents the elapsed time, in
minutes, since the weather service provider compiled the weather product and the current time. It
does not represent the age of the information contained within the weather product itself. For
example, a single mosaic of radar precipitation is comprised data from multiple radar sites providing
data at differing scan rates or intervals. The weather service provider periodically compiles this data to
create a single composite image, and assigns one time to this image which becomes the basis of the
product age. The service provider then makes this weather product available for data link transmission
at the next scheduled update time. The actual age of the weather data contained within the mosaic is
therefore older than its weather product age and should never be considered current.
SiriusXM and FIS-B weather products are broadcast automatically on a repeating cycle without pilot
intervention.
Each data link weather product age has an expiration time. The weather product age is shown in
white if it is less than half of this expiration time, otherwise it is shown in amber until reaching its
expiration time. After a weather product has expired, the system removes the expired weather product
from the displays, and shows white dashes instead of the age. If the data link receiver has not yet
received a weather product ‘N/A’ appears instead of the age to show the product is currently not
available for display. This may occur, for example, after powering on the system but before the data
link receiver has received a complete weather data transmission. It could also indicate a possible
outage of a weather product.
The weather product age is shown automatically for weather products displayed on MFD maps. For
PFD maps, the pilot can manually enable/disable the age information.
The following tables show the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates
for SiriusXM Weather and FIS-B Weather, respectively. The broadcast rate represents the interval at
which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated
weather product information. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is
updated or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. The service provider and its weather data
suppliers define and control the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
System Overview
WEATHER PRODUCT AGE
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
3) Press the WX LGND to show/remove the weather product age information for PFD
maps.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
4) Press the Back Softkey twice to return to the top-level softkeys.
The following tables show the weather product symbols, the expiration times and the broadcast rates
for SiriusXM Weather and FIS-B Weather, respectively. The broadcast rate represents the interval at
which the SiriusXM Weather service transmits new signals that may or may not contain updated
weather product information. It does not represent the rate at which the weather information is
updated or when the Data Link Receiver receives new data. The service provider and its weather data
suppliers define and control the data update intervals, which are subject to change.
SiriusXM Weather Product
Symbol
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD
30
5 (U.S.)
10 (Canada)
Cloud Top (CLD TOP)
60
15 (69/69A)
30 (69/69A SXM)
Echo Top (ECHO TOP)
30
7.5
SiriusXM Lightning (LTNG)
30
5
Cell Movement
30
1.25
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
12
METARs
90
12
City Forecast
90
12
Surface Analysis
60
12
Freezing Levels
120
12
Winds Aloft
90
12
County Warnings
60
5
Cyclone Warnings
60
12
Icing Potential (CIP and SLD)
90
22
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
12
Air Report(AIREP)
90
12
Turbulence
180
12
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
Radar Coverage Not Available
No product image
30
5
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
No product image
60
12
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
No product image
60
12
Flight Instruments
Symbol
Table 6-1 SiriusXM Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
Symbol
Broadcast Rate
(Minutes)
NEXRAD Composite (US)
30
15
NEXRAD Composite (Regional)
30
2.5
METARs
90
5
Pilot Weather Report (PIREP)
90
10
Winds Aloft
90
10
SIGMETs/AIRMETs
60
5
30
2.5
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
no product image
60
10
Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR
no product image
Hazard Avoidance
no product image
Flight Management
System
No Radar Coverage
Audio Panel and CNS
Expiration Time
(Minutes)
10
Table 6-2 FIS-B Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
Expiration
Time
(Minutes)
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
Appendices
U.S.: 3*
Radar
Precipitation
30
Additional Features
Symbol
Automatic Flight Control
System
The following table shows the Garmin Connext Weather product symbols, the expiration times and
the refresh rates. The refresh rate represents the interval at which Garmin Connext weather service
makes available the most current known weather data. It does not necessarily represent the rate at
which the service receives new data from various weather sources. The pilot chooses how often to
contact the Garmin Connext weather service in order to retrieve weather data through the Connext
Data Request.
Garmin
Connext
Weather
Product
Engine Indication System
FIS-B Weather Product
System Overview
SiriusXM Weather Product
Canada: 3*†
Europe: 15
Australia: 15^
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Garmin
Connext
Weather
Product
Infrared
Satellite
60
30
Datalink
Lightning
30
Continuous
SIGMETs/
AIRMETs
60
Continuous
METARs
90
Continuous
Winds Aloft
90
Continuous
Pilot
Weather
Report
(PIREPs)
90
Continuous
Temporary
Flight
Restrictions
(TFRs)
no product
image
60
Continuous
Terminal
Aerodrome
Reports
TAFs)
no product
image
60
Continuous
* The composite precipitation image is updated every 3
minutes, but individual radar sites may take between 3 and
10 minutes to provide new data.
† Canadian radar precipitation data provided by Environment
Canada.
^ Australian radar precipitation data provided by the
Australian Bureau of Meteorology.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Refresh Rate
(Minutes)
Symbol
Table 6-3 Garmin Connext Weather Product Symbols and Data Timing
DISPLAYING DATA LINK WEATHER PRODUCTS
WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
The ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM/CNXT)’ Page is the principal map page for viewing data link
weather information. This page provides the capability for displaying the most data link weather
products of any map on the system. The ‘Map - Weather Data Link’ Page also provides system-wide
controls for selecting the data link weather source, if more than one source has been installed. The
page title indicates the selected data link weather source (e.g., “XM”, “CNXT”, “FIS-B”).
Index
Appendices
Expiration
Time
(Minutes)
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-3 Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Viewing the Weather Data Link Page and changing the data link weather source, if
applicable:
Flight Management
System
NEXRAD Weather
Product Selected for
Display
Hazard Avoidance
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT) Page. The
currently selected data link weather source appears in the page title.
Automatic Flight Control
System
3) If the page title does not contain the desired weather source, press the MENU Key.
a) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Display XM Weather’, or ‘Display Connext
Weather’ (choices may vary depending on the installed equipment).
b) Press the ENT Key.
NOTE: Only softkeys pertaining to data link weather features are shown in the following
tables.
Appendices
The system presents the softkeys for the selected source on the Weather Data Link Page, and for
map overlays used throughout the system. The following figures show the softkeys for the Weather
Data Link Page based on the selected source.
Additional Features
WEATHER DATA LINK (XM) PAGE SOFTKEYS
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
NEXRAD
Enables/disables the NEXRAD weather product
overlay.
Echo Top
Enables/disables the Echo Tops weather product
overlay.
CLD Top
Enables/disables the Cloud Tops weather
product overlay.
XM LTNG
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Lightning weather
product overlay.
Cell MOV
Enables/disables the Cell Movement weather
product overlay.
SIG/AIR
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather
product overlay.
METAR
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather
product overlay.
Legend
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
More WX
Displays second-level SiriusXM Weather product
softkeys.
Enables/disables the Cyclone weather product
overlay.
Hazard Avoidance
Cyclone
Displays third level softkey for enabling/disabling
the Surface Analysis and City Forecast weather
product and selecting a forecast period.
Automatic Flight Control
System
SFC
Off
Additional Features
Current
Appendices
FRZ LVL
Index
Wind
Disables the Surface Analysis and City Forecast
weather product overlay.
Displays the Surface Analysis for the current
time period overlay.
12 HR, 24 HR, 36
HR, 48 HR
These softkeys display a Surface Analysis and
City Forecast overlay for the selected future time
period.
Legend
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Back
312
Description
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the Freezing Level weather
product overlay.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/
disabling the Winds Aloft weather product and
selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Level 2
Level 3
PREV
Next
Back
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather
product for the surface (SFC) through 15,000
feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot
increments of altitude.
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Displays altitude softkeys for the Icing weather
product overlay.
ICNG
Off
Shows the previous level of Icing altitude
softkeys.
Flight Management
System
PREV
Disables the Icing weather product.
PREV
Enables/disables the Icing weather product
overlay from 21,000 feet to 45,000 feet.
Softkeys available for 3,000 foot increments of
altitude.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
313
Index
Softkeys available
for selecting
Turbulence altitude
from 21,000 feet
to 45,000 feet
Disables the Turbulence weather product
overlay.
Appendices
Off
Shows the previous level of Turbulence altitude
softkeys.
Additional Features
Displays softkeys for enabling/disabling the
Turbulence weather product overlay.
TURB
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Legend
Shows the next level of Icing weather product
softkeys.
Hazard Avoidance
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
Enables/disables the Icing weather product
from the Icing
overlay from 1,000 feet to 30,000 feet. Softkeys
altitude from to
available for 3,000 foot increments of altitude.
1,000 to 30,000
feet
Next
Audio Panel and CNS
Legend
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product
overlay.
Engine Indication System
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
from the Surface to
42,0000 feet
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Flight Instruments
Off
Description
System Overview
Level 1
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Level 1
Level 2
Flight Instruments
Next
Legend
Engine Indication System
Back
Description
Shows the next level of Icing weather product
softkeys.
Enables/disables the SiriusXM Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one SiriusXM Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
AIREPS
Enables/disables the AIREPs weather product
overlay.
PIREPS
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product
overlay.
County
Enables/disables the County Warnings weather
product overlay.
Back
Returns to the first level softkeys.
WEATHER DATA LINK (CNXT) PAGE SOFTKEYS
Level 1
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Level 3
Level 2
Level 3
PRECIP
Enables/disables the Precipitation weather
product overlay.
IR SAT
Enables/disables the infrared Satellite weather
product overlay.
SIG/AIR
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather
product overlay.
METAR
Enables/disables the graphical METAR weather
product overlay.
Legend
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
More WX
Displays second-level Connext Weather product
softkeys.
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/
disabling the Winds Aloft weather product and
selecting a winds aloft altitude.
Wind
Appendices
PREV
Off
Index
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
from the Surface to
42,0000 feet
314
Description
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product
overlay.
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather
product for the surface (SFC) through 15,000
feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot
increments of altitude.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Level 2
Level 3
Next
Back
Description
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Back
Engine Indication System
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product
overlay.
PIREPs
Returns to the first level softkeys.
WEATHER DATA LINK (FIS-B) PAGE SOFTKEYS
Level 2
Level 3
Audio Panel and CNS
Level 1
Description
Cycles through NEXRAD display modes:
Off: No NEXRAD shown.
US: Displays NEXRAD for Continental US
(CONUS).
REG: Displays regional NEXRAD data.
All: Displays regional NEXRAD data where
available, and CONUS NEXRAD data in other
coverage areas.
SIG/AIR
Enables/disables the SIGMET/AIRMET weather
product overlay.
METAR
Enables/disables the METAR weather product
overlay.
Legend
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
More WX
Displays second-level Connext Weather product
softkeys.
Hazard Avoidance
Appendices
Enables/disables the Winds Aloft weather
product for the surface (SFC) through 15,000
feet. Softkeys available for 3,000 foot
increments of altitude.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Index
Softkeys available
for selecting winds
from the Surface to
42,0000 feet
Disables the Winds Aloft weather product
overlay.
Additional Features
Off
Shows the previous level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Displays third level softkeys for enabling/
disabling the Winds Aloft weather product and
selecting a winds aloft altitude.
PREV
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Flight Management
System
NXRD
or
US
or
RGNL
or
US/RGNL
Wind
Flight Instruments
Legend
System Overview
Level 1
315
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Flight Instruments
Next
Legend
Back
Engine Indication System
PIREPs
Back
Description
Shows the next level of winds aloft altitude
softkeys.
Enables/disables the Connext Weather Legends
Window. Softkey available for selection when at
least one Connext Weather product is enabled.
Returns to the second-level softkeys.
Enables/disables the PIREPs weather product
overlay.
Returns to the first level softkeys.
The Weather Data Link Page can display a legend for each enabled weather product.
Audio Panel and CNS
Viewing legends for displayed weather products on the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the Legend Softkey to display the legends for the displayed weather products.
Flight Management
System
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Select ‘Weather Legend’ and press the ENT Key.
window.
4) To remove the Weather Legends Window, press the Legend Softkey, the ENT or the
CLR Key, or press the FMS Knob.
Additional information about the following weather products can be displayed by panning the Map
Pointer over the following products on the Weather Data Link Page:
Echo Tops
METARs
Cloud Tops
County Warnings
Cell Movement
TFRs
SIGMETs
AIREPs
AIRMETs
PIREPs
The map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning
the Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
3) Turn the FMS Knob to scroll through the legends if more are available than fit in the
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
METAR Flag selected
with Map Pointer
Audio Panel and CNS
Additional
information for
selected METAR
NOTE: Product Group 2’ is only applicable to SiriusXM and Garmin Connext Weather.
Additional Features
The Weather Data Link Page includes controls for selecting the maximum map range to display
each weather product on the page. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected
maximum range, the system removes the weather product from the map. If more than one data
link weather source has been installed, the system uses the same maximum map range for the
comparable weather product of another source.
Automatic Flight Control
System
CUSTOMIZING THE WEATHER DATA LINK PAGE
Hazard Avoidance
Certain weather products, such as METARs or TFRs have associated full text. When a weather
product is selected with the Map Pointer, press the ENT Key. The system displays the full text for the
selected weather product in a window. To remove the window, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
The Weather Data Link Page also has a page menu that can be accessed by pressing the MENU Key.
It has controls for enabling/disabling the weather products as an alternative to using the softkeys.
Flight Management
System
Figure 6-4 Using the Map Pointer to get Additional Information for the Selected Weather
Product
Setting up and customizing the Weather Data Link Page:
Appendices
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Product Group 1’ or ‘Product Group 2’, and press
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Index
the ENT Key.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (ON/OFF, range
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page with the
changed settings.
The pilot can select a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page, or choose to synchronize the
map orientation to the same orientation used on the Navigation Map Page.
Selecting a map orientation for the Weather Data Link Page:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
settings, etc.).
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Group options.
5) If SiriusXM is the selected data link weather source, turn the small FMS Knob to
Flight Management
System
highlight the ‘Map’ Group and press the ENT Key.
Or:
Hazard Avoidance
If FIS-B or Garmin Connext is the selected data link weather source, turn the large FMS
Knob to highlight the ‘Orientation ‘ field at the bottom of the Product Group 1 list.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the desired map orientation: North up, Track up,
HDG up, or SYNC, then press the ENT Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Restoring default Weather Data Link Page settings:
1) Select the Weather Data Link Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’, then press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
4) Press the MENUKey.
5) Highlight the desired default(s) to restore (all or for selection) and press ENT Key.
6) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Other PFD and MFD maps and pages can display a smaller set of data link weather products. The
following table shows which data link weather products can be displayed on specific maps, indicated
with a ‘+’ symbol.
Index
Appendices
WEATHER PRODUCTS MAP OVERLAYS
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NEXRAD/
Radar
Precipitati
on
+
Navigatio Weather Weather Aux - Trip
n Map
Data Link Informati Planning
Page
Page
on Page
Page
+
+
+
Echo Top
+
Infrared
Satellite
+
+
Cell
Movement
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
SIGMETs/
AIRMETs
+
+
+
+
+
Freezing
Levels
+
+*
+
Automatic Flight Control
System
Winds
Aloft
Hazard Avoidance
Surface
Analysis &
City
Forecast
+
Flight Management
System
METARs
+
Audio Panel and CNS
Data Link
Lightning
Flight
Plan
Pages
Engine Indication System
Cloud Top
Nearest
Page
Group
Flight Instruments
PFD
MAPS
System Overview
Data Link
Weather
Product
Cyclone
Warnings
+
Icing
Potential
+
PIREPs
+
+
AIREPs
+
+
Turbulence
(TURB)
+
No Radar
Coverage
+
+
+
TFRs
+
+
+
Appendices
+
Additional Features
County
Warnings
+
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Data Link
Weather
Product
PFD
MAPS
Navigatio Weather Weather Aux - Trip
n Map
Data Link Informati Planning
Page
Page
on Page
Page
Flight Instruments
TAFs
Flight
Plan
Pages
+
* Winds Aloft data is available inside the VSD when VSD is enabled on the Navigation Map Page.
Table 6-4 Weather Product Display Maps
Displaying Data Link Weather Products on the Navigation Map Page:
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
+
Nearest
Page
Group
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the softkey to enable/disable the desired weather product.
The Navigation Map Page also can display legends for weather products enabled on this map with
the Legend Softkey. This softkey is subdued if no weather products are enabled.
Showing/removing the weather legend on the Navigation Map Page:
Flight Management
System
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Legend Softkey to show the weather legends window.
to remove the window.
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page also allows the pilot to select the maximum map range to display
weather products. If the pilot increases the map range beyond this selected maximum range, the
system removes the weather product from the map. The system uses this setting for all navigation
maps, including those displayed on the PFD.
Setting up and customizing weather data for the navigation maps:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
4) When finished, press the Legend Softkey again, or press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range
Appendices
settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
Index
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
The system can also display data link weather information on the PFD navigation maps.
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System Overview
Displaying Data Link Weather products on the PFD:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the desired weather product softkey(s) to enable/disable the display of data link
Engine Indication System
Enabling/disabling the weather product icon and age display (PFD maps):
Flight Instruments
products on the PFD map.
On the MFD maps, the weather product icon and age appear automatically when a weather is
enabled and the range is within the maximum display limits. On PFD maps, this information is
available using the PFD softkeys.
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Layout Softkey.
CONNEXT DATA REQUESTS
Additional Features
Appendices
Manually Requesting Garmin Connext Weather information:
Automatic Flight Control
System
The Connext Data Request Menu provides the pilot with the options to define the requested weather
coverage area(s), choose automatic weather update intervals (if desired), and the ability to send or cancel
weather data requests. A Request Status Window inside the menu shows the status of the Connext Data
Request.
Before a Connext Data Request can occur, a valid request coverage area must be defined from which all
currently available Garmin Connext Weather products will be retrieved. At a minimum, either the
aircraft’s present position or a waypoint (as part of a flight plan or entered directly in the ‘WAYPOINT’
coverage field) must be part of the request coverage area, otherwise the request status window indicates
‘INVALID COVERAGE AREA’ and the system will not allow a request to occur.
It is not necessary for a destination (based on an active flight plan), a flight plan, or waypoint to be
specified prior to enabling these coverage areas; however no weather data will be retrieved for these
option(s) until a flight plan or waypoint is provided, respectively.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: Data requests are not applicable to the SiriusXM Weather or FIS-B Weather services.
Flight Management
System
icon box display on PFD Maps.
The setup menus for the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and the Weather Data Link Page control the
map range settings above which weather products data are decluttered from the display. If a map range
larger than the weather product map range setting is selected, the weather product data is removed
from the map. The page menus also provide an alternative to using the softkeys to enable/disable data
link weather product overlays on maps.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the WX LGND Softkey to enable/disable the weather product age, source, and
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Index
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
4) urn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired coverage option(s) and press the ENT
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Key to show or hide a green check mark to select one of more of the following
coverage selections:
•
Present Position – Requests data based on current location.
•
Destination – Requests data based on the active flight plan destination (Direct-To
destinations excluded). See the Flight Management section for more information about
entering and activating flight plans.
•
FPL – Requests data along an active flight plan, if one currently exists. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select the desired flight plan look-ahead distance option (or choose ‘Remaining
FPL’ to request weather data for the remainder of the flight plan), then press the ENT Key.
•
Waypoint – Requests data based on a waypoint (which may be off-route). Turn the large
and small FMS Knobs to enter a waypoint, then press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob highlight to the ‘Diameter / Route Width’ distance field and
turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired diameter and route width of the request,
then press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
6) Turn the large FMS Knob until the ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted. Press the ENT
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Key to initiate the request immediately or press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather
Data Link (CNXT) Page without requesting weather data.
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Present Position Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Destination Selected,
200 nm Diameter
Requested
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Off-Route Waypoint
Selected, 200 nm Diameter
Requested
323
Index
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Appendices
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Additional Features
During a Connext Data Request, the Request Status Window initially displays “Contacting Connext...”.
Once a connection is established, the Request Status Window displays “Receiving Wx Data... Time
Remaining:” with an estimated data transfer time (either minutes or seconds). If desired, the Connext
Data Request Menu may be removed while the data request is processing by pressing the FMS Knob; the
data request will continue to process in the background. Connext Data Requests typically take between
1 to 4 minutes to complete depending on the size of the selected weather coverage area, the amounts of
weather activity present, and the Iridium signal strength.
The system retrieves all available Garmin Connext Weather products within the selected coverage area
during an initial Connext Data Request, regardless of which products (if any) are currently enabled for
display. On subsequent requests, the system retains previously retrieved textual data (such as METARs
and TAFS) if it has not expired, while new textual weather data matching the current coverage area and
all graphical weather data is transferred to the aircraft during every data request.
At the completion of a successful weather data request, the Request Status Window indicates ‘OK’ if
the Connext Data Request menu is still within view.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 6-5 Garmin Connext Weather Data Request Results with Precipitation Data Displayed
Hazard Avoidance
Next 80 nm of Flight Plan
Selected, 200 nm Route
Width Requested
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Cancelling a Connext Data Request in Progress:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
Flight Instruments
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the MENU Key.
5) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Cancel Request’ field and press the ENT Key.
The request status box indicates ‘Request Cancelled’.
Audio Panel and CNS
The flight crew can schedule Connext Data Requests to recur automatically. Automatic requests remain
enabled until the flight crew them, or the system power is removed. The Request Status Window
indicates the number of minutes or seconds until the next automatic data request occurs.
NOTE: If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to the system
entering Reversionary Mode, the automatic weather data requests will continue in
Reversionary Mode, however the Connext Data Request Window and its associated
options will not be available in Reversionary Mode.
Flight Management
System
Enabling/disabling automatic Connext Data Requests:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Hazard Avoidance
3) With ‘Connext Data Request’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Choose the desired weather coverage options.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Update Rate’ field. Then turn the small FMS
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Knob to highlight the desired automatic update frequency (Off, 5 Min, 10 Min, 15 Min,
20 Min, 30 Min, 45 Min, or 60 Min), then press the ENT Key
6) The ‘Send Request’ field is highlighted and a countdown timer is displayed in the
‘Request Status’ Window based on the currently selected update rate. Press the ENT
Key to immediately send an immediate Connext Data Request.
Or:
Press the FMS Knob to return to the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
WEATHER PRODUCT OVERVIEW
Appendices
The following is an overview of data link weather products the system can display.
NEXRAD (SIRIUSXM)
Index
NOTE: Data link weather radar information cannot be displayed at the same time as relative
terrain, echo tops, icing, or turbulence data.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation
RADar) system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD
network provides centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and
selected overseas locations. The maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar
site may arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider
compiles the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and
assigns a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD
weather product. Individual images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always
older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD
data to the SiriusXM Weather service, whose satellites transmit this information during the next
designated broadcast time for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the
current radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The NEXRAD weather
product should never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather regardless of the information it contains.
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on the Weather Data Link (XM)
Page:
Appendices
For radar sites in the United States, the NEXRAD weather product shows a composite reflectivity
image. This shows the highest radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles at various
altitudes. For radar sites based in Canada, the NEXRAD weather product shows radar returns from
the lowest antenna tilt angle, known as base reflectivity. The display of the information is colorcoded to indicate the intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation, if known.
Additional Features
Figure 6-6 NEXRAD on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
Index
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
Enabling/disabling NEXRAD weather information on PFD maps:
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey.
A mosaic of data from all the available NEXRAD radar sites is shown for the selected region (US or
Canada). The pilot can change the region on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Changing the NEXRAD coverage region:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘US’ or ‘CNDA’ (Canada) and press the ENT Key.
The display of No Radar Coverage is always active when either NEXRAD or Echo Tops is selected.
Areas where NEXRAD radar coverage and Echo Tops information is not currently available or is not
being collected are indicated in gray shade of purple.
REFLECTIVITY
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Region datafield.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the
NEXRAD display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates
to hazardous weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of
weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an
indication of the weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection,
while dry hail does not. Both wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z).
NEXRAD measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver
(designated by the letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
No Radar Coverage
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-7 NEXRAD Legend
NEXRAD LIMITATIONS
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
An individual NEXRAD site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no
information about storms directly over the site.
•
Precipitation may be occurring below the lowest antenna tilt angle (0.5º), and therefore the radar
beam overshoots the precipitation. For example, at a distance of 124 miles from the radar site,
the radar beam is approximately 18,000 feet above the radar site. The radar cannot detect any
precipitation occurring below the beam at this distance and altitude.
•
At smaller map ranges, the smallest square block on the display represents an area of
approximately four square kilometers. The intensity level reflected by each square represents the
highest level of radar reflectivity sampled within the area.
•
Unknown precipitation below 52ºN is displayed as rain regardless of actual precipitation type.
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
Hazard Avoidance
Undetermined precipitation types may be displayed as mixed.
Flight Management
System
•
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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327
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-8 NEXRAD Weather Product with 30 NM Map Range
•
Ground clutter
•
Strobes and spurious radar data
•
Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
•
Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
•
Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
NEXRAD LIMITATIONS (CANADA)
•
Radar coverage extends to 55ºN.
•
ny precipitation displayed between 52ºN and 55ºN is displayed as mixed precipitation regardless
of actual precipitation type.
•
If the precipitation type is unknown, the system displays the precipitation as rain, regardless of
actual precipitation type.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
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System Overview
No radar coverage
above 55°N
Flight Instruments
Precipitation above
52°N always displays
as mixed
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Figure 6-9 NEXRAD Weather Product - Canada
NEXRAD (FIS-B)
NOTE: The NEXRAD weather product cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain.
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
The National Weather Service (NWS) operates the WSR-88D, or NEXRAD (NEXt-generation
RADar) system, an extensive network of 156 high-resolution Doppler radar systems. The NEXRAD
network provides centralized meteorological information for the continental United States and
selected overseas locations. The maximum range of a single NEXRAD site is 250 nm.
Individual NEXRAD sites supply the network with radar images, and the images from each radar
site may arrive at the network at different rates and times. Periodically, the weather data provider to
FIS-B compiles the available individual site images from the network to form a composite image, and
assigns a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image becomes the NEXRAD
weather product. Individual images--gathered from each NEXRAD site--differ in age, and are always
older than the displayed NEXRAD weather product age. The data provider then sends the NEXRAD
data to the FIS-B GBTs, which transmit this information during the next designated broadcast time
for the NEXRAD weather product.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the NEXRAD weather product, the
displayed weather information contained within the product may be older than the current radar
synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. NEXRAD information should never be
used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous weather regardless of the
information it contains.
Index
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329
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Boundary
of Regional
NEXRAD Data
Regional
NEXRAD
Weather Product
enabled
Figure 6-10 Regional NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page
The FIS-B NEXRAD weather product may be displayed for a region around the GBT (higher
resolution, updated more frequently) or for across the continental United States (lower resolution,
updated less frequently). A combined version of both weather products is also available for display
on the same map. When the combined NEXRAD is selected, regional NEXRAD takes display
precedence where data is available, and continental US NEXRAD is displayed outside of the regional
NEXRAD coverage area.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
No radar coverage
within coverage
boundary
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
No radar coverage
Figure 6-11 Continental US (CONUS) NEXRAD Weather Product on the Weather Data Link
(FIS-B) Page
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the NXRD Softkey. Each selection cycles though a coverage option as the softkey
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
name changes (Each selection cycles though a coverage option displayed in cyan on the
softkey (‘Off’, ‘US’, or ‘REG’, or ‘All’)..
Hazard Avoidance
Displaying the NEXRAD weather product on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page:
Flight Management
System
Continental US NEXRAD
Weather Product enabled
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather Setup’ and press the ENT Key.
highlight the NEXRAD On/Off field.
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘On’ to enable the display of NEXRAD or ‘Off’
Additional Features
3) To enable/disable the display of NEXRAD informations, turn the small FMS Knob to
to disable.
Appendices
b) Press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Region’ field..
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to select one of the following options: ‘CONUS’ for the
continental United States, ‘Regional’ for regional NEXRAD, or ‘Combined’ to show
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
regional NEXRAD where data is available, and continental NEXRAD outside of the
regional coverage area.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
5) When finished, push the FMS Knob.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
Engine Indication System
2) Select the NEXRAD Softkey.
3) To change the type of NEXRAD displayed, press the MENU Key.
4) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ Group, then press the ENT Key.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the NEXRAD Data Region field.
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘CONUS’ (continental United States), ‘RGNL’
Flight Management
System
(regional), or ‘Combined’, then press the ENT Key. This selection also affects display of
NEXRAD on the PFD Maps.
8) When finished, press the FMS Knob or press the CLR Key.
Displaying the FIS-B NEXRAD weather product on PFD maps:
2) Press the NEXRAD Softkey to enable/disable the display of NEXRAD information.
The regional NEXRAD weather product coverage area varies, as it is determined by the data received
from ground-based sources. When the regional NEXRAD weather product is enabled, a white spiked
boundary encloses this area to indicate the geographic limits of the regional NEXRAD coverage being
displayed. The system shows composite radar data from all available NEXRAD sites inside of this
boundary area.
If the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product is shown (US Softkey
enabled), the coverage boundary is not shown on the map.
This data is composed of the maximum reflectivity from the individual radar sweeps. The display of
the information is color-coded to indicate the weather severity level. All weather product legends can be
viewed on the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) Page. For the NEXRAD legend, select the Legend Softkey
when the NEXRAD weather product is enabled.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
1) Press the Map/HSI Softkey.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
No Radar Coverage
Figure 6-14 NEXRAD Weather Product Legend (FIS-B)
Flight Management
System
NOTE: If the system has not received all available NEXRAD weather data (such as during
initial FIS-B signal acquisition or in areas of marginal or poor signal reception), the system
may display areas of no radar coverage which are subsequently removed as radar data is
received. It may take up to approximately ten minutes to receive all FIS-B data, when
adequate reception is available.
Audio Panel and CNS
The display of no radar coverage is enabled when NEXRAD is selected for display. Areas where radar
data is not currently available, has not yet been received, or is not being collected are indicated in gray
shade of purple.
Engine Indication System
Regional NEXRAD
Coverage Boundary
REFLECTIVITY
•
The continental US version of the NEXRAD weather product is not available above 60º of
latitude.
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Index
At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of NEXRAD weather data are viewable. For the regional
version of the NEXRAD weather product, the smallest block represents 1.5 nm wide by 1 nm
tall. For the continental United States version of the NEXRAD weather product, each block is 7.5
nm wide by 5 nm wide. The color of each block represents the highest radar reflectivity detected
within that area.
Appendices
•
Additional Features
NEXRAD radar images may have certain limitations:
Automatic Flight Control
System
NEXRAD LIMITATIONS
Hazard Avoidance
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the
NEXRAD display are directly correlative to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates
to hazardous weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of
weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an
indication of the weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection,
while dry hail does not. Both wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different NEXRAD echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z).
NEXRAD measures the radar reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver
(designated by the letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
•
Ground clutter
•
Strobes and spurious radar data
•
Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
•
Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
•
Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
PRECIPITATION (GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Precipitation data cannot be displayed at the same time as terrain data.
The Precipitation weather product provides radar precipitation information in selected radar
coverage areas. This information comes from individual weather radar sites and weather data sources
such as government agencies. Each radar site or source may provide weather data at differing rates
and times. Periodically, the Garmin Connext Weather service compiles the available information to
form a composite image, and assigns a single time to indicate when it created the image. This image
becomes the Precipitation weather product. Individual images--gathered from each radar site--differ
in age, and are always older than the displayed Precipitation weather product age.
Because of the time required to detect, assemble, and distribute the Precipitation weather product,
the displayed weather information contained within the product may be significantly older than the
current radar synopsis and may not depict the current weather conditions. The Precipitation weather
product should never be used as a basis for maneuvering in, near, or around areas of hazardous
weather regardless of the information it contains.
Boundary of
weather data
request
Precipitation
Weather Product
Icon and Age
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed NEXRAD radar images:
Appendices
Precipitation
Weather Product
enabled
Index
Figure 6-15 Precipitation Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
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1) Select the Map Opt Softkey (for PFD maps, press the Map/HSI or Map Opt Softkey).
System Overview
Displaying Precipitation weather information:
This step is not necessary on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page.
Flight Instruments
2) Select the PRECIP Softkey.
The system displays either base or composite radar imagery, depending on the region.
Radar Reflectivity Type
United States
Composite Reflectivity
Canada, Europe, Australia
Base Reflectivity
Audio Panel and CNS
The base reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the radar returns from the perspective of a
single antenna tilt angle. The composite reflectivity precipitation weather product shows the highest
radar energy received from multiple antenna tilt angles. The display of the information is color-coded to
indicate the intensity of the echoes and the type of precipitation.
All weather product legends can be viewed on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page. For the
Precipitation legend, press the Legend Softkey when Precipitation is selected for display.
Engine Indication System
Region
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
No radar coverage
Boundary of
weather data
request
The display of radar coverage is enabled active when Precipitation is selected for display. Areas where
precipitation radar coverage is not currently available or is not being collected are indicated in gray
shade of purple. A white boundary line depicting the selected coverage area of the Connext Data
Request encloses the precipitation data when this weather product is displayed.
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Appendices
Reflectivity is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Colors on the
Precipitation display directly correlate to the level of detected reflectivity. Reflectivity as it relates to
hazardous weather can be very complex.
The role of radar is essentially to detect moisture in the atmosphere. Simply put, certain types of
weather reflect radar better than others. The intensity of a radar reflection is not necessarily an
indication of the weather hazard level. For instance, wet hail returns a strong radar reflection,
while dry hail does not. Both wet and dry hail can be extremely hazardous.
The different radar echo intensities are measured in decibels (dB) relative to reflectivity (Z).
Weather radars measure the reflectivity ratio, or the energy reflected back to the radar receiver
(designated by the letter Z). The value of Z increases as the returned signal strength increases.
Additional Features
REFLECTIVITY
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 6-16 Precipitation Weather Product Legend (Garmin Connext)
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
PRECIPITATION LIMITATIONS
•
Radar composite reflectivity does not provide sufficient information to determine precipitation
characteristics (wet hail vs. rain). For example, it is not possible to distinguish between wet
snow, wet hail, and rain.
•
An individual radar site cannot depict high altitude storms at close ranges. It has no information
about storms directly over the site.
•
At smaller map ranges, individual blocks of radar data are viewable. Each block of radar
information represents approximately four square kilometers and depicts the highest level of
reflectivity detected within that area.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Radar images may have certain limitations:
Automatic Flight Control
System
Block represents
approximately 4 km2
Figure 6-17 Precipitation Weather Product at 10 NM Map Range
Appendices
Additional Features
The following may cause abnormalities in displayed radar images:
•
Ground clutter
•
Strobes and spurious radar data
•
Sun strobes (when the radar antenna points directly at the sun)
•
Interference from buildings or mountains, which may cause shadows
•
Metallic dust (chaff) from military aircraft, which can cause alterations in radar scans
ECHO TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
Index
NOTE: Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time as Cloud Tops or NEXRAD data is
displayed.
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System Overview
The Echo Tops weather product shows the location, elevation, and direction of the highest radar
echo. The highest radar echo does not indicate the top of a storm or clouds; rather it indicates the
highest altitude at which precipitation is detected. Information is derived from NEXRAD data.
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Figure 6-18 Echo Tops Weather Product
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 6-19 Echo Tops Legend
Displaying Echo Tops information:
2) Press the Echo Top Softkey.
Since Echo Tops and Cloud Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Echo Tops is activated, NEXRAD and Cloud Tops data are
removed.
Additional Features
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
Appendices
CLOUD TOPS (SIRIUSXM)
NOTE: Cloud Tops and Echo Tops cannot be displayed at the same time.
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Flight Instruments
NOTE: If a GDL 69/69A SXM receiver is installed, the broadcast rate for Cloud Tops is 30
minutes. As with all SiriusXM Weather products, the product age becomes amber when it
reaches half of the expiration time, which is 60 minutes for Cloud Tops. Therefore, this
weather product age may be amber during routine operation.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
The Cloud Tops weather product depicts cloud top altitudes as determined from satellite imagery.
Figure 6-20 Cloud Tops Weather Product
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page with the FMS Knob.
2) Select the CLD Top Softkey.
Since Cloud Tops and Echo Tops use the same color scaling to represent altitude, display of these
weather products is mutually exclusive. When Cloud Tops is activated, Echo Tops data is removed.
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Displaying Cloud Tops information:
Index
Figure 6-21 Cloud Tops Legend
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System Overview
DATA LINK LIGHTNING (SIRIUSXM, GARMIN CONNEXT)
NOTE: Lightning from a data link source cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same
map as information from an optional on-board lightning detection system.
Flight Instruments
The Data Link Light weather product shows the approximate location of cloud-to-ground lightning
strikes. A strike icon represents a strike that has occurred within a two-kilometer region. The exact
location of the lightning strike is not displayed.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Lightning Strikes
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-22 Data Link Lightning Weather Product
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 6-23 Data Link Lightning Legend
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on Weather Data Link Page:
2) Press the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
To display the Lightning legend on the Weather Data Link Page, select the Legend Softkey when Data
Link Lightning is selected for display.
Appendices
Displaying Data Link Lightning information on the Navigation Map Page:
Additional Features
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT)’ Page.
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Select the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Select the XM LTNG or DL LTNG Softkey.
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CELL MOVEMENT (SIRIUSXM)
The Cell Movement weather product shows the location and movement of storm cells as identified
by the ground-based system. Cells are represented by yellow squares, with direction of movement
indicated with short, orange arrows.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Additional
information for
selected storm cell
Figure 6-24 Cell Movement Weather Product
On the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, the Cell Movement weather product has a dedicated CEL
MOV softkey for enabling/disabling this weather product on this page.
NOTE: The Storm Cell base height is not available if a GDL 69 SXM or 69A SXM data link
receiver is installed. In this case, the Storm Cell base height is displayed as 0 feet when the
map pointer selects a storm cell.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Storm cells
Additional Features
Figure 6-25 Cell Movement Legend
Displaying Cell Movement information on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page using the FMS Knob.
For navigation maps, the pilot can enable/disable the Cell Movement weather product using the
NEXRAD Softkey. For this to occur, the pilot must first enable the ‘Cell Movement’ option in the Map
Settings menu of the Navigation Map Page.
Index
Appendices
2) Select the Cell MOV Softkey.
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System Overview
Setting up the system to display Cell Movement with NEXRAD on navigation
maps:
1) Use the FMS Knob to select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
set to ‘On’, Cell Movement is enabled/disabled with the NEXRAD weather product on
navigation maps. When set to ‘Off’, Cell Movement is not displayed on navigation
maps.
After the ‘Cell Movement’ option is set to ‘On’, refer to the previous procedures for enabling/disabling
the NEXRAD weather product to control both products simultaneously on navigation maps using the
NEXRAD Softkey.
The Infrared Satellite (IR SAT) weather product depicts cloud top temperatures from satellite
imagery. Brighter cloud top colors indicate cooler temperatures occurring at higher altitudes.
Flight Management
System
INFRARED SATELLITE (GARMIN CONNEXT)
Audio Panel and CNS
6) When finished, push the FMS Knob or CLR Key to remove the menu.
Engine Indication System
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the Cell Movement menu option. When
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 6-26 Infrared Satellite Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (CNXT) Page
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Figure 6-27 Infrared Satellite Legend
Displaying Infrared Satellite Information:
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Data Link (CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the IR SAT Softkey.
SIGMETS AND AIRMETS
SIGMET (SIGnificant METeorological Information) and AIRMET (AIRmen’s METeorological
Information) are issued for potentially hazardous weather. A Convective SIGMET is issued for
hazardous convective weather such as severe or widespread thunderstorms. A localized SIGMET is a
significant weather condition occurring at a localized geographical position.
NOTE: If SiriusXM Weather is the active data link weather source and a GDL 69A SXM
receiver installed, the SIGMET and AIRMET weather products are not available unless at least
one SIGMET or AIRMET has been received. The weather product age indicates ‘N/A’ when no
SIGMET or AIRMET is available.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Automatic Flight Control
System
NOTE: For Garmin Connext Weather only, the entire SIGMET or AIRMET is shown on the
map as long as any portion of it is issued within the selected coverage area of the Connext
Data Request.
Additional Features
AIRMET for
mountain
obscuration
Index
Appendices
Convective SIGMET
Figure 6-28 SIGMET/AIRMET Weather Product
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Convective SIGMET Text
SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Figure 6-29 Example text for selected SIGMET and SIGMET/AIRMET Legend
Audio Panel and CNS
Displaying SIGMETs and AIRMETs:
1) Select the ‘Map- Weather Data Link (XM or CNXT or FIS-B)’ Page.
2) Press the SIG/AIR Softkey.
3) To view the text of the SIGMET or AIRMET, press the Joystick and move the Map
Flight Management
System
Pointer over the icon.
4) Press the ENT key. The following figure shows sample SIGMET text.
METARS AND TAFS
NOTE: Atmospheric pressure as reported for METARs is given in hectopascals (hPa), except
for in the United States, where it is reported in inches of mercury (in Hg). Temperatures are
reported in Celsius.
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: METAR information is only displayed within the installed navigation database service
area.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
METARs (METeorological Aerodrome Reports) typically contain information about the
temperature, dewpoint, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, cloud heights, visibility, and barometric
pressure at an airport or observation station. They can also contain information on precipitation
amounts, lightning, and other critical data. METARs reflect hourly observations; non-routine updates
include the code “SPECI” in the report. METARs are shown as colored flags at airports that provide
them.
Appendices
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Additional information
on METAR flag selected
with Map Pointer
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
METAR flag
selected with
Map Pointer
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Figure 6-30 METAR Flags on the Weather Data Link Page
TAFs (Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts) are weather predictions for specific airports within a 24hour period, and may span up to 36 hours. TAFs typically include forecast wind, visibility, weather
phenomena, and sky conditions using METAR codes.
METAR and TAF text are displayed on the Weather Information Page. METAR and TAF data is
displayed first in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the original text may contain
additional information not found in the decoded version.
Displaying METAR and TAF text on the MFD:
1) On the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page, press the METAR
Automatic Flight Control
System
Softkey.
2) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired airport.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with METAR and TAF text.
Additional Features
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. METAR
text must be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF text.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link Page.
Or:
Appendices
1) Select the Weather Information Page.
a) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Waypoint Page Group.
b) Select the WX Softkey to select the Weather Information Page.
Index
2) Press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
4) Use the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the METAR and TAF text. Note that
Flight Instruments
the METAR text must be completely scrolled through before scrolling through the TAF
text.
System Overview
3) Use the FMS Knob to enter the desired airport and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
Decoded
METAR,
followed by full
original text
Audio Panel and CNS
Decoded TAF,
followed by full
original text
Flight Management
System
Figure 6-31 METAR and TAF Information on the ‘WPT — Weather Information’ Page
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
To display the METAR legend on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page, select the Legend Softkey when
METARs are enabled for display.
The METAR flag color is determined by the information in the METAR text. The system displays a gray
METAR flag when the system cannot determine the METAR category based on the information available.
Additional Features
Figure 6-32 METAR Legend
Displaying original METAR text on the Active Flight Plan Page:
Appendices
The system also shows METAR flags and their associated text on the Active Flight Plan Page on the
MF.D. The system shows a METAR flag next to waypoints in the flight plan with an available METAR.
1) Select the ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page on the MFD.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
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3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight a waypoint with an available METAR (indicated
with a METAR flag next to it). The METAR text will appear in the ‘Selected Waypoint
Weather’ Window below.
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor or press the FPL Key to exit
the Active Flight Plan Page.
Original METAR text is also accessible on navigation maps displaying METAR flags. When the map
pointer is panned over a METAR flag, the METAR text is shown in a box near the flag.
Displaying original METAR text information on the PFD Inset Map:
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the METAR Softkey.
the map.
4) When finished, press the Joystick to remove the Map Pointer.
SURFACE ANALYSIS AND CITY FORECAST (SIRIUSXM)
Surface Analysis and City Forecast information is available for current and forecast weather
conditions. Forecasts are available for intervals of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired METAR flag. Original METAR text appears on
Index
Appendices
Figure 6-33 Surface Analysis and City Forecast with a 12–Hour Forecast Selected
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-34 Surface Analysis and City Forecast Legend
Displaying Surface Analysis and City Forecast information:
Flight Management
System
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
3) Select the SFC Softkey.
4) Press the softkey for the desired forecast time: Current, 12 HR, 24 HR, 36 HR, or 48
Hazard Avoidance
HR. The SFC Softkey label changes to show the forecast time selected.
Or:
Press the Off Softkey to disable the display of the weather product.
Additional Features
The Freezing Level weather product shows the color-coded contour lines for the altitude and
location at which the first isotherm is found. When no data is displayed for a given altitude, the data
for that altitude has not been received, or is out of date and has been removed from the display. New
data appears when it becomes available.
Automatic Flight Control
System
FREEZING LEVEL (SIRIUSXM)
Appendices
Index
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Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Figure 6-35 Freezing Level Weather Product
Displaying Freezing Level information:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the FRZ LVL Softkey.
WINDS ALOFT
The Winds Aloft weather product shows the forecast wind speed and direction at the surface and
at selected altitudes. Altitude can be displayed in 3000-foot increments beginning at the surface up
to 42,000 feet MSL.
If the FIS-B option is installed and FIS-B is the active data link weather source, the Winds Aloft
weather product also displays temperatures aloft next to the winds aloft arrows on the Weather Data
Link (FIS-B) Page.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 6-36 Freezing Level Legend
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-37 Winds and Temperatures Aloft (FIS-B) on the Weather Data Link Page
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-38 Winds Aloft Legend
Displaying the Winds Aloft weather product:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
3) Select the Wind Softkey.
4) Select a softkey for the desired altitude level: SFC (surface) up to 42,000 feet. Select the
Additional Features
Next or Prev Softkey to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The Wind Softkey label
changes to reflect the altitude selected.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Select the More WX Softkey.
Appendices
Index
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Figure 6-39 Winds Aloft Data with Legend
Headwind and tailwind components aloft are available inside the Vertical Situation Display (VSD) on
the Navigation Map Page. The displayed components are relative to current aircraft altitude and track,
but not to aircraft speed.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Additional Features
Wind Component
Velocity and
Direction Arrows
Arrows pointing to the left indicate headwind components; tailwind component arrows point to the
right, as shown in the table below.
Headwind Symbol
Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
None
None
Less than 5 knots
5 knots
Index
Appendices
Figure 6-40 Winds Aloft Information on the VSD
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Tailwind Symbol
Headwind/Tailwind Component
10 knots
System Overview
Headwind Symbol
50 knots
Flight Instruments
Table 6-5 VSD Headwind/Tailwind Component Symbols
Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (containing winds aloft data):
Engine Indication System
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
Audio Panel and CNS
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the Vertical Situation Display.
Or:
a) Select the Navigation Map Page.
b) Press the MENU Key.
Winds Aloft data inside the VSD is enabled by default when the VSD is displayed on the Navigation
Map Page. This behavior can be changed on the Navigation Map Page.
Flight Management
System
c) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
Enabling/disabling winds aloft data display for the VSD:
Hazard Avoidance
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘VSD’ and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Winds on/off field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘On’ or ‘Off’.
Additional Features
7) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
changed settings.
COUNTY WARNINGS (SIRIUSXM)
Appendices
The County warning weather product provides specific public awareness and protection weather
warnings from the National Weather Service (NWS). This can include information on tornadoes,
severe thunderstorms, and flood conditions.
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Engine Indication System
Tornado Warning
selected with Map
Pointer
Audio Panel and CNS
Flood Warning
Flight Management
System
Severe Thunderstorm
Warning
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-41 County Warnings Weather Product
Figure 6-42 County Warnings Legend
Displaying County Warning information:
Additional Features
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM)’ Page.
2) Press the More WXSoftkey.
3) Press the County Softkey.
The Cyclone weather product shows the current location of cyclones (hurricanes), tropical storms,
and their projected tracks. The system displays the projected track information in the form of DD/
HH:MM.
Index
Appendices
CYCLONE (SIRIUSXM)
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Cyclone
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-43 Cyclone Weather Product on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Displaying cyclone (hurricane) track information:
Flight Management
System
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the Cyclone Softkey.
Automatic Flight Control
System
The Current Icing Product (CIP) weather product shows a graphical view of the current icing
environment. Icing severity is displayed in four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extreme (not
specific to aircraft type). The CIP product is not a forecast, but a presentation of the current
conditions at the time of the analysis.
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing conditions are characterized by the presence of relatively
large, super cooled water droplets indicative of freezing drizzle and freezing rain aloft. SLD threat
areas are depicted as magenta dots over the CIP colors.
Hazard Avoidance
ICING (CIP & SLD) (SIRIUSXM)
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Engine Indication System
SLD Threat Area
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Icing
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-44 Icing Potential Weather Product
Figure 6-45 Icing Potential Legend
Additional Features
Displaying icing information:
1) Select the ‘Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
Appendices
3) Press the ICNG Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude level: 1,000 feet up to 30,000 feet. Press the
Index
Next or PREV Sofktey to cycle through the altitude softkeys. The ICNG SOftkey label
changes to indicate the icing altitude selected.
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Flight Instruments
The Turbulence weather product identifies the potential for erratic movement of high-altitude air
mass associated winds. Turbulence is classified as light, moderate, severe or extreme, at altitudes
between 21,000 and 45,000 feet. Turbulence information is intended to supplement AIRMETs,
SIGMETs, and PIREPs.
System Overview
TURBULENCE (SIRIUSXM)
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-46 Turbulence Weather Product at 21,000 Feet
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Figure 6-47 Turbulence Legend
Displaying turbulence information:
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
Appendices
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
3) Press the TURB Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired altitude: 21,000 up to 45,000 feet. Press the Next or
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Index
PREV Softkey to cycle though the available softkeys. The TURB Softkey label changes
to indicate the turbulence altitude selection.
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
PIREPS AND AIREPS
Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) are in-flight weather observations collected from pilots. When
significant weather conditions are reported or forecast, Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities are
required to solicit PIREPs. A PIREP may contain adverse weather conditions, such as low in-flight
visibility, icing conditions, wind shear, and turbulence. PIREPs are issued as either Routine (UA) or
Urgent (UUA).
Another type of PIREP is an Air Report (AIREP). Commercial airlines typically generate AIREPs.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
NOTE: AIREPs are only available with the SiriusXM Weather service.
Flight Management
System
Urgent PIREP
selected with Map
Pointer
Hazard Avoidance
PIREP
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
AIREP
Figure 6-48 PIREPs and AIREPS on the Weather Data Link (XM) Page
Index
Appendices
The PIREP color is determined by the type (routine or urgent).
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Decoded PIREP text
Figure 6-50 PIREP/AIREP Legend
Engine Indication System
Original full PIREP text
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-49 Text for selected PIREP
Flight Management
System
Displaying PIREP and AIREP text:
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page.
2) Press the More WX Softkey.
SiriusXM Weather service.)
4) Press the Joystick and pan to the desired weather report. A gray circle will appear
around the weather report when it is selected.
The data is first displayed in a decoded fashion, followed by the original text. Note the
original text may contain additional information not present in the decoded version.
6) Turn the FMS Knob or the ENT Key to scroll through the PIREP or AIREP text.
Additional Features
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Weather Data Link (XM) Page.
TFRS
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Index
In the United States, the FAA issues Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) to designate areas where
flight is restricted. TFRs are issued to restrict flight for a variety of reasons including national
security, law enforcement, natural disasters, and large sporting events. TFRs may be issued at any
time, and TFR data displayed on the system is only intended to supplement official TFR information
obtained from Flight Service Stations (FSS), and air traffic control.
Appendices
NOTE: Do not rely solely upon data link services to provide Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR)
information. Always confirm TFR information through official sources such as Flight Service
Stations or Air Traffic Control.
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Automatic Flight Control
System
5) Press the ENT Key. The Weather Information Page is shown with PIREP or AIREP text.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the PIREPS or AIREPS Softkey. (Note the AIREPS Softkey is only available with the
The age of TFR data is not shown; however, if TFR data is not available or has expired, the system
displays ‘TFR N/A’ in the upper-left corner of maps on which TFRs can be displayed.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Information for selected TFR
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-51 TFR Information on the Weather Data Link Page
Figure 6-52 Full Text for TFRs
Displaying TFR Data:
Appendices
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (XM or FIS-B or CNXT)’ Page or Navigation Map
Page.
2) Press the Joystick and pan the map pointer over a TFR to highlight it. The system
displays TFR summary information above the map.
Index
3) Press the ENT Key. The system displays a pop-up menu.
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System Overview
4) If necessary, turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Review Airspaces’ and press the ENT Key.
The system displays the TFR Information window.
5) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the TFR Information window.
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Press the MENU Key.
Engine Indication System
Setting up and customizing TFR data for maps on which TFR data can be
displayed:
Flight Instruments
The setup menus for the Navigation Map Page control the map range settings above which TFR data
is decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the TFR product map range setting is
selected, the TFR product data is removed from the map.
Maps other than the Navigation Map Page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation
Map Page.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll to the TFR product range settings.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (Off, range settings).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
FIS-B WEATHER STATUS
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional information about the status of FIS-B weather products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B
Status Page’.
Hazard Avoidance
changed settings.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
ADS-B Status Page Item
Status
Message
Description
FIS-B Weather Status: FIS-B
Processing
ENABLED
The FIS-B weather feature is enabled to process
and display FIS-B weather products.
DISABLED
---------------Weather Products: AIRMET
CONUS NEXRAD METAR METAR
GRAPHICAL NOTAM/TFR PIREP
REGIONAL NEXRAD SIGMET TAF
WINDS/TEMPS ALOFT
AVAILABLE
NOT AVAILABLE
AWAITING
DATA
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-53 Viewing FIS-B Weather Status on the ‘Aux — ADS-B Status’ Page
The FIS-B weather feature is disabled
No FIS-B weather data received from the
transponder.
FIS-B weather data is available for display for
the weather product.
FIS-B weather data is not available for the
weather product, and/or the system is not
receiving the FIS-B weather service.
The system is receiving the FIS-B weather
service, and is waiting to receive the weather
product from the FIS-B data broadcast.
Index
Table 6-6 Aux-ADS-B Status Page Messages for FIS-B Weather
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System Overview
Viewing FIS-B status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
Enabling/disabling the FIS-B weather feature:
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Enable FIS-B Weather’ or ‘Disable FIS-B
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS FOR GARMIN CONNEXT WEATHER
If the system cannot complete a Connext Data Request, one or more messages will appear in the
Request Status Window.
Connext Comm Error [1]
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should
be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [2]
A communications error has occurred. The system should be
serviced if this error persists.
Connext Comm Error [3]
A general error has occurred. If the error persists, the system should
be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [4]
This occurs if multiple automatic weather data requests have
recently failed, or the an LRU is off-line.
Connext Comm Error [5]
This can occur if an LRU is off-line or not configured, or the Iridium
or Garmin Connext services are not accessible. Check Iridium signal
strength. If this error persists, the system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [6]
A communications error has occurred. It this error persists, the
system should be serviced.
Connext Comm Error [7]
A weather data transfer has timed out. Check Iridium signal
strength and re-send the data request.
Connext Comm Error [8]
A server error has occurred or invalid data received.
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Index
The system will attempt another automatic weather data request
after an error occurred during the previous request. Timer counts
down until the next automatic request occurs.
Appendices
Auto update retry: ##
Seconds
Additional Features
The system has disabled automatic weather data requests due to
excessive errors. Automatic weather data requests have stopped.
Send a manual weather data request to resume automatic updates.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Auto requests inhibited Send
manual request to reset.
Hazard Avoidance
Description
Flight Management
System
Weather Request Status
Message
Audio Panel and CNS
Weather’, and press the ENT Key. The system will not receive FIS-B weather information
when FIS-B Weather is disabled.
Engine Indication System
1) Select the ‘Map - Weather Data Link (FIS-B)’ Page.
Flight Instruments
On the Weather Data Link (FIS-B) page, the pilot can enable/disable the FIS-B weather feature,
which includes all FIS-B weather products and related softkeys on various maps.
361
Weather Request Status
Message
Description
Connext Comm Error [9]
An error occurred while reading or writing data. If the error persists,
the system should be serviced.
Connext Login Invalid
There is a problem with the Garmin Connext registration. Contact
Garmin through the phone number listed at its website,
www.flygarmin.com..
Connext Server Temp Inop
The Garmin Connext Weather data server is temporarily out of
service, but is expected to return to service in less than 30 minutes.
Connext Server Inop
The Garmin Connext Weather data server will be out of service for
at least 30 minutes.
Invalid Coverage Area
The weather data request coverage area does not contain at least
one of the following: a waypoint, a flight plan, or a flight plan
destination. Verify at least one of the coverage options is enabled
(checked) and contains required criteria, then re-send the data
request.
No Connext Subscription
The system is not be currently subscribed to Garmin Connext
services or the access code is incorrect. Verify the access code.
Contact Garmin via the phone number listed on its website at
www.flygarmin.com..
Reduce Request Area
The size of the received weather data has exceeded system memory
limits. Reduce the size of the coverage area and issue another
Connext Data Request to ensure all available weather data has
been received.
Request Canceled
The user has cancelled a Connext Data Request.
Request Failed - Try Again
The weather data request timed-out. Re-send data request.
Table 6-7 Abnormal Garmin Connext Data Request Status Messages
When the system is operating in Reversionary Mode, only those weather products which can be
displayed on the PFD maps will be available for display. f manual Connext Data Requests were enabled
prior to entering Reversionary Mode, no new weather data will be retrieved while operating in
Reversionary Mode. If automatic Connext Data Requests were enabled prior to Reversionary Mode
operation, the system will continue the automatic data requests in Reversionary Mode (provided
automatic requests have not been inhibited due to a system error).
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
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System Overview
6.3 STORMSCOPE LIGHTNING DETECTION SYSTEM
The system can display L-3 WX-500 Stormscope lightning detection system information on the
Stormscope Page, and as an overlay on navigation maps. The system uses the symbols shown in the
following table to depict lightning strikes and cells based on the age of the information.
Audio Panel and CNS
Lightning Age
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Stormscope lightning information cannot be displayed simultaneously on the same
map as lightning information from data link lightning sources.
Flight Instruments
WARNING: Do not rely on information from the lightning detection system display as the
sole basis for hazardous weather avoidance. Range limitations and interference may cause
the system to display inaccurate or incomplete information. Refer to documentation from the
lightning detection system manufacturer for detailed information about the system.
Symbol
Strike is less than 6 second old
Strike is between 6 and 60 seconds old
Flight Management
System
Strike is between 1 and 2 minutes old
Strike is between 2 and 3 minutes old
Table 6-8 Lightning Age and Symbols
On the Stormscope Page, lightning information can be displayed at the ranges of 25 NM, 50 NM,
100 NM, and 200 NM.
Hazard Avoidance
USING THE STORMSCOPE PAGE
Automatic Flight Control
System
Lightning Strike
Rate Per Minute
Additional Features
Stormscope Mode
Appendices
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Index
Figure 6-54 Stormscope Page with Cell Mode Selected
363
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Adjusting the Stormscope Map Range:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Stormscope Page.
3) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease
the map range.
Selecting ‘cell’ or ‘strike’ mode on the Stormscope Page:
Engine Indication System
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Select the Mode Softkey. The Cell and Strike Softkeys are displayed.
3) Press the Cell Softkey to display cell data or press the Strike softkey to display strike
Audio Panel and CNS
data. ‘Cell’ or ‘Strike’ is annunciated in the mode box in the top-right corner of the
Stormscope Page.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top level softkeys for the Stormscope Page.
Or:
Flight Management
System
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the MENU Key to display the Stormscope Page Menu. Either ‘Cell Mode’ or
‘Strike Mode’ is highlighted in cyan to indicate the mode to be selected.
menu without changing the modes, press the MENU Key or the CLR Key, or push the
FMS Knob.
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each
turn. This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft. Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays
on the system.
Manually clearing Stormscope cell or strike information:
1) Select the Stormscope Page.
2) Press the Clear Softkey.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the ENT Key to select the highlighted mode and remove the menu. To remove the
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
Appendices
b) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Lightning Data’, then press the ENT Key.
Index
Or:
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System Overview
a) Select the Navigation Map Page.
b) Press the MENU Key.
c) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope Lightning’, then press the ENT
Flight Instruments
Key.
Displaying Stormscope information on MFD navigation maps:
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
Displaying Stormscope information on PFD maps:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Press the Lightning Softkey.
3) Press the STRMSCP Softkey.
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS
Knob to select ‘Weather’ and press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
2) With ‘Map Settings’ selected, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight and move the cursor among the product
Hazard Avoidance
selections.
5) When an item is highlighted, turn the small FMS Knob to select the option.
6) Press the ENT Key.
On the Navigation Map, cell mode identifies cells of lightning activity. Stormscope identifies clusters
of electrical activity that indicate cells. Strike mode indicates the approximate location of lightning
strikes.
Additional Features
Setting up Stormscope options on the Navigation Map Page:
Automatic Flight Control
System
7) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press theMENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Map Settings’ and press the ENT Key.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the group selection window. Turn the small FMS
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope On/Off field. Turn the small FMS
Appendices
Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group and press the ENT Key.
Knob to enable/disable the Stormscope overlay.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope maximum display range field.
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Index
Turn the small FMS Knob to choose the maximum map range to display Stormscope
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
lightning symbols, then press the ENT Key. If the pilot selects a map range greater than
this distance, the system removes lightning symbols from the map.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope Mode field. Turn the small FMS
Flight Instruments
Knob to select ‘Cell’ Mode to display clusters of electrical activity, or ‘Strike’ Mode to
show the approximate location of individual lightning strikes. With the desired mode
highlighted, press the ENT Key.
7) When finished, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to remove the menu.
Engine Indication System
Selecting a Stormscope range on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Stormscope maximum map display range
distance.
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Press the FMS Knob to return to the Navigation Map Page.
To change the display range on the Navigation Map Page, turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the
map range or counter-clockwise to decrease the map range.
If heading input is lost, strikes and/or cells must be cleared manually after the execution of each
turn. This is to ensure that the strike and/or cell positions are depicted accurately in relation to the
nose of the aircraft. Clearing Stormscope lightning on any map clears this information from all displays
on the system.
Manually clearing Stormscope data on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, and press the ENT Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Clear Stormscope Lightning’.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
3) Press the ENT Key.
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System Overview
6.4 AIRBORNE COLOR WEATHER RADAR
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
•
Weather Alert that looks ahead for intense cell activity in the 80-320 nm range, even if these ranges
are not being displayed.
PRINCIPLES OF PULSED AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Index
367
Appendices
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Additional Features
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Automatic Flight Control
System
The term “RADAR” is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. Pulsed radar locates targets by
transmitting a microwave pulse beam that, upon encountering a target, is reflected back to the radar
receiver as a return echo. The microwave pulses are focused and radiated by the antenna, with the
most intense energy in the center of the beam and decreasing intensity near the edge. The same
antenna is used for both transmitting and receiving. The returned signal is then processed and
displayed on the system.
Radar detection is a two-way process that requires 12.36 µs for the transmitted microwave pulses to
travel out and back for each nautical mile of target range. It takes 123.6 µs for a transmitted pulse to
make the round trip if a target is ten nautical miles away.
Airborne weather radar information should be used to avoid severe weather, not as a basis for
penetrating severe weather. The decision to fly into an area of radar targets depends on target intensity,
spacing between the targets, aircraft capabilities, and pilot experience. Pulse type weather radar detects
only precipitation, not clouds or turbulence. The display may indicate clear areas between intense
returns, but this does not necessarily mean it is safe to fly between them. Only Doppler radar can
detect turbulence.
Airborne weather radar has other capabilities beyond weather detection. It also has the ability to
detect and provide distance to cities, mountains, coastlines, rivers, lakes, and oceans.
Hazard Avoidance
WATCH® (Weather ATtenuated Color Highlight) helps identify possible shadowing effects of shortrange cell activity, identifying areas where radar return signals are weakened or attenuated by intense
precipitation (or large areas of lesser precipitation) and may not fully reflect the weather behind a
storm.
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Extended Sensitivity Time Constant (STC) logic that automatically correlates distance of the return
echo with intensity, so cells do not suddenly appear to get larger as they get closer.
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
The optional Garmin GWX 68 Airborne Color Weather Radar is a 4-color digital pulsed radar with
6.5 kilowatts of output power. It combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with a
high-definition display. The pulse width is four microseconds (µs) on all ranges except the 2.5 nm
range. The weather radar uses a one µs pulse width at this range to reduce the targets smearing
together on the display for better target definition at close range.
This aircraft uses a 10-inch phased array antenna that is fully stabilized to accommodate 30º of pitch
and roll.
To focus radar scanning on specific areas, Sector Scanning offers pilot-adjustable horizontal scan
angles of 20º, 40º, 60º, or 90º. A vertical scanning function helps to analyze storm tops, gradients, and
cell buildup activity at various altitudes.
Radar features include:
NEXRAD AND AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR
Both Airborne Weather Radar and NEXRAD measure weather reflectivity in decibels (dB). A decibel
is a logarithmic expression of the ratio of two quantities. Airborne Weather Radar measures the ratio of
power against the gain of the antenna, while NEXRAD measures the energy reflected back to the radar,
or the radar reflectivity ratio.
Both systems use colors to identify the different echo intensities, but the colors are not
interchangeable. Airborne color radar values used by Garmin Airborne Color Weather Radar should
not be confused with NEXRAD radar values.
ANTENNA BEAM ILLUMINATION
The radar beam is much like the beam of a spotlight. The further the beam travels, the wider it
becomes. The radar is only capable of seeing what is inside the boundaries of the beam. The figure
below depicts a radar beam’s characteristics. The figure illustrates vertical dimensions of the radar
beam, although the same holds true for the horizontal dimensions. In other words, the beam is as wide
as it is tall. Note that it is possible to miss areas of precipitation on the radar display because of the
antenna tilt setting. With the antenna tilt set to zero in this illustration, the beam overshoots the
precipitation at 15 nautical miles.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Altitude (x1000 ft.)
80
Antenna at Zero Tilt
Hazard Avoidance
Half Power at
18,000 ft.
10°
15
Max Power at Beam Center
18,000 ft.
0
0
s
Beam Sidelobe
30
45
60
75
90
Figure 6-55 Radar Beam from a 10–inch Antenna
The curvature of the Earth can also be a factor in missing areas of precipitation, especially at range
settings of 150 nautical miles or more. Here the beam overshoots the precipitation at less than 320
nautical miles.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Range (nautical miles)
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320 nm
Engine Indication System
Figure 6-56 Radar Beam in Relation to the Curvature of the Earth
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
RADAR SIGNAL REFLECTIVITY
Flight Management
System
The phenomenon of radar signal attenuation affects the operation of weather radar. When the
radar signal is transmitted, it is progressively absorbed and scattered, making the signal weaker. This
weakening, or attenuation, is caused by two primary sources, distance and precipitation.
Attenuation because of distance is due to the fact that the radar energy leaving the antenna is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance. The reflected radar energy from a target 40 miles
away that fills the radar beam is one fourth the energy reflected from an equivalent target 20 miles
away. This would appear to the operator that the storm is gaining intensity as the aircraft gets closer.
Internal signal processing within the system compensates for much of this distance attenuation.
Attenuation due to precipitation is not as predictable as distance attenuation. It is also more
intense. As the radar signal passes through moisture, a portion of the radar energy is reflected back
to the antenna. However, much of the energy is absorbed. If precipitation is very heavy, or covers a
large area, the signal may not reach completely through the area of precipitation. The weather radar
system cannot distinguish between an attenuated signal and an area of no precipitation. If the signal
has been fully attenuated, the radar displays a radar shadow. This appears as an end to the
precipitation when, in fact, the heavy rain may extend much further. A cell containing heavy
precipitation may block another cell located behind the first, preventing it from being displayed on
the radar. Never fly into these shadowed areas and never assume that all of the heavy precipitation is
being displayed unless another cell or a ground target can be seen beyond the heavy cell. The
WATCH® feature of the system can help in identifying these shadowed areas. Areas in question
appear as shadowed or gray on the radar display. Proper use of the antenna tilt control can also help
detect radar shadows.
Attenuation can also be due to poor maintenance or degradation of the radome. Even the smallest
amount of wear and scratching, pitting, and pinholes on the radome surface can cause damage and
system inefficiency.
Audio Panel and CNS
RADAR SIGNAL ATTENUATION
PRECIPITATION
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Index
Precipitation or objects more dense than water, such as the surface of the Earth or solid
structures, are detected by the weather radar. The weather radar does not detect clouds,
System Overview
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Hazard Avoidance
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Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
thunderstorms, or turbulence directly. It detects precipitation associated with clouds,
thunderstorms, and turbulence. The best radar signal reflectors are raindrops, wet snow, or wet
hail. The larger the raindrop, the better the reflectivity. The size of the precipitation droplet is the
most important factor in radar reflectivity. Because large drops in a small concentrated area are
characteristic of a severe thunderstorm, the radar displays the storm as a strong return. Ice crystals,
dry snow, and dry hail have low levels of reflectivity as shown in the illustration, and often not
displayed by the radar. Additionally, a cloud that contains only small raindrops, such as fog or
drizzle, does not reflect enough radar energy to produce a measurable target return.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 6-57 Precipitation Type and Reflectivity
GROUND RETURNS
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
The intensity of ground target returns depends upon the angle at which the radar beam strikes
the ground target (Angle of Incidence) and the reflective properties of that target. The gain can be
adjusted so shorelines, rivers, lakes, and cities are well defined. Increasing the gain too much
causes the display to fill in between targets, thus obscuring some landmarks.
Cities normally provide a strong return signal. While large buildings and structures provide good
returns, small buildings can be shadowed from the radar beam by the taller buildings. As the
aircraft approaches and shorter ranges are selected, details become more noticeable as the highly
reflective regular lines and edges of the city become more defined.
Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, and oceans are not good reflectors and normally do not
provide good returns. The energy is reflected in a forward scatter angle with inadequate energy
being returned. They can appear as dark areas on the display. However, rough or choppy water is a
better reflector and provides stronger returns from the downwind sides of the waves.
Mountains also provide strong return signals to the antenna, but also block the areas behind.
However, over mountainous terrain, the radar beam can be reflected back and forth in the
mountain passes or off canyon walls, using up all or most of the radar energy. In this case, no
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return signal is received from this area, causing the display to show a dark spot which could
indicate a pass where no pass exists.
Angle of Incidence
The angle at which the radar beam strikes the target is called the Angle of Incidence. The figure
illustrates the incident angle (‘A’). This directly affects the detectable range, the area of
illumination, and the intensity of the displayed target returns. A large incident angle gives the radar
system a smaller detectable range and lower display intensity due to minimized reflection of the
radar energy.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-58 Angle of Incidence
SAFE OPERATING DISTANCE
Additional Features
Appendices
The following information establishes a minimum safe distance from the antenna for personnel near
operating weather radar. The minimum safe distance is based on the FCC’s exposure limit at 9.3 to 9.5
GHz for general population/uncontrolled environments, which is 1 mW/cm2. See Advisory Circular
20-68B for more information on safe distance determination.
Maximum Permissible Exposure Level (MPEL)
The zone in which the radiation level exceeds the US Government standard of 1 mW/cm2 is the
semicircular area of approximately 10 feet from the 10-inch antenna. All personnel must remain
outside of this zone. With a scanning or rotating beam, the averaged power density at the MPEL
boundary is significantly reduced.
Automatic Flight Control
System
A smaller incident angle gives the radar a larger detectable range of operation and the target
display shows a higher intensity. Since more radar energy is reflected back to the antenna with a
low incident angle, the resulting detectable range is increased for mountainous terrain.
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Approximate MPEL
Boundary
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
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Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
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Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
10 ft. for 10”
antenna
Figure 6-59 Approximate MPEL Boundary
BASIC ANTENNA TILT SETUP
The following discussion is a simple method for setting up the weather radar antenna tilt for most
situations. It is not to be considered an all encompassing setup that works in all situations, but this
method does provide good overall parameters for the monitoring of threats. Ultimately, it is desired to
have the antenna tilted so that the bottom of the radar beam is four degrees below parallel with the
ground. The following example explains one way of achieving this.
With the aircraft flying level, adjust the antenna tilt so ground returns are displayed at a distance that
equals the aircraft’s current altitude (AGL) divided by 1,000. For example, if the aircraft is at 14,000
feet, adjust the tilt so the front edge of ground returns are displayed at 14 nautical miles. Note this
antenna tilt angle setting. Now, raise the antenna tilt 6 degrees above this setting. The bottom of the
radar beam is now angled down 4º from parallel with the ground.
Practical Application Using the Basic Tilt Setup
With the antenna tilt set as previously described, any displayed target return should be scrutinized
when flying at altitudes between 2,000 and 30,000 feet AGL. If the displayed target advances on the
screen to within five nautical miles of the aircraft, avoid it. This may be either weather or ground
returns that are 2,000 feet or less below the aircraft. Raising the antenna tilt 4 degrees can help
separate ground returns from weather returns in relatively flat terrain. This aligns the bottom of the
radar beam parallel with the ground. Return the antenna tilt to the previous setting after a few
sweeps.
If the aircraft is above 29,000 feet, be cautious of any target return that gets to within 30 nautical
miles. This is likely a thunderstorm that has a top high enough that the aircraft cannot fly over it
safely.
If the aircraft altitude is 15,000 feet or lower, setting the displayed range to 60 miles may be more
helpful. Closely monitor anything that enters the display.
Also, after setting up the antenna tilt angle as described previously, ground returns can be
monitored for possible threats. The relationship between antenna tilt angle, altitude, and distance is
one degree of tilt equals 100 feet of altitude for every one nautical mile.
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2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
10 nm
4000
Vertical Change of Radar Beam (feet)
3000
Flight Instruments
+4°
+3°
+2°
+1°
0°
-1°
-2°
-3°
-4°
System Overview
4000
Change in Antenna Tilt
WEATHER DISPLAY INTERPRETATION
Weather Mode Color
Black
< 23 dBZ
< .01.
Green
23 dBZ to < 32 dBZ
.01 - 0.1.
Yellow
32 dBZ to < 41 dBZ
0.1 - 0.5
Red
41 dBZ to < 50 dBZ
0.5 - 2
Magenta
50 dBZ and greater
>2
Additional Features
Approximate Precipitation
Rate (in/hr.)
Automatic Flight Control
System
Intensity
Hazard Avoidance
When evaluating various target returns on the weather radar display, the colors denote
precipitation intensity and rates shown in the table.
Flight Management
System
WEATHER MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
Audio Panel and CNS
Therefore, with the antenna tilt set so that the bottom of the beam is four degrees below parallel
with the ground, a target return at 10 nm is approximately 4,000 feet below the aircraft; at 20 nm,
8,000 feet; at 50 nm, 20,000 feet. In other words, at this tilt setting, a ground return (such as a
mountain peak) being displayed at 10 nm would have a maximum distance below the aircraft of
4,000 feet. A ground target return being displayed at 5 nm would have a maximum distance below
the aircraft of 2,000 feet.
This setup provides a good starting point for practical use of the airborne weather radar system.
There are many other factors to consider in order to become proficient at using weather radar in all
situations.
Engine Indication System
Figure 6-60 Vertical Change in Radar Beam per Nautical Mile
THUNDERSTORMS
Appendices
Updrafts and downdrafts in thunderstorms carry water through the cloud. The more severe the
drafts, the greater the number and size of the precipitation droplets. With this in mind, the
following interpretations can be made from what is displayed on the weather radar. Avoid these
areas by an extra wide margin.
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•
In areas where the displayed target intensity is red or magenta (indicating large amounts of
precipitation), the turbulence is considered severe.
•
Areas that show steep color gradients (intense color changes) over thin bands or short distances
suggest irregular rainfall rate and strong turbulence.
•
Areas that show red or magenta are associated with hail or turbulence, as well as heavy
precipitation. Vertical scanning and antenna tilt management may be necessary to identify areas
of maximum intensity.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Along squall lines (multiple cells or clusters of cells in a line) individual cells may be in different
stages of development. Areas between closely spaced, intense targets may contain developing
clouds not having enough moisture to produce a return. However, these areas could have strong
updrafts or downdrafts. Targets showing wide areas of green are generally precipitation without
severe turbulence.
Irregularities in the target return may also indicate turbulence, appearing as hooks, fingers, or
scalloped edges. These irregularities may be present in green areas with no yellow, red, or magenta
areas and should be treated as highly dangerous areas. Avoid these areas as if they are red or
magenta.
Hazard Avoidance
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System
Squall Line
Automatic Flight Control
System
Steep Gradient
Hook or Finger
Scalloped Edge
Figure 6-61 Cell Irregularities
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
hunderstorm development is rapid. A course may become blocked within a short time. When
displaying shorter ranges, periodically select a longer range to see if problems are developing
further out. That can help prevent getting trapped in a blind alley or an area that is closed at one
end by convective weather.
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Figure 6-62 The Blind Alley — Horizontal Scan
Audio Panel and CNS
In areas of multiple heavy cells, use the Vertical Scan feature along with antenna tilt management
to examine the areas. Remember to avoid shadowed areas behind targets.
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
The Large Storm Behind
Automatic Flight Control
System
The Blind Alley at Close Range
Figure 6-63 The Blind Alley
TORNADOES
A narrow, finger-like portion extends and in a short time curls into a hook and closes on itself.
•
A hook, which may be in the general shape of the numeral 6 (numeral 9 in the southern
hemisphere), especially if bright and projecting from the southwest quadrant (northeast quadrant
in the southern hemisphere) of a major thunderstorm.
•
V-shaped notches.
•
Doughnut shapes.
Appendices
•
Additional Features
There are no conclusive radar target return characteristics which identify a tornado. However,
tornadoes may be present if the following characteristics are observed:
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These shapes do not always indicate tornadoes, and tornado returns are not limited to these
characteristics. Confirmed radar observations of tornadoes most often have not shown shapes
different from those of a normal thunderstorm display.
Flight Instruments
HAIL
OPERATION IN WEATHER MODE
WARNING: Do not operate the weather radar in a transmitting mode when personnel or
objects are within the MPEL boundary.
CAUTION: In Standby mode, the antenna is parked at the center line. It is always a good
idea to put the radar in Standby mode before taxiing the aircraft to prevent the antenna
from bouncing on the bottom stop and possibly causing damage to the radar assembly.
When the weather radar system is in the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system automatically
switches to Standby mode on landing. In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system automatically
switches to Standby mode. The system remains in Standby mode until both displays are restored.
In Reversionary mode, the weather radar system cannot be controlled.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
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Engine Indication System
Hail results from updrafts carrying water high enough to freeze. Therefore, the higher the top of
a thunderstorm, the greater the probability that it contains hail. Vertically scanning the target
return can give the radar top of a thunderstorm that contains hail. Radar top is the top of a storm
cell as detected by radar. It is not the actual top, or true top of the storm. The actual top of a storm
cell is seen with the eyes in clear air and may be much higher than the radar top. The actual top
does not indicate the top of the hazardous area.
Hail can fall below the minimum reflectivity threshold for radar detection. It can have a film of
water on its surface, making its reflective characteristics similar to a very large water droplet.
Because of this film of water, and because hail stones usually are larger than water droplets,
thunderstorms with large amounts of wet hail return stronger signals than those with rain. Some
hail shafts are extremely narrow (100 yards or less) and make poor radar targets. In the upper
regions of a cell where ice particles are dry (no liquid coating), target returns are less intense.
Hail shafts are associated with the same radar target return characteristics as tornados. U-shaped
cloud edges three to seven miles across can also indicate hail. These target returns appear quite
suddenly along any edge of the cell outline. They also change in intensity and shape in a matter of
seconds, making vigilant monitoring essential.
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Antenna
Stabilization Status
Radar Mode
Flight Instruments
Scan Line
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-64 Horizontal Scan Display
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Scan Line
Bearing Line
Automatic Flight Control
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Additional Features
Figure 6-65 Bearing Line on Horizontal Scan
Displaying weather on the Weather Radar Page:
Appendices
1) Select the ‘Map — Weather Radar’ Page.
2) Press the Mode Softkey.
3) If on the ground, press the Standby Softkey. A one-minute warm-up period begins
with a countdown displayed on the screen. After the warm-up is complete, the weather
radar enters Standby Mode.
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4) Press the Weather Softkey. If the on the ground, a confirmation window appears. Turn
the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Yes’ to confirm activation or ‘No’ to cancel activation
5) Turn the Joystick to select the desired map range.
Flight Instruments
6) The horizontal scan is initially displayed. If desired, press the Vertical Softkey to change
to vertical scan mode.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Vertical scanning of a storm cell should be done with the aircraft’s wings level to
avoid the need to constantly adjust the position of the Bearing Line.
1) While in Horizontal Scan view, press the BRG Softkey. This places the cursor in the
Audio Panel and CNS
‘Bearing’ field and displays the Bearing Line.
Or:
Press the Menu Key and turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Show Bearing Line’. Then
press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or move the Joystick left or right to position the Bearing Line
on the desired storm cell or area to be vertically scanned.
3) Press the VerticalSoftkey. A vertical scan of the selected area is displayed.
4) With the cursor still in the ‘Bearing’ field, turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the
Hazard Avoidance
bearing as needed.
5) To remove the cursor from the ‘Bearing’ field, press the FMS Knob.
6) Turn the Joystick as needed to adjust the range.
Automatic Flight Control
System
7) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the Horizon Softkey to return to
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
the Horizontal scan mode and repeat the previous steps.
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Tilt Line
Engine Indication System
Scan Line
Audio Panel and CNS
ADJUSTING ANTENNA TILT ANGLE
Automatic Flight Control
System
Adjusting antenna tilt angle on the Horizontal Scan display:
Hazard Avoidance
In order to make an accurate interpretation of a storm cell, the radar beam should be pointed at the
wet part of the weather cell to record the proper rainfall intensity (color level). The ideal aiming point is
just below the freezing level of the storm. The best way to find this point is to use the Vertical Scan
feature. The antenna tilt angle can be centered on the strongest return area in the vertical scan to get a
more accurate view of the coverage and intensity of the target in the horizontal scan.
Flight Management
System
Figure 6-66 Tilt Line on Vertical Scan Display
1) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor in the ‘Tilt’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob or press the Joystick up or down to select the desired
antenna tilt angle.
Additional Features
3) Press the ENT Key to accept the setting.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Vertically scanning a storm cell:
1) While in Horizontal Scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the bearing line. The
2) Move the Joystick left or right or turn the small FMS Knob to position the bearing line
Appendices
cursor highlights the setting in the ‘Bearing’ field.
over the storm cell or area to be vertically scanned.
3) Press the Vertical Softkey, and the system displays a vertical scan.
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4) If desired, move the Joystick left or right or turn the small FMS Knob to make
additional adjustments to the ‘Bearing’ field.
5) Turn the Joystick as needed to adjust the range.
Flight Instruments
6) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor from the ‘Bearing’ field.
7) To select a new area to be vertically scanned, press the Horizon Softkey to return to
the Horizontal Scan mode, then repeat the previous steps.
Engine Indication System
Adjusting weather radar gain:
Audio Panel and CNS
WARNING: Always position the weather radar gain setting to Calibrated for viewing the
actual intensity of precipitation. Changing the gain in weather mode causes precipitation
intensity to be displayed as a color not representative of the true intensity.
1) Press the Gain Softkey to activate the cursor in the ‘Gain’ field.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to adjust the gain for the desired level. The gain setting is
Flight Management
System
visible in the ‘Gain’ field as a moveable horizontal bar in a flashing box. A pointer with
a solid bar represents the calibrated gain setting in the field.
3) With the gain set at the desired level, press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
4) To return to the calibrated gain setting, press the Gain Softkey again. ‘Calibrated’
appears in the ‘Gain’ field.
Hazard Avoidance
Enabling/disabling Sector Scanning:
1) While in horizontal scan mode, press the BRG Softkey to display the Bearing Line,
which also places the cursor in the ‘Bearing’ field.
2) Move the Joystick left or right or turn the small FMS Knob to position the Bearing Line
Automatic Flight Control
System
to the position which will define the center of the sector scan.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Sector Scan’ field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the sector scan width in 20 degree increments, or
select ‘Full’ to select the full scan width.
Additional Features
5) If desired, move the Joystick left or right to move the center position of the sector
scan.
6) To remove the Bearing Line and cursor, press the BRG Softkey again. The bearing
Index
Appendices
reference is reset to zero degrees.
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Calibrated Gain
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System
Manual Gain Set Below Calibrated
Figure 6-67 Gain Calibration
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 6-68 Selecting a Sector Scan Position
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Figure 6-69 20° Sector Scan
ANTENNA STABILIZATION
Hazard Avoidance
When radar stabilization is active, the radar tilt is corrected for pitch and roll, and therefore is
kept steady with respect to the horizon. The commanded tilt angle is kept constant with respect to
the Earth. When the stabilization is disabled, corrections are no longer made for pitch and roll,
and the radar tilt angle is kept constant with respect to the aircraft reference system.
1) Press the Features Softkey.
2) Press the STAB Softkey to enable/disable antenna stabilization. The current stabilization
status is shown in the upper right on the Weather Radar Page.
WEATHER ATTENUATED COLOR HIGHLIGHT (WATCH®)
WATCH® identifies deceptively strong or unknown intensity parts of a storm. While in horizontal
scan mode, this feature can be used as a tool to determine areas of possible inaccuracies in displayed
intensity due to weakening of the radar energy. This weakening is known as attenuation. The radar
energy weakens as it passes through areas of intense precipitation, large areas of lesser precipitation, and
distance. Issues with the radome attenuates the radar energy. All these factors have an effect on the
return intensity. The more energy that dissipates, the lesser the displayed intensity of the return.
Accuracy of the displayed intensity of returns located in the shaded areas are suspect. Make
maneuvering decisions with this information in mind. Proper antenna tilt management should still be
employed to determine the extent of attenuation in a shaded area.
To enable or disable the WATCH® feature, press the Watch Softkey.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Enabling/disabling Antenna Stabilization:
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Areas of
attenuated signal
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-70 Horizontal Scan with WATCH Shading of Attenuated Areas
Enabling/disabling the WATCH feature:
Flight Management
System
1) Press the Features Softkey.
2) Press the WATCH Softkey to enable/disable the WATCH feature.
WEATHER ALERT TARGET BANDS AND WEATHER ALERT PFD MESSAGE
Automatic Flight Control
System
Weather
Alert Band
Hazard Avoidance
The Weather Alert feature indicates the presence of heavy precipitation between the ranges of 80
and 320 nm regardless of the currently displayed range. Weather Alert targets appear as red bands
along the outer range ring at the approximate azimuth of the detected returns.
If a Weather Alert is detected within ±10° of the aircraft heading, and the WX ALRT Softkey is
enabled on the Weather Radar Page, the system also displays ‘WX ALERT - Possible severe weather
ahead.’ on the PFD in the Messages Window.
Additional Features
Appendices
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Figure 6-71 Weather Alert Bands and Weather Alert PFD Message
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Flight Instruments
If the antenna tilt is adjusted too low, a weather alert can be generated by ground returns. To
prevent weather alerts from appearing on the PFD in the Messages Window, deselect the WX ALRT
Softkey on the Weather Radar Page on the MFD. The system continues to display weather alert
target bands on the Weather Radar Page even if the PFD weather alert message is disabled.
Figure 6-72 Weather Alert Message on the PFD
GROUND MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION
A secondary use of the weather radar system is for the presentation of terrain. This can be a useful tool
for verifying aircraft position. A picture of the ground is represented much like a topographical map that
can be used as a supplement to the navigation map on the MFD.
Ground Map mode uses a different gain range than Weather mode. Different colors are also used to
represent the intensity levels. The displayed intensity of ground target returns are defined in the table
below. Use of the Gain and Tilt controls help improve contrast so that specific ground targets can be
recognized more easily. As previously discussed, the type and orientation of the target in relation to the
aircraft affects the intensity displayed.
When the weather radar system is in either the Weather or Ground Map mode, the system
automatically switches to Standby mode upon landing.
Ground Map Mode Color
Intensity
Black
0 dB
Cyan
> 0 dB to < 9 dB
Yellow
9 dB to < 18 dB
Magenta
18 dB to < 27 dB
Blue
27 dB and greater
Additional Features
Table 6-9 Ground Target Return Intensity Levels
Operating the Weather Radar in Ground Map Mode on the Weather Radar Page:
1) Press the Mode Softkey.
2) Press the Ground Softkey to place the weather radar in Ground Map mode.
Appendices
3) Press the Back softkey to return to the top-level Weather Radar Page Softkeys.
4) To adjust the antenna tilt angle, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Index
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Tilt’ field.
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at the desired distance.
System Overview
6) Adjust the antenna tilt angle by turning the small FMS Knob to display ground returns
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Weather Radar Range, Tilt,
and Gain information
Engine Indication System
The Map - Weather Radar Page is the principal map page for viewing airborne weather radar
information. Weather radar information may also be shown as an overlay on the Navigation Map Page
on the MFD as an additional reference.
When the airborne weather radar overlay is enabled, a weather radar information box appears in the
upper-right corner of the Navigation Map Page. It indicates the selected weather mode, radar bearing,
and antenna tilt angle. The overlay is capable of showing radar information while the radar is in
horizontal scan mode. If the radar is operating in vertical scan mode while the overlay is enabled, the
system indicates ‘N/A’ in the information box to indicate the airborne weather radar overlay is not
available until the horizontal scan mode is selected on the Weather Radar Page.
Flight Instruments
WEATHER RADAR OVERLAY ON THE NAVIGATION MAP PAGE
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 6-73 Airborne Weather Radar Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
Enabling/disabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the Navigation Map
Page:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
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Index
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
385
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
3) Press the WX RadarSoftkey.
4) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level MFD softkeys.
Flight Instruments
Or:
1) On the Navigation Map Page, press the MENU Key.
2) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through product selections, and highlight the
Weather Radar overlay selection ‘On’ or ‘Off’. Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the
desired selection.
5) To remove the menu, press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key.
Weather radar controls on the Navigation Map Page are limited to adjustment of the radar range,
bearing, and antenna tilt angle. The airborne weather radar overlay is viewable at Navigation Map
Ranges between five and 800 nautical miles (ten to 1,500 kilometers). At map ranges beyond these
limits, the system removes the weather radar information from the map. Adjusting the range on the
Navigation Map Page simultaneously adjusts the range of the weather radar proportionally. This radar
range is annunciated on the range arc that appears when the overlay is enabled and a radar scan is
active. When the radar range is adjusted on the Navigation Map Page, system synchronizes the same
range to the Weather Radar Page.
The radar bearing is adjustable in one degree increments on the Navigation Map Page by pushing the
Joystick left or right when the overlay is enabled. A left or right arrow next to the bearing readout
indicates the direction of the selected bearing. The cyan radar bearing line is only viewable on the
Weather Radar Page. While the bearing line is not shown on the Navigation Map Page, adjusting the
bearing on the Navigation Map Page while Sector Scan is enabled centers the radar scan on the selected
bearing, and the radar scan boundaries adjust accordingly on the Navigation Map Page.
Radar antenna tilt angle is adjustable in 0.25 degree increments on the Navigation Map Page. Push the
Joystick up to adjust the antenna tilt angle downward. Push the Joystick down to adjust the antenna tilt
angle upward. An up or down arrow next to the antenna tilt angle setting indicates the direction of the
antenna tilt angle.
The weather radar overlay uses the same colors as those shown on the Weather Radar Page to indicate
the intensity of radar returns. However, the display of gray WATCH radar attenuation and red weather
alert target bands is exclusive to the Weather Radar Page. Because data link radar precipitation and
terrain present information using similar colors, enabling the airborne weather radar overlay on the
Navigation Map Page disables the display of the data link radar and terrain information for this page.
SYSTEM STATUS
The system displays the radar mode annunciation in the upper left corner of the Weather Radar Page.
It also appears in the upper right corner of the Navigation Map Page when the Weather Radar overlay is
enabled. Additional information may be displayed in the center of the Weather Radar Page as a banner
annunciation.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Weather’ group, then press the ENT Key.
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System Overview
Radar Mode
Radar Mode Annunciation Weather Radar Page Center Banner
Box (Weather Radar Page Annunciation
and Navigation Map Page)
STANDBY
Standby (During
Warm-Up)
Standby
WARM-UP
xx
(xx indicates number of seconds remaining in
warm-up
Weather
Weather
None
Ground Mapping
Ground Mapping
None
Radar Failed
FAIL
Engine Indication System
Standby
Flight Instruments
Standby
RADAR FAIL
Audio Panel and CNS
Table 6-10 Radar Modes on the Weather Radar Page
See the following tables for additional failure annunciations.
Radar Antenna Stabilization Status
Description
Antenna stabilization is selected on.
STAB OFF
Antenna stabilization is selected off.
STAB INOP
The radar is not receiving pitch and roll information. The
antenna stabilization feature is inoperative.
Flight Management
System
STAB On
Hazard Avoidance
Table 6-11 Antenna Stabilization Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
Weather Radar Page Center Banner Annunciation Description
RDR FAULT
The radar unit is reporting a fault. The radar
should be serviced.
RADAR FAIL
The system is not receiving valid data from
the radar unit. The system should be
serviced.
Table 6-12 Abnormal Radar Status Annunciations on the Weather Radar Page
Additional Features
The radar configuration is invalid. The radar
should be serviced.
Automatic Flight Control
System
BAD CONFIG
Appendices
Index
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6.5 TERRAIN DISPLAYS
WARNING: Do not use terrain avoidance displays as the sole source of information for
maintaining separation from terrain and obstacles. Garmin obtains terrain and obstacle data
from third party sources and cannot independently verify the accuracy of the information.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Terrain data is not displayed when the aircraft is outside of the installed terrain
database coverage area.
Terrain and obstacle alerting is not available north of 89º North latitude and south of 89º
South latitude. This is due to limitations present within the Terrain database and the system’s
ability to process the data representing the affected areas.
Terrain and obstacle alerting requires the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B option. No terrain or
obstacle alerting occurs for the Terrain Proximity feature.
The terrain system increases situational awareness and aids in reducing controlled flight into terrain
(CFIT) and obstacles.
One of the following terrain systems is installed on this aircraft:
•
Terrain Proximity
•
Terrain-SVT (included with the Garmin SVT option when the Terrain Awareness and Warning System
Class-B (TAWS-B) is not installed; refer to the Flight Instruments section for more information about
Garmin SVT.)
•
TAWS-B (optional)
The installed terrain system provides color indications on map displays when terrain or obstacles,
including certain power lines, are within a certain altitude threshold from the aircraft. Terrain-SVT and
TAWS-B furthermore provide advisory visual annunciations and voice alerts to indicate the presence of
threatening terrain or obstacles relevant to the projected flight path. This alerting capability is not
present in the Terrain Proximity feature. Compared to Terrain-SVT alerting, TAWS-B uses more
sophisticated algorithms to assess aircraft distance from terrain and obstacles. The TAWS-B system
includes more alerting capabilities than the Terrain-SVT system.
The terrain system requires the following for proper operation:
•
Valid 3-D GPS position
•
Valid terrain and obstacle databases
The terrain system uses terrain and obstacle information supplied by government and other sources.
Terrain information is based on terrain elevation information in a database that may contain
inaccuracies. Individual obstructions, such as towers or power lines, may be shown if available in the
database. Garmin verifies the data to confirm accuracy of the content. However, the displayed
information should never be understood as being all-inclusive and data may still contain inaccuracies.
The terrain and obstacle databases used by the terrain system are referenced to MSL. Using the GPS
position and GSL altitude, terrain system displays a 2-D picture of the surrounding terrain and obstacles
relative to the position and altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, for the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems,
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Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
The terrain system uses colors and symbols to represent terrain and point obstacles (with heights
greater than 200 feet above ground level, AGL) present in the databases relative to aircraft altitude. The
system dynamically adjusts these colors as the aircraft altitude changes, and after takeoff and landing.
While the aircraft is on the ground, the system displays relative terrain 400 feet or more above the
aircraft altitude using red, and terrain at less than 400 feet above aircraft altitude using black, as shown
on the On-Ground Legend. When the aircraft is in the air, the system displays relative terrain
information using red, yellow, green, and black, as shown on the In-Air Legend. As the aircraft
transitions from on-ground to in-air, or from in-air to on-ground, the display of relative terrain
momentarily fades into the corresponding colors. For Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems, if an alert occurs,
the relative terrain colors transition to the In-Air Legend if the On-Ground Legend was shown in order
to provide the pilot with the most information possible.
Flight Instruments
RELATIVE TERRAIN SYMBOLOGY
System Overview
the system uses the GPS position and GSL altitude to calculate and “predict” the aircraft’s flight path in
relation to the surrounding terrain and obstacles. In this manner, the Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B systems
can provide advanced alerts of predicted dangerous terrain conditions.
Baro-corrected altitude (or indicated altitude) is derived by adjusting the altimeter setting for local
atmospheric conditions. The most accurate baro-corrected altitude can be achieved by frequently
updating the altimeter setting to the nearest reporting station along the flight path. However, because
actual atmospheric conditions seldom match the standard conditions defined by the International
Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model (where pressure, temperature, and lapse rates have fixed values), it is
common for the baro-corrected altitude (as read from the altimeter) to differ from the GSL altitude. This
variation results in the aircraft’s GSL altitude differing from the baro-corrected altitude.
Hazard Avoidance
On-Ground Legend
In-Air Legend
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Figure 6-74 Relative Terrain Legend
The following figure shows the relative terrain coloring for the Terrain Proximity system.
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flight Instruments
100 ft Threshold
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Red
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-75 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain Proximity
The following figure shows relative terrain coloring for the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems.
Flight Management
System
Projected Flight Path
100 ft Threshold
Red
Terrain above or within 100 feet
below the aircraft altitude
Yellow
Terrain is between 100 feet and
1000 feet below aircraft altitude
Lighted Obstacle
Hazard Avoidance
2000 ft
Green Terrain is between 1000 feet and
2000 feet below aircraft altitude
Figure 6-76 Terrain Altitude/Color Correlation for Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B Systems
NOTE: The Vertical Situation Display (VSD) Inset Window shows terrain at least 2000 feet
below the aircraft altitude as gray.
The following tables show the relative obstacle coloring used by the terrain systems.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Black Terrain is at least 2000 feet
below aircraft altitude
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< 1000’ AGL
Lighted Obstacle
> 1000’ AGL
< 1000’ AGL
System Overview
Unlighted Obstacle
Obstacle Location
> 1000’ AGL
White point obstacle is more
than 250 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Wire Obstacle
Audio Panel and CNS
Table 6-13 Relative Point Obstacle Symbols and Colors
Wire Obstacle Location
Red wire obstacle is at or above the aircraft altitude
White wire obstacle is more than 250 ft below the aircraft
altitude
Lighted Wind Turbine
Obstacle
Hazard Avoidance
Table 6-14 Relative Wire Obstacles and Colors
Flight Management
System
Yellow wire obstacle is between the aircraft altitude to
within 250 feet below the aircraft altitude
Unlighted Wind
Turbine Obstacle
Engine Indication System
Yellow point obstacle is
between the aircraft altitude to
within 250 feet below the
aircraft altitude
Flight Instruments
Red point obstacle is at or
above the aircraft altitude
Wind Turbine Obstacle Location
Automatic Flight Control
System
Red wind turbine obstacle is at or above the
aircraft altitude
Yellow wind turbine obstacle is between the
aircraft altitude to within 250 feet below the
aircraft altitude
Table 6-15 Relative Wind Turbine Obstacles and Colors
Appendices
The Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems show potential impacts areas for terrain and obstacles using
yellow and red as shown in the following table.
Additional Features
White wind turbine obstacle is more than 250 ft
below the aircraft altitude
Index
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Potential Impact Area Examples
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
or
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
TAWS-B Warning:
Terrain-SVT Warning:
Caution
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’ or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is the principal map page
for viewing terrain information. Terrain and obstacle information can be displayed on the following
maps and pages:
PFD Maps
Trip Planning Page
‘Map - Navigation Map Page’
Flight Plan Page
Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page
Displaying relative terrain information (MFD maps other than the terrain page)
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey (for the PFD Inset Map, press the Map/HSI Softkey).
2) Press the TER Softkey as needed to cycle through the terrain options, with the current
selection displayed in cyan on the softkey (‘Off’, ‘Topo’ or ‘REL’). ‘REL’ indicates relative
terrain is selected.
When relative terrain is shown on maps other than the terrain page, a relative terrain icon appears on
the map. A relative terrain legend appears with the icon on the Navigation Map Page. The legend
appears by itself on the terrain page.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkeys for enabling/
disabling the display of relative terrain, point obstacles (such as towers), and wire obstacles (such as
power lines). The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which terrain and obstacle data
are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the data is
removed from the map. For terrain data, the enable/disable function applies only to the MFD, while the
maximum range setting also affects the PFD maps.
The pilot can display relative terrain information independently of point or wire obstacle information;
however, obstacles for which Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B warnings and cautions are issued are shown when
terrain is selected for display and the map range is within the setting limit.
Index
Appendices
Warning
Example Annunciation
Table 6-16 Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Potential Impact Area with Annunciations
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
or
Alert Type
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Engine Indication System
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
altitude
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ below
the aircraft
altitude)
Flight Instruments
Additional information about obstacles can be displayed by panning over the display on the map. The
map panning feature is enabled by pressing the Joystick. The map range is adjusted by turning the
Joystick. If the map range is adjusted while panning is enabled, the map is re-centered on the Map
Pointer.
System Overview
Maps besides the terrain page use settings based on those selected for the Navigation Map Page. The
maximum display ranges for obstacles on each map are dependent on the range setting made for the
Navigation Map.
Audio Panel and CNS
Red Terrain
(Above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude)
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
below aircraft altitude)
Hazard Avoidance
Terrain Legend
Flight Management
System
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or within
100’ below aircraft
altitude)
Figure 6-77 Terrain Information on the Navigation Map Page
393
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Appendices
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Additional Features
For additional safety, the terrain system incorporates Garmin’s WireAware™ wire obstacle
information. For wire obstacles such as power lines present in the obstacle database, the system shows
these on the maps as well as the Synthetic Vision display; see the Flight Instruments section for more
information about Synthetic Vision displays of power lines. For the Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B only, this
system can also issue cautions or warnings for potential impact with wire obstacles.
WireAware database information mainly includes Hazardous Obstacle Transmission (HOT) power
lines which are typically high voltage transmission lines depicted on VFR Sectional charts, and are
considered of special interest to fixed-wing pilots. These include power lines which may span rivers,
valleys, canyons, or be in close proximity to airports.
It is important to note the obstacle database does not contain all power lines. In fact, WireAware
database coverage is mostly limited to HOT power lines, such as the especially tall transmission lines
and their associated support structures. It does not typically have information for the more prevalent
smaller utility poles or lines, such as those found in residential areas. Furthermore, WireAware
obstacle database coverage exists mainly in the United States; with limited coverage in portions of
Automatic Flight Control
System
WIRE OBSTACLE INFORMATION AND ALERTING
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Canada and Mexico. In addition, the height of the wire obstacles is commonly estimated and should
not be relied upon for maneuvering decisions.
The ‘Map - Terrain Proximity’, or ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’, or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page is specialized to show
terrain, and obstacle in relation to the aircraft’s current altitude, without clutter from the basemap. This
page is the principal page for viewing terrain information. Aviation data (airports, VORs, and other
NAVAIDs) can be enabled for reference.
For Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B systems only, this page also shows potential impact areas. If terrain or
obstacles (including wire obstacles) and the projected flight path of the aircraft intersect, the display
automatically adjusts to a map range if necessary to emphasize the display of the potential impact area.
Aircraft orientation on this map is always heading up unless there is no valid heading, in which case
the orientation is track up. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 250 feet to 1000 nm, which is
indicated on the map range arc.
Hazard Avoidance
Red Terrain
(Above or within
100’ below the
aircraft altitude)
Red Lighted Obstacle
(Above or within
100’ below aircraft
altitude)
Yellow Lighted Obstacles
(Between 100’ and 1000’
below aircraft altitude)
Terrain Legend
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Current Aircraft
GPS-derived GSL
altitude
Yellow Terrain
(Between 100’
and 1000’ below
the aircraft
altitude)
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
TERRAIN PAGE
Figure 6-78 Terrain Proximity Page
Displaying the terrain page:
1) Turn the FMS Knob to select the Map page group.
Appendices
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Terrain Proximity/Terrain-SVT/TAWS-B Page.
Showing/hiding aviation information on the terrain page:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show Aviation Data’ or ‘Hide Aviation Data’ (choice
Index
dependent on the current state), then press the ENT Key.
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Enabling/disabling the Vertical Situation Display (VSD):
Flight Instruments
The system offers a Vertical Situation Display (VSD), which includes a profile of terrain and obstacles
in an inset window on the bottom of the Navigation Map Page. Although the VSD does not display
Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B alerts and potential impact areas, the VSD does use many of the same colors and
symbols as these systems to depict relative terrain and obstacles within the VSD.
System Overview
VERTICAL SITUATION DISPLAY (VSD) TERRAIN
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
3) Press the Inset Softkey.
4) Press the VSD Softkey to enable/disable the VSD.
Audio Panel and CNS
Or:
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
2) Press the MENU Key.
Flight Management
System
3) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight ‘Show VSD’ or ‘Hide VSD’ (choice dependent on
current state) and press the ENT Key.
VSD DISPLAY
0.6 NM
Departure
0.6 NM
Terminal
2.0 NM
Enroute
4.0 NM
Oceanic
4.0 NM
Appendices
Approach
Additional Features
Total VSD Width
Automatic Flight Control
System
Flight Phase
Hazard Avoidance
The same controls which enable/disable the display of relative terrain and obstacles on the
Navigation Map Page also control the display of this information in the VSD.
When the VSD is enabled, terrain and obstacles in the VSD will be shown if the aircraft altitude is
low enough or the VSD altitude range is high enough for the terrain to be in view (absolute terrain
will be shown in gray if the TER Softkey is selected off on the Navigation Map Page).
The depicted terrain profile represents an approximate forward-looking contour of the terrain
based upon the highest reported terrain elevations, measured at intervals defined by the terrain
database resolution, within a predefined width along the aircraft track between the aircraft present
position and the end of the map range. The predefined width is determined by the flight phase, as
annunciated on the HSI, and is widest during enroute or oceanic phases.
Table 6-17 VSD Terrain Width Varies According to Flight Phase
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Index
The forward looking swath of terrain is based on the selected VSD Mode, annunciated in the topleft corner of the VSD Inset Window. In Flight Plan Mode, the contour follows the active flight plan,
and if no active flight plan is present, the VSD Inset Window displays ‘Flight Plan Not Available’. In
Track Mode, the contour is based on the aircraft ground track. In Auto Mode, the contour is based
on the active flight plan, when available, otherwise, it is based on the ground track.
Selecting a VSD Mode:
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
1) Select the Navigation MapPage.
2) Press the Inset Softkey.
selects a mode: FPL (Flight Plan), TRK (track), or Auto.
When the Navigation Map range is adjusted with the Joystick, the horizontal distance of the VSD is
adjusted to match the distance shown on the map range arc, down to one nautical mile. If the
Navigation Map range is adjusted below one nautical mile, the VSD range remains at one nautical mile.
When Navigation Map range is adjusted to remove altitude-correlated colored terrain data (as shown in
the Terrain Legend) or obstacles from the Navigation Map, these items are also removed from the VSD;
only an outline of the terrain will be displayed in black in the VSD Inset Window.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
3) Press the VSD Softkey, which displays the VSD mode in cyan. Each press of the softkey
Hazard Avoidance
Track Mode
Boundary enabled
VSD Total Distance
Figure 6-79 VSD on the Navigation Map Page with Relative Terrain Information
Obstacles with heights greater than 200 feet AGL appear relative to aircraft altitude along the altitude
scale. The top of the obstacle symbol on the scale represents the obstacle’s height AGL. If the obstacle’s
height AGL is higher than can be represented by the obstacle symbol itself (e.g. for especially tall
obstacles), a vertical line appears below the obstacle symbol in order to depict the top of the obstacle
symbol at its height AGL, as shown in the following figure.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Altitude Scale
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Figure 6-80 VSD with Tall Obstacles
TRACK MODE BOUNDARY
Hazard Avoidance
1) Select the Navigation Map Page.
Flight Management
System
Customizing the Track Mode Boundary display on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page:
Audio Panel and CNS
The Track Mode Boundary represents the horizontal and lateral boundaries of the VSD. The
boundary is shown as a white rectangle on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page and is only available
when the VSD is enabled in Track Mode. White range markers on both edges of the Track Mode
Boundary rectangle match the range markers along the distance scale inside the VSD Inset Window
whenever the profile range is at least four nautical miles (or 7.5 km if configured for metric units).
The Track Mode Boundary may be enabled/disabled, and the Navigation Map range at which the
Profile Path is removed from map display can be changed.
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Track Mode Boundary ‘On’ or ‘Off’ field. Turn
the small FMS Knob if needed to change this setting.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the maximum map range to display the Track
7) Press the FMS Knob or the CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page with the
Appendices
changed settings.
Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B Alerting Displays
Alerts are issued when flight conditions meet parameters that are set within Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B
software algorithms. Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B alerts typically employ a caution or a warning alert
severity level, or both. When an alert is issued, visual annunciations are displayed and voice alerts are
simultaneously issued.
Additional Features
Mode Boundary. Turn the small FMS Knob to select a maximum range, then press the
ENT Key.
Automatic Flight Control
System
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight the ‘VSD’ group, then press the ENT Key.
Index
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Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
When an alert is issued, annunciations appear on the PFD and MFD. The terrain alert annunciation
appears to the left of the Selected Altitude box on the PFD, and bottom on the MFD. If the terrain page
is not displayed at the time, a pop-up alert appears on the MFD. To acknowledge the pop-up alert:
•
Press the CLR Key (returns to the currently viewed page), or
•
Press the ENT Key (accesses the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ or ‘Map - TAWS-B’ Page)
Pop-up
Alert
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Alert Annunciation
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-81 TAWS-B Alert Annunciations
Alert Annunciation
Index
Appendices
Figure 6-82 TAWS-B Page with Annunciation (After MFD Pop-up Alert Acknowledgment)
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PFD/Terrain—SVT
Page Alert
Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except Terrain-SVT
Page)
System Overview
Alert Type
Voice Alert
“Warning; Wire, Wire”
Imminent Terrain
Impact Warning (ITI)
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Warning; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Warning (IOI)
“Warning; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Imminent Line Impact
Caution (ILI)
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
Imminent Terrain
Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution; Terrain, Terrain”
Reduced Required Line
Clearance Caution
(RLC)
“Caution, Wire, Wire”
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution; Obstacle,
Obstacle”
Audio Panel and CNS
Reduced Required Line
Clearance (RLC)
Warning
Flight Management
System
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
PFD/TAWS—B Page
Alert Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Hazard Avoidance
Table 6-18 Terrain-SVT Alerts Summary
Alert Type
Engine Indication System
“Warning; Terrain, Terrain”
Flight Instruments
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
Voice Alert
“Pull Up”
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Warning (RTC)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up,
Pull Up”
Appendices
Excessive Descent
Rate Warning (EDR)
Index
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399
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Alert Type
PFD/TAWS—B Page
Alert Annunciation
MFD Pop-Up Alert
(except TAWS-B Page)
Voice Alert
Imminent Line
Impact Warning (ILI)
“Wire Ahead; Pull Up,
Pull Up”
Reduced Required
Line Clearance
Warning (RLC)
“Wire, Wire; Pull Up, Pull
Up”
Imminent Terrain
Impact Warning (ITI)
“Terrain, Terrain; Pull Up,
Pull Up”
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Warning (ROC)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull
Up, Pull Up”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Warning (IOI)
“Obstacle, Obstacle; Pull
Up, Pull Up”
Reduced Required
Terrain Clearance
Caution (RTC)
“Caution, Terrain;
Caution, Terrain”
Imminent Terrain
Impact Caution (ITI)
“Caution, Terrain;
Caution, Terrain”
Required Reduced
Line Clearance (RLC)
Impact Caution
“Caution, Wire; Caution,
Wire”
Imminent Line
Clearance Impact
Caution (ILI)
“Wire Ahead; Wire
Ahead”
Reduced Required
Obstacle Clearance
Caution (ROC)
“Caution, Obstacle;
Caution, Obstacle”
Imminent Obstacle
Impact Caution (IOI)
“Caution, Obstacle;
Caution, Obstacle”
Premature Descent
Alert Caution (PDA)
“Too Low, Terrain”
Altitude Voice
None
Callout (VCO) “500”
None
“Five-Hundred”
Excessive Descent
Rate Caution (EDR)
“Sink Rate”
Negative Climb Rate
Caution (NCR)
“Don’t Sink”
Index
Table 6-19 TAWS-B Alerts Summary
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
600
500
Flight Management
System
Required
Clearance
(FT)
Required Terrain
Clearance (FT)
700
Audio Panel and CNS
Descending (FT)
Engine Indication System
Level (FT)
800
Flight Instruments
The Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance (FLTA) feature of Terrain-SVT or TAWS-B compares the
projected flight path as derived from GPS data with terrain features and obstacles from the terrain and
obstacle databases. The system issues FLTA alerts when the projected flight path conflicts with terrain
or obstacles.
The projected flight path is a calculated area ahead of, to the sides, and below the aircraft. The size of
the projected flight path varies based on factors including ground speed (the path ahead is larger when
the ground speed is higher), whether the aircraft is level, turning, or descending, and the proximity to
the nearest runway along the current track. As the aircraft approaches the runway, the projected flight
path becomes narrower until the system automatically disables FLTA alerts or the pilot manually
inhibits them.
There are two types of FLTA alerts, Reduced Required Terrain/Obstacle/Line Clearance
(RTC /ROC/RLC respectively) and Imminent Terrain/Obstacle/Line Impact (ITI/IOI/ILI respectively).
System Overview
FORWARD LOOKING TERRAIN AVOIDANCE
400
300
200
100
Hazard Avoidance
0
0
5
10
15
20
Distance From Runway (NM)
25
30
Figure 6-83 FLTA Alert Minimum Terrain and Obstacle Clearance Values
INHIBITING FLTA ALERTING
Terrain-SVT System
TAWS-B System
Additional Features
The pilot can manually inhibit FLTA alerts. If TAWS-B is installed, PDA alerts are also inhibited with
FLTA alerts.
Automatic Flight Control
System
The system automatically disables FLTA alerts when the aircraft is less than 200 feet above the
destination runway elevation while within 0.5 nm of the approach runway or the aircraft is between
runway ends.
Appendices
Figure 6-84 FLTA Inhibited Annunciations for Terrain-SVT and TAWS-B
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401
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Inhibiting/enabling FLTA Alerting (Terrain SVT and TAWS-B only):
1) Select the terrain page.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the Inhibit Softkey. FLTA alerting is inhibited when softkey annunciator is green.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
ENT Key.
ADDITIONAL TAWS-B ALERTING
In addition to the FLTA alerting discussed previously, TAWS-B provides the following additional
types of alerts.
EXCESSIVE DESCENT RATE ALERT
The purpose of theExcessive Descent Rate (EDR) alert is to provide notification when the aircraft
is determined to be closing (descending) upon terrain a rate that is calculated to be excessive relative
to height above terrain. Figure 6-59 shows the parameters for the alert.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired inhibit or enable option, then press the
6000
5500
5000
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
4500
SINK
4000
“
ion:
Caut
3500
”
RATE
Hazard Avoidance
3000
2500
2000
Warning: “PULL UP”
1500
1000
12000
11000
9000
10000
Descent Rate (FPM)
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
Figure 6-85 Excessive Descent Rate Alert Criteria
PREMATURE DESCENT ALERTING
A Premature Descent Alert (PDA) is issued when the system detects that the aircraft is significantly
below the normal approach path to a runway.
PDA alerting begins when the aircraft is below 700 feet AGL within 15 nm of the destination
airport and ends when the aircraft is 0.5 nm from the runway threshold.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
500
402
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
System Overview
800
600
Flight Instruments
500
400
300
PDA ALERTING AREA
200
Engine Indication System
Height Above Destination (Feet)
700
100
15
14
13
12
11
9
10
8
7
6
5
4
2
3
1
0
0
Distance to Destination (NM)
NEGATIVE CLIMB RATE AFTER TAKEOFF ALERT (NCR)
Height above the terrain is less than 700 feet
•
Distance from the departure airport is 5 nm or less
•
Heading change from the departure heading is less than 110 degrees
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
System
The Negative Climb Rate (NCR) After Takeoff alert (also referred to as “Altitude Loss After
Takeoff”) provides alerts when the system determines the aircraft is losing altitude (closing upon
terrain) after takeoff. The voice alert “Don’t Sink” is given for NCR alerts, accompanied by visual
annunciations. NCR alerting is only active when departing from an airport and when the following
conditions are met:
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-86 PDA Alerting Threshold
NCR alerts can be triggered by either altitude loss or sink rate.
1000
Automatic Flight Control
System
800
700
600
Additional Features
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
Appendices
100
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Altitude Loss (Feet)
Figure 6-87 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Altitude Loss
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403
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
1000
800
700
600
“DON’T SINK”
or
“TOO LOW, TERRAIN”
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Sink Rate (FPM)
Figure 6-88 Negative Climb Rate (NCR) Sink Rate
FIVE-HUNDRED VOICE ALERT
The purpose of the TAWS-B “Five-hundred” voice alert is to provide an advisory alert of when the
aircraft descends to within 500 feet above the terrain or runway threshold. When the aircraft is
within 5 nm of an airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert is based on the nearest runway threshold
elevation. When the aircraft is more than 5 nm of the nearest airport, the “Five Hundred” voice alert
is based on the height above terrain (as determined by the GPS altitude and Terrain Database).
There are no display annunciations or pop-up alerts that accompany the voice alert.
SYSTEM STATUS
TERRAIN-SVT
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An
voice alert is issued at test completion. Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical
items such as database validity, hardware status, and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is
not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’
alert annunciation. Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical
accuracy minimums. Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the
database coverage area, the annunciation ‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and on
the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ Page. The voice alert “Terrain System Not Available” is generated. When
sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the voice alert
“Terrain System Available” is generated.
Alert Type
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Height Above Terrain (Feet)
900
PFD/Terrain-SVT Terrain-SVT Page Voice Alert
Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
System Test in Progress
Index
System Test Passed
Terrain Alerting Inhibited
404
TERRAIN TEST
None
None
None
“Terrain System Test OK”
None
None
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
System Overview
Alert Type
PFD/Terrain-SVT Terrain-SVT Page Voice Alert
Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
Annunciation
No FMS Position
Excessively degraded GPS
signal; or Out of database
coverage area
None
None
TERRAIN FAIL
“Terrain System Failure”
TERRAIN
DATABASE
FAILURE
None
Audio Panel and CNS
Table 6-20 Terrain-SVT System Status Annunciations
TAWS-B
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
405
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Appendices
During power-up, Terrain-SVT conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts.
An voice alert is issued at test completion. Terrain-SVT continually monitors several system-critical
items such as database validity, hardware status, and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is
not available, the system issues the voice alert “Terrain System Failure” along with the ‘TER FAIL’
Additional Features
TERRAIN-SVT
Automatic Flight Control
System
During power-up, TAWS-B conducts a self-test of its visual annunciations and voice alerts. An
voice alert is issued at test completion. The pilot can also manually select a TAWS-B system test. The
system test option is unavailable when the ground speed exceeds 30 knots.
TAWS-B continually monitors several system-critical items such as database validity, hardware
status, and GPS status. If the terrain/obstacle database is not available, the voice alert “TAWS System
Failure” is generated along with the ‘TAWS FAIL’ alert annunciation.
TAWS-B requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical accuracy minimums.
Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the database coverage
area, the system displays the ‘TAWS N/A’ annunciation, and issues the “TAWS Not Available” voice
alert. When the GPS signal integrity returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the
system issues the voice alert, “TAWS Available”
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database
coverage area re-entered.
Hazard Avoidance
* “Terrain System Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database
coverage area re-entered.
Flight Management
System
MFD Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid, and Terrain-SVT
operating with PFD Terrain
or Obstacle databases
“Terrain System Not
Available”*
Engine Indication System
Terrain System Test Fail;
Terrain or Obstacle
database unavailable or
invalid; Invalid software
configuration; or System
audio fault
“Terrain System Not
Available”*
Flight Instruments
NO FMS
POSITION
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flight Instruments
alert annunciation. Terrain-SVT requires a 3-D GPS navigation solution along with specific vertical
accuracy minimums. Should the navigation solution become degraded or if the aircraft is out of the
database coverage area, the annunciation ‘TER N/A’ is generated in the annunciation window and
on the ‘Map - Terrain-SVT’ Page. The voice alert “Terrain System Not Available” is generated.
When sufficient GPS signal is returns and the aircraft is within the database coverage area, the
voice alert “Terrain System Available” is generated.
Engine Indication System
Alert Type
PFD/TAWS—B Page
Annunciation
System Test in
Progress
Audio Panel and CNS
System Test Passed
TAWS TEST
None
Terrain Alerting
Inhibited
Flight Management
System
No FMS Position
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Voice Alert
None
None
“TAWS System Test
OK”
None
None
NO FMS POSITION
Excessively degraded
GPS signal; or Out of
database coverage
area
Additional Features
TAWS—B Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
None
“TAWS Not
Available”*
“TAWS Not
Available”*
TAWS-B System Test
Fail; Terrain or
Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid;
Invalid software
configuration; or
System audio fault
TAWS FAIL
“TAWS System
Failure”
MFD Terrain or
None
Obstacle database
unavailable or invalid,
and TAWS—B
operating with PFD
Terrain or Obstacle
databases
TERRAIN DATABASE
FAILURE
None
Appendices
Table 6-21 TAWS—B System Status Annunciations
Index
* “TAWS Available” will be heard when sufficient GPS signal is received, or Terrain database coverage
area re-entered.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
System Overview
6.6 TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE (TIS)
Hazard Avoidance
TIS Symbol
Flight Management
System
Traffic Information Service (TIS) is designed to help in detection and avoidance of other aircraft. TIS
uses the Mode—S transponder for the traffic data link. TIS receives traffic information from ground
stations, and is updated every five seconds. The system displays up to eight traffic symbols within a 7.5nm radius, from 3000 feet below to 3500 feet above the requesting aircraft. The system displays TIS
traffic with the symbology shown in the following table.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Mode S TIS is disabled if another traffic system such as TAS or Automatic Dependent
Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is installed.
Engine Indication System
NOTE: TIS is available only when the aircraft is within the service volume of a TIS-capable
terminal radar site. Aircraft without an operating transponder are invisible to both Traffic
Advisory Systems (TAS), Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) and TIS. Aircraft
without altitude reporting capability are shown without altitude separation data or climb
descent indication.
Flight Instruments
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
Description
Non-Threat Traffic
Automatic Flight Control
System
Traffic Advisory (TA)
Traffic Advisory Off Scale
Table 6-22 TIS Traffic Symbols
407
Index
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Appendices
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Additional Features
Traffic Advisories (TA) alert the crew to intruding aircraft. When traffic meets the advisory criteria for
the TA, a solid amber circle symbol appears. A TA which is detected but is outside the range of the map
on which traffic is displayed are indicated with a message in the lower left corner of the map.
TIS also provides a vector line showing the direction in which the traffic is moving, to the nearest 45°.
Traffic information for which TIS is unable to determine the bearing (non-bearing traffic) is displayed in
the center of the Traffic Map Page or in a banner at the lower left corner of maps other than the Traffic
Map Page on which traffic can be displayed.
The altitude difference between the requesting aircraft and other intruder aircraft is displayed above/
below the traffic symbol in hundreds of feet. If the other aircraft is above the requesting aircraft, the
altitude separation appears above the traffic symbol; if below, the altitude separation appears below.
Altitude trend is displayed as an up/down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
the right of the target symbol. Traffic symbols for aircraft without altitude reporting capability appear
without altitude separation or climb/descent information.
The Map - Traffic Map Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic
information can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD
when the traffic TIS is operating:
•
PFD Maps
•
Navigation Map Page
•
Traffic Map Page
•
Trip Planning Page
•
Nearest Pages
•
Active Flight Plan Page
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Garmin Synthetic Vision System (SVT)
option is installed and enabled. See the Flight Instruments section for details.
Enabling/disabling traffic overlays (MFD navigation maps):
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
DISPLAYING TRAFFIC DATA
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the Traffic Softkey. Traffic is now displayed on the navigation map.
Traffic Advisory, 500’
below, climbing
Additional Features
TA Off Scale Banner
Annunciation
Traffic System
Status Banner
Annunciations
Index
Appendices
Figure 6-89 TIS Traffic Overlay on the Navigation Map Page
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, an icon is shown to indicate the
feature is enabled for display.
The Navigation Map Page Setup Menu provides a means in addition to the softkey for enabling/
disabling display of traffic. The setup menu also controls the map range settings above which traffic data
(symbols and labels) are decluttered from the display. If a map range larger than the map range setting is
selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps besides the Traffic Map Page use settings based on
those selected for the Navigation Map Page.
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
System Overview
Enabling/disabling traffic information on the PFD Inset Map or HSI Map:
1) On the PFD, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the TrafficSoftkey to enable/disable the display traffic information on the Inset
Flight Instruments
Map or HSI Map.
Customizing traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Setup’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Traffic’ Group and press the ENT Key.
•
Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
•
Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Alerts only
•
Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
•
Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown (with the
option to turn off)
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through product selections.
Hazard Avoidance
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options for each product (On/Off, range
settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
changed settings.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
Additional Features
Appendices
The Traffic Map Page is specialized to show surrounding TIS traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s
current position and altitude, without clutter from the basemap. Aircraft orientation on this map is
always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick from 2 to
12 nm, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper left corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is
on the ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches from
Standby to Operating Mode and the system begins to display traffic information. Refer to the System
Status discussion for more information.
Automatic Flight Control
System
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page with the
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
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409
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map Page Group.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Confirm TIS is in Operating Mode:
Press the TIS OPER Softkey to begin displaying traffic.
Engine Indication System
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ (shown if TIS is in Standby Mode) and press the ENT Key.
Flight Management
System
Traffic Advisory,
200’ above,
climbing
Traffic Advisory,
without bearing,
2.0 away, 600’
above, descending
Press to mute “TIS
Not Available” Voice
Alert
Figure 6-90 Traffic Map Page (TIS)
TIS ALERTS
When the number of TAs on the Traffic Map Page increases from one scan to the next, the following
occur:
•
A single “Traffic” voice alert is generated.
•
A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears to the right of the airspeed tape, flashes for five seconds, and
remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
•
The PFD Inset Map or HSI Map is automatically displayed with traffic.
To reduce the number of nuisance alerts due to proximate aircraft, the “Traffic” voice alert is generated
only when the number of TAs increases. For example, when the first TA is displayed, a voice and visual
annunciation are generated. As long as a single TA remains on the display, no additional voice alerts are
generated. If a second TA appears on the display or if the number of TAs initially decreases and then
subsequently increases, another voice alert is generated.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Other Non-Threat
traffic, no relative
altitude information
available
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
A “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert is generated when the TIS service becomes unavailable or is
out of range. TIS may be unavailable in the radar coverage area due to the following:
•
Traffic or requesting aircraft is beyond the maximum range of the TIS-capable Mode S radar site.
•
Traffic or requesting aircraft is above the radar site in the cone of silence and out of range of an
adjacent site.
•
Traffic or requesting aircraft is below radar coverage. In flat terrain, the coverage extends from about
3000 feet upward at 55 miles. Terrain and obstacles around the radar site can further decrease radar
coverage in all directions.
•
Traffic does not have an operating transponder.
Muting the “TIS Not Available” voice alert:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Automatic Flight Control
System
The “TIS Not Available” (TNA) voice alert can be manually muted to reduce nuisance alerting. TNA
muting status is shown in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Hazard Avoidance
Radar site TIS Mode S sensor is not operational or is out of service
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-91 Traffic Annunciation on the PFD
Additional Features
2) Press the TNA Mute Softkey. The status is displayed in the upper left corner of the
Traffic Map Page.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
the ENT Key.
Appendices
b) Select ‘‘’Not Available” Mute On’ (shown if TNA muting is currently off) and press
Index
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411
SYSTEM STATUS
The system performs an automatic test of TIS during power-up. If TIS passes the test, TIS enters
Standby Mode (on the ground) or Operating Mode (in the air). If TIS fails the power up test, an
annunciation is shown in the center of the Traffic Map Page.
Traffic Map Page Center Banner
Annunciation
Description
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the transponder*
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the transponder, but a failure is
detected in the data stream*
FAILED
The transponder has failed*
FAILED
TIS is unavailable or out of range
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Table 6-23 TIS Failure Annunciations
Traffic Map Center Banner
Annunciation
DATA FAILED
TRFC FAIL
Data is being
received from the
transponder, but a
failure is detected
in the data
stream*
NO DATA
TRFC FAIL
Data is not being
received from the
transponder*
OPERATING
NONE
TIS is operating
and is receiving
traffic data from a
data link.
OPERATING
UNAVAILABLE
TIS is operating,
but the traffic
service is currently
unavailable or is
out of reception
range.
Traffic Overlay
Status Icon
(Navigation Maps
Index
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Traffic Map Mode
Annunciation
Additional Features
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page. When the aircraft is
on the ground, TIS automatically enters Standby Mode. If traffic is selected for display on another map
while Standby Mode is selected, the traffic display enabled icon is crossed out (also the case whenever
TIS has failed). Once the aircraft is airborne, TIS switches to Operating Mode and traffic information is
displayed. The mode can be changed manually using softkeys or the page menu.
Appendices
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
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Description
190–02361–00 Rev. A
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Overlay
Status Icon
(Navigation Maps
Description
STANDBY
STANDBY
TIS is in Standby
Mode.
UNIT FAILED
TRFC FAIL
The transponder
has failed*
Flight Instruments
Traffic Map Center Banner
Annunciation
System Overview
Traffic Map Mode
Annunciation
* Contact a service center or Garmin dealer for corrective action
Engine Indication System
Table 6-24 TIS Modes and Status Annunciations
Switching between TIS modes:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Press the Standby or Operate Softkey to switch between modes. The mode is
displayed in the upper right corner of the Traffic Map Page.
Or:
b) Select ‘Operate Mode’ or ‘Standby Mode’ (choice dependent on current state) and
press the ENT Key.
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left
corner of maps on which traffic can be displayed, as shown in the following table.
Hazard Avoidance
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range* Annunciation
is removed when traffic comes within the selected display range
TA X.X ± XX
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory** Annunciation
indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in hundreds of feet, and
altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending)
AGE MM:SS
Appears if traffic data is not refreshed within 6 seconds If after
another 6 seconds data is not received, traffic is removed from the
display The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced as the
age increases
TRFC COAST
The displayed data is not current (6 to 12 seconds since last message)
The quality of displayed traffic information is reduced when this
message is displayed
TRFC RMVD
Traffic is removed because it is too old for coasting (12 to 60 seconds
since last message) Traffic may exist within the selected display range,
but it is not displayed
TRFC FAIL
Traffic data has failed
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Index
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Traffic has not been detected
Appendices
TA OFF SCALE
Additional Features
Description
Automatic Flight Control
System
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
NO TRFC DATA
Flight Management
System
a) Press the MENU Key.
413
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
The traffic service is unavailable or out of range
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-25 TIS Traffic Status Annunciations
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
TRFC UNAVAIL
Description
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System Overview
6.7 TAS/TCAS I TRAFFIC
NOTE: Refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion for more information about ADS-B traffic
displays.
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
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Appendices
The TAS/TCAS I surveillance system monitors the airspace within ±10,000 feet of own altitude.
Under ideal conditions, the TAS system scans transponder traffic up to 22 NM in the forward
direction. The TCAS I system scans for transponder traffic up to 40 NM in the forward direction.
The range is somewhat reduced to the sides and aft of own aircraft due to the directional
interrogation signal patterns. In areas of greater transponder traffic density, the on-board traffic
system automatically reduces its interrogation transmitter power (and therefore range) in order to
limit potential interference from other signals.
The system can display the symbols shown in the following table.
Additional Features
TAS/TCAS I SURVEILLANCE VOLUME AND SYMBOLOGY
Automatic Flight Control
System
When the traffic system is in Operating Mode, the system interrogates the transponders of other
aircraft in the vicinity while monitoring for transponder replies. The system uses this information to
derive the distance, relative bearing, and if reported, the altitude and vertical trend for each aircraft
within its surveillance range. The traffic system then calculates a closure rate to each intruder based on
the projected Closest Point of Approach (CPA). If the closure rate meets the threat criteria for a Traffic
Advisory (TA), the traffic system provides visual annunciations and voice alerts.
Hazard Avoidance
THEORY OF OPERATION
Flight Management
System
The optional Garmin GTS 825 is a Traffic Advisory System (TAS). The optional Garmin GTS 855 is a
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I). Differences between TAS and TCAS I are
discussed where applicable. The traffic system enhances flight crew situational awareness by displaying
traffic information for transponder-equipped aircraft. The traffic system also provides visual
annunciations and voice traffic alerts to assist in visually acquiring traffic.
The TAS/TCAS I system is capable of tracking up to 75 intruding aircraft equipped with Mode A, C, or
S transponders in order to issue alerts if warranted. The system can display up to 30 aircraft with the
highest threat potential simultaneously. No TAS/TCAS I surveillance is provided for aircraft without
operating transponders.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Mode-S TIS is disabled when another traffic system such as TAS or TCAS I is installed.
Engine Indication System
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all
of the traffic information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal
reception, and/or inaccurate information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not
represented on the display.
Flight Instruments
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Symbol
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the
intruder aircraft track.
Flight Instruments
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional
information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Engine Indication System
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional
information. Displayed at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of
the aircraft track.
Audio Panel and CNS
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the
direction of the intruder aircraft track.
Flight Management
System
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the
direction of the aircraft track. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B
is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is
in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Table 6-26 Traffic Symbology
A Traffic Advisory (TA), displayed as a amber circle or triangle, alerts the crew to a potentially
hazardous intruding aircraft, if the closing rate, distance, and vertical separation meet TA criteria. A
TA that is beyond the selected display range (off scale) is indicated by a half TA symbol at the edge of
the screen at the relative bearing of the intruder.
A Proximity Advisory (PA), displayed as a solid white diamond or triangle, indicates the intruding
aircraft is within ±1200 feet and is within a 6 nm range, but is still not considered a TA threat. A
Non-threat Advisory, shown as an open white diamond or triangle, is displayed for traffic beyond 6
nm that is neither a TA or PA.
Relative altitude, when available, is displayed above or below the corresponding intruder symbol
in hundreds of feet . When this altitude is above own aircraft, it is preceded by a ‘+’ symbol; a minus
sign ‘-’ indicates traffic is below own aircraft. The system displays the altitude vertical trend as an up/
down arrow (for speeds greater than 500 fpm in either direction) to the right of the intruder symbol.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only
displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the
ground.
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System Overview
Relative Altitude
Flight Instruments
Vertical trend arrow
Figure 6-92 Intruder Altitude and Vertical Trend Arrow
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of
vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 20 seconds of
horizontal separation and vertical separation is within 600
feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.2 nm and vertical separation is
within 600 feet.
A
No
Intruder closing rate provides less than 15 seconds of
separation.
Additional Features
Yes
Automatic Flight Control
System
A
Hazard Avoidance
TA Alerting Conditions
Flight Management
System
Intruder Altitude
Available
Audio Panel and CNS
Sensitivity
Level
Engine Indication System
If the intruding aircraft is providing ADS-B track information, a motion vector line extending
beyond the traffic symbol in the direction of the track may also be displayed when either absolute or
relative motion vectors are enabled; refer to the ADS-B Traffic discussion for more information..
TA Alerting Conditions
The TAS/TCAS I system automatically reduces its TA sensitivity level to reduce the likelihood of
nuisance TA alerting during certain flight conditions.
Level A (reduced) TA sensitivity normally applies when the aircraft is less than 2,000 feet above
ground level. If the system cannot determine this height, then level A sensitivity applies when the
landing gear is extended. If the system also cannot determine the landing gear position, then level A
TA sensitivity applies when the groundspeed is less than 120 knots.
In all other conditions, the system uses level B (increased) sensitivity in order to determine TA
threats.
Appendices
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417
Sensitivity
Level
Intruder Altitude
Available
TA Alerting Conditions
B
Yes
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of
vertical and horizontal separation.
Or:
Intruder closing rate provides less than 30 seconds of
horizontal separation and vertical separation is within 800
feet.
Or:
Intruder range is within 0.55 nm and vertical separation is
within 800 feet.
B
No
Intruder range is less than 20 seconds.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Audio Panel and CNS
Table 6-27 TA Sensitivity Level and TA Alerting Criteria
TAS/TCAS I Alerts
When the TAS/TCAS I system detects a new TA, the following occur:
The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the
bearing, relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table
6-28). For example, the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the
traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
•
A ‘TRAFFIC’ Annunciation appears at the right of the airspeed tape on the PFD, flashes for five
seconds, and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area
•
The PFD Inset Map is automatically displayed with TA traffic.
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center
of the Traffic Map Page and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text
will indicate “TA” followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA
traffic, if known. A TA will be displayed for at least eight seconds, even if the condition(s) that
initially triggered the TA are no longer present.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
•
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance
(nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock” or “No
Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Less than one mile”, “One
Mile” through “Ten Miles”,
or “More than ten miles”
Flight Management
System
Bearing
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 6-93 Traffic Annunciation on the PFD
Table 6-28 TA Descriptive Voice Announcements
Additional Features
Appendices
The traffic provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes ten seconds to
complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on the Traffic Map
Page. If the system test passes, the system announces, “TAS System Test Passed” or “TCAS One System
Test Passed.” Otherwise the system announces, “TAS System Test Failed” or “TCAS One System Test
Failed.” When the system test is complete, the traffic system enters Standby Mode.
The appearance of the pattern of traffic symbols is dependent on whether ADS-B In capability is
installed in the aircraft.
If ADS-B In capability is present, test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing
TA is shown to the west, level Other Non-Threat traffic is shown to the northwest, and a descending
Proximity Advisory is in the northeast, relative to own aircraft.
If ADS-B In capability is not installed, a climbing TA is displayed at 9 o’clock, Other Non-Threat traffic
is displayed at 11 o’clock and is level, and a descending Proximity Advisory is displayed at 1 o’clock.
Automatic Flight Control
System
NOTE: Traffic surveillance is not available during the system test. Use caution when
performing a system test during flight.
Hazard Avoidance
SYSTEM TEST
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419
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Testing the Traffic System:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick to adjust the map range to 2 NM for the inner range ring, and 6 NM
Flight Instruments
for the outer range ring. This ensures the full traffic test pattern is depicted on the map.
3) If the traffic system is Operating Mode, press the Standby or TAS Standby Softkey.
4) Press the Test Softkey.
Engine Indication System
Or:
1) On the Traffic Map Page, press the MENU Key and turn the FMS Knob highlight ‘Test
Mode’.
Audio Panel and CNS
2) Press the ENT Key.
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
TAS/TCAS I Test Mode
Figure 6-94 System Test in Progress with a Test Pattern
OPERATION
NOTE: The traffic system automatically transitions from Standby to Operating mode eight
seconds after takeoff. The system also automatically transitions from Operating to Standby
mode 24 seconds after landing.
After power-up, the traffic system is in Standby Mode. The system must be in Operating Mode for
traffic to be displayed and for TAs to be issued.
Selecting the Operate Softkey allows the traffic unit to switch from Standby Mode to Operating
Mode as necessary. Selecting the Standby Softkey forces the unit into Standby Mode.
Selecting a TAS/TCAS I Operating Mode:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
Index
2) To select Standby Mode, press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey.
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System Overview
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the desired mode and press the ENT Key.
Audio Panel and CNS
TAS/TCAS I Test
Mode
Proximity
Advisory,
1200’ below,
descending
Flight Management
System
Other Non-Threat Traffic
without directional
information, 4000’
above, level
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000
below, climbing
Hazard Avoidance
No-bearing Traffic
Advisory, 2.0 nm
away, 600’ above,
descending
Traffic Map
Range Rings
Engine Indication System
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without basemap clutter. It is the principal map page for viewing traffic
information. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there is no valid heading. Map range is
adjustable with the Joystick (up to 40 nm) as indicated by the map range rings.
The system annunciates the traffic mode and altitude display mode in the upper right corner of the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Flight Instruments
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
Automatic Flight Control
System
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory, 500’ Above,
Climbing
Figure 6-95 Traffic Map Page
Displaying traffic on the Traffic Map Page:
Additional Features
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Map page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Map Page.
3) Press the Operate or TAS OPER Softkey to select Operating Mode.
Appendices
4) Press the Standby or TAS STBY Softkey to select Standby Mode.
ALTITUDE DISPLAY MODE
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity Advisory
traffic is displayed. TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown regardless of the
chosen mode.
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
•
Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
•
Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
•
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
•
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
•
Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
•
Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the
option to turn off
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
Automatic Flight Control
System
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
TRAFFIC MAP DISPLAY RANGE
The display range on the Traffic Map Page can be changed at any time. Map range is adjustable
with the Joystick, and rings on the map denote the ranges.
Additional Features
Selecting a display range on the Traffic Map Page:
1) Select the Traffic Map Page.
2) Turn the Joystick clockwise to increase the map range or counter-clockwise to decrease
ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC DISPLAYS
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page is the principal map page for viewing traffic information. Traffic
information can also be displayed on the following other maps for additional reference on the MFD
when the traffic unit is operating:
Index
Appendices
the map range.
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Nearest Page
Active Flight Plan Page
Trip Planning Page
System Overview
Navigation Map Page
IFR/VFR Charts Page
1) Press the Map Opt Softkey.
Engine Indication System
Enabling/disabling traffic information (MFD navigation maps):
Flight Instruments
Traffic information can also be displayed on the PFD when the Garmin Synthetic Vision
Technology (SVT) option is installed and enabled. See the Flight Instruments section for details.
When traffic is selected on maps other than the Traffic Map Page, the system shows a traffic status
icon to indicate traffic is enabled for display.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the traffic overlay.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level softkeys.
Customizing the traffic display on the Navigation Map Page:
1) Select the ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page.
Flight Management
System
2) Press the MENU Key.
3) With ‘Map Settings’ highlighted, press the ENT Key.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Traffic Group and press the ENT Key.
•
Traffic – Turns the display of traffic data on or off
•
Traffic Mode – Selects the traffic mode for display; select from:
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
Hazard Avoidance
5) Turn the large FMS Knob or press the ENT Key to scroll through the selections.
All Traffic - Displays all traffic
•
TA/PA - Displays Traffic Advisories and Proximity Advisories
•
TA Only - Displays Traffic Advisories only
•
Traffic Symbols – Selects the maximum range at which traffic symbols are shown
•
Traffic Labels – Selects the maximum range at which traffic labels are shown with the
option to turn off
Additional Features
•
Appendices
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to scroll through options (On/Off, range settings, etc.).
7) Press the ENT Key to select an option.
8) Press the FMS Knob or CLR Key to return to the Navigation Map Page.
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423
The ‘Map - Navigation Map’ Page Setup Menu also controls the display of traffic. The setup menu
controls the map range settings. Traffic data symbols and labels can be decluttered from the display.
If a map range larger than the map range setting is selected, the data is removed from the map. Maps
besides the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page use settings based on those selected for the ‘Map - Navigation
Map’ Page.
A Traffic Map is available on the PFD by pressing the TFC Map Softkey. A traffic map will appear
in heading up orientation. Traffic information can also be overlaid with navigation, topographic and
optional data link weather information on navigation maps.
Enabling/disabling traffic information on PFD navigation maps:
1) With the Inset Map or HSI Map displayed, press the Map/HSI Softkey.
2) Press the Traffic Softkey to enable/disable the traffic overlay.
3) Press the Back Softkey to return to the top-level PFD softkeys.
SYSTEM STATUS
Mode
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Traffic Mode Annunciation (Traffic Map
Page)
Traffic System Test Initiated
TEST (‘TEST MODE’ shown in center of page)
Operating
OPERATING
Standby
Hazard Avoidance
Traffic Display
Status Icon
(Other Maps)
STANDBY(also shown in center of page)
Traffic System Failed*
FAIL
Table 6-29 Traffic Modes
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the
‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
* See for the following table for additional failure annunciations
Appendices
Traffic Map Page Center Annunciation
Description
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but
the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic
unit
Index
Table 6-30 TAS/TCAS I Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left
corner of maps on which traffic can be displayed.
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TA OFF SCALE
NO TRFC DATA
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the
selected display range.
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in
hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/
descending).
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending
incorrectly formatted data)
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Audio Panel and CNS
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Engine Indication System
TRFC FAIL
Description
Flight Instruments
TA X.X ± XX
System Overview
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Table 6-31 TAS/TCAS I Traffic Status Annunciations
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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425
6.8 ADS-B TRAFFIC
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information for collision avoidance
maneuvering. The traffic display does not provide collision avoidance resolution advisories
and does not under any circumstances or conditions relieve the pilot’s responsibility to see
and avoid other aircraft.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
The optional Garmin GTX 345R transponder sends and receives Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B) traffic information on the 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES) frequency. It
receives ADS-B traffic and data link weather information on the 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver
(UAT) frequency. The system provides visual annunciations and voice traffic alerts to help the pilot
visually acquire potentially conflicting traffic. This discussion covers the traffic features of the GTX
transponder; refer to the Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B) Weather section for more
information about the UAT data link weather features of the GTX 345.
ADS-B SYSTEM OVERVIEW
ADS-B is a core technology in the FAA NextGen air traffic control system and is comprised of three
segments: ADS-B (Broadcast), ADS-R (Rebroadcast), and Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TISB).
ADS-B is the automatic broadcast of position reports by aircraft, surface vehicles, and transmitters
on fixed objects. These broadcasts contain information such as GPS position, identity (Flight ID, Call
Sign, Tail Number, ICAO registration number, etc), ground track, ground speed, pressure altitude,
and emergency status.
1090 ES
UAT
RADAR
Composite
GPS
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
WARNING: Do not rely solely upon the display of traffic information to accurately depict all
of the traffic information within range of the aircraft. Due to lack of equipment, poor signal
reception, and/or inaccurate information from other aircraft, traffic may be present but not
represented on the display.
1090 ES
18,000 FT
10,000 FT
Appendices
Mode A/C
RADAR
ATC
UAT
UAT
UAT
1090 ES
ADS-B Ground Station (ADS-R,
TIS-B, FIS-B)
Index
Figure 6-96 ADS-B System
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UAT Transmit Equipped
Yes
No Transponder, No ADS-B
No
Appendices
No
Additional Features
UAT Receive Only Capable
Automatic Flight Control
System
Yes
Hazard Avoidance
1090ES Out Equipped
Flight Management
System
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped Aircraft
Audio Panel and CNS
Other Aircraft Equipment
Engine Indication System
TIS-B provides the bridge between the radar-based ATC system and the ADS-B-based system.
When an ADS-B In or Out capable aircraft is within the service volume of an FAA ADS-B ground
station, the ground station broadcasts a portion of the ATC radar data to the aircraft. This aircraft is
then included in the list of aircraft being provided TIS-B service and is then considered a “TIS-B
participant.”
TIS-B coverage is available when the aircraft is within ground station coverage, in Secondary
Surveillance Radar coverage, and the other aircraft is also in Secondary Surveillance Radar coverage,
and is transmitting its altitude.
The ground station provides ATC radar information for other aircraft within ±3,500 feet and 15
NM of the participant, to include altitude, position, ground speed, and ground track. TIS-B
broadcasts occur once every three to thirteen seconds, depending on the characteristics of the
ground station providing the TIS-B service.
The following table describes the aircraft that are observed by a GTX 345R-equipped aircraft
according to the level of equipment installed in the other aircraft.
Flight Instruments
TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-BROADCAST (TIS-B)
System Overview
For the purpose of distinguishing between levels of ADS-B service, there are three classifications of
aircraft or system capability: ADS-B In, ADS-B Out, and ADS-B participating. ADS-B In refers to the
capability to receive ADS-B information. ADS-B Out refers to the capability to transmit ADS-B
information. ADS-B participating refers to the capability to both send and receive ADS-B
information. Aircraft lacking either ADS-In, ADS-B Out, or both ADS-B capabilities may also be
referred to as ADS-B nonparticipating aircraft.
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Rebroadcast (ADS-R)
Because it is not required that ADS-B In capable aircraft be able to receive ADS-B data on both the
1090 MHz and 978 MHz data links, a method exists to get data from one data link to the other.
ADS-R is the rebroadcast of ADS-B data by FAA ground stations, which provide this service by
taking data from one link and rebroadcasting it on the other. For example, two aircraft are in the
service volume for a ground station, and one is transmitting on 1090 MHz and the other on 978
MHz, the ground station retransmits the data from each aircraft on the other link to ensure the two
aircraft can “see” each other.
Because the GTX 345R transponder sends and receives ADS-B traffic reports on the 1090 ES
frequency, but only receives traffic reports on the 978 MHz UAT frequency, the presence of an ADS-R
ground station is necessary for an aircraft with only UAT-capabilities to ‘see’ the aircraft with the GTX
345R transponder.
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System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Non ADS-B Equipped, but with Mode C or S
Transponder
Yes*
Table 6-32 Aircraft Available for Viewing by an ADS-B Equipped Own Aircraft
ADS-B WITH TAS/TCAS I
When an optional active traffic system, such as a Traffic Advisory System (TAS) or Traffic Alert and
Collision Avoidance System I (TCAS I) is insalled and operating with an optional GTX 345R
transponder, the transponder receives traffic from the active traffic system and attempts to match (or
“correlate”) this traffic with ADS-B traffic the transponder is tracking. When a correlation is made,
the only the traffic with the most accurate information is displayed to the flight crew. Any traffic that
is not correlated (i.e., only detected by one system but not the other) is also displayed for the flight
crew. This correlation of traffic by the transponder improves the accuracy of the traffic displayed,
while reducing the occurrence of the same aircraft being displayed twice.
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Viewable by GTX 345R Equipped Aircraft
*Only when in ADS-B ground station coverage and when the other aircraft is in ATC radar
coverage, or own aircraft is equipped with a TAS/TCAS I system and traffic is within the TAS/
TCAS I surveillance range.
NOTE: When operating on the edges of ATC radar coverage or when using an optional
active traffic system providing intermittent traffic data, a single aircraft may be briefly or
periodically depicted as two aircraft on the display.
CONFLICT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AND ALERTING
Conflict Situational Awareness (CSA) is an alerting algorithm which provides ADS-B traffic alerting
similar to the TAS/TCAS I system discussed previously.
The system issues a voice alert when a Traffic Advisory (TA) is displayed, for example “Traffic! Two
O’clock, Low, Two Miles.”
The own aircraft altitude above terrain determines the sensitivity of the CSA algorithm to minimize
nuisance alerts. Height Above Terrain, and Geodetic Sea Level (GSL) altitude are used to adjust the
sensitivity of the CSA algorithm in accordance with the following table:
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Other Aircraft Equipment
Sensitivit
y Level
Height
Above
Terrain
(HAT)
GPS
Phase of
Flight
4
Any
Any
Any
20
850
0.2
4
Any
Any
Any
20
850
0.2
4
Unavailabl
e
Approach
Any
20
850
0.2
5
Any
Any
Any
25
850
0.2
Any
Any
25
850
0.2
Index
5
428
>1000
<=2350
Vertical
Own
LookProtected
Threshold
Altitude
ahead
Volume
for Alert
(Feet)
time (sec)
(NM)
(feet)
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Terminal
Any
25
850
0.2
Unavailabl
e or
>2350
Not
approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailabl
e)
<=5000
30
850
0.35
Unavailabl
e or
>2350
Not
>5000
approach
and not
Terminal
(including <=10,000
unavailabl
e)
40
850
0.55
Unavailabl
e or
>2350
Not
>10,000
approach
and not
Terminal
(including <=20,000
unavailabl
e)
45
850
0.8
Unavailabl
e or
>2350
Not
>20,000
approach
and not
Terminal
(including <=42,000
unavailabl
e)
48
850
1.1
Unavailabl
e or
>2350
Not
approach
and not
Terminal
(including
unavailabl
e)
48
1200
1.1
7
> 42,000
Additional Features
10
Automatic Flight Control
System
9
Hazard Avoidance
8
Flight Management
System
Unavailabl
e
Audio Panel and CNS
5
6
Vertical
Own
LookProtected
Threshold
Altitude
ahead
Volume
for Alert
(Feet)
time (sec)
(NM)
(feet)
Engine Indication System
GPS
Phase of
Flight
Flight Instruments
Height
Above
Terrain
(HAT)
System Overview
Sensitivit
y Level
Appendices
Table 6-33 CSA Alerting Thresholds for ADS-B Traffic
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Index
When the system detects a new Traffic Advisory (TA), the following occur:
429
•
The system issues a single “Traffic!” voice alert, followed by additional voice information about the
bearing, relative altitude, and approximate distance from the intruder that triggered the TA (Table
6-34). For example, the announcement “Traffic! 12 o’clock, high, four miles,” would indicate the
traffic is in front of own aircraft, above own altitude, and approximately four nautical miles away.
•
A ‘TRAFFIC’ annunciation appears to the right of the Airspeed Indicator on the PFD, flashes for five
seconds, and remains displayed until no TAs are detected in the area.
•
If the PFD Inset Map was already displayed, the traffic is shown on the displayed map. Otherwise the
Traffic Map is shown on the PFD.
•
If the bearing of TA traffic cannot be determined, a yellow text banner will be displayed in the center
of the Traffic Map and in the lower-left of the PFD inset map instead of a TA symbol. The text will
indicate ‘TA’ followed by the distance, relative altitude, and vertical trend arrow for the TA traffic, if
known.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-97 Traffic Annunciation (PFD)
Bearing
Relative Altitude
Approximate Distance (nm)
“One o’clock” through
“Twelve o’clock” or
“No Bearing”
“High”, “Low”, “Same Altitude” (if
within 200 feet of own altitude), or
“Altitude not available”
“Zero miles”, “Less than one mile”,
“One Mile” through “Ten Miles”, or
“More than ten miles”
NOTE: ADS-B traffic voice alerts are suppressed when below 500 feet.
AIRBORNE AND SURFACE APPLICATIONS
ADS-B can help the pilot visually acquire traffic both in the air and on-the-ground. There are two
ADS-B applications or modes: Airborne Situational Awareness (AIRB) and Surface Situational
Awareness (SURF). The system automatically selects the appropriate application based on conditions.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Inset Map
Displays When
TA is Detected
430
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HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Due to the varying precision of the data received via ADS-B, ADS-R, and TIS-B services, not all traffic
symbols may not be depicted on the traffic display. Because higher data precision is required for traffic
to be displayed in the SURF environment, some traffic eligible for AIRB will not be displayed while
SURF is on. Availability for AIRB and SURF is depicted on the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page, discussed
later in this section.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Do not rely on the solely on the traffic display to determine the runway alignment of
traffic, especially when runways are in close proximity to each other.
System Overview
The AIRB application is on when the aircraft is more than five nautical miles and 1,500 feet above
the nearest airport. When the AIRB application is active, the system only displays traffic which is
airborne.
The SURF application is on when the aircraft is within five nautical miles and less than 1,500 feet
above field elevation. When the SURF applications is on, the system displays airborne and on the
ground traffic. At a Traffic Map Page range of one nautical mile or less, the airport environment
(including taxiways and runways) appears in addition to traffic. The airport displays are derived from
the SafeTaxi database. Refer to the Additional Features section for more information about SafeTaxi
displays.
Flight Management
System
SURF Application
On
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Ground-based
vehicle
Aircraft on the
ground
Additional Features
Figure 6-98 ADS-B with the Surface Application on the Traffic Map Page
The symbols used to display ADS-B traffic are shown in the table below. Above or below the traffic
symbol is the traffic identifier, and altitude. A small up or down arrow next to the traffic symbol
indicates that the traffic is climbing or descending at a rate of at least 500 feet per minute.
Appendices
TRAFFIC DESCRIPTION
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
431
Symbol
Traffic Advisory without directional information.
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range with directional information. Displayed at
outer range ring at proper bearing.
Engine Indication System
Traffic Advisory out of the selected display range without directional information. Displayed
at outer range ring at proper bearing.
Proximity Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the aircraft track.
Audio Panel and CNS
Proximity Advisory without directional information.
Other Non-Threat traffic with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder
aircraft track.
Other Non-Threat traffic without directional information.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Traffic located on the ground with directional information. Points in the direction of the
aircraft track. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface (SURF) Mode or
own aircraft is on the ground.
Ground traffic without directional information. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADSB is in Surface (SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
Non-aircraft ground traffic. Ground traffic is only displayed when ADS-B is in Surface
(SURF) Mode or own aircraft is on the ground.
OPERATION
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE
The ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page shows surrounding traffic data in relation to the aircraft’s current
position and altitude, without basemap clutter. Aircraft orientation is always heading up unless there
is no valid heading. Map range is adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
The traffic mode and altitude display mode are annunciated in the upper left corner of the page.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Description
Traffic Advisory with directional information. Points in the direction of the intruder aircraft
track
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
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190–02361–00 Rev. A
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
System Overview
TAS/TCAS I Test
Mode
Engine Indication System
Proximity
Advisory,
1200’ below,
descending
No-bearing Traffic
Advisory, 2.0 nm
away, 600’ above,
descending
Traffic Map
Range Rings
Flight Instruments
Other Non-Threat Traffic
without directional
information, 4000’
above, level
Other Non-Threat
Traffic, 1000
below, climbing
Flight Management
System
Figure 6-99 Traffic Map Page
Audio Panel and CNS
Off-Scale Traffic
Advisory, 500’ Above,
Climbing
Enabling/disabling the display of ADS-B traffic.
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the ADS-B Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key and turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘ADS-B On’ or ‘ADS-
Automatic Flight Control
System
B Off’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
Testing the display of ADS-B traffic:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
pattern display.
3) Ensure the the ADS-B Softkey is disabled.
Additional Features
2) If necessary, turn the Joystick to select a map range of 2 and 6 nm to ensure full test
4) If the optional TAS/TCAS I is installed, ensure the TAS STBY Softkey is enabled.
Appendices
5) Press the Test Softkey.
Or:
Press the MENU Key.
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
433
a) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Test Mode’.
b) Press the ENT Key.
The traffic system provides a system test mode to verify normal operation. The test takes about ten
seconds to complete. When the system test is initiated, a test pattern of traffic symbols appears on
any displayed traffic maps. The test pattern corresponds to the current aircraft heading. A climbing
TA is shown to the west, level Other Non-Threat traffic is shown to the northwest, and a descending
Proximity Advisory is in the northeast, relative to own aircraft. The voice alert “Traffic System Test”
indicates the traffic system test is complete, and the system enters Standby Mode.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Figure 6-100 Testing the Traffic System on the Traffic Map Page (ADS-B)
The pilot can select the volume of airspace in which Other Non-Threat and Proximity traffic is
displayed. TAs occurring outside of these limits will always be shown.
Changing the altitude range:
1) On the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, press the ALT Mode Softkey.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
TAS/TCAS I Test
Mode
Appendices
Additional Features
2) Select one of the following softkeys:
•
Above: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 9000 feet above the aircraft
to 2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during climb phase of flight.
•
Normal: Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft
to 2700 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during enroute phase of flight.
•
Below:Displays Other Non-Threat and proximity traffic from 2700 feet above the aircraft to
9000 feet below the aircraft. Typically used during descent phase of flight.
•
UNREST (unrestricted): All traffic is displayed from 9900 feet above and 9900 feet below
the aircraft.
3) To return to the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page, select the Back Softkey.
Index
Or:
434
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190–02361–00 Rev. A
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
System Overview
1) Press the MENU Key.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight one of the following options (see softkey
description in step 2 above):
•
Normal
•
Below
•
Unrestricted
3) Press the ENT Key.
DISPLAYING MOTION VECTORS
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
When Absolute Motion Vectors are selected, the vectors extending from the traffic symbols depict
the traffic’s reported track and speed over the ground. When Relative Motion Vectors are selected,
the vectors extending from the traffic symbols display how the traffic is moving relative to own
aircraft. These vectors are calculated using the traffic’s track and ground speed and own aircraft’s
track and ground speed. These two values are combined to depict where the traffic is moving purely
with respect to own aircraft, and provide a forecast of where the traffic will be, relative to own
aircraft, in the near future.
Engine Indication System
Above
Flight Instruments
•
Absolute Motion
Vectors
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Figure 6-101 Traffic Map Page with Absolute Motion Vectors Enabled
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
435
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Relative Motion
Vectors
Figure 6-102 Traffic Map Page with Relative Motion Vectors Enabled
Enabling/disabling the Motion Vector display:
Flight Management
System
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press one of the following softkeys:
•
Absolute: Displays the motion vector pointing in the absolute direction.
•
Relative: Displays the motion vector relative to own aircraft
•
Off: Disables the display of the motion vector.
Automatic Flight Control
System
4) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
5) Press the MENU Key.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to highlight ‘Relative Motion’, ‘Absolute Motion’ or ‘Motion
Vector Off’.
Additional Features
7) Press the ENT Key.
Adjusting the duration for the Motion Vector projected time:
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
2) Press the Motion Softkey.
Appendices
3) Press the Duration Softkey.
4) Press a softkey for the desired duration (30 SEC, 1 MIN, 2 MIN, 5 MIN).
Index
5) When finished, press the Back Softkey to return to the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
436
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Showing additional traffic information:
Flight Instruments
The Traffic Map Page can display additional information for a selected aircraft symbol. This may
include the aircraft tail number/Flight ID, type of aircraft (e.g., glider, small/medium/large aircraft,
service vehicle, unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV)), course, track, groundspeed), and other
information.
System Overview
DISPLAYING ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC INFORMATION
1) Select the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
information appears in a window in the upper-right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’
Page.
3) To select a different aircraft symbol, turn the FMS Knob until the selected aircraft traffic
Audio Panel and CNS
symbol is highlighted.
Engine Indication System
2) Press the FMS Knob. The first selected traffic symbol is highlighted in cyan. Additional
4) When finished, press the FMS Knob again to disable the traffic selection.
TRAFFIC MAP PAGE DISPLAY RANGE
NOTE: ADS-B traffic can be displayed as an overlay to navigation maps. Refer to the previous
TAS/TCAS I discussions for information about these additional traffic displays.
Hazard Avoidance
Changing the display range on the Traffic Map Page:
Flight Management
System
The display range on the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page can be changed at any time. Map range is
adjustable with the Joystick, as indicated by the map range rings.
1) Turn the Joystick.
2) The following range options are available:
500 feet and 1000 feet
•
1000 feet and 2000 feet
•
2000 feet and 1 nm
•
1 and 2 nm
•
2 and 6 nm
•
6 and 12 nm
•
12 and 24 nm
•
24 and 40 nm
Appendices
•
Additional Features
500 feet
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
ADS-B SYSTEM STATUS
The traffic mode is annunciated in the upper right corner of the ‘Map - Traffic Map’ Page.
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
437
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
ADS-B Mode
Traffic Mode
Annunciation
(Traffic Map Page)
ADS-B System Test
Initiated
ADS-B: TEST
TEST MODE
ADS-B Operating in
Airborne Mode
ADS-B: AIRB
NONE
ADS-B Operating in
Surface Mode
ADS-B: SURF
NONE
ABS-B Traffic Off
ADS-B: OFF
ADS-B TRFC OFF
ADS-B Traffic Not
Available
ADS-B: N/A
NO TRK/HDG
ADS-B Failed*
ADS-B: FAIL
ADS-B TRFC FAIL
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Traffic Display Status
Icon (Other Maps)
* See ‘Traffic Failure Annunciations’ Table for additional failure annunciations
Table 6-34 ADS-B Modes
If the traffic unit fails, an annunciation as to the cause of the failure is shown in the center of the ‘Map
- Traffic Map’ Page. During a failure condition, the Operating Mode cannot be selected.
Traffic Map Page Center Annunciation
Description
NO DATA
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
DATA FAILED
Data is being received from the traffic unit, but
the unit is self-reporting a failure
FAILED
Incorrect data format received from the traffic
unit
Table 6-35 Traffic Failure Annunciations
The annunciations to indicate the status of traffic information appear in a banner at the lower left
corner of maps on which traffic can be displayed.
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Traffic Map Page
Center Banner
Annunciation
438
Description
TA OFF SCALE
A Traffic Advisory is outside the selected display range*.
Annunciation is removed when traffic comes within the selected
display range.
TA X.X±XX
System cannot determine bearing of Traffic Advisory**.
Annunciation indicates distance in nm, altitude separation in
hundreds of feet, and altitude trend arrow (climbing/descending).
TRFC FAIL
Traffic unit has failed (unit is self-reporting a failure or sending
incorrectly formatted data)
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
NO TRFC DATA
System Overview
Traffic Status Banner
Annunciation
Description
Data is not being received from the traffic unit
Flight Instruments
*Shown as symbol on Traffic Map Page
**Shown in center of Traffic Map Page
Table 6-36 Traffic Status Annunciations
Engine Indication System
Additional information about the status of ADS-B traffic products is available on the ‘Aux - ADS-B
Status’ Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 6-103 ‘Aux — ADS-B Status’ Page
Automatic Flight Control
System
Viewing ADS-B Traffic Status:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - ADS-B Status’ Page.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
439
ADS-B Status
Page Item
Traffic Application
Status: Airborne
(AIRB), Surface
(SURF), Airborne
Alerts (CSA)
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
HAZARD AVOIDANCE
Status Message
On
Traffic application is currently on. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Available to Run
Traffic application is not currently active, but application
is ready to run when condition(s) determine the
application should be active. Required input data is
available, and it meets performance requirements.
Not Available
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is
available, but it does not meet performance
requirements.
Fault
Traffic application is not available. Required input data is
not available or the application has failed
Not Configured
Traffic application is not available, because it has not
been configured. If this annunciation persists, the system
should be serviced.
GPS Status: GPS
Source
Ground Uplink
Status: Last Uplink
Traffic application status is invalid or unknown.
Available
The system is receiving the ADS-R coverage from an FAA
ground station.
Not Available
The system is not receiving the ADS-R coverage from an
FAA ground station.
--------------
ADS-R coverage is invalid or unknown.
External #1
The GTX 345R is using the #1 GPS receiver for the GPS
position source.
External #2
The GTX 345R is using the #2 GPS receiver for the GPS
position source.
---------
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
---------------TIS-B/ADS-R
Coverage
Description
The GPS source is invalid or unknown.
Number of minutes, Displays the number of minutes since the last uplink
or ‘------’
from a ground station occurred. If no uplink has been
received, or the status is invalid, dashes appear instead
of a number of minutes.
Index
Appendices
Table 6-37 ‘Aux-ADS-B Status’ Page Messages for ADS-B Traffic
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
SECTION 7 AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 AFCS OVERVIEW
•
Command Bars showing pitch/roll guidance
•
Vertical/lateral mode selection and processing
•
Autopilot communication
•
Yaw Damper (YD) — The yaw servo is self-monitoring and provides Dutch roll damping and turn
coordination in response to yaw rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration, and airspeed.
•
Manual Electric Pitch Trim (MEPT) — The pitch trim servo provides manual electric pitch trim
capability when the autopilot is not engaged.
AFCS CONTROL UNIT
The AFCS Control Unit is positioned above the MFD, and has the following controls:
Selects/deselects Heading Select Mode
2
APR Key
Selects/deselects Approach Mode
3
NAV Key
Selects/deselects Navigation Mode
4
FD Key
Activates/deactivates the flight director only Pressing once turns on the
selected flight director in the default vertical and lateral modes. Pressing
again deactivates the flight director and removes the Command Bars. If the
autopilot is engaged, the key is disabled.
5
XFR Key
Transfers between the pilot and copilot flight directors and controls which
flight director the autopilot is tracking
190–02361–00 Rev. A
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441
Index
HDG Key
Appendices
1
Additional Features
NOTE: With the exception of the FD and SPD Keys all keys have a corresponding LED light.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Autopilot (AP) — Autopilot operation occurs within the pitch, roll, and pitch trim servos. It also
provides servo monitoring and automatic flight control in response to flight director steering
commands, Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) attitude and rate information, and
airspeed.
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Director (FD) — The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU and referred
to as pilot-side and copilot-side. Commands for the selected flight director are displayed on both
PFDs. The flight director provides:
Engine Indication System
The Garmin AFCS is a digital Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), fully integrated within the
system avionics architecture. The System Overview section provides a block diagram to support this
system description.
The GarminAFCS can be divided into these main operating functions:
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The approved Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) always supersedes this Pilot’s Guide.
6
ALT Key
Selects/deselects Altitude Hold Mode
7
VS Key
Selects/deselects Vertical Speed Mode
8
FLC Key
Selects/deselects Flight Level Change Mode
9, 17
CRS Knobs
Adjust the Selected Course (while in VOR, LOC, or OBS Mode) in 1°
increments on the Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) of the corresponding
PFD Press to re-center the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and return
course pointer directly TO the bearing of the active waypoint/station
10
SPD Key
Toggles Airspeed Reference between IAS and Mach for Flight Level Change
Mode
11
NOSE
UP/DN
Wheel
Adjusts the reference in Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change
modes (see Table 7-2 for change increments in each mode)
12
VNV Key
Selects/deselects Vertical Path Tracking Mode for Vertical Navigation flight
control
13
ALT SEL
Knob
Controls the Selected Altitude in 100-ft increments (a finer resolution of 10
feet is available under approach conditions)
14
YD Key
Engages/disengages the yaw damper
15
AP Key
Engages/disengages the autopilot
16
BANK Key
Manually selects/deselects Low Bank Mode
18
BC Key
Selects/deselects Backcourse Mode
19
HDG Knob
Adjusts the Selected Heading and bug in 1° increments on the HSI (both
PFDs) Press to synchronize the Selected Heading to the current heading on
the pilot-side PFD
1
2
3
4
19
18
17
16
5
6
7
13
12
8
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
15
14
11
10
Annunciator
Light
9
Appendices
Figure 7-1 GMC 710 AFCS Control Unit
ADDITIONAL AFCS CONTROLS
Index
The following AFCS controls are located separately from the AFCS Control Unit:
442
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
190–02361–00 Rev. A
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
While pressed, allows manual control of the aircraft while the autopilot is engaged
and synchronizes the flight director’s Command Bars with the current aircraft pitch
(if not in a Vertical Navigation, Glideslope, or Glidepath Mode) and roll (if in Roll
Hold Mode) A CWS Button is located on each control wheel. Upon release of the
CWS Button, the flight director may establish new pitch and roll references,
depending on the current vertical and lateral modes. CWS operation details are
discussed in the respective mode sections of this manual.
Used to command manual electric pitch trim An MEPT Switch is located on each
control wheel. The aircraft uses a four direction switch. Pushing down on the
switch and operating the switch forward and backward adjusts pitch trim down
(forward) and up (rearward). Pushing the switch in either direction disengages the
autopilot, if currently engaged, but does not affect yaw damper operation.
Flight Management
System
MEPT
Switch
(Manual
Electric Pitch
Trim)
Audio Panel and CNS
Disengages the autopilot and selects flight director Takeoff (on ground) or Go
GA Button
Around
(in air) Mode If an approach procedure is loaded this button also activates
(Go Around)
the missed approach when the selected navigation source is GPS or when the
navigation source is VOR/LOC and a valid frequency has been tuned. The GA
Button is located on the throttle.
Engine Indication System
CWS Button
(Control
Wheel
Steering)
Flight Instruments
Disengages the autopilot, yaw damper, and interrupts pitch trim operation An AP
DISC Switch is located on each control wheel. This switch may be used to
acknowledge an autopilot disconnect alert and mute the associated aural tone.
System Overview
AP DISC
Switch
(Autopilot
Disconnect)
BASIC AUTOPILOT OPERATION
•
Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director Off — Upon engagement, the autopilot will be set to
hold the current attitude of the airplane, if the flight director was not previously on. In this case,
‘PIT’ and ‘ROL’ will be annunciated.
•
Autopilot Engagement with Flight Director On — If the flight director is on, the autopilot will
smoothly pitch and roll the airplane to capture the FD command bars. The prior flight director
modes remain unchanged
•
Autopilot Disengagement — One way to disconnect the autopilot is to press and release the AP
DISC Switch, which is located on the control stick. An autopilot disconnect tone will be heard and
annunciated on the PFD. Other ways to disconnect the autopilot include:
Pressing the AP Key on the AFCS Control Unit
•
Pressing the GA Switch (located on the left throttle)
•
Operating the MEPT Switch (located on each control wheel)
•
Pulling the autopilot circuit breaker
Appendices
•
Additional Features
Autopilot Engagement — The autopilot may be engaged by pushing the AP Key on the AFCS
Control Unit. Annunciations regarding the engagement are indicated on the PFD.
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
Hazard Avoidance
This section provides an overview for autopilot engagement and disengagement. A more detailed
description follows in Section 7.4.
Index
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In the event of unexpected autopilot behavior, pressing and holding the AP DISC Switch will
disconnect the autopilot and remove all power to the servos.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flight Instruments
The flight director function provides pitch and roll commands to the AFCS and displays them on the
PFDs. With the flight director active, the aircraft can be hand-flown to follow the path shown by the
Command Bars. Maximum commanded pitch (15°, +25°) and roll (25°) angles, vertical acceleration, and
roll rate are limited to values established during AFCS certification. The flight director also provides
commands to the autopilot.
System Overview
7.2 FLIGHT DIRECTOR OPERATION
Activating The Flight Director
Modes Selected
Lateral
Vertical
PIT
AP Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Roll Hold (default)
PIT
CWS Button
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Roll Hold (default)
PIT
GA Button
Takeoff (on ground)
Go Around (in air)
TO
GA
Takeoff (on Ground)
Go Around (in air)
TO
GA
ALT Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Altitude Hold
ALT
VS Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Vertical Speed
VS
VNV Key
Roll Hold (default)
ROL
Vertical Path Tracking*
VPTH
NAV Key
Navigation**
FMS
VOR
LOC
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
BC Key
Backcourse***
BC
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
APR Key
Approach**
FMS
VOR
LOC
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
HDG Key
Heading Select
HDG
Pitch Hold (default)
PIT
*Valid VNV flight plan must be entered before VNV Key press activates flight director.
**The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active FMS course
before NAV or APR Key press activates flight director.
Appendices
***The selected navigation receiver must have a valid LOC signal before BC Key press
activates flight director.
Additional Features
Pitch Hold (default)
Automatic Flight Control
System
ROL
Hazard Avoidance
Roll Hold (default)
Flight Management
System
FD Key
Audio Panel and CNS
Control Pressed
Engine Indication System
An initial press of a key listed in Table 7-1 (when the flight director is not active)
activates the pilot-side flight director in the listed modes. The flight director may be
turned off and the Command Bars removed from the displays by pressing the FD Key
again. The FD Key is disabled when the autopilot is engaged.
AFCS STATUS BOX
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Index
Flight director mode annunciations are displayed on the PFDs when the flight director is active.
Flight director selection and autopilot and yaw damper statuses are shown in the center of the AFCS
Status Box. Lateral flight director modes are displayed on the left and vertical on the right. Armed
modes are displayed in white and active in green.
Yaw
Autopilot Damper
Status Status
Lateral Modes
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Active
Flight Director
Indicator Arrow
Engine Indication System
Armed
Active
Mode
Reference
Armed
AFCS Status Box
Audio Panel and CNS
Selected
Altitude
Flight Management
System
Command
Bars
FMS is
Selected
Navigation
Source
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
Vertical Modes
Figure 7-2 PFD AFCS Display
FLIGHT DIRECTOR MODES
Flight director modes are normally selected independently for the pitch and roll axes. Unless
otherwise specified, all mode keys are alternate action (i.e., press on, press off). In the absence of
specific mode selection, the flight director reverts to the default pitch and/or roll modes. Mode keys on
the AFCS controller are accompanied by annunciator lights (Figure 7-1) which are illuminated when
their respective modes are armed or active. Armed modes are annunciated in white and active in green
in the AFCS Status Box. Under normal operation, when the control for the active flight director mode
is pressed, the flight director reverts to the default mode(s) for the axis(es). Automatic transition from
armed to active mode is indicated by the white armed mode annunciation moving to the green active
mode field and flashing for 10 seconds. If the information required to compute a flight director mode
becomes invalid or unavailable, the flight director automatically reverts to the default mode for that
axis. A flashing yellow mode annunciation and annunciator light indicate loss of sensor (ADC) or
navigation data (VOR, LOC, GPS, VNV, SBAS) required to compute commands. When such a loss
occurs, the system automatically begins to roll the wings level (enters Roll Hold Mode) or maintain the
pitch angle (enters Pitch Hold Mode), depending on the affected axis. The flashing annunciation stops
when the affected mode key is pressed or another mode for the axis is selected. If after 10 seconds no
action is taken, the flashing annunciation stops.
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System Overview
Figure 7-3 Loss of GPS Signal
Switching Flight Directors
Flight Management
System
Copilot-side Flight Director Selected
Audio Panel and CNS
Pilot-side Flight Director Selected
Engine Indication System
The aircraft has two flight directors, each operating within an IAU. The autopilot
follows the selected flight director only, indicated by an arrow pointing toward either
the pilot or copilot side, in the center of the AFCS Status Box. Flight directors may be
switched by pressing the XFR Key. The annunciator light arrow for the selected flight
director is also illuminated beside the XFR Key. When the flight directors are switched,
the vertical and lateral modes revert to default.
Flight Instruments
The flight director is automatically disabled if the attitude information required to compute the
default flight director modes becomes invalid or unavailable.
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 7-4 Flight Director Selection Indications
COMMAND BARS
Automatic Flight Control
System
Upon activation of the flight director, Command Bars are displayed in magenta on the PFDs as a
single cue. The Aircraft Symbol (in yellow) changes to accommodate the Command Bar format; the
Command Bars do not override the Aircraft Symbol. The single-cue Command Bars move together
vertically to indicate pitch commands and bank left or right to indicate roll commands.
Command Bars
Additional Features
Aircraft Symbol
Appendices
Figure 7-5 Single-cue Command Bars
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Index
If the attitude information being sent to the flight director becomes invalid or unavailable, the
Command Bars are removed from the display. The flight director Command Bars also disappear if the
pitch exceeds +30˚/-20˚ or bank exceeds 65˚
7.3 AFCS MODES
The AFCS is capable of operating in a variety of independent Lateral Modes, Vertical Modes and
Combination of both the Lateral and Vertical Modes.
VERTICAL MODES
The following table lists the vertical modes with their corresponding controls and annunciations.
The mode reference is displayed next to the active mode annunciation for Altitude Hold, Vertical
Speed, and Flight Level Change modes. The NOSE UP/DN Wheel can be used to change the vertical
mode reference while operating under Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, or Flight Level Change Mode.
Increments of change and acceptable ranges of values for each of these references using the NOSE
UP/DN Wheel are also listed in the table.
Vertical Mode
Description
Control
Annunciation
PIT
Reference Reference
Range
Change
Increment
Pitch Hold
Holds the current
(default)
aircraft pitch attitude;
may be used to climb/
descend to the
Selected Altitude
Selected Altitude
Capture
Captures the Selected
Altitude
Altitude Hold
Holds the current
Altitude Reference
ALT Key
ALT
nnnnn
ft
Vertical Speed
Maintains the current
aircraft vertical speed;
may be used to climb/
descend to the
Selected Altitude
VS Key
VS
nnnn
fpm
-4000 to
+3000 fpm
100 fpm
Flight Level
Change, IAS Hold
Maintains the current
aircraft airspeed (in
IAS) while the aircraft
is climbing/
descending to the
Selected Altitude
FLC Key
FLC
nnn kt
78 to 183
kt
1 kt
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
*
-15° to
+25°
0.5°
ALTS
Index
Appendices
PITCH HOLD MODE
When the flight director is activated (the FD Key is pressed) or switched (the XFR Key is pressed),
Pitch Hold Mode is selected by default. Pitch Hold Mode is indicated as the active vertical mode by the
‘PIT’ annunciation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the Selected Altitude (shown above
the Altimeter), since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed when Pitch Hold Mode is
activated. In Pitch Hold Mode, the flight director maintains a constant pitch attitude, the pitch
reference. The pitch reference is set to the aircraft pitch attitude at the moment of mode selection. If
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
the aircraft pitch attitude exceeds the flight director pitch command limitations, the flight director
commands a pitch angle equal to the nose-up/down limit.
Changing the Pitch Reference:
Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
•
Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to establish a new pitch reference, then
releasing the CWS Button
Pitch Hold
Mode Active
Selected Altitude
Capture Mode Armed
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
When operating in Pitch Hold Mode, the pitch reference can be adjusted by:
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Command Bars Maintain
Desired Pitch Reference
Additional Features
Figure 7-6 Pitch Hold Mode
SELECTING ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTS)
Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically armed with activation of the following modes:
Pitch Hold
•
Vertical Speed
•
Flight Level Change
•
Takeoff/Go Around (if the Selected Altitude is at least 400 feet above the current aircraft altitude)
•
Vertical Path Tracking (if the Selected Altitude is to be captured instead of the VNV Target Altitude)
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
449
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Appendices
•
The white ‘ALTS’ annunciation indicates Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed (see previous
figure for example). The ALT SEL Knob is used to set the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter) until Selected Altitude Capture Mode becomes active. As the aircraft nears the Selected
Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to Selected Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude
Hold Mode armed (next figure). This automatic transition is indicated by the green ‘ALTS’
annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’ annunciation. The
Selected Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTS’ annunciation. At 50 feet from
the Selected Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from Selected Altitude Capture to
Altitude Hold Mode and holds the Selected Altitude (shown as the Altitude Reference). As Altitude
Hold Mode becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and
flashes green for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition.
Altitude Reference
(in this case, equal to
Selected Altitude)
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Figure 7-7 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Changing the Selected Altitude:
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in Selected Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel
the mode.
Use of the ALT SEL Knob to change the Selected Altitude while Selected Altitude
Capture Mode is active causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode with
Selected Altitude Capture Mode armed for the new Selected Altitude.
ALTITUDE HOLD MODE
Altitude Hold Mode can be activated by pressing the ALT Key; the flight director maintains the
current aircraft altitude (to the nearest 10 feet) as the Altitude Reference. The flight director’s Altitude
Reference, shown in the AFCS Status Box, is independent of the Selected Altitude, displayed above the
Altimeter. Altitude Hold Mode active is indicated by a green ‘ALT’ annunciation in the AFCS Status
Box. Altitude Hold Mode is automatically armed when the flight director is in Selected Altitude
Capture Mode. Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically transitions to Altitude Hold Mode when
the altitude error is less than 50 feet. In this case, the Selected Altitude becomes the flight director’s
Altitude Reference.
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NOTE: Turning the ALT SEL Knob while in Altitude Hold Mode changes the Selected
Altitude, but not the flight director’s Altitude Reference, and does not cancel the mode.
Altitude
Reference
Engine Indication System
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Flight Instruments
With the CWS Button depressed, the aircraft can be hand-flown to a new Altitude
Reference. When the CWS Button is released at the desired altitude, the new altitude is
established as the Altitude Reference.
System Overview
Changing the Altitude Reference
Audio Panel and CNS
Selected
Altitude
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Selected
Altitude
Bug
Automatic Flight Control
System
Command Bars Hold Pitch Attitude
to Maintain Altitude Reference
Figure 7-8 Altitude Hold Mode
Appendices
In Vertical Speed Mode, the flight director acquires and maintains a Vertical Speed Reference.
Current aircraft vertical speed (to the nearest 100 fpm) becomes the Vertical Speed Reference at the
moment of Vertical Speed Mode activation. This mode may be used for climb or descent to the
Selected Altitude (shown above the Altimeter) since Selected Altitude Capture Mode is automatically
armed when Vertical Speed Mode is selected. When Vertical Speed Mode is activated by pressing the
VS Key, ‘VS’ is annunciated in green in the AFCS Status Box along with the Vertical Speed Reference.
The Vertical Speed Reference is also displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. A Vertical Speed
Reference Bug corresponding to the Vertical Speed Reference is shown on the indicator.
Additional Features
VERTICAL SPEED MODE
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Changing the Vertical Speed Reference
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
The Vertical Speed Reference (shown both in the AFCS Status Box and above the
Vertical Speed Indicator) may be changed by:
•
Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
•
Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Vertical Speed Reference,
then releasing the CWS Button
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Altitude Reference is
not changed. To adjust the Altitude Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be pressed
again after the Selected Altitude is reached.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Vertical Speed
Mode Active
Selected
Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
Selected
Altitude
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Hazard Avoidance
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Bug
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
Vertical
Speed
Reference
Command Bars Indicate Climb to
Attain Vertical Speed Reference
Figure 7-9 Vertical Speed Hold Mode
FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE MODE
NOTE: The Selected Altitude should be set before selecting Flight Level Change
Mode.
Flight Level Change Mode is selected by pressing the FLC Key. This mode acquires and maintains
the Airspeed Reference in IAS while climbing or descending to the Selected Altitude (shown above the
Altimeter). When Flight Level Change Mode is active, the flight director continuously monitors
Selected Altitude, airspeed, and altitude. The Airspeed Reference is set to the current airspeed upon
mode activation. Flight Level Change Mode is indicated by a green ‘FLC’ annunciation beside the
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Using the NOSE UP/DN Wheel
•
Pressing the CWS Button, hand-flying the aircraft to attain a new Airspeed Reference, then
releasing the CWS Button
Selected
Airspeed Altitude Capture
Reference Mode Armed
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Automatic Flight Control
System
Airspeed
Reference
Additional Features
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Appendices
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to Attain Selected Altitude
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Index
Figure 7-10 Flight Level Change Mode (IAS)
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Flight Management
System
NOTE: If the Selected Altitude is reached during CWS maneuvering, the Airspeed Reference
is not changed. To adjust the Airspeed Reference in this case, the CWS Button must be
pressed again after the Selected Altitude is reached.
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
The Airspeed Reference (shown in both the AFCS Status Box and above the Airspeed
Indicator) may be adjusted by:
Flight Instruments
Changing the Airspeed Reference
System Overview
Airspeed Reference in the AFCS Status Box. The Airspeed Reference is also displayed directly above
the Airspeed Indicator, along with a bug corresponding to the Airspeed Reference along the tape.
Engine power must be adjusted to allow the autopilot to fly the aircraft at a pitch attitude
corresponding to the desired flight profile (climb or descent) while maintaining the Airspeed
Reference. The flight director maintains the current altitude until either engine power or the Airspeed
Reference are adjusted and does not allow the aircraft to climb or descend away from the Selected
Altitude. Airspeed Reference units can be manually toggled between IAS and Mach units using the
SPD Key. When the FLC Airspeed Reference is displayed in Mach, the Airspeed Reference Bug is
displayed on the Airspeed Indicator at the IAS corresponding to the selected Mach target speed and
the current Mach number is shown below the Airspeed Indicator.
453
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flight Instruments
Flight Level
Change Mode
Active
Engine Indication System
Airspeed
Reference
(Mach)
Audio Panel and CNS
Airspeed
Reference
Bug
Figure 7-11 Flight Level Change Mode (Mach)
LATERAL MODES
The following table relates each Garmin AFCS lateral mode to its respective control and
annunciation. Refer to the combination modes section for information regarding Go Around and
Takeoff modes.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Command Bars Indicate Climb
to attain Selected Altitude
Lateral Mode
Description
Control
Roll Hold
Holds the current aircraft
roll attitude or rolls the
wings level, depending
on the commanded
bank angle
(default)
ROL
25°
Low Bank
Limits the maximum
commanded roll angle
BANK Key
*
15°
Heading Select
Captures and tracks the
Selected Heading
HDG Key
HDG
25°
Navigation, GPS Arm/
Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC
NAV Key
FMS
25°
Index
Appendices
Selected
Airspeed
Reference Altitude Capture
Mode Armed
(Mach)
454
Annunciation Maximum
Roll
Comman
d Limit
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Annunciation Maximum
Roll
Comman
d Limit
Navigation, VOR Enroute
Arm/Capture/Track
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC
NAV Key
VOR
25°
Navigation, LOC Arm/
Capture/Track (No
Glideslope)
Captures and tracks the
selected navigation
source (GPS, VOR, LOC
NAV Key
LOC
25°
ROLL HOLD MODE (ROL)
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 7-12 Roll Hold Mode Annunciation
Flight Director Response
Bank Angle
6 to 30°
>30°
Rolls wings level
Additional Features
<6°
Hazard Avoidance
When the flight director is activated or switched, Roll Hold Mode is selected by default. This mode is
annunciated as ‘ROL’ in the AFCS Status Box. The current aircraft bank angle is held, subject to the
bank angle condition.
Flight Management
System
NOTE: If Roll Hold Mode is activated as a result of a mode reversion, the flight director rolls
the wings level.
Audio Panel and CNS
* No annunciation appears in the AFCS Status Box. The acceptable bank angle range is indicated in
green along the Roll Scale of the Attitude Indicator.
The CWS Button does not change lateral references for Heading Select, Navigation, Backcourse, or
Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading/Course upon release of
the CWS Button.
Engine Indication System
Control
Flight Instruments
Description
System Overview
Lateral Mode
Maintains current aircraft roll attitude
Limits bank to 25°
Changing the Roll Reference
Appendices
The roll reference can be changed by pressing the CWS Button, establishing the desired
bank angle, then releasing the CWS Button.
LOW BANK MODE
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455
Index
When in Low Bank Mode, the flight director limits the maximum commanded roll angle to 15°. Low
bank arc limits are displayed in green along the Roll Scale. Low Bank Mode can be manually selected/
deselected by pressing the BANK Key while in Heading Select or Navigation Modes (GPS and VOR).
Low Bank Mode is activated automatically above 25,000 feet (FL250). The flight director deactivates
Low Bank Mode when descending through 25,000 feet. The annunciator light next to the BANK Key
illuminates while Low Bank Mode is selected.
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Low Bank Arc
Figure 7-13 Low Bank Mode Limits
HEADING SELECT MODE (HDG)
Heading Select Mode is activated by pressing the HDG Key. Heading Select Mode acquires and
maintains the Selected Heading. The Selected Heading is shown by a light blue bug on the HSI and in
the box to the upper left of the HSI.
Changing the Selected Heading
Appendices
NOTE: Pressing the HDG Knob synchronizes the Selected Heading to the current heading.
Index
The Selected Heading is adjusted using the HDG Knob on either PFD. Pressing the CWS
Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected Heading. The
autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected Heading upon release of the CWS
Button.
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System Overview
Turns are commanded in the same direction as Selected Heading Bug movement, even
if the bug is turned more than 180° from the present heading (e.g., a 270° turn to the
right). However, Selected Heading changes of more than 330° at a time result in turn
reversals.
Flight Instruments
Heading Select
Mode Active
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Selected
Heading
Bug
Command Bars Track
Selected Heading
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 7-14 Heading Select mode
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course for the flight director to enter Navigation Mode.
Additional Features
Appendices
Pressing the NAV Key selects Navigation Mode. Navigation Mode acquires and tracks the selected
navigation source (GPS, VOR, LOC). The flight director follows GPS roll steering commands when
GPS is the selected navigation source. When the navigation source is VOR or LOC, the flight director
creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and deviation. Navigation Mode can also be
used to fly non-precision GPS and LOC approaches where vertical guidance is not required. If the
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) shows greater than one dot when the NAV Key is pressed, the
selected mode is armed. If the CDI shows less than one dot, Navigation Mode is automatically
captured when the NAV Key is pressed. The armed annunciation appears in white to the left of the
active lateral mode.
Automatic Flight Control
System
NAVIGATION MODES (GPS, VOR, LOC)
Index
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457
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
When the CDI has automatically switched from GPS to LOC during a LOC/ILS approach, GPS
Navigation Mode remains active, providing GPS steering guidance until the localizer signal is captured.
LOC Navigation Mode is armed automatically when the navigation source switch takes place if the
APR Key is not pressed prior to the automatic source switch.
If Navigation Mode is active and either of the following occur, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold
Mode (wings rolled level):
•
Different VOR tuned while in VOR Navigation Mode (VOR Navigation Mode reverts to armed)
•
Navigation source manually switched (with the CDI Softkey)
•
During a LOC/ILS approach, the FAF is crossed while in GPS Navigation Mode after the automatic
navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
Changing the Selected Course
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using
GPS, the Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the
selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Figure 7-15 GPS Navigation Mode Armed
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected
Course while in Navigation Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Course (or GPS flight plan) when the CWS Button is released.
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System Overview
GPS Navigation
Mode Active
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Command Bars Indicate Left
Turn to Track GPS Course
Flight Management
System
GPS is Selected
Navigation Source
Figure 7-16 Navigation Mode
The following table lists the modes that operating by using both Vertical and Lateral Modes with
their corresponding controls and annunciations.
Hazard Avoidance
COMBINATION MODES (VNV, APR, NAV, BC, GA)
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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459
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Mode
Description
Control
Maximum Reference
Roll
Range
Annunciation
Command
Limit
Vertical Path
Tracking
Captures and tracks
descent legs of an
active vertical profile
VNV Key
VPTH
VNV Target
Altitude Capture
Captures the Vertical
Navigation (VNV)
Target Altitude
*
ALTV
Glidepath
Captures and tracks
the SBAS glidepath on
approach
Glideslope
Captures and tracks
the ILS glideslope on
approach
Backcourse Arm/
Capture/Track
Captures and tracks a
localizer signal for
backcourse
approaches
GP
APR Key
GS
BC Key
Approach, FMS
Arm/Capture/Track
Approach, VOR
Captures and tracks
Arm/Capture/Track
the selected navigation
Approach, ILS Arm/ source (FMS, VOR,
Capture/Track
LOC)
(Glideslope Mode
automatically
armed)
BC
25°
Capture
10 Track
FMS
25°
VAPP
APR Key
25°
Capture
10 Track°
LOC
Takeoff
Disengages the
autopilot and
commands a constant
GA Button
pitch angle and wings
level on the ground in
preparation for takeoff
TO
10°
Go Around
Disengages the
autopilot and
commands a constant
pitch angle and wings
level in the air
GA
10°
GA Button
Index
* ALTV is armed automatically under VPTH when VNV Target Altitude is to be captured instead of
Selected Altitude.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
VERTICAL NAVIGATION MODES (VPTH, ALTV)
NOTE: The Selected Altitude takes precedence over any other vertical constraints.
The selected navigation source is GPS.
•
A VNV flight plan (with at least one altitude-constrained waypoint) or vertical direct-to is active.
•
VNV is enabled (VNV ENBL Softkey pressed on the MFD)
•
Crosstrack error is valid and within certain limits.
•
Desired/actual track are valid or track angle error is within certain limits.
•
The VNV Target Altitude of the active waypoint is no more than 250 ft above the current aircraft
altitude
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
Vertical Navigation (VNV) flight control is available for enroute/terminal cruise and descent
operations any time that VNV flight planning is available. Refer to the GPS Navigation Section for
more information on VNV flight plans. Conditions for availability include, but are not limited to:
Flight Instruments
NOTE: VNV is disabled when parallel track or Dead Reckoning Mode is active. Refer to the
Flight Management Section for more information on VNV flight plans
Appendices
When a vertical profile (VNV flight plan) is active and the VNV Key is pressed, Vertical Path
Tracking Mode is armed in preparation for descent path capture. ‘VPTH’ (or ‘/V’ when Glidepath or
Glideslope Mode is concurrently armed) is annunciated in white in addition to previously armed
modes. If applicable, the appropriate altitude capture mode is armed for capture of the next VNV
Target Altitude (ALTV) or the Selected Altitude (ALTS), whichever is greater.
Additional Features
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active does not cancel
the mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the descent path upon release of the
CWS Button.
Automatic Flight Control
System
NOTE: If another vertical mode key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is selected,
Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed.
Hazard Avoidance
VERTICAL PATH TRACKING MODE
Flight Management
System
The flight director may be armed for VNV at any time, but no target altitudes are captured during a
climb. The Command Bars provide vertical profile guidance based on specified altitudes (entered
manually or loaded from the database) at waypoints in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to. The
appropriate VNV flight control modes are sequenced by the flight director to follow the path defined
by the vertical profile. Upon reaching the last waypoint in the VNV flight plan, the flight director
transitions to Altitude Hold Mode and cancels any armed VNV modes.
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Figure 7-17 Vertical Path Tracking Armed Annunciations
Prior to descent path interception, the Selected Altitude must be set below the current aircraft
altitude by at least 75 feet. For the flight director to transition from Altitude Hold to Vertical Path
Tracking Mode, acknowledgment is required within five minutes of descent path interception by:
•
Pressing the VNV Key
•
Adjusting the Selected Altitude
If acknowledgment is not received within one minute of descent path interception, the white ‘VPTH’
annunciation starts to flash. Flashing continues until acknowledged or the descent path is intercepted.
If the descent is not confirmed by the time of interception, Vertical Path Tracking Mode remains armed
and the descent is not captured.
In conjunction with the “TOD [top of descent] within 1 minute” annunciation in the PFD Navigation
Status Box and the “Vertical track” voice message, VNV indications (VNV Target Altitude, vertical
deviation, and vertical speed required) appear on the PFDs in magenta.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
Altitude Hold
Mode Active
Vertical Path Tracking
Armed (Flashing Indicates
Acknowledgment Required
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
VNV Target
Altitude
Audio Panel and CNS
Selected
Altitude
Enroute
Phase of
Flight
Hazard Avoidance
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Flight Management
System
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Vertical
Deviation
Indicator
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 7-18 Vertical Path Capture
Additional Features
When a descent leg is captured (i.e., vertical deviation becomes valid), Vertical Path Tracking
becomes active and tracks the descent profile (next figure). An altitude capture mode (‘ALTS’ or
‘ALTV’) is armed as appropriate.
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
VNV Target Altitude
Capture Armed
Flight Instruments
Vertical Path
Tracking Active
Engine Indication System
VNV Target
Altitude
Audio Panel and CNS
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Terminal
Phase of
Flight
Command Bars Indicate Descent to
Maintain Required Vertical Speed
Required
Vertical
Speed Bug
Vertical Deviation
Indicator (VDI)
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Figure 7-19 Vertical Path Tracking Mode
If the altimeter barometric setting is adjusted while Vertical Path Tracking is active, the flight director
increases/decreases the descent rate by up to 500 fpm to re-establish the aircraft on the descent path
(without commanding a climb). Adjusting the altimeter barometric setting creates discontinuities in
VNV vertical deviation, moving the descent path. For large adjustments, it may take several minutes
for the aircraft to re-establish on the descent path. If the change is made while nearing a waypoint with
a VNV Target Altitude, the aircraft may not re-establish on the descent path in time to meet the vertical
constraint.
Automatic Reversion to Pitch Hold Mode
Several situations can occur while Vertical Path Tracking Mode is active which cause the flight
director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode:
•
Vertical deviation exceeds 200 feet during an overspeed condition.
•
Vertical deviation experiences a discontinuity that both exceeds 200 feet in magnitude and results in
the vertical deviation exceeding 200 feet in magnitude. Such discontinuities are usually caused by
flight plan changes that affect the vertical profile.
•
Vertical deviation becomes invalid (the Vertical Deviation Indicator is removed from the PFD).
•
A display enters Reversionary Mode (this does not apply to an active vertical direct-to).
Unless VNV is disabled, Vertical Path Tracking Mode and the appropriate altitude capture mode
become armed following the reversion to Pitch Hold Mode to allow for possible profile recapture.
Non-Path Descents
Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, and Flight Level Change modes can also be used to fly non-path descents
while VNV flight control is selected. If the VS or FLC Key is pressed while Vertical Path Tracking
Mode is selected, Vertical Path Tracking Mode reverts to armed along with the appropriate altitude
capture mode to allow profile re-capture.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
Figure 7-20 Flight Level Change VNV Non-Path Descent
Flight Instruments
To prevent immediate profile re-capture, the following must be satisfied:
At least 10 seconds have passed since the non-path transition was initiated
•
Vertical deviation from the profile has exceeded 250 feet, but is now less than 200 feet Pressing the
VNV Key twice re-arms Vertical Path Tracking for immediate profile re-capture.
VNV TARGET ALTITUDE CAPTURE MODE (ALTV)
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
VNV Target Altitude Capture is analogous to Selected Altitude Capture Mode and is armed
automatically after the VNV Key is pressed and the next VNV Target Altitude is to be intercepted
before the Selected Altitude. The annunciation ‘ALTV’ indicates that the VNV Target Altitude is to be
captured. VNV Target Altitudes are shown in the active flight plan or vertical direct-to, and can be
entered manually or loaded from a database (see the GPS Navigation Section for details). At the same
time as “TOD within 1 minute” is annunciated in the Navigation Status Box, the active VNV Target
Altitude is displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator.
As the aircraft nears the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions to VNV
Target Altitude Capture Mode with Altitude Hold Mode armed. This automatic transition is indicated
by the green ‘ALTV’ annunciation flashing for up to 10 seconds and the appearance of the white ‘ALT’
annunciation. The VNV Target Altitude is shown as the Altitude Reference beside the ‘ALTV’
annunciation and remains displayed above the Vertical Speed Indicator. The Required Vertical Speed
Indication (RSVI) is removed once VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode becomes active.
At 50 feet from the VNV Target Altitude, the flight director automatically transitions from VNV
Target Altitude Capture to Altitude Hold Mode and tracks the level leg. As Altitude Hold Mode
becomes active, the white ‘ALT’ annunciation moves to the active vertical mode field and flashes green
for 10 seconds to indicate the automatic transition. The flight director automatically arms Vertical Path
Tracking, allowing upcoming descent legs to be captured and subsequently tracked.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Armed VNV Target Altitude and Selected Altitude capture modes are mutually
exclusive. However, Selected Altitude Capture Mode is armed implicitly (not annunciated)
whenever VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is armed.
Engine Indication System
•
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flight Instruments
Altitude Reference (In This Case,
Equal To VNV Altitude Target)
Engine Indication System
Flash up to 10 sec, Indicating Automatic Transition
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 7-21 Automatic Mode Transitions During Altitude Capture
Changing The VNV Target Altitude
Flight Management
System
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while in VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode does not cancel
the mode.
VNV target altitudes can be changed while editing the active flight plan (see the GPS
Navigation Section for details).
GLIDEPATH MODE (GP)
Glidepath Mode is used to track the SBAS-based glidepath. When Glidepath Mode is armed, ‘GP’ is
annunciated in white in the AFCS Status Box.
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture
and track the glidepath.Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured
•
A GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan.
•
The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF).
•
Vertical deviation is valid.
•
The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
•
Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Changing the current VNV Target Altitude while VNV Target Altitude Capture Mode is
active causes the flight director to revert to Pitch Hold Mode. Vertical Path Tracking and
the appropriate altitude capture mode are armed in preparation to capture the new
VNV Target Altitude or the Selected Altitude, depending on which altitude is to be
intercepted first.
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Engine Indication System
Upon reaching the glidepath, the flight director transitions to Glidepath Mode and begins to capture
and track the glidepath.
Flight Instruments
WARNING: When flying an LNAV approach (with vertical descent angle) with the autopilot
coupled, the aircraft will not level off at the MDA even if the MDA is set in the altitude
preselect.
System Overview
NOTE: Some RNAV (GPS) approaches provide a vertical descent angle as an aid in flying a
stabilized approach. These approaches are NOT considered Approaches with Vertical
Guidance (APV). Approaches that are annunciated on the HSI as LNAV or LNAV+V should be
flown to an MDA, until visual with the landing surface, even though vertical glidepath (GP)
information may be provided.
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 7-22 Glidepath Mode Armed
Once the following conditions have been met, the glidepath can be captured:
•
The active waypoint is at or after the final approach fix (FAF)
•
Vertical deviation is valid.
•
The CDI is at less than full-scale deviation
•
Automatic sequencing of waypoints has not been suspended (no ‘SUSP’ annunciation on the HSI)
Automatic Flight Control
System
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glidepath Mode is active does not cancel the mode.
The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the glidepath upon release of the CWS Button.
Hazard Avoidance
A GPS approach with vertical guidance (LPV, LNAV/VNAV, LNAV+V) is loaded into the active flight
plan.
Flight Management
System
•
Additional Features
Appendices
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
GPS Approach
Mode Active
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Glidepath
Mode Active
LPV Approach
Active
Glidepath
Indicator
Hazard Avoidance
GPS is Selected
Navigation
Source
Figure 7-23 Glidepath Mode
Automatic Flight Control
System
Selecting Glidepath Mode
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must
be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
Appendices
Additional Features
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
GLIDESLOPE MODE (GS)
Glideslope Mode is available for LOC/ILS approaches to capture and track the glideslope. When
Glideslope Mode is armed (annunciated as ‘GS’ in white), LOC Approach Mode is armed as the lateral
flight director mode.
Index
Figure 7-24 Glideslope Mode Armed
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Active ILS
Frequency Tuned
Approach
Mode Active
Glideslope
Mode Active
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Pressing the CWS Button while Glideslope Mode is active does not cancel the mode.
The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the glideslope upon release of the CWS Button.
System Overview
Once LOC is the navigation source, the localizer and glideslope can be captured. Upon reaching the
glideslope, the flight director transitions to Glideslope Mode and begins to capture and track the
glideslope.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
NAV2 (localizer) is Selected
Navigation Source
Glideslope
Indicator
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 7-25 Glideslope Mode
Selecting Glideslope Mode
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
Automatic Flight Control
System
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
3) Press the APR Key.
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
Additional Features
Or
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan
Appendices
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
4) Press the APR Key.
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Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
APPROACH MODES (GPS, VAPP, LOC)
NOTE: The selected navigation receiver must have a valid VOR or LOC signal or active GPS
course for the flight director to enter Approach Mode.
Approach Mode is activated when the APR Key is pressed. Approach Mode acquires and tracks the
selected navigation source (GPS, VOR, or LOC), depending on loaded approach. This mode uses the
selected navigation receiver deviation and desired course inputs to fly the approach. Pressing the APR
Key when the CDI is greater than one dot arms the selected approach mode (annunciated in white to
the left of the active lateral mode). If the CDI is less the 1 dot, the LOC is automatically captured when
the APR Key is pressed.
VOR Approach Mode (VAPP) provides greater sensitivity for signal tracking than VOR Navigation
Mode.
When GPS Approach Mode is armed, Glidepath Mode is also armed.
LOC Approach Mode allows the autopilot to fly a LOC/ILS approach with a glideslope. When LOC
Approach Mode is armed, Glideslope Mode is also armed automatically. LOC captures are inhibited if
the difference between aircraft heading and localizer course exceeds 105°.
If the following occurs, the flight director reverts to Roll Hold Mode (wings rolled level)
•
Approach Mode is active and a Vectors-To-Final is activated
•
Approach Mode is active and Navigation source is manually switched
•
During a LOC/ILS approach, GPS Navigation Mode is active and the FAF is crossed after the
automatic navigation source switch from GPS to LOC
Selecting VOR Approach Mode
1) Ensure a valid VOR frequency is tuned
2) Ensure that VOR is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Figure 7-26 Approach Mode Armed
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press he APR Key.
Selecting GPS Approach Mode
Appendices
1) Ensure a GPS approach is loaded into the active flight plan. The active waypoint must
be part of the flight plan (cannot be a direct-to a waypoint not in the flight plan).
2) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
navigation sources if necessary).
Index
3) Press the APR Key
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
Selecting LOC Approach Mode
1) Ensure a valid localizer frequency is tuned.
2) Ensure that LOC is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
Flight Instruments
navigation sources if necessary).
3) Press the APR Key.
Or
navigation sources if necessary).
2) Ensure a LOC/ILS approach is loaded into the active flight plan.
3) Ensure the corresponding LOC frequency is tuned.
Changing The selected Course
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not change the Selected
Course while in Approach Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Course (or GPS flight plan) when the CWS Button is released.
Additional Features
Backcourse Mode captures and tracks a localizer signal in the backcourse direction. The mode may be
selected by pressing the BC Key. Backcourse Mode is armed if the CDI is greater than one dot when the
mode is selected. If the CDI is less than one dot, Backcourse Mode is automatically captured when the
BC Key is pressed. The flight director creates roll steering commands from the Selected Course and
deviation when in Backcourse Mode.
Automatic Flight Control
System
NOTE: When making a backcourse approach, set the Selected Course to the localizer front
course.
Hazard Avoidance
BACKCOURSE MODE (BC)
Flight Management
System
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using
GPS, the Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the
selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Audio Panel and CNS
4) Press the APR Key.
Engine Indication System
1) Ensure that GPS is the selected navigation source (use the CDI Softkey to cycle through
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Backcourse
Mode Active
Flight Management
System
LOC2 is Selected Navigation Source
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 7-27 Backcourse Mode
Changing The Selected Course
Automatic Flight Control
System
If the navigation source is VOR or localizer or OBS Mode has been enabled when using
GPS, the Selected Course is controlled using the CRS Knob corresponding to the
selected flight director (CRS1 for the pilot side, CRS2 for the copilot side).
Pressing the CWS Button and hand-flying the aircraft does not reset any reference data
while in Backcourse Mode. The autopilot guides the aircraft back to the Selected
Course when the CWS Button is released.
Additional Features
Intercepting and Flying a DME arc
Appendices
The AFCS will intercept and track a DME arc that is part of the active flight plan
provided that GPS Navigation Mode is engaged, GPS is the active navigation source on
the CDI, and the DME arc segment is the active flight plan leg. It is important to note
that automatic navigation of DME arcs is based on GPS. Thus, even if the APR key is
pressed and LOC or VOR Approach Mode is armed prior to reaching the Initial
Approach Fix (IAF), Approach Mode will not activate until the arc segment is completed.
Index
If the pilot decides to intercept the arc at a location other than the published IAF (i.e.
ATC provides vectors to intercept the arc) and subsequently selects Heading Mode or
Roll Mode, the AFCS will not automatically intercept or track the arc unless the pilot
activates the arc leg of the flight plan and arms GPS Navigation Mode. The AFCS will
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Go Around and Takeoff modes are coupled pitch and roll modes and are annunciated as both the
vertical and lateral modes when active. In these modes, the flight director commands a constant set
pitch attitude and wings level. The GA Button is used to select both modes. The mode entered by the
flight director depends on whether the aircraft is on the ground.
Takeoff Mode provides an attitude reference during rotation and takeoff. This mode can be selected
only while on the ground by pushing the GA Button. The flight director Command Bars assume a
wings-level, pitch-up attitude.
Pressing the GA Button while in the air activates the flight director in wings level, pitch-up attitudes,
allowing the execution of a missed approach or a go around. Go Around Mode disengages the autopilot
and arms Selected Altitude Capture Mode automatically. Subsequent autopilot engagement is allowed.
Attempts to modify the aircraft attitude (i.e., with the NOSE UP/DN Wheel or CWS Button) result in
reversion to Pitch and Roll Hold modes.
Flight Instruments
TAKEOFF (TO) AND GO AROUND (GA) MODES
System Overview
not intercept and fly a DME arc before reaching an IAF that defines the beginning of
the arc segment. Likewise, if at any point while established on the DME arc the pilot
deselects GPS Navigation Mode, the AFCS will no longer track the arc.
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Go Around
Mode Active
Command Bars Indicate Climb
Hazard Avoidance
Takeoff Mode Active
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 7-28 Takeoff (TO) and Go Around (GA) Modes
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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
System Overview
7.4 AUTOPILOT AND YAW DAMPER OPERATION
NOTE: Refer to the POH for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Pitch and roll commands are provided to the servos based on the active flight director modes. Yaw
damping is provided by the yaw servo. Servo motor control limits the maximum servo speed and
torque. The servo gearboxes are equipped with slip-clutches set to certain values. This allows the
servos to be overridden in case of an emergency.
Engine Indication System
FLIGHT CONTROL
Flight Instruments
The autopilot and yaw damper operate the flight control surface servos to provide automatic flight
control. The autopilot controls the aircraft pitch and roll attitudes following commands received from
the flight director. Pitch autotrim provides trim commands to the pitch trim servo to relieve any
sustained effort required by the pitch servo. Autopilot operation is independent of the yaw damper.
The yaw damper reduces Dutch roll tendencies and coordinates turns. It can operate independently of
the autopilot and may be used during normal hand-flight maneuvers. Yaw rate commands are limited to
6 deg/sec by the yaw damper.
PITCH AXIS AND TRIM
The autopilot pitch axis uses pitch rate to stabilize the aircraft pitch attitude during flight director
maneuvers. Flight director pitch commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with pitch damper
control, and sent to the pitch servo motor. The pitch servo measures the output effort (torque) and
provides this signal to the pitch trim servo. The pitch trim servo commands the motor to reduce the
average pitch servo effort.
When the autopilot is not engaged, the pitch trim servo may be used to provide manual electric pitch
trim (MEPT). This allows the aircraft to be trimmed using a control wheel switch rather than the trim
wheel. Manual trim commands are generated only when both halves of the MEPT Switch are operated
simultaneously. Trim speeds are scheduled with airspeed to provide more consistent response.
ROLL AXIS
The autopilot roll axis uses roll rate to stabilize aircraft roll attitude during flight director maneuvers.
The flight director roll commands are rate- and attitude-limited, combined with roll damper control, and
sent to the roll servo motor.
YAW AXIS
The yaw damper uses yaw rate and roll attitude to dampen the aircraft’s natural Dutch roll response. It
also uses lateral acceleration to coordinate turns. Yaw damper operation is independent of autopilot
engagement.
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are
activated and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are
illuminated. The flight director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
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ENGAGEMENT
NOTE: Autopilot engagement/disengagement is not equivalent to servo engagement/
disengagement. Use the CWS Button to disengage the pitch and roll servos while the
autopilot remains active.
When the YD Key is pressed, the system engages the yaw damper independently of the autopilot.
When the AP Key is pressed, the autopilot, yaw damper, and flight director (if not already active) are
activated and the annunciator lights on the AFCS controller for the autopilot and yaw damper are
illuminated. The flight director engages in Pitch and Roll Hold Modes when initially activated.
Autopilot
Engaged
Yaw Damper
Engaged
Figure 7-29 Engagement
CONTROL WHEEL STEERING
During autopilot operation, the aircraft may be hand-flown without disengaging the autopilot.
Pressing and holding the CWS Button disengages the pitch and roll servos from the flight control
surfaces and allows the aircraft to be hand-flown. At the same time, the flight director is synchronized
to the aircraft attitude during the maneuver. CWS activity has no effect on yaw damper engagement.
The ‘AP’ annunciation is temporarily replaced by ‘CWS’ in white for the duration of CWS
maneuvers.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Control Wheel Steering
Figure 7-30 CWS Annunciation
In most scenarios, releasing the CWS Button reengages the autopilot with a new reference. Refer to
flight director mode descriptions for specific CWS behavior in each mode.
DISENGAGEMENT
The autopilot may be manually disengaged by pushing the AP DISC, GA, MEPT Switch, or the AP
Key on the AFCS Control Unit. Manual disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow
‘AP’ annunciation and a three-second autopilot disconnect aural alert. The AP DISC or MEPT Switch
may be used to cancel the aural alert.
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System Overview
Figure 7-31 Manual Autopilot Disengagement
System failure
•
Invalid sensor data
•
Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically)
•
Stall warning (YD also disengages)
•
Inability to compute default flight director modes (FD also disengages automatically)
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Automatic autopilot disengagement is indicated by a flashing red and white ‘AP’ annunciation and by
the autopilot disconnect aural alert, which continue until acknowledged by pushing the AP DISC or
MEPT Switch. Automatic autopilot disengagement occurs due to:
Engine Indication System
Figure 7-32 Yaw Damper Disengagement
Flight Instruments
The YD Key and AP DISC Switches can be used to disengage the yaw damper (the autopilot, if
engaged, also disengages when the AP DISC Switch is pressed). The ‘YD’ and ‘AP’ annunciations turn
yellow and flash for 5 seconds upon disengagement.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 7-33 Automatic Autopilot and Yaw Damper Disengagement
Hazard Avoidance
Yaw damper disengagement is indicated by a five-second flashing yellow ‘YD’ annunciation.
Automatic yaw damper disengagement occurs when autopilot disengagement is caused by failure in a
parameter also affecting the yaw damper. This means the yaw damper can remain operational in some
cases where the autopilot automatically disengages. A localized failure in the yaw damper system or
invalid sensor data also cause yaw damper disengagement.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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7.5 AFCS ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
AFCS ALERTS
System Status Field
Figure 7-34 AFCS System Status Field
The following alert annunciations appear in the AFCS System Status field on the PFD.
Condition
Annunciation
Description
Pitch Failure
Pitch axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
Roll Failure
Roll axis control failure. AP is inoperative.
MEPT Switch
Stuck, or Pitch
Trim Axis
Control Failure
If annunciated when AP is engaged, take control of the aircraft
and disengage the autopilot. If annunciated when AP is not
engaged, move each half of the MEPT switch separately to check
if a stuck switch is causing the annunciation.
Yaw Damper
Failure
YD control failure; AP also inoperative
System Failure
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a
sustained force. Be prepared to apply nose up control wheel force
upon autopilot disconnect.
Elevator
Mistrim Up
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a
sustained force. Be prepared to apply nose up control wheel force
upon autopilot disconnect.
Elevator
Mistrim Down
A condition has developed causing the pitch servo to provide a
sustained force. Be prepared to apply nose down control wheel
force upon autopilot disconnect.
Aileron Mistrim
Left
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a
sustained left force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Aileron Mistrim
Right
A condition has developed causing the roll servo to provide a
sustained right force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Rudder Mistrim
Left
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a
sustained force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
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System Overview
A condition has developed causing the yaw servo to provide a
sustained force. Ensure the slip/skid indicator is centered and
observe any maximum fuel imbalance limits.
Preflight Test
Performing preflight system test; aural alert sounds at completion.
Do not press the AP DISC Switch during servo power-up and
preflight system tests as this may cause the preflight system test
to fail or never to start (if servos fail their power-up tests). Power
must be cycled to the servos to remedy the situation.
Engine Indication System
Preflight system test has failed.
Flight Instruments
Rudder Mistrim
Right
OVERSPEED PROTECTION
Flight Management
System
While Pitch Hold, Vertical Speed, Flight Level Change, Vertical Path Tracking, or an altitude capture
mode is active, airspeed is monitored by the flight director. Overspeed protection is provided to limit
the flight director’s pitch command in situations where the flight director cannot acquire and maintain
the mode reference for the selected vertical mode without exceeding Vmo.
When Overspeed Protection is active, the Airspeed Reference appears in a box above the Airspeed
Indicator, flashing a yellow ‘MAXSPD’ annunciation. Engine power should be reduced and/or the pitch
reference adjusted to slow the aircraft. The annunciation disappears when the overspeed condition is
resolved.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Overspeed protection is not active in ALT, GS or GP modes.
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
Figure 7-35 Overspeed Annunciation
UNDERSPEED PROTECTION
Underspeed Protection is available when the optional Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) system
is installed and the autopilot is on. It is designed to discourage aircraft operation below minimum
established airspeeds.
When the aircraft reaches a predetermined airspeed (specific to each flap setting), a yellow MINSPD
annunciation will appear above the airspeed indicator. When aircraft angle of attack is within four
degrees of stall warning, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be displayed approximately four degrees above
the aircraft symbol on the pitch attitude indicator. If deceleration continues, the Pitch Limit Indicator
will move downward on the pitch attitude indicator until coincident with the aircraft symbol at stall
warning angle of attack.
MINSPD Annunciation and Airspeed Alerts
0%
88 kts
Takeoff
84 kts
100%
74 kts
Index
Appendices
Flaps
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Pitch Limit
Indicator
Engine Indication System
Airspeed
Indicator
Figure 7-36 MINSPD Annunciation and Pitch Limit Indication
If the aircraft decelerates to stall warning, the lateral and vertical flight director modes will change
from active to armed, and the autopilot will provide input causing the aircraft to pitch down and the
wings to level.
Hazard Avoidance
Lateral and
Vertical FD
Modes Armed
Flight Management
System
ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (ALT, GS, GP, TO, GA, FLC)
Audio Panel and CNS
If the aircraft continues to decelerate, Underspeed Protection functionality depends on which vertical
flight director mode is selected. For the purpose of this discussion, the vertical flight director modes can
be divided into two categories: Those in which it is important to maintain altitude for as long as possible
(altitude-critical modes), and those in which maintaining altitude is less crucial (non-altitude critical
modes).
Additional Features
An aural “AIRSPEED” alert will sound every five seconds and a red “UNDERSPEED PROTECT
ACTIVE” annunciation (next figure) will appear to the right of the vertical speed indicator. The pitch
down force will continue until the aircraft reaches a pitch attitude at which IAS equals the IAS at
which stall warning turns off, plus two knots.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 7-37 Lateral and Vertical Flight Director Modes Armed
Appendices
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Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to above the IAS at which stall warning
turns off, plus two knots, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the vertical
reference. The vertical and lateral flight director modes will change from armed to active, and when
aircraft angle of attack reaches approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch
Limit Indicator will be removed.
NON ALTITUDE CRITICAL MODES (VS, VNAV, IAS)
When the airspeed trend vector (specific to each flap setting) reaches a predetermined airspeed, a
single aural “AIRSPEED” will sound, alerting the pilot to the impending underspeed condition. If the
aircraft decelerates to an IAS below the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed, a red
“UNDERSPEED PROTECT ACTIVE” annunciation (previous figure) will appear to the right of the
vertical speed indicator. The vertical flight director mode will change from active to armed (next figure),
and the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch down until reaching a pitch attitude at which IAS equals
the minimum commandable autopilot airspeed.
Vertical FD
Mode Armed
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 7-38 Underspeed Protect Active Annunciatiion
Figure 7-39 Vertical Flight Director Mode Armed
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Pitch
Audio Panel and CNS
Roll
Engine Indication System
Level Mode is coupled pitch and roll modes and is annunciated as both the vertical and lateral
modes when active. When engaged the autopilot and Yaw Damper (if the autopilot is disengaged and
the aircraft is within the autopilot engagement limitations) in level vertical and lateral modes. Level
Mode does not track altitude or heading. When engaged all armed and active modes are cancelled and
the autopilot and flight director revert to LVL mode for pitch and roll. While in level mode, all other
modes are available by pressing the corresponding button.
Level mode becomes active as a function of Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP). Refer to the
Additional Features section for a detailed discussion of the ESP feature.
Flight Instruments
LEVEL MODE
System Overview
When airspeed increases (as a result of adding power/thrust) to an IAS above the minimum
commandable autopilot airspeed, the autopilot will cause the aircraft to pitch up until recapturing the
vertical reference. The vertical flight director mode will change from armed to active, and when aircraft
angle of attack reaches approximately five degrees below stall warning angle of attack, the Pitch Limit
Indicator will be removed.
Flight Management
System
Figure 7-40 Level Mode Annunciation
Hazard Avoidance
EMERGENCY DESCENT MODE
ACTIVATION
•
Cabin Altitude is greater than 14,900 feet MSL
Or
Cabin Altitude discrete “High” condition and Pressure Altitude is greater than 15,000 feet MSL.
Throttles should be reduced to idle and speed brakes extended to achieve a maximum rate of decent.
EDM is annunciated as the AFCS Status Annunciation and the following AFCS modes are engaged:
FLC Mode with a target speed of 265 KIAS or Mach equivalent, Heading Mode with a course 90° left
of current heading, and a target altitude of 15,000 feet MSL.
Additional Features
•
Automatic Flight Control
System
The aircraft is equipped with an Emergency Descent Mode (EDM). EDM is automatically activated
when the autopilot is engaged and:
Appendices
NOTE: Refer to the POH for specific instructions regarding emergency procedures.
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System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
HDG MODE
Active
FLC MODE
Active
Target 265KIAS
is selected
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
EDM is
annunciated
15000MSL is
selected
Figure 7-41 Emergency Descent Mode Armed
EDM Override
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
To exit the EDM Mode press the AP Key on the AFCS Controller. If the AP Key is
pressed again an EDM Override caution will appear. EDM Mode cannot be reentered
until the EDM Override is cleared. To clear the EDM Override the cabin altitude will need
to descend to below 14,900 ft and the AP Key needs to be cycled off and back on
again.
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System Overview
7.6 ABNORMAL OPERATION
Suspected Autopilot Malfunction
If an autopilot failure or trim failure is suspected to have occurred, perform the
following steps:
2) Press and hold the AP DISC Switch. The autopilot will disconnect and power is removed
from the trim motor. Power is also removed from all primary servo motors and engaged
solenoids. Note the visual and aural alerting indicating autopilot disconnect.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Retrim the aircraft as needed. Substantial trim adjustment may be needed.
Engine Indication System
1) Firmly grasp the control wheel.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Consult the aircraft documentation for the location of circuit breakers as well as
specifics that may supplement or amplify this procedure.
4) Pull the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to electrically isolate the servo and solenoid
components.
5) Release the AP DISC Switch.
The following steps should be added to the preflight check:
Automatic Flight Control
System
Overpowering the autopilot during flight will cause the autopilot’s automatic trim to
run, resulting in an out-of-trim condition or cause the trim to hit the stop if the action is
prolonged. In this case, larger than anticipated control forces are required after the
autopilot is disengaged.
Hazard Avoidance
In the context of this discussion, “overpowering” refers to any pressure or force applied
to the pitch controls when the autopilot is engaged. A small amount of pressure or
force on the pitch controls can cause the autopilot automatic trim to run to an out-oftrim condition. Therefore, any application of pressure or force to the controls should be
avoided when the autopilot is engaged.
Flight Management
System
Overpowering Autopilot Servos
1) Check for proper autopilot operation and ensure the autopilot can be overpowered.
Additional Features
2) Note the forces required to overpower the autopilot servo clutches.
Appendices
Index
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Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
BLANK PAGE
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System Overview
SECTION 8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.1 OVERVIEW
ChartView, FliteCharts®, and IFR/VFR electronic charts
•
AOPA™ or AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
•
Satellite Telephone and SMS
•
SiriusXM® Satellite Radio entertainment
•
SurfaceWatch™
•
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™)
•
Flight Data Logging
•
Scheduler
•
Electronic Checklist
•
Connext®
Hazard Avoidance
•
Flight Management
System
SafeTaxi® diagrams
Audio Panel and CNS
•
Engine Indication System
Additional features of the system include the following:
Appendices
Index
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Additional Features
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
Automatic Flight Control
System
SafeTaxi diagrams provide detailed taxiway, runway, and ramp information at more than 700 airports
in the United States. By decreasing range on an airport that has a SafeTaxi diagram available, a close up
view of the airport layout can be seen.
The ChartView, FliteCharts and IFR/VFR electronic charts provides on-board electronic terminal
procedures charts. Electronic charts offer the convenience of rapid access to essential information.
The AOPA and AC-U-KWIK Airport Directories offer detailed information for a selected airport, such
as available services, hours of operation, and lodging options.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment audio feature of the GDL 69A SXM Data Link
Receiver handles more than 170 channels of music, news, and sports. SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers
more entertainment choices and longer range coverage than commercial broadcast stations.
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides voice and visual annunciations to aid in maintaining situational
awareness and avoid potential runway incursions during ground and air operations in the airport
environment.
The Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) system discourages aircraft operation outside the
normal flight envelope..
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Flight Instruments
NOTE: With the availability of SafeTaxi®, ChartView, or FliteCharts®, it may be necessary to
carry another source of charts on-board the aircraft.
The Flight Data Logging feature automatically stores critical flight and engine data on an SD data card.
Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
The Scheduler feature can be used to enter and display short term or long term reminder messages
such as Switch fuel tanks, Change oil, or Altimeter-Transponder Check in the Messages Window on the
PFD.
Electronic checklists allow a pilot to quickly find the proper procedure for a particular phase of flight.
Connext allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a Bluetooth connection
between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Audio Panel and CNS
- PFD Maps
Engine Indication System
- Navigation Map Page
Flight Instruments
SafeTaxi is an enhanced feature that gives greater map detail when viewing airports at close range.
The maximum map ranges for enhanced detail are pilot configurable. When viewing at ranges close
enough to show the airport detail, the map reveals taxiways with identifying letters/numbers, airport
Hot Spots, and airport landmarks including ramps, buildings, control towers, and other prominent
features. Resolution is greater at lower map ranges. When the MFD display is within the SafeTaxi
ranges, the airplane symbol on the airport provides enhanced position awareness.
Designated Hot Spots are recognized at airports with many intersecting taxiways and runways,
and/or complex ramp areas. Airport Hot Spots are outlined to caution pilots of areas on an airport
surface where positional awareness confusion or runway incursions happen most often. Hot Spots are
defined with a magenta circle or outline around the region of possible confusion.
Any map page that displays the navigation view can also show the SafeTaxi airport layout within the
maximum configured range. The following is a list of pages where the SafeTaxi feature can be seen:
System Overview
8.2 SAFETAXI
- Weather Datalink Page
Flight Management
System
- Airport Information Page
- Intersection Information Page
- NDB Information Page
Hazard Avoidance
- VOR Information Page
- User Waypoint Information Page
- Trip Planning Page
- Active and Stored Flight Plan Pages
Additional Features
Appendices
During ground operations the aircraft’s position is displayed in reference to taxiways, runways, and
airport features. Airport Hot Spots are outlined in magenta. When panning over the airport, features
such as runway holding lines and taxiways are shown at the cursor.
The Detail Softkey (declutter) label advances to Detail All, Detail 3, Detail 2 and Detail 1 each time
the softkey is selected for easy recognition of decluttering level. Pressing the Detail All Softkey
removes the taxiway markings and airport feature labels. Pressing the Detail 3 Softkey removes VOR
station ID, the VOR symbol, and intersection names if within the airport plan view. Pressing the Detail
2 Softkey removes the airport runway layout, unless the airport in view is part of an active route
structure. Pressing the Detail 1 Softkey cycles back to the original map detail. Refer to Map Declutter
Levels in the Flight Management Section.
Automatic Flight Control
System
- Nearest Pages
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Configuring SafeTaxi Range
1) While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the
‘Page Menu.’
Flight Instruments
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Map Settings’ Menu Option and press the
ENT Key.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the ‘Aviation’ Group and press the ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Aviation’ Group options to SafeTaxi.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to display the range of distances.
6) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired distance for maximum SafeTaxi display
range.
Audio Panel and CNS
7) Press the ENT Key to complete the selection.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
8) Press the FMS Knob to return to the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page.
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System Overview
8.3 CHARTS
CHARTS
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
ChartView resembles the paper version of Jeppesen terminal procedures charts. The charts are
displayed in full color with high-resolution. The MFD depiction shows the aircraft position on the
moving map in the planview of approach charts and on airport diagrams. Airport Hot Spots are outlined
in magenta.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when the
current position is within the boundaries of the chart. Inset boxes are not considered within the chart
boundaries. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol reaches a chart boundary line, or inset box, the aircraft
symbol is removed from the display.
The following figure shows examples of off-scale areas, indicated by the grey shading. Note, the grey
shading is for illustrative purposes only and will not appear on the published chart or MFD display.
These off-scale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted
geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual geographic
position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft position
indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
Engine Indication System
CHARTVIEW
Flight Instruments
Electronic charts that resemble the paper versions of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts
(FliteCharts) and Jeppesen terminal procedures charts (ChartView) can be displayed on the MFD.
When the databases for both chart types are purchased and loaded in the system, the desired charts
brand, or source, can be selected for viewing. The active chart source for a particular procedure is
shown on the information pane under Source.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Flight Instruments
Inset Box
Engine Indication System
Off-Scale
Area
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Off-Scale
Areas
Figure 8-1 Sample Chart Indicating Off-Scale Areas
The ChartView database subscription is available from Jeppesen, Inc. Available data includes:
•
Arrivals (STAR)
•
Departure Procedures (DP)
•
Approaches
•
Airport Diagrams
•
NOTAMs
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
Selecting Terminal Procedures Charts
While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘NRST-Nearest Airport’ Page, or ‘FPLActive Flight Plan’ Page, press the Charts Softkey.
Appendices
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu.’
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to scroll through the ‘Options’ Menu to Charts.
Index
3) Press the ENT Key to display the chart.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Navigation Map Page Options Menu
Waypoint Airport Information Page Options Menu
Figure 8-2 Option Menus
Audio Panel and CNS
When no terminal procedure chart is available, the banner No Available Charts appears
on the screen. The No Available Charts banner does not refer to the FliteCharts
subscription, but rather the availability of a particular airport chart selection or
procedure for a selected airport.
Flight Management
System
Figure 8-3 Chart Not Available Banner
Hazard Avoidance
If there is a problem in rendering the data (such as a data error or a failure of an
individual chart), the banner Unable To Display Chart is then displayed.
Figure 8-4 Unable To Display Chart Banner
Appendices
The chart shown is one associated with the ‘WPT–Airport Information’ page. Usually
this is the airport runway diagram. Where no runway diagram exists, but Take Off
Minimums or Alternate Minimums are available, that page appears. If Airport
Information pages are unavailable, the Approach Chart for the airport is shown.
Additional Features
If a chart is available for the destination airport, or the airport selected in the active
flight plan, the chart appears on the screen. When no flight plan is active, or when not
flying to a direct-to destination, pressing the Charts Softkey displays the chart for the
nearest airport, if available.
Automatic Flight Control
System
When a chart is not available by pressing the Charts Softkey or selecting a Page Menu
Option, charts may be obtained for other airports from the WPT Pages or Flight Plan
Pages.
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting a chart
1) While viewing the ‘Map-Navigation Map’ Page, ‘FPL-Active Flight Plan’ Page, or ‘NRST-
Flight Instruments
Nearest Airports’ Page, press the Charts Softkey. The airport diagram or approach chart
is displayed on the ‘WPT-Airport Information’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to select either the Airport Identifier Box or the ‘Approach’
Engine Indication System
Box. (Press the APR Softkey if the ‘Approach’ Box is not currently shown).
4) Turn the small and large FMS Knob to enter the desired airport identifier.
5) Press the ENT Key to complete the airport selection.
6) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Approach’ Box.
Audio Panel and CNS
7) Turn the small FMS Knob to show the approach chart selection choices.
8) Turn either FMS Knob to scroll through the available charts.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
9) Press the ENT Key to complete the chart selection.
Index
Appendices
Figure 8-5 Approach Information Page, Chart Selection
CHART OPTIONS
•
Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the next level of softkeys, the chart options leve
•
Pressing the All Softkey shows the complete approach chart on the screen.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
System Overview
•
Pressing the Plan Softkey shows the approach chart two dimensional plan view.
•
Pressing the Profile Softkey displays the approach chart descent profile strip.
•
Pressing the Minimums Softkey displays the minimum descent altitude/visibility strip at the bottom of
the approach chart.
•
If the chart scale has been adjusted to view a small area of the chart, pressing the Fit WDTH Softkey
changes the chart size to fit the available screen width.
•
Pressing the Full SCN Softkey alternates between removing and replacing the data window to the
right.
Engine Indication System
Pressing the Header Softkey shows the header view (approach chart briefing strip) on the screen.
Flight Instruments
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Complete
Chart
Shown
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Figure 8-6 Approach Information Page All View
Selecting Additional Information
1) While viewing the Airport Taxi Diagram, press the Full SCN Softkey to display the
Appendices
information windows (Airport, Info).
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the Airport, Info, Runways, or Frequencies Box.
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Info Box choices. If multiple choices are
available, scroll to the desired choice with the large FMS Knob and press the ENT Key
to complete the selection.
Flight Instruments
5) Press the FMS Knob again to deactivate the cursor.
Pressing the Back Softkey, or waiting for 45 seconds reverts to the chart selection
softkeys. The full screen view can also be selected by using the page menu option.
Engine Indication System
Selecting full screen On or Off:
1) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’
Options.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the
Audio Panel and CNS
ENT Key.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to move between the ‘Full Screen’ and ‘Color Scheme’
Options.
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between the ‘On’ and ‘Off’ ‘Full Screen’ Options.
Appendices
Chart Setup Option
Full Screen On/Off Selection
Figure 8-7 Page Menus
Selecting Day/Night View:
1) ChartView can be displayed on a white or black background for day or night viewing.
Index
The Day View offers a better presentation in a bright environment. The Night View
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System Overview
gives a better presentation for viewing in a dark environment. When the Chart Setup
Box is selected the MFD softkeys are blank. Selecting Day, Night, or Automatic View:
2) While viewing a terminal chart press the MENU Key to display the ‘Page Menu’
Flight Instruments
Options.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu Option and press the
ENT Key.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 8-8 Page Menu Chart Setup
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to move to the ‘Color Scheme’ Option.
5) Turn the small FMS Knob to choose between ‘Day, Auto, and Night’ Options.
the small FMS Knob to change the percentage value. The percentage value is the day/
night crossover point based on the percentage of backlighting intensity. For example, if
the value is set to 15%, the day/night display changes when the display backlight
reaches 15% of full brightness.
Appendices
The display must be changed in order for the new setting to become active. This may
be accomplished by selecting another page or changing the display range.
Additional Features
6) If Auto Mode is selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the percentage field. Use
7) Press the FMS Knob when finished to remove the ‘Chart Setup’ Menu.
Index
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Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-10 Chart Information Page, Night View
FLITECHARTS
FliteCharts resemble the paper version of AeroNav Services terminal procedures charts. The charts
are displayed with high-resolution and in color for applicable charts.
The geo-referenced aircraft position is indicated by an aircraft symbol displayed on the chart when
the current position is within the boundaries of the chart. Not all charts are geo-referenced. These
charts will display an Aircraft Not Shown Icon in the lower right corner of the MFD.
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Figure 8-9 Chart Information Page, Day View
Index
Figure 8-11 Aircraft Not Shown Icon
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
An aircraft symbol may be displayed within an off-scale area depicted on some charts. Off-scale areas
are indicated by the grey shading. Note, these areas are not shaded on the published chart. These offscale areas appear on the chart to convey supplemental information. However, the depicted
geographical position of this information, as it relates to the chart planview, is not the actual
geographic position. Therefore, when the aircraft symbol appears within one of these areas, the aircraft
position indicated is relative to the chart planview, not to the off-scale area.
The FliteCharts database subscription is available from Garmin. Available data includes:
- Arrivals (STAR)
Engine Indication System
- Departure Procedures (DP)
- Approaches
- Airport Diagrams
FLIGHTCHARTS SOFTKEYS
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) and optional AC-U-KWIK Airport Directory
databases offer detailed information regarding services, hours of operation, lodging options, and more.
This information is viewed on the Airport Information Page by pressing the Info Softkey until Info 2 is
displayed.
Both Airport Directories are available for downloading at flygarmin.com. However, copy only one of
the databases to the Supplemental Data Card. The system cannot recognize both databases
simultaneously.
Hazard Avoidance
AIRPORT DIRECTORY
Flight Management
System
FliteCharts functions are displayed on three levels of softkeys. While on the ‘Map - Navigation Map’
Page, ‘NRST - Nearest Airports’ Page, or ‘FPL - Active Flight Plan’ Page, pressing the Charts Softkey
displays the available terminal chart and advances to the chart selection level of softkeys: CHRT Opt,
Chart, Info, DP, STAR, APR, WX, and Go Back. The chart selection softkeys appear on the ‘WPT Airport Information’ Page.
Pressing the Go Back Softkey reverts to the top level softkeys and previous page.
Pressing the CHRT Opt Softkey displays the available terminal chart and advances to the next level of
softkeys: All, Fit WDTH, Full SCN, and Back.
While viewing the CHRT Opt Softkeys, after 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, the system reverts to the
chart selection softkeys.
NOTAMs are not available with FliteCharts. The NOTAM Softkey label appears subdued and is
disabled.
Audio Panel and CNS
NOTE: Do not maneuver the aircraft based solely upon the geo-referenced aircraft symbol.
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting the Airport Directory Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘WPT’ page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Airport Information Page. Initially, information
Flight Instruments
for the airport closest to the aircraft’s present position is displayed.
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
3) If necessary, press the Info softkey until Info 2 is displayed.
Index
Figure 8-12 AOPA Information on the Airport Information Page
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Map Pointer (distance and bearing to pointer, location of pointer, name, and other pertinent
information)
•
Map Range (17 range choices from 1 nm to 150 nm)
•
Map Orientation (always North Up for IFR/VFR Charts)
•
Aircraft Icon (representing present position)
•
Wind Direction and Speed
•
Icons for enabled map features (Traffic only)
•
Flight Plan Legs
•
Track Vector
•
Runway Extension
•
Missed Approach Preview
•
Intersections (only as part of active flight plan)
•
Visual Reporting Points
•
VNAV Constraints
•
Selected Altitude Intercept Arc
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
The system can display GPS navigation information on a VFR chart, a low altitude IFR chart, or a
high altitude IFR chart, if installed. The information overlaid on the IFR/VFR Charts is selected and
setup on the Navigation Map, but the IFR/VFR charts will not display some of the selected items. Only
the following items will be overlaid on the chart:
System Overview
IFR/VRF CHARTS
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Map panning on the IFR/VFR Charts works the same as on the Navigation Map. Map range selected
on either the Navigation Map or the IFR/VFR Charts applies to both. However, if the range selected on
the Navigation Map it is not a valid chart range, the chart is shown with a range of 7.5 nm.
When different VFR charts exist for the same area the chart type will automatically display according
to the range chosen. For example, in an area where both a Sectional and a Terminal Area Chart (TAC)
are available, a range of 6 nm or more will show the Sectional chart. Once the range is decreased
below 6 nm, the system will automatically change the displayed chart from the Sectional to the TAC.
Due to the potential error involved with the electronic depiction of maps, charts will display a gray
‘circle of uncertainty’ centered upon the aircraft icon. The aircraft’s actual position can be anywhere
within the range of the gray circle. The range of the circle will change based on the chart displayed and
current zoom range.
Appendices
Index
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
Flight Instruments
VFR Chart
Map Range
Engine Indication System
Active Flight Plan Leg
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Figure 8-13 Navigation Information on the VFR Chart
Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
Hazard Avoidance
Map Orientation
IFR Low Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Automatic Flight Control
System
Circle of Uncertainty
Active Flight Plan Leg
Appendices
Additional Features
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Index
Figure 8-14 Navigation Information on the IFR Low Altitude Chart
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
System Overview
Navigation Data Bar
Navigation Page Title
Map Orientation
Flight Instruments
IFR High Altitude
Chart
Map Range
Active Flight Plan Leg
Engine Indication System
Aircraft Icon
at Present Position
Circle of Uncertainty
Audio Panel and CNS
Map panning on the IFR/VFR Charts works the same as on the Navigation Map. Map range selected
on either the Navigation Map or the IFR/VFR Charts applies to both. However, if the range selected on
the Navigation Map it is not a valid chart range, the chart is shown with a range of 7.5 nm.
1) Press the MENU Key with the IFR Low / IFR High Chart displayed. The cursor flashes on
the ‘Settings’ option.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Day’, ‘Auto’, or ‘Night’. The IFR Chart display
changes to reflect the setting.
4) If ‘Auto’ was selected, turn the large FMS Knob to select the backlight threshold field
Additional Features
(sets value for automatic day/night switching).
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the ENT Key. The cursor flashes on the ‘Color Scheme’ setting.
Hazard Avoidance
Selecting the Chart to Display:
Flight Management
System
Figure 8-15 Navigation Information on the IFR High Altitude Chart
Modifying the Chart Settings:
1) Press the MENU Key with the ‘Map - IFR/VFR Charts’ Page displayed.
2) Turn the FMS Knob to highlight the ‘Display VFR’ Field, the ‘Display IFR Low’ Field, or
Appendices
the ‘Display IFR High’ Field.
3) Press the ENT Key. The selected chart is displayed.
Index
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8.4 DATABASE CYCLE NUMBER AND REVISIONS
Databases that may be available include FliteCharts, Obstacle, Terrain, IFR/VFR, Navigation,
ChartView, SafeTaxi, Airport Directory. Data is revised and expiration dates vary. Data is still viewable
during a period that extends from the cycle expiration date to the disables date. When turning on the
system, the Power-up Page displays the current status of the databases. As an example, see the table
below for the various FliteCharts Power-up Page displays and the definition of each. The expiration date
and disables date varies for each database.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Example Power-up Page Display Text
Table 8-1 Database Power-up Page Annunciations
White text, such as ‘FliteCharts Data Expires’ plus a date, indicates the chart database is current.
Yellow text, such as ‘Chart data is out of date!’ or ‘FliteCharts Data: Disabled”, indicates charts are no
longer viewable and have expired.
Database time critical information can also be found on the ‘Aux - System Status’ page. The database
Region, Cycle number, Effective, Expires, and Disables dates of the subscription appear in either blue or
yellow text. Dates shown in blue are current data. Dates shown in yellow indicate the data is not within
the current subscription period.
NOTE: A subdued softkey label indicates the function is disabled.
Press the MFD1 DB Softkey to place the cursor in the Database window. Scroll through the listed
information by turning the FMS Knob or pressing the ENT Key until the applicable database
information is shown.
Database cycle numbers are in a format such as YYTI or YYII, which are deciphered as follows:
YYTI
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
T – Indicates the database type (ex. S is for SafeTaxi, D is for Airport Directory)
I – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 5 is the fifth issue of the year)
YYII
YY – Indicates the last two digits of the year (ex. 18 represents 2018)
II – Indicates the numerical issue of the database for the year (ex. 05 is the fifth issue of the year)
Refer to Updating Garmin Databases in Appendix for instructions on revising databases.
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System Overview
Example Power-up Page Display Text Database Cycle Number Format Revision Cycle
YYTI
Not Applicable
YYBI
56 days
YYSI
56 days
YYDI
56 days
YYII
28 days
YYII
14 days
YYII
28 days
Flight Management
System
Not Applicable
Audio Panel and CNS
YYMI
Engine Indication System
28 days
Flight Instruments
YYII
Hazard Avoidance
Table 8-2 Database Cycle Number and Revision
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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8.5 SIRIUSXM RADIO ENTERTAINMENT
NOTE: Refer to the Hazard Avoidance Section for information about SiriusXM Weather
products.
The optional SiriusXM Satellite Radio entertainment feature of the GDL69A SXM Data Link Receiver is
available for the pilot’s and passengers’ enjoyment. The GDL 69A SXM can receive SiriusXM Satellite
Radio entertainment services at any altitude throughout the Continental U.S.
SiriusXM Satellite Radio offers a variety of radio programming over long distances without having to
constantly search for new stations. Based on signals from satellites, coverage far exceeds land-based
transmissions. SiriusXM Satellite Radio services are subscription-based. For more information on specific
service packages, visit www.siriusxm.com.
Activating SiriusXM Satellite Radio Services:
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Flight Management
System
The service is activated by providing SiriusXM Satellite Radio with either one or two
coded IDs, depending on the equipment. Either the Audio Radio ID or the Data Radio
ID, or both, must be provided to SiriusXM Satellite Radio to activate the entertainment
subscription.
It is not required to activate both the entertainment and weather service subscriptions
with the GDL 69A SXM. Either or both services can be activated. SiriusXM Satellite
Radio uses one or both of the coded IDs to send an activation signal that, when
received by the GDL 69A SXM, allows it to play entertainment programming.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
These IDs are located:
•
On the label on the back of the Data Link Receiver
•
On the XM Information Page on the MFD
•
On the XM Satellite Radio Activation Instructions included with the unit (available at
www.garmin.com, P/N 190-00355-04)
Contact the installer if the Data Radio ID and the Audio Radio ID cannot be located.
1) Contact SiriusXM Satellite Radio. Follow the instructions provided by SiriusXM Satellite
Additional Features
Radio services.
2) Select the Auxiliary Page Group.
3) Select the ‘Aux - XM Radio’ page.
4) Press the Info Softkey to display the ‘Aux-XM Information’ Page.
Index
Appendices
5) Verify that the desired services are activated.
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System Overview
Audio
Radio ID
Data
Radio ID
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Weather
Products
Window
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Figure 8-16 XM Information Page
6) If SiriusXM Weather services have not been activated, all the weather product boxes are
The XM Radio Page provides information and control of the audio entertainment features of the
SiriusXM Satellite Radio.
Selecting the XM Radio Page:
Additional Features
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Auxiliary Page Group.
Automatic Flight Control
System
USING SIRIUSXM RADIO
Hazard Avoidance
blank on the XM Information Page and a yellow Activation Required message is
displayed in the center of the Weather Data Link Page (Map Page Group). The Service
Class refers to the groupings of weather products available for subscription.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the displayed ‘Aux - XM Information’ Page.
3) Press the Radio Softkey to show the ‘XM Radio’ Page where audio entertainment is
controlled.
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Index
The Active Channel Box on the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected channel that the
SiriusXM Radio is using.
The Channels List Box of the XM Radio Page shows a list of the available channels for the selected
category. Channels can be stepped through one at a time or may be selected directly by channel
number.
Appendices
ACTIVE CHANNEL AND CHANNEL LIST
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Selecting a channel from the channel list:
1) While on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page, press the Channel Softkey.
2) Press the CH+ Softkey to go up through the list in the ‘Channels’ Box, or move down
Flight Instruments
the list with the CH– Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the FMS Knob to highlight the channel list and turn the large FMS Knob to scroll
Engine Indication System
through the channels.
2) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
Selecting a channel directly:
Audio Panel and CNS
1) While on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page, press the Channel Softkey.
2) Press the Direct CH Softkey. The channel number in the ‘Active Channel’ Box is
highlighted.
3) Press the numbered softkeys located on the bottom of the display to directly select the
4) Press the ENT Key to activate the selected channel.
CATEGORY
The Category Box of the XM Radio Page displays the currently selected category of audio. Categories
of channels such as jazz, rock, or news can be selected to list the available channels for a type of music
or other contents. One of the optional categories is Presets to view channels that have been
programmed.
Selecting a category:
1) Press the Category Softkey on the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page.
2) Press the CAT + and CAT - Softkeys to cycle through the categories.
Or:
Turn the small FMS Knob to display the Categories list. Highlight the desired category
with the small FMS Knob and press the ENT Key. Selecting All Categories places all
channels in the list.
PRESETS
Up to 15 channels from any category can be assigned a preset number. The preset channels are
selected by pressing the Presets and More Softkeys. Then the preset channel can be selected directly
and added to the channel list for the Presets category.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
desired channel number.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
1) On the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page, while listening to an ‘Active Channel’ that is wanted for a
Flight Instruments
preset, press the Presets Softkey to access the first five preset channels (Preset 1 Preset 5).
System Overview
Setting a preset channel number:
2) Press the More Softkey to access the next five channels (Preset 6 – Preset 10), and
again to access the last five channels (Preset 11 – Preset 15). Pressing the More
Softkey repeatedly cycles through the preset channels.
channel.
4) Press the Set Softkey on the desired channel number to save the channel as a preset.
VOLUME
Radio volume is shown as a percentage. Volume level is controlled by pressing the Volume Softkey,
which brings up the Mute Softkey and the volume increase and decrease softkeys.
Audio Panel and CNS
Pressing the Back Softkey, or 45 seconds of softkey inactivity, returns the system to the
top level softkeys.
Engine Indication System
3) Press any one of the (Preset 1 - Preset 15) softkeys to assign a number to the active
Flight Management
System
Adjusting the volume:
1) With the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page displayed, press the Volume Softkey.
2) Press the VOL – Softkey to reduce volume or press the VOL + Softkey to increase
Muting SiriusXM audio:
Hazard Avoidance
volume. (Once the VOL Softkey is pressed, the volume can also be adjusted using the
small FMS Knob.)
1) Select the ‘Aux-XM Radio’ Page or ‘Aux-XM Information’ Page.
the audio.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Press the Mute Softkey to mute the audio. Press the Mute Softkey again to unmute
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
8.6 SATELLITE TELEPHONE AND SMS MESSAGING
The GSR 56 Iridium Transceiver provides an airborne low speed data link, Iridium Satellite Telephone
service, and Short Message Service (SMS). The GSR 56 can also be paired with the optional GDL 59
Data Link, providing a high speed (IEEE 802.11g) Wi-Fi data link between the aircraft and a ground
computer network while the aircraft is on the ground.
The telephone is available to the flight crew through the audio panel and headsets. An optional
handset may be installed in the aircraft cabin to be used for voice communication between the aircraft
cabin and the cockpit and for Iridium telephone service in the aircraft cabin.
Operation of these features in the cockpit is accomplished through the Aux-Telephone, Aux-Text
Messaging, and Aux-Maintenance WI-FI Setup Pages. For operation using the cabin handset, consult the
instructions provided with the handset.
REGISTERING THE SYSTEM FOR DATALINK/CONNEXT SERVICES
A subscriber account must be established prior to using the Iridium Satellite System. Before setting up
an Iridium account, obtain the serial number of the Iridium Transceiver (GSR1) and the System ID by
selecting the Aux- System Status Page. Garmin contact information can be found at
www.flyGarmin.com.
Iridium telephone and data communications may be turned on or off by performing these simple
steps.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
NOTE: An account must be established to access the Iridium satellite network for voice/SMS.
Disabling/enabling telephone and low speed data services:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
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System Overview
Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-17 Report Status Page
Automatic Flight Control
System
3) Press the MENU Key. The Page Menu window is now displayed.
4) Turn the FMS Knob to select ‘Disable Iridium Transmission’ in the menu list.
Additional Features
Appendices
Figure 8-18 Select Disable Iridium Transmission
Index
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
5) Press the ENT Key. The Iridium transceiver is now disabled.
6) To enable the Iridium transceiver, repeat steps 1 through 3, then select ‘Enable Iridium
TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
The pilot or copilot can place and answer calls on the Iridium satellite network as well as to or from
the telephone handset in the cabin. Calls can also be answered or made from the optional cabin phone,
however, only actions initiated from the cockpit will be discussed here. See the cabin handset user guide
for more information. Control and monitoring of telephone functions are accomplished through the
‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
Viewing the Telephone Page
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Transceiver’.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux - Telephone’ or ‘Aux - Text Messaging’
Page.
3) If necessary, select the TEL Softkey to display the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page.
Flight Management
System
The phone status display gives a graphical representation of the current disposition of
voice and/or data transmissions.
Internal
Phone
External
Phone
Description
Hazard Avoidance
Phone is idle
Automatic Flight Control
System
Phone is ringing
Phone has a dial tone (off hook) or connected to another phone
Phone dialed is busy
Additional Features
Phone is dialing another phone
Phone has failed
Appendices
Phone Status not known
Phone is disabled
Index
Phone is reserved for data transmission
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
System Overview
Calling other phone or incoming call from other phone
Other phone is on hold
Phones are connected
Flight Instruments
Telephone Symbols
CONTACTS
Entering a new contact
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
Engine Indication System
The names, telephone number, and email addresses can be saved in a list of contacts for easy use when
making telephone calls.
2) If necessary, turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘New Entry’.
4) Enter the desired name of the new contact. Entry can be accomplished through the
alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the
MFD.
6) Enter the desired telephone number. Entry can be accomplished through the
alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the
MFD.
8) Enter the desired email address. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric
Hazard Avoidance
7) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Email’ field.
Flight Management
System
5) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves to the ‘Phone Number’ field.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor moves the ‘Name’ field of the ‘Contact Details’ window.
keys on the MFD Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
Automatic Flight Control
System
9) Press the ENT Key. The Save button is highlighted.
10) Press the ENT Key. The new contact entry is added to the list of saved contacts.
Deleting a contact:
Additional Features
1) With the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Select the Delete Softkey. A confirmation window is displayed.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
4) With ‘OK’ highlighted, press the ENT Key to delete the selected contact.
Appendices
Index
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Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-19 Editing a Contact
Automatic Flight Control
System
Editing a contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
Additional Features
3) Select the Edit Softkey. The cursor is placed in the ‘Name’ field. Enter the desired
changes. Entry can be accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD
Controller, or the FMS Knobs on the controller or the MFD.
4) Press the ENT Key when each field is complete. The Save Button is now highlighted.
Index
Appendices
5) Press the ENT Key to save the changes.
INCOMING CALLS
When viewing MFD pages other than the Aux-Telephone Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed and an
aural alert “Incoming Call” will be heard. If the call is from the cabin, Cabin will be displayed. If the
incoming call is an Iridium network call, Iridium will be displayed. The pop-up alert may be inhibited at
times, such as during takeoff. In addition to the pop-up alert, a ringing phone symbol will be displayed
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Answering an incoming call in the cockpit:
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The Push-to-Talk switch is not utilized for telephone communication. The microphone
is active after selecting the Answer Softkey, and stays active until the call is terminated.
System Overview
to the right of the MFD page title. Also, the voice alert “Incoming Call” will be heard on the selected
cockpit audio.
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
OR
a) While viewing the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page
Audio Panel and CNS
Menu.
Engine Indication System
2) Select the Answer Softkey on the MFD.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Answer Incoming Call’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Muting incoming call alerts:
Flight Management
System
Selecting the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up window and leave the call
unanswered. Selecting the TEL Softkey will display the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page
allowing additional call information to be viewed before answering.
1) With the ‘Aux-Telephone’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to display
Hazard Avoidance
the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable Incoming Call Alerts’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The voice and pop-up alert will not be displayed now when an
OUTGOING CALLS
Voice calls can be made from the cockpit to the handset in the cabin, or to an external phone through
the Iridium Satellite Network.
Additional Features
Making an external call from the cockpit using the Iridium satellite network:
Automatic Flight Control
System
incoming call is received.
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Select the Dial Softkey on the MFD.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Iridium’.
Appendices
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor has now moved to the phone number entry field.
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Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 8-20 Enter Phone Number
5) Enter the desired telephone number (country code first) by selecting the number
softkeys on the MFD or by pressing the numeric keys on the MFD Control Unit.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘OK’ is highlighted.
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-21 Make the Call
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Automatic Flight Control
System
7) Press the ENT Key. The system will begin calling the number.
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 8-22 System is Making the Connection
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
When the phone is answered, the connection is established. To exit the call, select the
Hangup Softkey.
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-23 Phone is Answered, Connection is Complete
Automatic Flight Control
System
Making an external call from the cockpit by using the Contact List:
1) Press the TEL Key on the appropriate audio panel.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
4) Select the Call Softkey. The external call is initiated and the number associated with the
contact name is dialed.
Placing a call on hold:
Appendices
Select the Hold Softkey on the MFD.
Additional Features
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired contact name in the list of contacts.
Or
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Put Current Call On Hold’.
Flight Instruments
3) Press the ENT Key.
Figure 8-24 Cockpit Phone on Hold
TEXT MESSAGING (SMS)
The pilot or copilot can send and receive text messages on the Iridium satellite network. Messages may
be sent to an email address or text message capable cellular telephone. Message length is limited to 160
characters, including the email address.
The text messaging user interface is mainly through the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
The cockpit phone is now isolated from the call. This figure illustrates a call between
the cockpit and an external phone in which the cockpit phone has been put on hold.
Select the Hold Softkey again to resume the call.
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System Overview
Viewing the Text Messaging Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the ‘Aux-Telephone’ or ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
Flight Instruments
3) If necessary, select the SMS Softkey to display the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-25 Text Messaging Page
Automatic Flight Control
System
Description
Message Symbol
Received text message that has not been opened
Received text message that has been opened
Additional Features
Saved text message, draft not sent
System is sending text message
Text message has been sent
System failed to send text message
Appendices
Predefined text message
Text Message Symbols
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VIEWING A TEXT MESSAGE WHEN RECEIVED
When viewing MFD pages other than the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, a pop-up alert will be displayed
when a new text message is received.
New Text Message Pop-up
New Text Message Symbol on MFD Page
Figure 8-26 New Text Messaging Page
Select the View Softkey to view the message. Selecting the Ignore Softkey will extinguish the pop-up
window and leave the text message unopened. Selecting the Ignore All Softkey will extinguish the popwindow and ignore all future incoming text messages. Selecting the SMS Softkey will display the ‘AuxText Messaging’ Page.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
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Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Figure 8-27 Text Message Displayed from Pop-Up Alert
The pop-up alerts may be enabled or disabled through the Page Menu.
Enabling/disabling incoming text message pop-up alerts:
display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Disable New Message Popups’ or ‘Enable
Additional Features
1) With the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page displayed, press the MENU Key on the MFD to
New Message Popups’.
Appendices
3) Press the ENT Key. The pop-up alert will not be displayed when an incoming text
message is received.
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523
Figure 8-28 Disabling New Text Message Pop-Ups
After reading a text message, a reply may be sent.
Replying to a text message:
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While viewing the text message, press the Reply Softkey.
Or:
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Reply To Message’.
3) Press the ENT Key.
SENDING A TEXT MESSAGE
Text messages may be sent from the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page.
Text messages and emails may also be sent to contacts from the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Sending a New Text Message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the New Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Additional Features
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Message’.
Index
Appendices
c) Press the ENT Key.
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Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-29 Composing a New Text Message
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
Additional Features
Enter the desired telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished
through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS
Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters
and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the Numbers
Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters.
Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
Automatic Flight Control
System
2) The SMS Text Message Draft Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’ field.
4) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step
2.
Appendices
5) Press the ENT Key.
6) Confirm you wish to send the message by pressing the ENT Key with ‘Yes’ highlighted.
Select ‘No’ to return to the message entry field and either select the Cancel Softkey to
delete the message or select the Save Softkey to save the message as a draft.
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Sending a New Text Message/Email to a Saved Contact:
1) With the ‘Aux - Telephone’ Page displayed, press the FMS Knob to display the cursor.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on the desired contact name.
3) Select either the Text Email Softkey to send to the email address saved for the contact
4) Enter the desired message, then press the ENT Key.
5) Confirm you wish to send the message by pressing the ENT Key with ‘Yes’ highlighted.
Select ‘No’ to return to the message entry field and either select the Cancel Softkey to
delete the message or select the Save Softkey to save the message as a draft.
PREDEFINED TEXT MESSAGES
Time and effort can be saved in typing text messages that are used repeatedly by saving these
messages as a predefined message.
Creating a predefined text message:
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
or Text Phone Softkey to send to the phone number saved for the contact. The cursor
is placed in the ‘To’ field. Confirm the contact you wish to send a message to by
pressing the ENT Key.
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to display the Page
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Menu.
Additional Features
Figure 8-30 Creating/Editing Predefined Messages
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select ‘Edit Predefined Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined Messages view is now displayed.
4) Press the New Softkey.
Appendices
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Draft New Predefined Message’.
Index
c) Press the ENT Key. The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed.
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Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-31 Composing a Predefined Message
6) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
7) Enter the desired message using any combination of entry methods as described in step
Additional Features
accomplished through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of
the FMS Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to
enter letters and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the
Numbers Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha
characters. Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
Automatic Flight Control
System
5) The cursor is displayed in the ‘Title’ field. Enter the desired message title. Entry can be
5.
9) Press the Save Softkey. The new predefined message is now shown in the displayed list.
Appendices
8) Press the ENT Key.
Pressing the Cancel Softkey will delete the message without saving.
10) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
11) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Cancel Drafting Message’.
12) Press the ENT Key.
Flight Instruments
Sending a predefined text message:
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the New Softkey.
2) The Predefined SMS Text Message Window is now displayed with the cursor in the ‘To’
Engine Indication System
field. Enter the desired telephone number or email address. Entry can be accomplished
through the alphanumeric keys on the MFD Controller, or combination of the FMS
Knob on the controller and softkeys on the MFD. The FMS Knob is used to enter letters
and numbers, or numbers can be entered from the MFD by pressing the Numbers
Softkey. Press the CapsLock Softkey to create upper and lower case alpha characters.
Special characters can be accessed by pressing the Symbols Softkey.
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is now displayed in the ‘Message’ field.
4) Press the Predefined Softkey. The Predefined Message Menu Window is displayed.
5) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired predefined message.
Flight Management
System
6) Press the ENT Key. The predefined message text is inserted into the message field. If
desired, the message can be edited by using the FMS Knobs.
7) Press the ENT Key.
TEXT MESSAGE BOXES
Received text messages reside in the Inbox as ‘Read’ or ‘Unread’ messages. The Outbox contains
‘Sent” and ‘Unsent’ text messages. Saved messages that are meant to be sent later are stored as Drafts.
Each text message box may be viewed separately, or together in any combination.
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
8) Press the Send Softkey to transmit the message.
Show Inbox messages:
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Inbox Softkey.
Additional Features
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Inbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left
Index
Appendices
of the list window.
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Figure 8-32 Text Message Inbox
Show Outbox messages:
Or:
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Outbox Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left
of the list window.
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Drafts Softkey.
Additional Features
Show Draft messages:
Automatic Flight Control
System
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Hazard Avoidance
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Outbox Softkey.
Or:
Appendices
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Show Draft Messages’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The message box selected for viewing is indicated at the bottom left
of the list window.
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MANAGING TEXT MESSAGES
The viewed messages may be listed according to the date/time the message was sent or received, the
type of message (read, unread, sent, unsent, etc.), or by message address.
Viewing messages sorted by message date/time:
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Time Softkey.
Engine Indication System
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Date/Time’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list
Audio Panel and CNS
window.
Viewing messages sorted by message type:
Flight Management
System
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Type Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Type’.
Hazard Avoidance
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list
window.
Viewing messages sorted by address:
Automatic Flight Control
System
While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the Arrange Softkey, then press
the Address Softkey.
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Additional Features
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Sort By Address’.
3) Press the ENT Key. The sorting selection is indicated at the bottom center of the list
window..
Viewing the content of a text message:
Appendices
1) While viewing the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, select the desired message box.
2) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
3) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
Index
4) Press the View Softkey.
Or:
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System Overview
Press the ENT Key.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Flight Instruments
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘View Selected Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Message content is displayed.
Engine Indication System
5) To close the text message, press the Close Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
Audio Panel and CNS
b) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Close Message’.
c) Press the ENT Key.
Marking selected message as read:
Flight Management
System
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to
activate the cursor.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the MRK Read Softkey.
Hazard Avoidance
Or:
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark Selected Message As Read’.
Automatic Flight Control
System
3) Press the ENT Key.
The message symbol now indicates the message has been opened.
Marking all messages as read:
Additional Features
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the MENU Key to
display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Mark All New Messages As Read’.
3) Press the ENT Key. A confirmation window is displayed.
all the message have been opened.
Appendices
4) With cursor highlighting ‘YES’, press the ENT Key. The message symbols now indicate
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Deleting a message:
1) While viewing the Inbox on the ‘Aux-Text Messaging’ Page, press the FMS Knob to
activate the cursor.
Flight Instruments
2) Turn either FMS Knob to select the desired message.
3) Select the Delete Softkey.
Or:
Engine Indication System
1) Press the MENU Key to display the Page Menu.
2) Turn either FMS Knob to place the cursor on ‘Delete Selected Message’.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
3) Press the ENT Key.
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System Overview
8.7 FLIGHT DATA LOGGING
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
•
Time
•
GPS altitude (MSL)
•
GPS altitude (WGS84 datum)
•
Baro-Corrected altitude (feet)
•
Baro Correction (in/Hg)
•
Indicated Airspeed
•
Vertical speed (fpm)
•
GPS vertical speed (fpm)
•
OAT (degrees C)
•
True airspeed (knots)
•
Pitch Attitude Angle (degrees)
•
Roll Attitude Angle (degrees)
•
Lateral and Vertical G Force (g)
•
Ground Speed (kts)
•
Ground Track (degrees magnetic)
•
Latitude (degrees; geodetic; +North)
•
Longitude (degrees; geodetic; +East)
•
Magnetic Heading (degrees)
Automatic Flight Control
System
Date
Hazard Avoidance
•
Appendices
Index
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190–02361–00 Rev. A
Engine Indication System
The Flight Data Logging feature will automatically store critical flight and engine data on an SD data
card (up to 16GB) inserted into the top card slot of the MFD. Approximately 1,000 flight hours can be
recorded for each 1GB of available space on the card.
Data is written to the SD card once each second while the MFD is powered on. All flight data logged
on a specific date is stored in a file named in a format which includes the date, time, and nearest airport
identifier. The file is created automatically each time the system is powered on, provided an SD card has
been inserted.
The status of the Flight Data Logging feature can be viewed on the ‘Aux-Utility’ Page. If no SD card has
been inserted, “NO CARD” is displayed. When data is being written to the SD card, “LOGGING DATA”
is displayed.
The .csv file may be viewed with Microsoft Excel® or other spreadsheet applications.
The following is a list of data parameters the system is capable of logging.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Some aircraft installations may not provide all aircraft/engine data capable of being
logged by the system.
533
•
HSI source
•
Selected course
•
Com1/Com2 frequency
•
Nav1/Nav2 frequency
•
CDI deflection
•
VDI/GP/GS deflection
•
Wind Direction (degrees)
•
Wind Speed (knots)
•
Active Waypoint Identifier
•
Distance to next waypoint (nm)
•
Bearing to next waypoint (degrees)
•
Magnetic variation (degrees)
•
Autopilot On/Off
•
AFCS roll/pitch modes
•
AFCS roll/pitch commands
•
GPS fix
•
GPS horizontal alert limit
•
GPS vertical alert limit
•
SBAS GPS horizontal protection level
•
SBAS GPS vertical protection level
•
Fuel Qty (right & left)(gals)
•
Fuel Flow (gph)
•
Oil Pressure (psi)
•
Oil Temperature (deg. F)
•
Engine Speed (rpm)
•
Manifold Pressure (in. Hg)
The file containing the recorded data will appear in the format shown in the following figure. This file
can be imported into most computer spreadsheet applications.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
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Local 24hr Time
HHMMSS
System Overview
Local Date
YYMMDD
Nearest Airport
(A blank will be
inserted if no
airport is found)
Flight Instruments
log_170610_104506_KIXD.csv
Engine Indication System
Figure 8-33 Log File format
Data logging status can be monitored on the ‘Aux-Utility’ Page.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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8.8 CONNEXT SETUP
The Connext Setup Page allows for setting up the installed optional Flight Stream device for a
Bluetooth connection between the system and a mobile device running the Garmin Pilot™ application.
The mobile device must be ‘paired’ with the system in order to use the various functions. Pairing is
accomplished by first placing the system in pairing mode by displaying the Connext Setup Page. The
system is ‘discoverable’ whenever this page is displayed. The pairing operation is completed from the
mobile device and the Garmin Pilot application. See the device Bluetooth pairing instructions and the
connection instructions in the Garmin Pilot application.
Viewing the Connext Setup Page:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob on the MFD to select the Aux page group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the Connext Setup page.
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Changing the Bluetooth Name:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Flight Management
System
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Bluetooth Name’ field.
3) Enter the desired name by using the large FMS Knob to select the character field, and
the small FMS Knob select the desired alphanumeric character for that field.
4) Press the ENT Key. The cursor is removed and the new name is displayed.
Hazard Avoidance
Enabling/Disabling Flight Plan Importing from Garmin Pilot:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘Flight Plan Import’ field.
Automatic Flight Control
System
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Enabling/Disabling WiFi Database Importing from Garmin Pilot:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Additional Features
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the ‘WiFi Database Import’ field.
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Appendices
Enabling/Disabling Automatic Reconnection of a Specific Paired Device:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Index
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
the system to automatically connect to a previously paired device when detected.
System Overview
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’. Selecting ‘Enabled’ allows
4) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
Flight Instruments
Remove a Specific Paired Device from the List of Paired Devices:
1) While viewing the Connext Setup Page, press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the desired paired device.
Engine Indication System
3) Press the Remove Softkey. A confirmation screen is displayed.
4) If necessary, turn the large FMS Knob to select ‘Yes’.
5) Press the ENT Key to remove the device from the list of paired devices.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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8.9 SURFACE WATCH
SURFACEWATCH
NOTE: The SafeTaxi database must be available to provide information regarding taxiways,
aprons and other objects in the airport environment.
The SurfaceWatch™ feature provides visual annunciations to help the flight crew maintain
situational awareness and avoid potential runway incursions and excursions during ground and air
operations in the airport environment. The SurfaceWatch feature is comprised of the following key
components:
•
Alert Annunciations
Taxiway Takeoff
Runway Too Short (during takeoff or landing)
Check Runway (during takeoff or landing)
Taxiway Landing
•
Runway distance remaining
•
Provides information on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) that contains runway and taxiway
information that changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment
The SurfaceWatch feature is not available in Reversionary Mode.
Inhibit/Uninhibit SurfaceWatch:
1) Select the ‘Aux - System Setup 1’ Page.
2) Press the FMS Knob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob to highlight the SurfaceWatch field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to toggle the SurfaceWatch alerts on or off.
INFORMATION BOX
The SurfaceWatch™ Information Box is displayed on the PFD. It contains runway and taxiway
information that dynamically changes as the aircraft moves through the airport environment. The
information that is displayed in the Information Box is the aircraft’s relative position to nearby aprons,
taxiways, and runways.
There are three components to the SurfaceWatch™ Information Box. These components are
Currently Occupied, Approaching, and Crossing Runways.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
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Crossing Runways
Currently Occupied
Approaching
Flight Instruments
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
The SurfaceWatch alert annunciations are displayed in the central portion of the PFD. The alert
annunciations are accompanied by a corresponding voice alert.
Flight Management
System
ALERTS
Audio Panel and CNS
Currently Occupied
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘ON’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway. The aircraft
is currently ‘ON’ runway 04 right (RWY 04R). The remaining runway distance is also shown when
the aircraft is situated on and aligned with a runway.
If the aircraft is airborne and approaching an airport, ‘AIRBORNE TO’ and the destination airport
identifier will be displayed.
Information regarding non-manuevering areas not labeled on the SafeTaxi diagram will not be
displayed.
Approaching Component
This component indicates the aircraft is ‘APPROACHING’ the indicated apron, taxiway, or runway.
In the following figure, the aircraft is currently ‘APPROACHING’ taxiway E (TWY E). The distance to
the taxiway is also shown.
When the aircraft is taxiing and approaching an intersection of multiple taxiways, the taxiway
identifiers will be listed in order of proximity and the distance to the nearest is displayed.
When the aircraft is taxiing and crossing an intersection of multiple taxiways, ‘CROSSING’ will be
displayed and no distance will be shown.
Crossing Runways
This component lists the runways, from closest to furthest, that are ‘CROSSING’ the runway the
aircraft currently occupies. The distance to each runway is also shown in order of closest distance.
Runways behind the aircraft are not depicted.
The Crossing Runways component is shown in conjunction with the Currently Occupied
component of the Information Box.
Engine Indication System
Figure 8-34 Information Types Displayed in the Information Box
Appendices
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Description
“Taxiway”
Flight Instruments
SufaceWatch Annunciation
Issued when the aircraft is
taking off from a non-runway
(e.g. a taxiway)
“Runway too Short”
Issued when the aircraft is
taking off from, or landing on,
a runway with a length less
than needed as entered by the
crew.
“Check Runway”
Issued when the aircraft is
taking off from, or landing on,
a runway different than that
entered by the crew.
“Taxiway”
Issued when the aircraft is
landing on a non-runway (e.g.
a taxiway).
Table 8-3 SuraceWatch Alert Annunciations
TAKEOFF ALERTS
The Takeoff phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to
issue Takeoff Alerts.
Taxiway Takeoff
The Taxiway Takeoff alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway) or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alerts, the Information Box contains a textual description of the
currently occupied taxiway (or other maneuvering area) and potentially the next area (apron or
maneuvering area) to be occupied (based on aircraft heading and the airport geometry) and the
distance to that area.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Associated Voice Alert
Engine Indication System
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-35 Typical Taxiway Information Displayed in the Information Box
Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short (during takeoff) alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a
runway and the remaining runway length is less than the required length. The insufficient runway
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
System Overview
Flight Instruments
length condition is determined based on aircraft current position during the takeoff roll and the
required takeoff distance information entered on the Takeoff Data Screen.
Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway from which the aircraft
is taking off, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in
the Takeoff Data.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will contain a textual description of
the currently occupied runway and the remaining runway length as shown in the following figure.
Engine Indication System
LANDING ALERTS
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
The On-Final phase-of-flight, as determined by the system, must be valid in order for the system to
issue Landing Alerts.
Taxiway Landing
The Taxiway Landing alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a non-runway (e.g. a
taxiway) or the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport
identifier and the text “APPROACHING TWY” to indicate a non-runway landing is being attempted.
Flight Management
System
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to takeoff from a runway that does
not match the departure runway entered in the Takeoff Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box contains a textual description of the
currently occupied runway.
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 8-36 Typical Runway Information Displayed in the Information Box
Additional Features
Runway Too Short
The Runway Too Short alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway where the
remaining runway length is less than the required landing runway length entered in the Landing
Data Screen.
Appendices
Figure 8-37 Typical Information Displayed During a Taxiway Landing Alert
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Note that while the Runway Too Short alert may be issued for any runway with which aircraft is
aligned, the system will always calculate the runway length for the specific runway entered in
entered in the Landing Data Screen.
In addition to the visual and voice alert, the Information Box will display the destination airport
identifier and the text “APPROACHING REMAINING” to indicate a the remaining runway length as
indicated in following figure.
Figure 8-38 Typical Information Displayed During a Runway Too Short Alert
Check Runway
The Check Runway alert is issued when the aircraft attempts to land on a runway that does not
match the arrival runway specified in the Landing Data.
Additionally, the Information Box will display the destination airport identifier, the runway with
which the aircraft is aligned, and the distance to the runway see following figure.
Figure 8-39 Typical Information Displayed During a Check Runway Alert
SURFACEWATCH SETUP
Origin/destination airport, runway and distance data entered integrates with SurfaceWatch
technology to alert the flight crew to a runway too short for takeoff/landing, or to advise of a potential
taxiway takeoff/landing. The runway selected in SurfaceWatch Setup appears on the airport diagram in
cyan, and appears outlined in cyan on the synthetic vision representation of the runway on the PFD.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
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Flight Instruments
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure 8-40 SurfaceWatch Setup Page (MFD)
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
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Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-41 SurfaceWatch Info and Cyan Runway Outline (PFD)
Entering Origin/Destination Airport:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
Hazard Avoidance
2) Press the FMSKnob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Origin or Destination Airport
field.
Automatic Flight Control
System
4) Use the FMS Knobs to input the desired Origin or Destination Airport.
Selecting Origin/Destination Runway:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
Additional Features
2) Press the FMSKnob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the Runway or Landing Runway field.
4) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired available Runway or Landing Runway. As
the small FMS Knob is turned, the preview of the selected runway or landing runway is
also displayed.
Appendices
Selecting Required Takeoff/Landing Distance:
1) Select the ‘FPL - SurfaceWatch Setup’ Page.
Index
2) Press the FMSKnob momentarily to activate the flashing cursor.
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System Overview
3) Turn the large FMS Knob if necessary to highlight the ‘REQD Takeoff DIS’ or ‘REQD
Landing DIS’ field.
4) Use the FMS Knobs to enter the required takeoff or landing distance. Upon pressing
Flight Instruments
the FMS Knob and committing the required takeoff or landing distance, the Runway
Length field will turn amber if an insufficient runway length exists.
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Appendices
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8.10 ELECTRONIC STABILITY AND PROTECTION (ESP)
Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP™) is an optional feature that is intended to discourage the
exceedance of attitude and established airspeed parameters. This feature will only function when the
aircraft is above 200 feet AGL and the autopilot is not engaged.
ESP engages when the aircraft exceeds one or more conditions (pitch, roll, Vmo, Mmo, and/or angle of
attack) beyond the normal flight parameters. Enhanced stability for each condition is provided by
applying a force to the appropriate control surface to return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope.
This is perceived by the pilot as resistance to control movement in the undesired direction when the
aircraft approaches a steep attitude, high airspeed, or when a stall is imminent.
As the aircraft deviates further from the normal attitude, angle of attack, or airspeed continues to
increase, the force increases (up to an established maximum) to encourage control movement in the
direction necessary to return to the normal attitude and/or airspeed range. Except in the case of high
airspeed, when maximum force is reached, force remains constant up to the maximum engagement
limit. Above the maximum engagement limit, forces are no longer applied. There is no maximum
engagement related to a high airspeed condition.
When ESP has been engaged for more than ten seconds (cumulative; not necessarily consecutive
seconds) of a 20-second interval, the autopilot is automatically engaged with the flight director in Level
Mode, bringing the aircraft into level flight. An aural “Engaging Autopilot” alert is played and the flight
director mode annunciation will indicate ‘LVL’ for vertical and lateral modes.
The pilot can interrupt ESP by pressing and holding either the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) or
Autopilot Disconnect (AP/YD DISC TRIM INTRPT) switch. Upon releasing the CWS or AP/YD DISC
TRIM INTRPT switch, ESP force will again be applied, provided aircraft attitude, angle of attack and/or
airspeed are within their respective engagement limits. ESP can also be overridden by overpowering the
servo’s mechanical torque limit.
ESP can be enabled or disabled on the ‘Aux-System Setup 2’ Page on the MFD.
ESP is automatically enabled on system power up.
Enabling/Disabling ESP:
1) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the Aux Page Group.
2) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the System Setup Page.
3) If necessary, select the SETUP 2 Softkey to display the Aux-System Setup 2 Page. If the
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Aux-System Setup 2 is already displayed, proceed to step 4.
4) Press the FMS Knob to activate the cursor.
Appendices
5) Turn the large FMS Knob to place the cursor in the Stability & Protection field.
6) Turn the small FMS Knob to select ‘Enabled’ or ‘Disabled’.
Index
7) Press the FMS Knob to remove the cursor.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Roll Limit Indicator
ESP Engage (45°)
Flight Instruments
Roll Limit Indicators are displayed on the roll scale at 45° right and left, indicating where ESP will
engage. As roll attitude exceeds 45°, ESP will engage and the on-side Roll Limit Indicator will move to
30°. The Roll Limit Indicator is now showing where ESP will disengage as roll attitude decreases.
System Overview
ROLL ENGAGEMENT
Engine Indication System
Audio Panel and CNS
Figure 8-42 ESP Roll Engagement Indication (ESP NOT Engaged)
Flight Management
System
ESP Engage (45°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 44°
ESP Disengage (30°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 46°
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Before ESP Engage
After ESP Engage
Appendices
Once engaged, ESP force will be applied between 30° and 75°. The force increases as roll attitude
increases and decreases as roll attitude decreases. The applied force is intended to encourage pilot
input that returns the airplane to a more normal roll attitude. As roll attitude decreases, ESP will
disengage at 30°.
Additional Features
Figure 8-43 Roll Increasing to ESP Engagement
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
º
30
10º
0º
10º
20º
30
90º
90º
75º
75º
Engine Indication System
º
60
60
º
Flight Instruments
º
45
º
º
45
Figure 8-44 ESP Roll Operating Range When Engaged(Force Increases as Roll Increases &
Decreases as Roll Decreases)
ESP is automatically disengaged if the aircraft reaches the autopilot roll engagement attitude limit of
75°.
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
20º
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
ESP Upper Disengage Limit (75°)
Aircraft Roll Attitude = 74°
PITCH ENGAGEMENT
ESP engages at 20° nose-up and 17° nose-down. Once ESP is engaged, it will apply opposing force
between 15° and 50° nose-up and between 12° and 50° nose-down. Maximum opposing force is
applied between 25° and 50° nose-up and between 22° and 50° nose-down.
Index
Appendices
Figure 8-45 Roll Attitude Autopilot Engagement Limit (ESP Engaged)
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40˚
40˚
35˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
45˚
15˚
10˚
10˚
5˚
5˚
0˚
0˚
5˚
5˚
10˚
10˚
15˚
15˚
20˚
20˚
25˚
25˚
30˚
35˚
30˚
ESP
15˚
Additional Features
20˚
Automatic Flight Control
System
20˚
Hazard Avoidance
25˚
Flight Management
System
25˚
Audio Panel and CNS
45˚
Engine Indication System
50˚
35˚
40˚
45˚
45˚
50˚
50˚
Appendices
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Index
Figure 8-46 ESP Pitch Operating Range When Engaged(Force Increases as Pitch Increases &
Decreases as Pitch Decreases)
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Flight Instruments
50˚
System Overview
The opposing force increases or decreases depending on the pitch angle and the direction of pitch
travel. This force is intended to encourage movement in the pitch axis in the direction of the normal
pitch attitude range for the aircraft.
There are no indications marking the pitch ESP engage and disengage limits in these nose-up/nosedown conditions.
ANGLE OF ATTACK PROTECTION
When a compatible lift computer is installed with the G1000NXi retrofit, angle of attack protection
is provided as part of the ESP feature. ESP force may be applied if the lift computer determines a stall
warning condition is imminent. In this condition, the Pitch Limit Indicator will be initially displayed
4° below this computed pitch attitude. When pitch attitude equals that indicated by the Pitch Limit
Indicator, ESP will engage, applying a force in the direction necessary to lower the nose of the aircraft.
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Figure 8-47 Pitch Limit Indicator
HIGH AIRSPEED PROTECTION
Exceeding Vmo or Mmo will result in ESP applying force to raise the nose of the aircraft. When the
high airspeed condition is remedied, ESP force is no longer applied.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Pitch Limit Indicator
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
System Overview
8.11 ELECTRONIC CHECKLISTS
Audio Panel and CNS
The MFD is able to display optional electronic checklists which allow a pilot to quickly find the proper
procedure on the ground and during each phase of flight. The system accesses the checklists from an SD
card inserted into the bezel slot. If the SD card contains an invalid checklist file or no checklist, the
Power-up Page messages display ‘Checklist File: Invalid’ or ‘Checklist File: N/A’ (not available) and the
ChecklistSoftkey is not available.
Engine Indication System
NOTE: Garmin is not responsible for the content of checklists. Checklists are created by the
aircraft manufacturer. Modifications or updates to the checklists are coordinated through the
aircraft manufacturer. The user cannot edit these checklists.
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The optional checklists presented here are for example only and may differ from
checklists available for the airframe. The information described in this section is not intended
to replace the checklist information described in the POH or the Pilot Safety and Warning
Supplements document.
Accessing and Navigating Checklist
the large FMS Knob to select the Checklist Page.
2) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Group’ field.
Flight Management
System
1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn
3) Turn the small FMS Knob to select the desired procedure and press the ENT Key.
5) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired checklist and press the ENT Key. The selected
Hazard Avoidance
4) Turn the large FMS Knob to select the ‘Checklist’ field.
checklist item is indicated with white text surrounded by a white box.
turns green and a checkmark is placed in the associated box. The next line item is
automatically selected for checking.
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
7) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green
Additional Features
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired
checklist item.
Automatic Flight Control
System
6) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected checklist item. The line item
text at the bottom left of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be
checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be displayed in yellow text.
Appendices
8) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
9) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
10) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Accessing Emergency Checklist
1) From any page on the MFD (except the EIS Pages), press the Checklist Softkey or turn
the large FMS Knob to select the Checklist Page.
Flight Instruments
2) Press the EMER Softkey.
3) Turn the FMS Knob to select the desired emergency checklist and press the ENT Key.
4) Press the ENT Key or Check Softkey to check the selected emergency checklist item.
Engine Indication System
The line item turns green and a checkmark is placed in the box next to it. The next line
item is automatically highlighted for checking.
Either FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the checklist and select the desired
checklist item.
Audio Panel and CNS
Press the CLR Key or Uncheck Softkey to remove a check mark from an item.
5) When all checklist items have been checked, ‘*Checklist Finished*’ is displayed in green
text at the bottom left of the checklist window. If all items in the checklist have not be
checked, ‘*Checklist Not Finished*’ will be displayed in yellow text.
Flight Management
System
6) Press the ENT Key. ‘Go To Next Checklist?’ will be highlighted by the cursor.
7) Press the ENT Key to advance to the next checklist.
8) Press the Return Softkey to return to the previous checklist.
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
9) Press the Exit Softkey to exit the Checklist Page and return to the page last viewed.
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ADDITIONAL FEATURES
System Overview
8.12 ABNORMAL OPERATION
GDL 69/69A SXM TROUBLESHOOTING
Ensure the installed Data Link Receiver or Iridium Transceiver has an active subscription or account
•
Perform a quick check of the circuit breakers to ensure that power is applied to the Data Link
Receiver or Iridium Transceiver
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
For troubleshooting purposes, check the LRU Information Box on the ‘Aux - System Status’ Page for
GDL 59, or GDL 69/69A SXM status, serial number, and software version number. If a failure has been
detected in the GDL 69/69A SXM the status is marked with a red X.
Some quick troubleshooting steps listed below can be performed to find the possible cause of a
failure.
Audio Panel and CNS
Flight Management
System
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Additional Features
Figure 8-48 LRU Information Window on System Status Page
GDL 69/69A SXM MESSAGES
Appendices
Ensure that nothing is plugged into the MUSIC 1 or MUSIC 2 jacks because that would prevent
SiriusXM radio from being heard.
If a failure still exists, the following messages may provide insight as to the possible problem:
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System Overview
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Message
Location
Description
CHECK
ANTENNA
XM Information
Page (MFD)
Data Link Receiver
antenna error; service
required
UPDATING
XM Information
Page (MFD)
Data Link Receiver
updating encryption code
NO SIGNAL
XM Information
Page Weather
Datalink Page
(MFD)
Loss of signal; signal
strength too low for
receiver
LOADING
XM Radio Page
(MFD)
Acquiring channel audio
or information
OFF AIR
XM Radio Page
(MFD)
Channel not in service
--------
XM Radio Page
(MFD)
Missing channel
information
WEATHER
DATA LINK
FAILED
Weather Datalink
Page (MFD)
No communication from
Data Link Receiver within
last 5 minutes
ACTIVATION
REQUIRED
XM Information
Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription is
not activated
DETECTING
ACTIVATION
Weather Datalink
Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription is
activating
WAITING
FOR DATA...
Weather Datalink
Page (MFD)
SiriusXM subscription
confirmed downloading
weather data
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Flight Management
System
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
Message
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APPENDIX A
System Overview
ANNUNCIATIONS AND ALERTS
The Alerting System conveys alerts using the following:
Softkey Annunciation: During certain alerts, the Messages Softkey may appear as a flashing
annunciation to accompany an alert. The Messages Softkey assumes a new label consistent with the
alert level (Warning, Caution, or Advisory). By pressing the softkey when flashing an annunciation,
the alert is acknowledged. The softkey label then returns to Messages. If alerts are still present, the
Messages label is displayed in white with black text.
•
System Annunciations: Typically, a large red or amber ‘X’ appears over instruments whose
information is supplied by a failed Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). See the System Annunciations
Section for more information. See Figure A-1.
•
Audio Alerting System: The system issues audio alert tones when specific system conditions are met.
Should the #1 GIA 64W fail, audio and voice alerts are not generated. The annunciation tone may be
tested from the AUX - System Status Page.
Automatic Flight Control
System
•
Hazard Avoidance
Messages Window: The Messages Window displays text messages for up to 64 prioritized system
messages. Pressing the Messages Softkey displays the Messages Window. Pressing the Messages
Softkey a second time removes the Messages Window from the display. When the Messages Window
is displayed, the FMS Knob can be used to scroll through the system message list.
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
CAS Window: The Annunciation Window displays abbreviated annunciation text. Text color is
based on alert levels described in the following section. The CAS Window is located to the right of
the Altimeter and Vertical Speed Indicator. All Crew Alerting System (CAS) annunciations can be
displayed simultaneously in the CAS Window. A white horizontal line separates annunciations that
are acknowledged from annunciations that are not yet acknowledged. Higher priority annunciations
are displayed towards the top of the window.
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
NOTE: The Pilot’s Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM/
POH) supersedes information found in this document.
Additional Features
Appendices
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System Overview
APPENDIX A
Flight Instruments
System
Annunci ation
(Amber ‘X’)
Engine Indication System
System
Annunci ation
(Red ‘X’)
CAS
Window
Audio Panel and CNS
Messages
Window
Flight Management
System
Softkey
Annunciation
Figure A-1 Alert System
1) Use the FMS knob to select the AUX — System Status Page.
2) Select the Ann Test Softkey.
Or:
a) Press the MENU Key.
b) Highlight ‘Enable Annunciator Test Mode’ and press the ENT Key.
CAS MESSAGE PRIORITIZATION
Index
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Testing the system annunciation tone:
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) for corrective pilot actions.
NOTE: Any CAS messages that are generated when the system is first powered on are
considered already acknowledged. They do not flash or trigger the Warning or Caution
softkeys.
The Alerting System uses three alert levels. Messages are grouped by criticality (warning, caution,
advisory) and sorted by order of appearance (most recent messages on top). The color of the message
is based on its urgency and on required action.
The Crew Alerting System (CAS) Window is located on the right side of the PFD. Warning messages
cannot be scrolled through and remain at the top of the CAS display. The scroll bar appears if more
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APPENDIX A
Caution: This level of alert indicates the existence of abnormal conditions on the aircraft that may
require intervention. When a new caution message appears in the CAS Window, it is shown in black
on amber inverse video in conjunction with the Caution Softkey (see Figure A-3) and may be
accompanied by a double chime. Pressing the Caution Softkey Indicator acknowledges all amber
messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once acknowledged, caution messages are displayed until the
issue is corrected.
•
Advisory: This level of alert provides general information. When a new white advisory appears on
the CAS display, it is shown in black on white inverse video in conjunction with the Advisory
Softkey (see Figure A-3) and may be accompanied by a single chime.
Hazard Avoidance
Automatic Flight Control
System
Some CAS messages can be display in more than one alert level group. For example, a message
might display as both a warning and a caution, but cannot appear more than once at any given time
(unless the CAS is being tested). If the received signals justify multiple priorities for a certain message,
the message is displayed for the higher priority condition. When graduating to a higher priority, the
message flashes and requires new acknowledgment. When degrading to a lower priority condition, the
message moves to the top of the appropriate grouping, but does not require new acknowledgment.
Flight Management
System
•
Audio Panel and CNS
Warning: This level of alert requires immediate attention. When a new warning CAS message
appears in the CAS Window, it flashes (inversely red on white) in conjunction with the Warning
Softkey (see Figure A-3) and may be accompanied by a repeating triple chime. Pressing the Warning
Softkey acknowledges all flashing warning messages and extinguishes the softkey. Once
acknowledged, warning messages are shown in red text and are displayed until the issue is
corrected. Warning voice alerts repeat continuously until acknowledged by pressing the Warning
Softkey.
Engine Indication System
•
Flight Instruments
NOTE: Aural alerts associated with abnormal conditions and advisories are managed through
the audio panels. Refer to the Audio Panel and CNS Section for more information.
System Overview
caution and advisory messages exist than can be displayed at once or if messages have been scrolled off
the display. The CAS softkeys also become available.
Additional Features
Appendices
Index
190–02361–00 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 NXi Pilot’s Guide for the Piper M350
557
System Overview
APPENDIX A
Audio Panel and CNS
Engine Indication System
Flight Instruments
CAS
Window
Flight Management
System
Softkey
Annunci ation
Appendices
Additional Features
Automatic Flight Control
System
Hazard Avoidance
Figure A-2 CAS Message Prioritization
Figure A-3 Softkey Annunciation (Message Softkey Labels)
CAS ANNUNCIATIONS
The following annunciations are configured specifically for the Piper Archer. Red annunciation
window text signifies warnings, amber signifies cautions, and white signifies advisories. See the POH
for recommended pilot actions.
DISPLAY INHIBITS
Inhibits prevent certain CAS messages from being displayed during the following conditions:
If two alert levels of the same message are active simultaneously (e.g., L FUEL QTY warn